Science.gov

Sample records for audiovisual aids

  1. Audio-Visual Aids: Historians in Blunderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Graeme

    1988-01-01

    A history professor relates his experiences producing and using audio-visual material and warns teachers not to rely on audio-visual aids for classroom presentations. Includes examples of popular audio-visual aids on Canada that communicate unintended, inaccurate, or unclear ideas. Urges teachers to exercise caution in the selection and use of…

  2. Audio-Visual Aids in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jackie

    1970-01-01

    A report on the proceedings and ideas expressed at a one day seminar on "Audio-Visual Equipment--Its Uses and Applications for Teaching and Research in Universities." The seminar was organized by England's National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education in conjunction with the British Universities Film Council. (LS)

  3. [Audio-visual aids and tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a list of the audio-visual productions about Tropical Medicine, as well as of their main characteristics. He thinks that the audio-visual educational productions are often dissociated from their promotion; therefore, he invites the future creator to forward his work to the Audio-Visual Health Committee.

  4. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  5. Audiovisual Aids and Techniques in Managerial and Supervisory Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Robinson P.

    An attempt is made to show the importance of modern audiovisual (AV) aids and techniques to management training. The first two chapters give the background to the present situation facing the training specialist. Chapter III considers the AV aids themselves in four main groups: graphic materials, display equipment which involves projection, and…

  6. Audio/Visual Aids: A Study of the Effect of Audio/Visual Aids on the Comprehension Recall of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavaro, Sandra

    A study investigated whether the use of audio/visual aids had an effect upon comprehension recall. Thirty fourth-grade students from an urban public school were randomly divided into two equal samples of 15. One group was given a story to read (print only), while the other group viewed a filmstrip of the same story, thereby utilizing audio/visual…

  7. Your Most Essential Audiovisual Aid--Yourself!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging that an interested and enthusiastic teacher can create excitement for students and promote learning, the author discusses how teachers can improve their appearance, and, consequently, how their students perceive them. She offers concrete suggestions on how a teacher can be both a "visual aid" and an "audio aid" in the classroom.…

  8. Utilization of audio-visual aids by family welfare workers.

    PubMed

    Naik, V R; Jain, P K; Sharma, B B

    1977-01-01

    Communication efforts have been an important component of the Indian Family Planning Welfare Program since its inception. However, its chief interests in its early years were clinical, until the adoption of the extension approach in 1963. Educational materials were developed, especially in the period 1965-8, to fit mass, group meeting and home visit approaches. Audiovisual aids were developed for use by extension workers, who had previously relied entirely on verbal approaches. This paper examines their use. A questionnaire was designed for workers in motivational programs at 3 levels: Village Level (Family Planning Health Assistant, Auxilliary Nurse-Midwife, Dias), Block Level (Public Health Nurse, Lady Health Visitor, Block Extension Educator), and District (District Extension Educator, District Mass Education and Information Officer). 3 Districts were selected from each State on the basis of overall family planning performance during 1970-2 (good, average, or poor). Units of other agencies were also included on the same basis. Findings: 1) Workers in all 3 categories preferred individual contacts over group meetings or mass approach. 2) 56-64% said they used audiovisual aids "sometimes" (when available). 25% said they used them "many times" and only 15.9% said "rarely." 3) More than 1/2 of workers in each category said they were not properly oriented toward the use of audiovisual aids. Nonavailability of the aids in the market was also cited. About 1/3 of village level and 1/2 of other workers said that the materials were heavy and liable to be damaged. Complexity, inaccuracy and confusion in use were not widely cited (less than 30%).

  9. Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)

  10. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  11. Training Methodology. Part 4: Audiovisual Theory, Aids and Equipment; an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A collection of 332 abstracts, resumes, and annotations of selected documents on audiovisual theory and methods, aids, facilities, and equipment, this publication is the fourth part of a bibliography on training methodology within a larger series on mental health inservice training and training methodology. Television instruction and equipment,…

  12. The Efficacy of an Audiovisual Aid in Teaching the Neo-Classical Screenplay Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uys, P. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study interrogated the central theoretical statement that understanding and learning to apply the abstract concept of classical dramatic narrative structure can be addressed effectively through a useful audiovisual teaching method. The purpose of the study was to design an effective DVD teaching and learning aid, to justify the design through…

  13. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials. PMID:25914939

  14. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  15. An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

  16. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  17. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016. PMID:26625860

  18. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016.

  19. Television in Education and Training; A Review of Developments and Applications of Television and Other Modern Audio-Visual Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Korte, D. A.

    Although television and other audiovisual aids have proven to be valuable educational tools when intelligently employed, teachers in many countries fail to understand the usefulness of these aids. A review of developments in the U.S., France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Great Britain shows that many successful courses have been given on both…

  20. A Survey of British Research in Audio-Visual Aids, Supplement No. 2, 1974. (Including Cumulative Index 1945-1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Susie, Comp.

    The second supplement to the new (1972) edition of the Survey of Research in Audiovisual Aids carried out in Great Britain covers the year 1974. Ten separate sections cover the areas of projected media, non-projected media, sound media, radio, moving pictures, television, teaching machines and programed learning, computer-assisted instruction,…

  1. Development and utilization of low-cost audio-visual aids in population communication.

    PubMed

    1980-07-01

    One of the reasons why population information has to a certain degree failed to create demand for family planning services is that the majority of information and communication materials being used have been developed in an urban setting, resulting in their inappropriateness to the target rural audiences. Furthermore, their having been evolved in urban centers has hampered their subsequent replication, distribution, and use in rural areas due to lack of funds, production and distribution resources. For this reason, many developing countries in Asia have begun to demand population materials which are low-cost and simple, more appropriate to rural audiences and within local production resources and capabilities. In the light of this identified need, the Population Communication Unit, with the assistance of the Population Education Mobile Team and Clearing House, Unesco, has collaborated with the Population Center Foundation of the Philippines to undertake a Regional Training Workshop on the Design, Development, and Utilization of Low-Cost Audiovisual Aids in the Philippines from 21-26 July 1980. The Workshop, which will be attended by communications personnel and materials developers from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, will focus on developing the capabilities of midlevel population program personnel in conceptualizing, designing, developing, testing and utilizing simple and low-cost audiovisual materials. It is hoped that with the skills acquired from the Workshop, participants will be able to increase their capability in training their own personnel in the development of low-cost materials. PMID:12338117

  2. Development and utilization of low-cost audio-visual aids in population communication.

    PubMed

    1980-07-01

    One of the reasons why population information has to a certain degree failed to create demand for family planning services is that the majority of information and communication materials being used have been developed in an urban setting, resulting in their inappropriateness to the target rural audiences. Furthermore, their having been evolved in urban centers has hampered their subsequent replication, distribution, and use in rural areas due to lack of funds, production and distribution resources. For this reason, many developing countries in Asia have begun to demand population materials which are low-cost and simple, more appropriate to rural audiences and within local production resources and capabilities. In the light of this identified need, the Population Communication Unit, with the assistance of the Population Education Mobile Team and Clearing House, Unesco, has collaborated with the Population Center Foundation of the Philippines to undertake a Regional Training Workshop on the Design, Development, and Utilization of Low-Cost Audiovisual Aids in the Philippines from 21-26 July 1980. The Workshop, which will be attended by communications personnel and materials developers from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, will focus on developing the capabilities of midlevel population program personnel in conceptualizing, designing, developing, testing and utilizing simple and low-cost audiovisual materials. It is hoped that with the skills acquired from the Workshop, participants will be able to increase their capability in training their own personnel in the development of low-cost materials.

  3. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  4. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-17

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  5. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  6. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  7. Challenges of Using Audio-Visual Aids as Warm-Up Activity in Teaching Aviation English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…

  8. Adult Learning Strategies and Approaches (ALSA). Resources for Teachers of Adults. A Handbook of Practical Advice on Audio-Visual Aids and Educational Technology for Tutors and Organisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, John; And Others

    This handbook is part of a British series of publications written for part-time tutors, volunteers, organizers, and trainers in the adult continuing education and training sectors. It offers practical advice on audiovisual aids and educational technology for tutors and organizers. The first chapter discusses how one learns. Chapter 2 addresses how…

  9. Twenty-Fifth Annual Audio-Visual Aids Conference, Wednesday 9th to Friday 11th July 1975, Whitelands College, Putney SW15. Conference Preprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    Preprints of papers to be presented at the 25th annual Audio-Visual Aids Conference are collected along with the conference program. Papers include official messages, a review of the conference's history, and presentations on photography in education, using school broadcasts, flexibility in the use of television, the "communications generation,"…

  10. Training Methodology, Part IV: Audiovisual Theory, Aids and Equipment. An Annotated Bibliography. Public Health Service Publication No. 1862, Part IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A total of 332 annotated references pertaining to media aspects of training are organized under the following headings: (1) Audiovisual Theory and Research, (2) Audiovisual Methods (General), (3) Audiovisual Equipment (General), (4) Computers in Instruction, (5) Television Instruction, (6) Videotape Recordings, (7) Television Facilities, (8) Radio…

  11. Utilizing New Audiovisual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glen

    1975-01-01

    The University of Arizona's Agriculture Department has found that video cassette systems and 8 mm films are excellent audiovisual aids to classroom instruction at the high school level in small gasoline engines. Each system is capable of improving the instructional process for motor skill development. (MW)

  12. Will Primary Grade Title I Students Demonstrate Greater Achievement in Reading With the Use of Audio-Visual Aids Than Those Who Haven't Utilized the Same Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skobo, Kathleen Ward

    Forty-two first, second, and third grade students participated in a 15-week study to determine the effects of audiovisual aids on reading achievement. The students were pretested and posttested using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Each group received 40 minutes of small group and individual instruction each day. The experimental group…

  13. Audio-visual speechreading in a group of hearing aid users. The effects of onset age, handicap age, and degree of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tillberg, I; Rönnberg, J; Svärd, I; Ahlner, B

    1996-01-01

    Speechreading ability was investigated among hearing aid users with different time of onset and different degree of hearing loss. Audio-visual and visual-only performance were assessed. One group of subjects had been hearing-impaired for a large part of their lives, and the impairments appeared early in life. The other group of subjects had been impaired for a fewer number of years, and the impairments appeared later in life. Differences between the groups were obtained. There was no significant difference on the audio-visual test between the groups in spite of the fact that the early onset group scored very poorly auditorily. However, the early-onset group performed significantly better on the visual test. It was concluded that the visual information constituted the dominant coding strategy for the early onset group. An interpretation chiefly in terms of early onset may be the most appropriate, since dB loss variations as such are not related to speechreading skill.

  14. Govt. Pubs: U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korman, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Describes the availability of United States government-produced audiovisual materials and discusses two audiovisual clearinghouses--the National Audiovisual Center (NAC) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Finding aids made available by NAC, NLM, and other government agencies are mentioned. NAC and the U.S. Government Printing Office…

  15. Evolving with modern technology: Impact of incorporating audiovisual aids in preanesthetic checkup clinics on patient education and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Haramritpal; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Amandeep; Sharda, Gagandeep; Aggarwal, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Perioperative stress is an often ignored commonly occurring phenomenon. Little or no prior knowledge of anesthesia techniques can increase this significantly. Patients awaiting surgery may experience high level of anxiety. Preoperative visit is an ideal time to educate patients about anesthesia and address these fears. The present study evaluates two different approaches, i.e., standard interview versus informative audiovisual presentation with standard interview on information gain (IG) and its impact on patient anxiety during preoperative visit. Settings and Design: This prospective, double-blind, randomized study was conducted in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in rural India over 2 months. Materials and Methods: This prospective, double-blind, randomized study was carried out among 200 American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II patients in the age group 18–65 years scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were allocated to either one of the two equal-sized groups, Group A and Group B. Baseline anxiety and information desire component was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale for both the groups. Group A patients received preanesthetic interview with the anesthesiologist and were reassessed. Group B patients were shown a short audiovisual presentation about operation theater and anesthesia procedure followed by preanesthetic interview and were also reassessed. In addition, patient satisfaction score (PSS) and IG was assessed at the end of preanesthetic visit using standard questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Nonparametric tests such as Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Patient's IG was significantly more in Group B (5.43 ± 0.55) as compared to Group A (4.41 ± 0.922) (P < 0.001). There was

  16. Solar Energy Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This directory presents an annotated bibliography of non-print information resources dealing with solar energy. The document is divided by type of audio-visual medium, including: (1) Films, (2) Slides and Filmstrips, and (3) Videotapes. A fourth section provides addresses and telephone numbers of audiovisual aids sources, and lists the page…

  17. AUDIOVISUAL HANDBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HARRY A.

    UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE ACADEMIC OFFERINGS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AUDIOVISUAL EDUCATION ARE LISTED, AND THE INSERVICE FACULTY TRAINING PROGRAM AND THE EXTENSION AND CONSULTANT SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. GENERAL SERVICES OFFERED BY THE CENTER ARE A COLLEGE FILM SHOWING SERVICE, A CHILDREN'S THEATRE, A PRODUCTION WORKSHOP, AN EMBOSOGRAF PROCESS,…

  18. Audiovisual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  19. Audiovisual Resources for Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilds, Thomas, Comp.; And Others

    Provided is a compilation of recently annotated audiovisual materials which present techniques, models, or other specific information that can aid in providing comprehensive services to the handicapped. Entries which include a brief description, name of distributor, technical information, and cost are presented alphabetically by title in eight…

  20. Audiovisual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

    Information about the objects and events in the external world is received via multiple sense organs, especially via eyes and ears. For example, a singing bird can be heard and seen. Typically, audiovisual objects are detected, localized and identified more rapidly and accurately than objects which are perceived via only one sensory system (see, e.g. Welch and Warren, 1986; Stein and Meredith, 1993; de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003; Calvert et al., 2004). The ability of the central nervous system to utilize sensory inputs mediated by different sense organs is called multisensory processing.

  1. Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pula, Fred John

    Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

  2. Using a three-dimension head mounted displayer in audio-visual sexual stimulation aids in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moon, K-H; Song, P-H; Park, T-C

    2005-01-01

    We designed this study to compare the efficacy of using a three-dimension head mounted displayer (3-D HMD) and a conventional monitor in audio-visual sexual stimulation (AVSS) in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction (ED). Three groups of subjects such as psychogenic ED, organic ED, and healthy control received the evaluation. The change of penile tumescence in AVSS was monitored with Nocturnal Electrobioimpedance Volumetric Assessment and sexual arousal after AVSS was assessed by a simple question as being good, fair, or poor. Both the group of healthy control and psychogenic ED demonstrated a significantly higher rate of normal response in penile tumescence (P<0.05) and a significantly higher level of sexual arousal (P<0.05) if stimulated with 3-D HMD than conventional monitor. In the group of organic ED, even using 3-D HMD in AVSS could not give rise to a better response in both assessments. Therefore, we conclude that using a 3-D HMD in AVSS helps more to differentiate psychogenic from organic ED than a conventional monitor in AVSS.

  3. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  4. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  5. AUDIOVISUAL SERVICES CATALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton Unified School District, CA.

    A CATALOG HAS BEEN PREPARED TO HELP TEACHERS SELECT AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS WHICH MIGHT BE HELPFUL IN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMS. INCLUDED ARE FILMSTRIPS, SLIDES, RECORDS, STUDY PRINTS, FILMS, TAPE RECORDINGS, AND SCIENCE EQUIPMENT. TEACHERS ARE REMINDED THAT THEY ARE NOT LIMITED TO USE OF THE SUGGESTED MATERIALS. APPROPRIATE GRADE LEVELS HAVE BEEN…

  6. Audiovisual Techniques Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Darrel

    This handbook focuses on the use of 35mm slides for audiovisual presentations, particularly as an alternative to the more expensive and harder to produce medium of video. Its point of reference is creating slide shows about experiences in the Peace Corps; however, recommendations offered about both basic production procedures and enhancements are…

  7. Audiovisual Materials in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Joseph A.

    This pamphlet lists five thousand current, readily available audiovisual materials in mathematics. These are grouped under eighteen subject areas: Advanced Calculus, Algebra, Arithmetic, Business, Calculus, Charts, Computers, Geometry, Limits, Logarithms, Logic, Number Theory, Probability, Soild Geometry, Slide Rule, Statistics, Topology, and…

  8. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  10. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  11. REPORT ON MEETING OF DIRECTORS OF NATIONAL AUDIO-VISUAL SERVICES AND DOCUMENTARY FILM UNITS IN SOUTH AND EAST ASIA, KUALA LUMPUR, 31 JULY - AUGUST 1961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS MEETING WAS TO DEVELOP COOPERATIVE ACTION IN ASIA IN THE FIELD OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS IN EDUCATION, BASED ON THE WORK OF EXISTING NATIONAL AUDIOVISUAL SERVICES AND DOCUMENTARY FILM UNITS AND TO CONSIDER COOPERATION BETWEEN THESE SERVICES AND UNITS AND THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL FILMS. THE FOLLOWING AGENDA WAS…

  12. Towards Postmodernist Television: INA's Audiovisual Magazine Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Bowman, Susan

    Over the last 10 years, French television's Institute of Audiovisual Communication (INA) has shifted from modernist to post-modernist practice in broadcasting in a series of innovative audiovisual magazine programs about communication, and in a series of longer "compilation" documentaries. The first of INA's audiovisual magazines, "Hieroglyphes,"…

  13. Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jerrold E.

    The first few chapters of this book are devoted to an examination of the changing character of audiovisual materials; instructional design and the selection of media to serve specific objectives; and principles of perception, communication, and learning. Relevant research findings in the field are reviewed. The basic techniques of planning…

  14. Current Developments in Audiovisual Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Paul

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights significant advances in audiovisual cataloging theory and practice: development of "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules" (second edition); revision of the MARC Films Format; and project to provide cataloging-in-publication for microcomputer software. Evolution of rules and practices as an outgrowth of needs of the community is…

  15. A Computer Generated Audiovisuals Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Betty

    Eccles Medical Sciences Library at the University of Utah has developed a computer-generated catalog for its audiovisual health and medical materials. The catalog contains four sections: (1) the main listing of type of media, with descriptions, call numbers, and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used for each item; (2) a listing by title, with call…

  16. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  17. Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.

    The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

  18. Audiovisual Materials for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.

    This list of audiovisual materials for environmental education was prepared by the State of Minnesota, Department of Education, Division of Instruction, to accompany the pilot curriculum in environmental education. The majority of the materials listed are available from the University of Minnesota, or from state or federal agencies. The…

  19. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are special... unaltered copy of each version for record purposes. (d) Link audiovisual records with their finding aids... elements (e.g., photographic prints and negatives, or original edited masters and dubbing for video...

  20. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. Chapter Twelve, Revised. Audiovisual Media and Special Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    Chapter 12 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules has been revised to provide rules for works in the principal audiovisual media (motion pictures, filmstrips, videorecordings, slides, and transparencies) as well as instructional aids (charts, dioramas, flash cards, games, kits, microscope slides, models, and realia). The rules for main and added…

  1. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    PubMed

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  2. Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

    An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

  3. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping.

  4. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  5. Low cost training aids and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, J.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The need for advanced flight simulators for two engine aircraft is discussed. Cost effectiveness is a major requirement. Other training aids available for increased effectiveness are recommended. Training aids include: (1) audio-visual slides; (2) information transfer; (3) programmed instruction; and (4) interactive training systems.

  6. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of...

  7. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  8. An Audio-Visual Approach to Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearnshaw, Trevor

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development of an audiovisual training course in duck husbandry which consists of synchronized tapes and slides. The production of the materials, equipment needs, operations, cost, and advantages of the program are discussed. (BM)

  9. AVLINE: A Data Base and Critical Review System of Audiovisual Materials for the Education of Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Emanuel; Waddell, Wendy H.

    1982-01-01

    The AVLINE database, operated by the National Library of Medicine, was designed to aid in the selection, use, and sharing of quality audiovisual materials in the education of health professionals and to promote the quality production of such materials. AVLINE provides standardized bibliographic and critical review information. (Author/MLW)

  10. Didactic-Methodological Aspects of the Use of Medium. Criteria and Planning for the Employment of Audio-Visual Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunauer, H. R.

    Audiovisual aids and instructional media have advantages: they are of use in training, they permit self instruction, they allow widespread exposure to expert teachers. They also present difficulties: they are expensive, they require reorganization and careful selection of staff and equipment, they require decisions as to what programs to use or…

  11. The audio-visual revolution: do we really need it?

    PubMed

    Townsend, I

    1979-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, The audio-visual revolution has steadily gained converts in the nursing profession. Nurse tutor courses now contain information on the techniques of educational technology and schools of nursing increasingly own (or wish to own) many of the sophisticated electronic aids to teaching that abound. This is taking place at a time of hitherto inexperienced crisis and change. Funds have been or are being made available to buy audio-visual equipment. But its purchase and use relies on satisfying personal whim, prejudice or educational fashion, not on considerations of educational efficiency. In the rush of enthusiasm, the overwhelmed teacher (everywhere; the phenomenon is not confined to nursing) forgets to ask the searching, critical questions: 'Why should we use this aid?','How effective is it?','And, at what?'. Influential writers in this profession have repeatedly called for a more responsible attitude towards published research work of other fields. In an attempt to discover what is known about the answers to this group of questions, an eclectic look at media research is taken and the widespread dissatisfaction existing amongst international educational technologists is noted. The paper isolates out of the literature several causative factors responsible for the present state of affairs. Findings from the field of educational television are cited as representative of an aid which has had a considerable amount of time and research directed at it. The concluding part of the paper shows the decisions to be taken in using or not using educational media as being more complicated than might at first appear.

  12. The Current Status of Federal Audiovisual Policy and How These Policies Affect the National Audiovisual Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, R. Kevin

    The National Audiovisual Center was established in 1968 to provide a single organizational unit that serves as a central information point on completed audiovisual materials and a central sales point for the distribution of media that were produced by or for federal agencies. This speech describes the services the center can provide users of…

  13. Lexical and context effects in children's audiovisual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Rachael; Kirk, Karen; Pisoni, David; Burckhartzmeyer, Lisa; Lin, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The Audiovisual Lexical Neighborhood Sentence Test (AVLNST), a new, recorded speech recognition test for children with sensory aids, was administered in multiple presentation modalities to children with normal hearing and vision. Each sentence consists of three key words whose lexical difficulty is controlled according to the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) of spoken word recognition. According to NAM, the recognition of spoken words is influenced by two lexical factors: the frequency of occurrence of individual words in a language, and how phonemically similar the target word is to other words in the listeners lexicon. These predictions are based on auditory similarity only, and thus do not take into account how visual information can influence the perception of speech. Data from the AVLNST, together with those from recorded audiovisual versions of isolated word recognition measures, the Lexical Neighborhood, and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests, were used to examine the influence of visual information on speech perception in children. Further, the influence of top-down processing on speech recognition was examined by evaluating performance on the recognition of words in isolation versus words in sentences. [Work supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the NIDCD, T32 DC00012 to Indiana University.

  14. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  15. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration.

  16. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  17. 29 CFR 2.12 - Audiovisual coverage permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage permitted. 2.12 Section 2.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.12 Audiovisual coverage permitted. The following are the types of hearings where the...

  18. Audio-Visual Aids in Adult Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donnie; Seaman, Don F.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses in detail the various equipment and its employment in actual programs. The hardware and software considered include projectors, videotape recorders, television, easels, computers, newspapers, common reading material-i.e., labels, money, street signs, etc. The author warns: Each device is only as good as the person using it. (Author/JB)

  19. HIV/AIDS Education: Audio Visual Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This directory of audiovisual materials on Human Immunedeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) lists approximately 60 titles available as of September 1992. In addition to titles, the catalog provides borrowing information, short descriptions of videotapes, names of producers, language (five Spanish titles), price,…

  20. Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jerrold E.

    A revised edition of this handbook provides illustrated, step-by-step explanations of how to plan and produce audiovisual materials. Included are sections on the fundamental skills--photography, graphics and recording sound--followed by individual sections on photographic print series, slide series, filmstrips, tape recordings, overhead…

  1. Audiovisual Prosody and Feeling of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swerts, M.; Krahmer, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two experiments on the role of audiovisual prosody for signalling and detecting meta-cognitive information in question answering. The first study consists of an experiment, in which participants are asked factual questions in a conversational setting, while they are being filmed. Statistical analyses bring to light that the…

  2. Dissociating Verbal and Nonverbal Audiovisual Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…

  3. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity.

  4. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  5. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  6. Health Science Audiovisuals in Online Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Ann

    1980-01-01

    Provides descriptions of 14 databases that contain citations to audiovisual instructional materials: AGRICOLA, AVLINE, AVMARC, BIOETHICSLINE, CATLINE, CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT, DRUG INFO, ERIC, EXCEPTIONAL CHILD EDUCATION RESOURCES (ECER), LIBCON, NICEM, NICSEM/NIMIS, NIMH, and OCLC. Information for each includes subject content, update frequency,…

  7. Audio-Visual Materials for Chinese Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Eugene, Comp.; Ching, Nora C., Comp.

    This publication is designed for teachers of Chinese language and culture who are interested in using audiovisual materials to supplement classroom instruction. The listings objectively present materials which are available; the compilers have not attempted to evaluate them. Content includes historical studies, techniques of brush painting, myths,…

  8. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech

    PubMed Central

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. PMID:25716790

  9. A Selection of Audiovisual Materials on Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Kathleen; Rider, Sheila

    Disabled persons, family members, organizations, and libraries are often looking for materials to help inform, educate, or challenge them regarding the issues surrounding disabilities. This directory of audiovisual materials available from the State Library of Florida includes materials that present ideas and personal experiences covering a range…

  10. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  11. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  12. Audiovisual Facilities in Schools in Japan Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    This paper summarizes the findings of a national survey conducted for the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture in 1986 to determine the kinds of audiovisual equipment available in Japanese schools, together with the rate of diffusion for the various types of equipment, the amount of teacher participation in training for their use, and the…

  13. The Status of Audiovisual Materials in Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coty, Patricia Ann

    1983-01-01

    The role of networks in correcting inadequate bibliographic control for audiovisual materials is discussed, citing efforts of Project Media Base, National Information Center for Educational Media, Consortium of University Film Centers, National Library of Medicine, National Agricultural Library, National Film Board of Canada, and bibliographic…

  14. Reduced audiovisual recalibration in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu Man; Pianta, Michael J; McKendrick, Allison M

    2014-01-01

    Perceived synchrony of visual and auditory signals can be altered by exposure to a stream of temporally offset stimulus pairs. Previous literature suggests that adapting to audiovisual temporal offsets is an important recalibration to correctly combine audiovisual stimuli into a single percept across a range of source distances. Healthy aging results in synchrony perception over a wider range of temporally offset visual and auditory signals, independent of age-related unisensory declines in vision and hearing sensitivities. However, the impact of aging on audiovisual recalibration is unknown. Audiovisual synchrony perception for sound-lead and sound-lag stimuli was measured for 15 younger (22-32 years old) and 15 older (64-74 years old) healthy adults using a method-of-constant-stimuli, after adapting to a stream of visual and auditory pairs. The adaptation pairs were either synchronous or asynchronous (sound-lag of 230 ms). The adaptation effect for each observer was computed as the shift in the mean of the individually fitted psychometric functions after adapting to asynchrony. Post-adaptation to synchrony, the younger and older observers had average window widths (±standard deviation) of 326 (±80) and 448 (±105) ms, respectively. There was no adaptation effect for sound-lead pairs. Both the younger and older observers, however, perceived more sound-lag pairs as synchronous. The magnitude of the adaptation effect in the older observers was not correlated with how often they saw the adapting sound-lag stimuli as asynchronous. Our finding demonstrates that audiovisual synchrony perception adapts less with advancing age.

  15. Reduced audiovisual recalibration in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu Man; Pianta, Michael J.; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    Perceived synchrony of visual and auditory signals can be altered by exposure to a stream of temporally offset stimulus pairs. Previous literature suggests that adapting to audiovisual temporal offsets is an important recalibration to correctly combine audiovisual stimuli into a single percept across a range of source distances. Healthy aging results in synchrony perception over a wider range of temporally offset visual and auditory signals, independent of age-related unisensory declines in vision and hearing sensitivities. However, the impact of aging on audiovisual recalibration is unknown. Audiovisual synchrony perception for sound-lead and sound-lag stimuli was measured for 15 younger (22–32 years old) and 15 older (64–74 years old) healthy adults using a method-of-constant-stimuli, after adapting to a stream of visual and auditory pairs. The adaptation pairs were either synchronous or asynchronous (sound-lag of 230 ms). The adaptation effect for each observer was computed as the shift in the mean of the individually fitted psychometric functions after adapting to asynchrony. Post-adaptation to synchrony, the younger and older observers had average window widths (±standard deviation) of 326 (±80) and 448 (±105) ms, respectively. There was no adaptation effect for sound-lead pairs. Both the younger and older observers, however, perceived more sound-lag pairs as synchronous. The magnitude of the adaptation effect in the older observers was not correlated with how often they saw the adapting sound-lag stimuli as asynchronous. Our finding demonstrates that audiovisual synchrony perception adapts less with advancing age. PMID:25221508

  16. Neural correlates of audiovisual integration of semantic category information.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have found a late frontal-central audiovisual interaction during the time period about 150-220 ms post-stimulus. However, it is unclear to which process is this audiovisual interaction related: to processing of acoustical features or to classification of stimuli? To investigate this question, event-related potentials were recorded during a words-categorization task with stimuli presented in the auditory-visual modality. In the experiment, congruency of the visual and auditory stimuli was manipulated. Results showed that within the window of about 180-210 ms post-stimulus more positive values were elicited by category-congruent audiovisual stimuli than category-incongruent audiovisual stimuli. This indicates that the late frontal-central audiovisual interaction is related to audiovisual integration of semantic category information.

  17. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  18. Attributes of Quality in Audiovisual Materials for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Emanuel; Waddell, Wendy H.

    1981-01-01

    Defines attributes of quality in content, instructional design, technical production, and packaging of audiovisual materials used in the education of health professionals. Seven references are listed. (FM)

  19. Diminished sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    de Boer-Schellekens, Liselotte; Eussen, Mart; Vroomen, Jean

    2013-01-01

    We examined sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using an audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. In order to assess domain-specific impairments, the stimuli varied in social complexity from simple flash/beeps to videos of a handclap or a speaking face. Compared to typically-developing controls, individuals with ASD were generally less sensitive in judgments of audiovisual temporal order (larger just noticeable differences, JNDs), but there was no specific impairment with social stimuli. This suggests that people with ASD suffer from a more general impairment in audiovisual temporal processing.

  20. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648

  1. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Smayda, Kirsten E; Van Engen, Kristin J; Maddox, W Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18-35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60-90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when both

  2. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smayda, Kirsten E.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Maddox, W. Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18–35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60–90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when

  3. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Smayda, Kirsten E; Van Engen, Kristin J; Maddox, W Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18-35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60-90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when both

  4. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  5. Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

    2010-01-01

    Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

  6. Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

    2011-01-01

    Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

  7. Visual anticipatory information modulates multisensory interactions of artificial audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

    2010-07-01

    The neural activity of speech sound processing (the N1 component of the auditory ERP) can be suppressed if a speech sound is accompanied by concordant lip movements. Here we demonstrate that this audiovisual interaction is neither speech specific nor linked to humanlike actions but can be observed with artificial stimuli if their timing is made predictable. In Experiment 1, a pure tone synchronized with a deformation of a rectangle induced a smaller auditory N1 than auditory-only presentations if the temporal occurrence of this audiovisual event was made predictable by two moving disks that touched the rectangle. Local autoregressive average source estimation indicated that this audiovisual interaction may be related to integrative processing in auditory areas. When the moving disks did not precede the audiovisual stimulus--making the onset unpredictable--there was no N1 reduction. In Experiment 2, the predictability of the leading visual signal was manipulated by introducing a temporal asynchrony between the audiovisual event and the collision of moving disks. Audiovisual events occurred either at the moment, before (too "early"), or after (too "late") the disks collided on the rectangle. When asynchronies varied from trial to trial--rendering the moving disks unreliable temporal predictors of the audiovisual event--the N1 reduction was abolished. These results demonstrate that the N1 suppression is induced by visual information that both precedes and reliably predicts audiovisual onset, without a necessary link to human action-related neural mechanisms.

  8. Audiovisual Processing in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongillo, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Julia R.; Whalen, D. H.; Klaiman, Cheryl; Carter, Alice S.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and twenty-one children without ASD completed six perceptual tasks designed to characterize the nature of the audiovisual processing difficulties experienced by children with ASD. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving human faces…

  9. Knowledge Generated by Audiovisual Narrative Action Research Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of getting to…

  10. Neural Correlates of Audiovisual Integration of Semantic Category Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found a late frontal-central audiovisual interaction during the time period about 150-220 ms post-stimulus. However, it is unclear to which process is this audiovisual interaction related: to processing of acoustical features or to classification of stimuli? To investigate this question, event-related potentials were recorded…

  11. Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

  12. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  13. Audiovisual Matching in Speech and Nonspeech Sounds: A Neurodynamical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Marco; Schmid, Gabriele; Deco, Gustavo; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception provides an opportunity to investigate the mechanisms underlying multimodal processing. By using nonspeech stimuli, it is possible to investigate the degree to which audiovisual processing is specific to the speech domain. It has been shown in a match-to-sample design that matching across modalities is more difficult…

  14. Development of Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony during Midchildhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    Temporal proximity is one of the key factors determining whether events in different modalities are integrated into a unified percept. Sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony has been studied in adults in great detail. However, how such sensitivity matures during childhood is poorly understood. We examined perception of audiovisual temporal…

  15. Use of Audiovisual Texts in University Education Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksandrov, Evgeniy P.

    2014-01-01

    Audio-visual learning technologies offer great opportunities in the development of students' analytical and projective abilities. These technologies can be used in classroom activities and for homework. This article discusses the features of audiovisual media texts use in a series of social sciences and humanities in the University curriculum.

  16. Directory of Head Start Audiovisual Professional Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilds, Thomas, Comp.

    The directory contains over 265 annotated listings of audiovisual professional training materials related to the education and care of preschool handicapped children. Noted in the introduction are sources of the contents, such as lists of audiovisual materials disseminated by a hearing/speech center, and instructions for use of the directory.…

  17. Principles of Managing Audiovisual Materials and Equipment. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Biomedical Library.

    This manual offers information on a wide variety of health-related audiovisual materials (AVs) in many formats: video, motion picture, slide, filmstrip, audiocassette, transparencies, microfilm, and computer assisted instruction. Intended for individuals who are just learning about audiovisual materials and equipment management, the manual covers…

  18. Teleconferences and Audiovisual Materials in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Unidad de Educacion Continua y a Distancia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoaca 04510 Mexico, MEXICO As stated in the special session description, 21st century undergraduate education has access to resources/experiences that go beyond university classrooms. However in some cases, resources may go largely unused and a number of factors may be cited such as logistic problems, restricted internet and telecommunication service access, miss-information, etc. We present and comment on our efforts and experiences at the National University of Mexico in a new unit dedicated to teleconferences and audio-visual materials. The unit forms part of the geosciences institutes, located in the central UNAM campus and campuses in other States. The use of teleconference in formal graduate and undergraduate education allows teachers and lecturers to distribute course material as in classrooms. Course by teleconference requires learning and student and teacher effort without physical contact, but they have access to multimedia available to support their exhibition. Well selected multimedia material allows the students to identify and recognize digital information to aid understanding natural phenomena integral to Earth Sciences. Cooperation with international partnerships providing access to new materials and experiences and to field practices will greatly add to our efforts. We will present specific examples of the experiences that we have at the Earth Sciences Postgraduate Program of UNAM with the use of technology in the education in geosciences.

  19. Vicarious Audiovisual Learning in Perfusion Education

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Thomas E.; Holt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video. These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW standalone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today’s perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p < .05). The same was true for test #2 where video learners (n = 10) had an average score of 77% while text learners (n = 9) scored 60% (p < .05). Survey results indicated video learners were more satisfied with their learning module than text learners. Vicarious audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important

  20. The Natural Statistics of Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Trubanova, Andrea; Stillittano, Sébastien; Caplier, Alice; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, are exposed to a continuous stream of signals, which are dynamic, multimodal, extended, and time varying in nature. This complex input space must be transduced and sampled by our sensory systems and transmitted to the brain where it can guide the selection of appropriate actions. To simplify this process, it's been suggested that the brain exploits statistical regularities in the stimulus space. Tests of this idea have largely been confined to unimodal signals and natural scenes. One important class of multisensory signals for which a quantitative input space characterization is unavailable is human speech. We do not understand what signals our brain has to actively piece together from an audiovisual speech stream to arrive at a percept versus what is already embedded in the signal structure of the stream itself. In essence, we do not have a clear understanding of the natural statistics of audiovisual speech. In the present study, we identified the following major statistical features of audiovisual speech. First, we observed robust correlations and close temporal correspondence between the area of the mouth opening and the acoustic envelope. Second, we found the strongest correlation between the area of the mouth opening and vocal tract resonances. Third, we observed that both area of the mouth opening and the voice envelope are temporally modulated in the 2–7 Hz frequency range. Finally, we show that the timing of mouth movements relative to the onset of the voice is consistently between 100 and 300 ms. We interpret these data in the context of recent neural theories of speech which suggest that speech communication is a reciprocally coupled, multisensory event, whereby the outputs of the signaler are matched to the neural processes of the receiver. PMID:19609344

  1. Audiovisual Media in Japan Today. The Ministry of Education's 1986 Survey on Audiovisual Media. AVE in Japan No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

    Based on the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture's 1986 survey of "Audiovisual Facilities in Schools and Social Education Institutions," this summary of the current status of the diffusion and utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment in Japan pays particular attention to public and private schools. Social education institutions…

  2. 7 CFR 3015.200 - Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... audiovisuals. 3015.200 Section 3015.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Miscellaneous § 3015.200 Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals. (a) Definitions. Appendix A defines “audiovisual,” “production of an audiovisual,” and “publication.” (b)...

  3. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2009-02-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

  4. Categorization of Natural Dynamic Audiovisual Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Rummukainen, Olli; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Pulkki, Ville

    2014-01-01

    This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database. PMID:24788808

  5. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  6. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  7. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

  8. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations. PMID:27551918

  9. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  10. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group.

  11. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H. Charles; Russo, Frank A.; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants’ ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants’ ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception. PMID:27760134

  12. Automatic audiovisual integration in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2005-11-01

    Two experiments aimed to determine whether features of both the visual and acoustical inputs are always merged into the perceived representation of speech and whether this audiovisual integration is based on either cross-modal binding functions or on imitation. In a McGurk paradigm, observers were required to repeat aloud a string of phonemes uttered by an actor (acoustical presentation of phonemic string) whose mouth, in contrast, mimicked pronunciation of a different string (visual presentation). In a control experiment participants read the same printed strings of letters. This condition aimed to analyze the pattern of voice and the lip kinematics controlling for imitation. In the control experiment and in the congruent audiovisual presentation, i.e. when the articulation mouth gestures were congruent with the emission of the string of phones, the voice spectrum and the lip kinematics varied according to the pronounced strings of phonemes. In the McGurk paradigm the participants were unaware of the incongruence between visual and acoustical stimuli. The acoustical analysis of the participants' spoken responses showed three distinct patterns: the fusion of the two stimuli (the McGurk effect), repetition of the acoustically presented string of phonemes, and, less frequently, of the string of phonemes corresponding to the mouth gestures mimicked by the actor. However, the analysis of the latter two responses showed that the formant 2 of the participants' voice spectra always differed from the value recorded in the congruent audiovisual presentation. It approached the value of the formant 2 of the string of phonemes presented in the other modality, which was apparently ignored. The lip kinematics of the participants repeating the string of phonemes acoustically presented were influenced by the observation of the lip movements mimicked by the actor, but only when pronouncing a labial consonant. The data are discussed in favor of the hypothesis that features of both

  13. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  14. Audiovisual signal compression: the 64/P codecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayant, Nikil S.

    1996-02-01

    Video codecs operating at integral multiples of 64 kbps are well-known in visual communications technology as p * 64 systems (p equals 1 to 24). Originally developed as a class of ITU standards, these codecs have served as core technology for videoconferencing, and they have also influenced the MPEG standards for addressable video. Video compression in the above systems is provided by motion compensation followed by discrete cosine transform -- quantization of the residual signal. Notwithstanding the promise of higher bit rates in emerging generations of networks and storage devices, there is a continuing need for facile audiovisual communications over voice band and wireless modems. Consequently, video compression at bit rates lower than 64 kbps is a widely-sought capability. In particular, video codecs operating at rates in the neighborhood of 64, 32, 16, and 8 kbps seem to have great practical value, being matched respectively to the transmission capacities of basic rate ISDN (64 kbps), and voiceband modems that represent high (32 kbps), medium (16 kbps) and low- end (8 kbps) grades in current modem technology. The purpose of this talk is to describe the state of video technology at these transmission rates, without getting too literal about the specific speeds mentioned above. In other words, we expect codecs designed for non- submultiples of 64 kbps, such as 56 kbps or 19.2 kbps, as well as for sub-multiples of 64 kbps, depending on varying constraints on modem rate and the transmission rate needed for the voice-coding part of the audiovisual communications link. The MPEG-4 video standards process is a natural platform on which to examine current capabilities in sub-ISDN rate video coding, and we shall draw appropriately from this process in describing video codec performance. Inherent in this summary is a reinforcement of motion compensation and DCT as viable building blocks of video compression systems, although there is a need for improving signal quality

  15. An audiovisual database of English speech sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Stefan A.; Nikjeh, Dee Adams

    2003-10-01

    A preliminary audiovisual database of English speech sounds has been developed for teaching purposes. This database contains all Standard English speech sounds produced in isolated words in word initial, word medial, and word final position, unless not allowed by English phonotactics. There is one example of each word spoken by a male and a female talker. The database consists of an audio recording, video of the face from a 45 deg angle off of center, and ultrasound video of the tongue in the mid-saggital plane. The files contained in the database are suitable for examination by the Wavesurfer freeware program in audio or video modes [Sjolander and Beskow, KTH Stockholm]. This database is intended as a multimedia reference for students in phonetics or speech science. A demonstration and plans for further development will be presented.

  16. Behavioral Science Design for Audio-Visual Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Dennis L.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the basic structure of the behavioral audio-visual production which consists of objectives analysis, approach determination, technical production, fulfillment evaluation, program refinement, implementation, and follow-up. (Author)

  17. A measure for assessing the effects of audiovisual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Nicholas; Townsend, James T; Wenger, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    We propose a measure of audiovisual speech integration that takes into account accuracy and response times. This measure should prove beneficial for researchers investigating multisensory speech recognition, since it relates to normal-hearing and aging populations. As an example, age-related sensory decline influences both the rate at which one processes information and the ability to utilize cues from different sensory modalities. Our function assesses integration when both auditory and visual information are available, by comparing performance on these audiovisual trials with theoretical predictions for performance under the assumptions of parallel, independent self-terminating processing of single-modality inputs. We provide example data from an audiovisual identification experiment and discuss applications for measuring audiovisual integration skills across the life span.

  18. Audiovisual Materials and Programming for Children: A Long Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the use of audiovisual materials in children's programing at the Seattle Public Library prior to 1920. Kinds of materials discussed include pictures, reflectoscopes, films, sound recordings, lantern slides, and stereographs. (17 references) (MES)

  19. Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Kuling, Irene A; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F

    2013-10-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from rhythm perception. In this method, participants had to align the temporal position of a target in a rhythmic sequence of four markers. In the first experiment, target and markers consisted of a visual flash or an auditory noise burst, and all four combinations of target and marker modalities were tested. In the same-modality conditions, no temporal biases and a high precision of the adjusted temporal position of the target were observed. In the different-modality conditions, we found a systematic temporal bias of 25-30 ms. In the second part of the first and in a second experiment, we tested conditions in which audiovisual markers with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the two components and a visual target were used to quantify temporal ventriloquism. The adjusted target positions varied by up to about 50 ms and depended in a systematic way on the SOA and its proximity to the point of subjective synchrony. These data allowed testing different quantitative models. The most satisfying model, based on work by Maij, Brenner, and Smeets (Journal of Neurophysiology 102, 490-495, 2009), linked temporal ventriloquism and the percept of synchrony and was capable of adequately describing the results from the present study, as well as those of some earlier experiments. PMID:23868564

  20. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to auditory information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported

  1. [Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].

    PubMed

    Aziza, M

    1979-01-01

    Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

  2. Intermodal timing relations and audio-visual speech recognition by normal-hearing adults.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M; Summerfield, Q

    1985-02-01

    Audio-visual identification of sentences was measured as a function of audio delay in untrained observers with normal hearing; the soundtrack was replaced by rectangular pulses originally synchronized to the closing of the talker's vocal folds and then subjected to delay. When the soundtrack was delayed by 160 ms, identification scores were no better than when no acoustical information at all was provided. Delays of up to 80 ms had little effect on group-mean performance, but a separate analysis of a subgroup of better lipreaders showed a significant trend of reduced scores with increased delay in the range from 0-80 ms. A second experiment tested the interpretation that, although the main disruptive effect of the delay occurred on a syllabic time scale, better lipreaders might be attempting to use intermodal timing cues at a phonemic level. Normal-hearing observers determined whether a 120-Hz complex tone started before or after the opening of a pair of liplike Lissajou figures. Group-mean difference limens (70.7% correct DLs) were - 79 ms (sound leading) and + 138 ms (sound lagging), with no significant correlation between DLs and sentence lipreading scores. It was concluded that most observers, whether good lipreaders or not, possess insufficient sensitivity to intermodal timing cues in audio-visual speech for them to be used analogously to voice onset time in auditory speech perception. The results of both experiments imply that delays of up to about 40 ms introduced by signal-processing algorithms in aids to lipreading should not materially affect audio-visual speech understanding.

  3. Timing in audiovisual speech perception: A mini review and new psychophysical data.

    PubMed

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Thurman, Steven M; Matchin, William; George, Sahara E; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Recent influential models of audiovisual speech perception suggest that visual speech aids perception by generating predictions about the identity of upcoming speech sounds. These models place stock in the assumption that visual speech leads auditory speech in time. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent temporally-leading visual speech information contributes to perception. Previous studies exploring audiovisual-speech timing have relied upon psychophysical procedures that require artificial manipulation of cross-modal alignment or stimulus duration. We introduce a classification procedure that tracks perceptually relevant visual speech information in time without requiring such manipulations. Participants were shown videos of a McGurk syllable (auditory /apa/ + visual /aka/ = perceptual /ata/) and asked to perform phoneme identification (/apa/ yes-no). The mouth region of the visual stimulus was overlaid with a dynamic transparency mask that obscured visual speech in some frames but not others randomly across trials. Variability in participants' responses (~35 % identification of /apa/ compared to ~5 % in the absence of the masker) served as the basis for classification analysis. The outcome was a high resolution spatiotemporal map of perceptually relevant visual features. We produced these maps for McGurk stimuli at different audiovisual temporal offsets (natural timing, 50-ms visual lead, and 100-ms visual lead). Briefly, temporally-leading (~130 ms) visual information did influence auditory perception. Moreover, several visual features influenced perception of a single speech sound, with the relative influence of each feature depending on both its temporal relation to the auditory signal and its informational content.

  4. A real-time detector system for precise timing of audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Henelius, Andreas; Jagadeesan, Sharman; Huotilainen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The successful recording of neurophysiologic signals, such as event-related potentials (ERPs) or event-related magnetic fields (ERFs), relies on precise information of stimulus presentation times. We have developed an accurate and flexible audiovisual sensor solution operating in real-time for on-line use in both auditory and visual ERP and ERF paradigms. The sensor functions independently of the used audio or video stimulus presentation tools or signal acquisition system. The sensor solution consists of two independent sensors; one for sound and one for light. The microcontroller-based audio sensor incorporates a novel approach to the detection of natural sounds such as multipart audio stimuli, using an adjustable dead time. This aids in producing exact markers for complex auditory stimuli and reduces the number of false detections. The analog photosensor circuit detects changes in light intensity on the screen and produces a marker for changes exceeding a threshold. The microcontroller software for the audio sensor is free and open source, allowing other researchers to customise the sensor for use in specific auditory ERP/ERF paradigms. The hardware schematics and software for the audiovisual sensor are freely available from the webpage of the authors' lab. PMID:23365952

  5. A real-time detector system for precise timing of audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Henelius, Andreas; Jagadeesan, Sharman; Huotilainen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The successful recording of neurophysiologic signals, such as event-related potentials (ERPs) or event-related magnetic fields (ERFs), relies on precise information of stimulus presentation times. We have developed an accurate and flexible audiovisual sensor solution operating in real-time for on-line use in both auditory and visual ERP and ERF paradigms. The sensor functions independently of the used audio or video stimulus presentation tools or signal acquisition system. The sensor solution consists of two independent sensors; one for sound and one for light. The microcontroller-based audio sensor incorporates a novel approach to the detection of natural sounds such as multipart audio stimuli, using an adjustable dead time. This aids in producing exact markers for complex auditory stimuli and reduces the number of false detections. The analog photosensor circuit detects changes in light intensity on the screen and produces a marker for changes exceeding a threshold. The microcontroller software for the audio sensor is free and open source, allowing other researchers to customise the sensor for use in specific auditory ERP/ERF paradigms. The hardware schematics and software for the audiovisual sensor are freely available from the webpage of the authors' lab.

  6. The contribution of dynamic visual cues to audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Jaekl, Philip; Pesquita, Ana; Alsius, Agnes; Munhall, Kevin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial gestures can significantly improve speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. However, the nature of the visual information from the speaker's facial movements that is relevant for this enhancement is still unclear. Like auditory speech signals, visual speech signals unfold over time and contain both dynamic configural information and luminance-defined local motion cues; two information sources that are thought to engage anatomically and functionally separate visual systems. Whereas, some past studies have highlighted the importance of local, luminance-defined motion cues in audiovisual speech perception, the contribution of dynamic configural information signalling changes in form over time has not yet been assessed. We therefore attempted to single out the contribution of dynamic configural information to audiovisual speech processing. To this aim, we measured word identification performance in noise using unimodal auditory stimuli, and with audiovisual stimuli. In the audiovisual condition, speaking faces were presented as point light displays achieved via motion capture of the original talker. Point light displays could be isoluminant, to minimise the contribution of effective luminance-defined local motion information, or with added luminance contrast, allowing the combined effect of dynamic configural cues and local motion cues. Audiovisual enhancement was found in both the isoluminant and contrast-based luminance conditions compared to an auditory-only condition, demonstrating, for the first time the specific contribution of dynamic configural cues to audiovisual speech improvement. These findings imply that globally processed changes in a speaker's facial shape contribute significantly towards the perception of articulatory gestures and the analysis of audiovisual speech.

  7. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Arielle S.; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193

  8. Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

  9. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arielle S; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193

  10. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit audiovisual association learning task with two different colors of red and purple (the latter color known to minimally activate the extra-genicular pathway). Interestingly, the patient learned the association between an auditory cue and a visual stimulus only when the unseen visual stimulus was red, but not when it was purple. The current study presents the first evidence showing the possibility of audiovisual association learning in humans with lesioned striate cortex. Furthermore, in line with animal studies, it supports an important role for the SC in audiovisual associative learning.

  11. Spatial Frequency Requirements and Gaze Strategy in Visual-Only and Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Amanda H.; Alsius, Agnès; Parè, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to examine the effects of visual image degradation on performance and gaze behavior in audiovisual and visual-only speech perception tasks. Method: We presented vowel-consonant-vowel utterances visually filtered at a range of frequencies in visual-only, audiovisual congruent, and audiovisual incongruent…

  12. 7 CFR 3015.200 - Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... A defines “audiovisual,” “production of an audiovisual,” and “publication.” (b) Publications... published with grant support and, if feasible, on any publication reporting the results of, or describing, a... under subgrants. (2) Audiovisuals produced as research instruments or for documenting experimentation...

  13. 77 FR 22803 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain audiovisual components and... certain audiovisual components and products containing the same that infringe one or more of claims 1,...

  14. 36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records? 1237.10 Section 1237.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and...

  15. 77 FR 16561 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same, DN 2884; the Commission... within the United States after importation of certain audiovisual components and products containing...

  16. 77 FR 16560 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same, DN 2884; the Commission... within the United States after importation of certain audiovisual components and products containing...

  17. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  18. Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof

    2014-11-01

    Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration. PMID:25269620

  19. Neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing in a second language.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Visser, Maya; Alsius, Agnès; Pallier, Christophe; Avila Rivera, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of audiovisual speech processing have exclusively addressed listeners' native language (L1). Yet, several behavioural studies now show that AV processing plays an important role in non-native (L2) speech perception. The current fMRI study measured brain activity during auditory, visual, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent utterances in L1 and L2. BOLD responses to congruent AV speech in the pSTS were stronger than in either unimodal condition in both L1 and L2. Yet no differences in AV processing were expressed according to the language background in this area. Instead, the regions in the bilateral occipital lobe had a stronger congruency effect on the BOLD response (congruent higher than incongruent) in L2 as compared to L1. According to these results, language background differences are predominantly expressed in these unimodal regions, whereas the pSTS is similarly involved in AV integration regardless of language dominance.

  20. Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Baart, Martijn; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were modulated by phonetic audiovisual congruency. In order to disentangle speech-specific (phonetic) integration from non-speech integration, we used Sine-Wave Speech (SWS) that was perceived as speech by half of the participants (they were in speech-mode), while the other half was in non-speech mode. Results showed that the N1 obtained with audiovisual stimuli peaked earlier than the N1 evoked by auditory-only stimuli. This lip-read induced speeding up of the N1 occurred for listeners in speech and non-speech mode. In contrast, if listeners were in speech-mode, lip-read speech also modulated the auditory P2, but not if listeners were in non-speech mode, thus revealing speech-specific audiovisual binding. Comparing ERPs for phonetically congruent audiovisual stimuli with ERPs for incongruent stimuli revealed an effect of phonetic stimulus congruency that started at ~200 ms after (in)congruence became apparent. Critically, akin to the P2 suppression, congruency effects were only observed if listeners were in speech mode, and not if they were in non-speech mode. Using identical stimuli, we thus confirm that audiovisual binding involves (partially) different neural mechanisms for sound processing in speech and non-speech mode.

  1. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events.

    PubMed

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli.

  2. Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate

  3. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events

    PubMed Central

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli. PMID:26082738

  4. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events.

    PubMed

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli. PMID:26082738

  5. AIDS: resource materials for school personnel.

    PubMed

    Fulton, G B; Metress, E; Price, J H

    1987-01-01

    The AIDS dilemma continues to escalate, leaving a legacy that probably will affect the nation for years to come. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Surgeon General have noted that in the absence of a vaccine or treatment for AIDS, education remains the only effective means to prevent the spread of the disease. Thus, schools have an important role in protecting the public health. To respond appropriately to the situation, school personnel must become familiar with relevant information and resources available concerning AIDS. This article first provides essential information about AIDS using a question-and-answer format. Second, policy statements addressing school attendance by students infected with the virus that causes AIDS are presented. Third, hotlines that can be used to obtain more detailed information about AIDS are described. Fourth, organizations that can provide information for school health education about AIDS are identified. Fifth, an annotated list of audiovisual materials that schools can use to provide education about AIDS is provided. Sixth, a bibliography of publications relevant to school health education about AIDS is offered.

  6. Prefrontal Neuronal Responses during Audiovisual Mnemonic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    During communication we combine auditory and visual information. Neurophysiological research in nonhuman primates has shown that single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) exhibit multisensory responses to faces and vocalizations presented simultaneously. However, whether VLPFC is also involved in maintaining those communication stimuli in working memory or combining stored information across different modalities is unknown, although its human homolog, the inferior frontal gyrus, is known to be important in integrating verbal information from auditory and visual working memory. To address this question, we recorded from VLPFC while rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) performed an audiovisual working memory task. Unlike traditional match-to-sample/nonmatch-to-sample paradigms, which use unimodal memoranda, our nonmatch-to-sample task used dynamic movies consisting of both facial gestures and the accompanying vocalizations. For the nonmatch conditions, a change in the auditory component (vocalization), the visual component (face), or both components was detected. Our results show that VLPFC neurons are activated by stimulus and task factors: while some neurons simply responded to a particular face or a vocalization regardless of the task period, others exhibited activity patterns typically related to working memory such as sustained delay activity and match enhancement/suppression. In addition, we found neurons that detected the component change during the nonmatch period. Interestingly, some of these neurons were sensitive to the change of both components and therefore combined information from auditory and visual working memory. These results suggest that VLPFC is not only involved in the perceptual processing of faces and vocalizations but also in their mnemonic processing. PMID:25609614

  7. SOME SUGGESTED SOURCES OF EQUIPMENT AND TEACHER AIDS FOR PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWERS, ROBERT

    THIS PAMPHLET LISTS SOURCES WHICH PRODUCE (1) PRINTED MATERIAL SUCH AS BOOKS, TESTS, AND SHEET MUSIC USING APPROXIMATELY 18 TO 24 POINT PRINT SIZE, (2) FURNITURE AND SUCH MECHANICAL DEVICES AS EQUIPMENT TO FACILITATE THE EDUCATION OF PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN, AND (3) AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDING EQUIPMENT, RECORDINGS, AND FILMS. INCLUDED IS A…

  8. Audio-Visual/Communications Teaching Aids Packet. Supplementary Materials. Packet P-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This packet contains three handouts on training theory and the use of audiovisual aids, as well as a section on materials and presentation techniques for use by community development workers concerned with exchanging information and working with the people in a community. The first handout, "Communication in Development," briefly discusses the…

  9. Media Literacy and Audiovisual Languages: A Case Study from Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bauwel, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the use of media in the construction of a "new" language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children's sound and visual worlds are the focus of…

  10. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  11. School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

  12. Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

  13. The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

  14. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation.

  15. Segmentation of the Speaker's Face Region with Audiovisual Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyu; Sato, Yoichi

    The ability to find the speaker's face region in a video is useful for various applications. In this work, we develop a novel technique to find this region within different time windows, which is robust against the changes of view, scale, and background. The main thrust of our technique is to integrate audiovisual correlation analysis into a video segmentation framework. We analyze the audiovisual correlation locally by computing quadratic mutual information between our audiovisual features. The computation of quadratic mutual information is based on the probability density functions estimated by kernel density estimation with adaptive kernel bandwidth. The results of this audiovisual correlation analysis are incorporated into graph cut-based video segmentation to resolve a globally optimum extraction of the speaker's face region. The setting of any heuristic threshold in this segmentation is avoided by learning the correlation distributions of speaker and background by expectation maximization. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can detect the speaker's face region accurately and robustly for different views, scales, and backgrounds.

  16. Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

  17. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  18. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  19. Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

  20. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation. PMID:26351991

  1. The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory. Seventeenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herickes, Sally, Ed.

    The following types of audiovisual equipment are catalogued: 8 mm. and 16 mm. motion picture projectors, filmstrip and sound filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, random access projection equipment, opaque, overhead, and micro-projectors, record players, special purpose projection equipment, audio tape recorders and players, audio tape…

  2. Audio-Visual Equipment Depreciation. RDU-75-07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.; Baker, Martha

    A study was conducted at Purdue University to gather operational and budgetary planning data for the Libraries and Audiovisual Center. The objectives were: (1) to complete a current inventory of equipment including year of purchase, costs, and salvage value; (2) to determine useful life data for general classes of equipment; and (3) to determine…

  3. Skill Dependent Audiovisual Integration in the Fusiform Induces Repetition Suppression

    PubMed Central

    McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read entails mapping existing phonological representations to novel orthographic representations and is thus an ideal context for investigating experience driven audiovisual integration. Because two dominant brain-based theories of reading development hinge on the sensitivity of the visual-object processing stream to phonological information, we were interested in how reading skill relates to audiovisual integration in this area. Thirty-two children between 8 and 13 years of age spanning a range of reading skill participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task to word pairs presented unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). Skill-dependent sub-additive audiovisual modulation was found in left fusiform gyrus, extending into the putative visual word form area, and was correlated with behavioral orthographic priming. These results suggest learning to read promotes facilitatory audiovisual integration in the ventral visual-object processing stream and may optimize this region for orthographic processing. PMID:25585276

  4. Selected Bibliography and Audiovisual Materials for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide to resource materials on environmental education is in two sections: 1) Selected Bibliography of Printed Materials, compiled in April, 1970; and, 2) Audio-Visual materials, Films and Filmstrips, compiled in February, 1971. 99 book annotations are given with an indicator of elementary, junior or senior high school levels. Other book…

  5. Sur Quatre Methodes Audio-Visuelles (On Four Audiovisual Methods)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porquier, Remy; Vives, Robert

    1974-01-01

    This is a critical examination of four audiovisual methods for the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. The methods have as a common basis the interrelationship of image, dialogue, situation, and give grammar priority over vocabulary. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  6. Audiovisual Fundamentals; Basic Equipment Operation and Simple Materials Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, John R.; Mether, Calvin E.

    A guide illustrated with simple sketches explains the functions and step-by-step uses of audiovisual (AV) equipment. Principles of projection, audio, AV equipment, lettering, limited-quantity and quantity duplication, and materials preservation are outlined. Apparatus discussed include overhead, opaque, slide-filmstrip, and multiple-loading slide…

  7. An Audio-Visual Lecture Course in Russian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Lauren G.

    1977-01-01

    An audio-visual course in Russian culture is given at Northern Illinois University. A collection of 4-5,000 color slides is the basis for the course, with lectures focussed on literature, philosophy, religion, politics, art and crafts. Acquisition, classification, storage and presentation of slides, and organization of lectures are discussed. (CHK)

  8. Searching AVLINE for Curriculum-Related Audiovisual Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgman, Charles F.; Suter, Emanuel

    1979-01-01

    Ways in which the National Library of Medicine's online data file of audiovisual instructional materials (AVLINE) can be searched are described. The search approaches were developed with the assistance of data analysts at NLM trained in reference services. AVLINE design, search strategies, and acquisition of the materials are reported. (LBH)

  9. Guide to Audiovisual Terminology. Product Information Supplement, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiatowski, Gregory, Ed.

    1968-01-01

    The terms appearing in this glossary have been specifically selected for use by educators from a larger text, which was prepared by the Commission on Definition and Terminology of the Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association. Specialized areas covered in the glossary include audio reproduction, audiovisual…

  10. The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal

  11. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  12. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  13. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  14. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  17. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Elif; van Egmond, René

    2010-02-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral part of the main product concept. Because visual aspects of a product are considered to dominate the communication of the desired product concept, sound is usually expected to fit the visual character of a product. We argue that this can be accomplished successfully only on basis of a thorough understanding of the impact of audio-visual interactions on product sounds. Two experimental studies are reviewed to show audio-visual interactions on both perceptual and cognitive levels influencing the way people encode, recall, and attribute meaning to product sounds. Implications for sound design are discussed defying the natural tendency of product designers to analyze the "sound problem" in isolation from the other product properties.

  18. Audio-visual communication and its use in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Nessa; Khojainova, Natalia; Francavilla, John M; Gonzales, Gilbert R

    2002-02-01

    The technology of telemedicine has been used for over 20 years, involving different areas of medicine, providing medical care for the geographically isolated patients, and uniting geographically isolated clinicians. Today audio-visual technology may be useful in palliative care for the patients lacking access to medical services due to the medical condition rather than geographic isolation. We report results of a three-month trial of using audio-visual communications as a complementary tool in care for a complex palliative care patient. Benefits of this system to the patient included 1) a daily limited physical examination, 2) screening for a need for a clinical visit or admission, 3) lip reading by the deaf patient, 4) satisfaction by the patient and the caregivers with this form of communication as a complement to telephone communication. A brief overview of the historical prospective on telemedicine and a listing of applied telemedicine programs are provided.

  19. Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

    This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

  20. Role of audiovisual synchrony in driving head orienting responses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cristy; Gray, Rob; Spence, Charles

    2013-06-01

    Many studies now suggest that optimal multisensory integration sometimes occurs under conditions where auditory and visual stimuli are presented asynchronously (i.e. at asynchronies of 100 ms or more). Such observations lead to the suggestion that participants' speeded orienting responses might be enhanced following the presentation of asynchronous (as compared to synchronous) peripheral audiovisual spatial cues. Here, we report a series of three experiments designed to investigate this issue. Upon establishing the effectiveness of bimodal cuing over the best of its unimodal components (Experiment 1), participants had to make speeded head-turning or steering (wheel-turning) responses toward the cued direction (Experiment 2), or an incompatible response away from the cue (Experiment 3), in response to random peripheral audiovisual stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies ranging from -100 to 100 ms. Race model inequality analysis of the results (Experiment 1) revealed different mechanisms underlying the observed multisensory facilitation of participants' head-turning versus steering responses. In Experiments 2 and 3, the synchronous presentation of the component auditory and visual cues gave rise to the largest facilitation of participants' response latencies. Intriguingly, when the participants had to subjectively judge the simultaneity of the audiovisual stimuli, the point of subjective simultaneity occurred when the auditory stimulus lagged behind the visual stimulus by 22 ms. Taken together, these results appear to suggest that the maximally beneficial behavioural (head and manual) orienting responses resulting from peripherally presented audiovisual stimuli occur when the component signals are presented in synchrony. These findings suggest that while the brain uses precise temporal synchrony in order to control its orienting responses, the system that the human brain uses to consciously judge synchrony appears to be less fine tuned.

  1. Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult is unknown. In particular, developmental differences in the network for audiovisual speech comprehension could manifest though the incorporation of additional brain regions, or through different patterns of effective connectivity. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling (SEM) to characterize the developmental changes in network interactions for audiovisual speech comprehension. The brain response was recorded while children 8- to 11-years-old and adults passively listened to stories under audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only (A) conditions. Results showed that in children and adults, AV comprehension activated the same fronto-temporo-parietal network of regions known for their contribution to speech production and perception. However, the SEM network analysis revealed age-related differences in the functional interactions among these regions. In particular, the influence of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex on supramarginal gyrus differed across age groups during AV, but not A speech. This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and sensory information used by the listener to identify speech sounds. Further, its development might reflect changes in the mechanisms that relate visual speech information to articulatory speech representations through experience producing and perceiving speech. PMID:19781755

  2. Audiovisual Temporal Recalibration for Speech in Synchrony Perception and Speech Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Imai, Hisato

    We investigated whether audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could change after observation of the audiovisual temporal mismatch. Previous studies have revealed that audiovisual synchrony perception is re-calibrated after exposure to a constant timing difference between auditory and visual signals in non-speech. In the present study, we examined whether this audiovisual temporal recalibration occurs at the perceptual level even for speech (monosyllables). In Experiment 1, participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task (i.e., a direct measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) in terms of the speech signal after observation of the speech stimuli which had a constant audiovisual lag. The results showed that the “simultaneous” responses (i.e., proportion of responses for which participants judged the auditory and visual stimuli to be synchronous) at least partly depended on exposure lag. In Experiment 2, we adopted the McGurk identification task (i.e., an indirect measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) to exclude the possibility that this modulation of synchrony perception was solely attributable to the response strategy using stimuli identical to those of Experiment 1. The characteristics of the McGurk effect reported by participants depended on exposure lag. Thus, it was shown that audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could be modulated following exposure to constant lag both in direct and indirect measurement. Our results suggest that temporal recalibration occurs not only in non-speech signals but also in monosyllabic speech at the perceptual level.

  3. The role of emotion in dynamic audiovisual integration of faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Kokinous, Jenny; Kotz, Sonja A; Tavano, Alessandro; Schröger, Erich

    2015-05-01

    We used human electroencephalogram to study early audiovisual integration of dynamic angry and neutral expressions. An auditory-only condition served as a baseline for the interpretation of integration effects. In the audiovisual conditions, the validity of visual information was manipulated using facial expressions that were either emotionally congruent or incongruent with the vocal expressions. First, we report an N1 suppression effect for angry compared with neutral vocalizations in the auditory-only condition. Second, we confirm early integration of congruent visual and auditory information as indexed by a suppression of the auditory N1 and P2 components in the audiovisual compared with the auditory-only condition. Third, audiovisual N1 suppression was modulated by audiovisual congruency in interaction with emotion: for neutral vocalizations, there was N1 suppression in both the congruent and the incongruent audiovisual conditions. For angry vocalizations, there was N1 suppression only in the congruent but not in the incongruent condition. Extending previous findings of dynamic audiovisual integration, the current results suggest that audiovisual N1 suppression is congruency- and emotion-specific and indicate that dynamic emotional expressions compared with non-emotional expressions are preferentially processed in early audiovisual integration.

  4. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Tobias S.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia. PMID:25972819

  5. Multi-pose lipreading and audio-visual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellers, Virginia; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we study the adaptation of visual and audio-visual speech recognition systems to non-ideal visual conditions. We focus on overcoming the effects of a changing pose of the speaker, a problem encountered in natural situations where the speaker moves freely and does not keep a frontal pose with relation to the camera. To handle these situations, we introduce a pose normalization block in a standard system and generate virtual frontal views from non-frontal images. The proposed method is inspired by pose-invariant face recognition and relies on linear regression to find an approximate mapping between images from different poses. We integrate the proposed pose normalization block at different stages of the speech recognition system and quantify the loss of performance related to pose changes and pose normalization techniques. In audio-visual experiments we also analyze the integration of the audio and visual streams. We show that an audio-visual system should account for non-frontal poses and normalization techniques in terms of the weight assigned to the visual stream in the classifier.

  6. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Tobias S; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia. PMID:25972819

  7. No rapid audiovisual recalibration in adults on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Turi, Marco; Karaminis, Themelis; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Burr, David

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social cognition, but are also associated with atypicalities in sensory and perceptual processing. Several groups have reported that autistic individuals show reduced integration of socially relevant audiovisual signals, which may contribute to the higher-order social and cognitive difficulties observed in autism. Here we use a newly devised technique to study instantaneous adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony in autism. Autistic and typical participants were presented with sequences of brief visual and auditory stimuli, varying in asynchrony over a wide range, from 512 ms auditory-lead to 512 ms auditory-lag, and judged whether they seemed to be synchronous. Typical adults showed strong adaptation effects, with trials proceeded by an auditory-lead needing more auditory-lead to seem simultaneous, and vice versa. However, autistic observers showed little or no adaptation, although their simultaneity curves were as narrow as the typical adults. This result supports recent Bayesian models that predict reduced adaptation effects in autism. As rapid audiovisual recalibration may be fundamental for the optimisation of speech comprehension, recalibration problems could render language processing more difficult in autistic individuals, hindering social communication. PMID:26899367

  8. No rapid audiovisual recalibration in adults on the autism spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Turi, Marco; Karaminis, Themelis; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Burr, David

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social cognition, but are also associated with atypicalities in sensory and perceptual processing. Several groups have reported that autistic individuals show reduced integration of socially relevant audiovisual signals, which may contribute to the higher-order social and cognitive difficulties observed in autism. Here we use a newly devised technique to study instantaneous adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony in autism. Autistic and typical participants were presented with sequences of brief visual and auditory stimuli, varying in asynchrony over a wide range, from 512 ms auditory-lead to 512 ms auditory-lag, and judged whether they seemed to be synchronous. Typical adults showed strong adaptation effects, with trials proceeded by an auditory-lead needing more auditory-lead to seem simultaneous, and vice versa. However, autistic observers showed little or no adaptation, although their simultaneity curves were as narrow as the typical adults. This result supports recent Bayesian models that predict reduced adaptation effects in autism. As rapid audiovisual recalibration may be fundamental for the optimisation of speech comprehension, recalibration problems could render language processing more difficult in autistic individuals, hindering social communication. PMID:26899367

  9. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kathleen; Baart, Martijn; Depowski, Nicole; Bortfeld, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces). Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English) and non-native (Spanish) language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native) auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  10. Audiovisual Delay as a Novel Cue to Visual Distance

    PubMed Central

    Jaekl, Philip; Seidlitz, Jakob; Harris, Laurence R.; Tadin, Duje

    2015-01-01

    For audiovisual sensory events, sound arrives with a delay relative to light that increases with event distance. It is unknown, however, whether humans can use these ubiquitous sound delays as an information source for distance computation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that audiovisual delays can both bias and improve human perceptual distance discrimination, such that visual stimuli paired with auditory delays are perceived as more distant and are thereby an ordinal distance cue. In two experiments, participants judged the relative distance of two repetitively displayed three-dimensional dot clusters, both presented with sounds of varying delays. In the first experiment, dot clusters presented with a sound delay were judged to be more distant than dot clusters paired with equivalent sound leads. In the second experiment, we confirmed that the presence of a sound delay was sufficient to cause stimuli to appear as more distant. Additionally, we found that ecologically congruent pairing of more distant events with a sound delay resulted in an increase in the precision of distance judgments. A control experiment determined that the sound delay duration influencing these distance judgments was not detectable, thereby eliminating decision-level influence. In sum, we present evidence that audiovisual delays can be an ordinal cue to visual distance. PMID:26509795

  11. Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Franziska

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200 ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200 ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition.

  12. The development of the perception of audiovisual simultaneity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Shore, David I; Lewis, Terri L; Maurer, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    We measured the typical developmental trajectory of the window of audiovisual simultaneity by testing four age groups of children (5, 7, 9, and 11 years) and adults. We presented a visual flash and an auditory noise burst at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and asked participants to report whether the two stimuli were presented at the same time. Compared with adults, children aged 5 and 7 years made more simultaneous responses when the SOAs were beyond ± 200 ms but made fewer simultaneous responses at the 0 ms SOA. The point of subjective simultaneity was located at the visual-leading side, as in adults, by 5 years of age, the youngest age tested. However, the window of audiovisual simultaneity became narrower and response errors decreased with age, reaching adult levels by 9 years of age. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the adult-like performance of 9-year-old children was caused by the testing of a wide range of SOAs. Together, the results demonstrate that the adult-like precision of perceiving audiovisual simultaneity is developed by 9 years of age, the youngest age that has been reported to date.

  13. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Tobias S; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia.

  14. Audiovisual integration for speech during mid-childhood: Electrophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of visual speech cues reduces the amplitude and latency of the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by speech stimuli. However, the developmental trajectory of this effect is not yet fully mapped. We examined ERP responses to auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech in two groups of school-age children (7–8-year-olds and 10–11-year-olds) and in adults. Audiovisual speech led to the attenuation of the N1 and P2 components in all groups of participants, suggesting that the neural mechanisms underlying these effects are functional by early school years. Additionally, while the reduction in N1 was largest over the right scalp, the P2 attenuation was largest over the left and midline scalp. The difference in the hemispheric distribution of the N1 and P2 attenuation supports the idea that these components index at least somewhat disparate neural processes within the context of audiovisual speech perception. PMID:25463815

  15. Audiovisual integration for speech during mid-childhood: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of visual speech cues reduces the amplitude and latency of the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by speech stimuli. However, the developmental trajectory of this effect is not yet fully mapped. We examined ERP responses to auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech in two groups of school-age children (7-8-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds) and in adults. Audiovisual speech led to the attenuation of the N1 and P2 components in all groups of participants, suggesting that the neural mechanisms underlying these effects are functional by early school years. Additionally, while the reduction in N1 was largest over the right scalp, the P2 attenuation was largest over the left and midline scalp. The difference in the hemispheric distribution of the N1 and P2 attenuation supports the idea that these components index at least somewhat disparate neural processes within the context of audiovisual speech perception.

  16. Audio Visual Aids to Enrich the Curriculum for the Puerto Rican Child in the Elementary Grades, Part 1 [and] 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Muriel, Comp.

    This two-part bulletin contains a variety of sources of audiovisual aids and instructional materials for use with Puerto Rican children in elementary schools. In part one, a short article on listening skills and information on the classroom use of tape recordings precede an annotated list of more than 60 records and tapes for use in enriching the…

  17. Les Moyens Audio-Visuels et la Strategie Pedagogique (Audiovisual Methods and Pedagogical Strategy). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holec, H.

    This article discusses the relationship between audiovisual methods and pedagogical strategies, or between technology and instruction, in second language teaching. Currently, the relationship between audiovisual methods and language instruction is one in which the audiovisual component is subservient, and plays a supplementary rather than a…

  18. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or contain copyrighted material... Distribution of United States Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100 What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have...

  19. A Citation Comparison of Sourcebooks for Audiovisuals to AVLINE Records: Access and the Chief Source of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Katherine Hart

    1994-01-01

    Discusses cataloging audiovisual materials and the concept of chief source of information and describes a study that compared citations from fully cataloged audiovisual records with their corresponding citations from bibliographic sourcebooks, based on records in AVLINE (National Library of Medicine's Audiovisual On-Line Catalog). Examples of…

  20. Audiovisual Equipment in Educational Facilities Today. AVE in Japan No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This report summarizes a 1989 update of a 1986 survey on the diffusion and utilization of audiovisual media and equipment in Japan. A comparison of the two reveals the advancements in types of audiovisual equipment available to schools and social education facilities in Japan which have developed in only 3 years. An outline of the equipment…

  1. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... audiovisual productions (e.g., short and long versions or foreign-language versions) are prepared, keep an..., including captions and published and unpublished catalogs, inventories, indexes, and production files and similar documentation created in the course of audiovisual production. Establish and communicate...

  2. An Analysis of Audiovisual Machines for Individual Program Presentation. Research Memorandum Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, James D.; Weintraub, Royd

    The Medical Information Project (MIP) purpose to select the right type of audiovisual equipment for communicating new medical information to general practitioners of medicine was hampered by numerous difficulties. There is a lack of uniformity and standardization in audiovisual equipment that amounts to chaos. There is no evaluative literature on…

  3. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  4. Age-related audiovisual interactions in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Piché, M; Lepore, F; Guillemot, J-P

    2016-04-21

    It is well established that multisensory integration is a functional characteristic of the superior colliculus that disambiguates external stimuli and therefore reduces the reaction times toward simple audiovisual targets in space. However, in a condition where a complex audiovisual stimulus is used, such as the optical flow in the presence of modulated audio signals, little is known about the processing of the multisensory integration in the superior colliculus. Furthermore, since visual and auditory deficits constitute hallmark signs during aging, we sought to gain some insight on whether audiovisual processes in the superior colliculus are altered with age. Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10-12 months) and aged (21-22 months) rats. Looming circular concentric sinusoidal (CCS) gratings were presented alone and in the presence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated white noise. In both groups of rats, two different audiovisual response interactions were encountered in the spatial domain: superadditive, and suppressive. In contrast, additive audiovisual interactions were found only in adult rats. Hence, superior colliculus audiovisual interactions were more numerous in adult rats (38%) than in aged rats (8%). These results suggest that intersensory interactions in the superior colliculus play an essential role in space processing toward audiovisual moving objects during self-motion. Moreover, aging has a deleterious effect on complex audiovisual interactions.

  5. 16 CFR 307.8 - Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising. 307.8 Section 307.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.8 Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and...

  6. Twice upon a time: multiple concurrent temporal recalibrations of audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Arnold, Derek H

    2011-07-01

    Audiovisual timing perception can recalibrate following prolonged exposure to asynchronous auditory and visual inputs. It has been suggested that this might contribute to achieving perceptual synchrony for auditory and visual signals despite differences in physical and neural signal times for sight and sound. However, given that people can be concurrently exposed to multiple audiovisual stimuli with variable neural signal times, a mechanism that recalibrates all audiovisual timing percepts to a single timing relationship could be dysfunctional. In the experiments reported here, we showed that audiovisual temporal recalibration can be specific for particular audiovisual pairings. Participants were shown alternating movies of male and female actors containing positive and negative temporal asynchronies between the auditory and visual streams. We found that audiovisual synchrony estimates for each actor were shifted toward the preceding audiovisual timing relationship for that actor and that such temporal recalibrations occurred in positive and negative directions concurrently. Our results show that humans can form multiple concurrent estimates of appropriate timing for audiovisual synchrony.

  7. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  8. Read My Lips: Brain Dynamics Associated with Audiovisual Integration and Deviance Detection.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Gratton, Gabriele; Garnsey, Susan M; Novak, Michael A; Fabiani, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Information from different modalities is initially processed in different brain areas, yet real-world perception often requires the integration of multisensory signals into a single percept. An example is the McGurk effect, in which people viewing a speaker whose lip movements do not match the utterance perceive the spoken sounds incorrectly, hearing them as more similar to those signaled by the visual rather than the auditory input. This indicates that audiovisual integration is important for generating the phoneme percept. Here we asked when and where the audiovisual integration process occurs, providing spatial and temporal boundaries for the processes generating phoneme perception. Specifically, we wanted to separate audiovisual integration from other processes, such as simple deviance detection. Building on previous work employing ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm in which task-irrelevant audiovisually deviant stimuli were embedded in strings of non-deviant stimuli. We also recorded the event-related optical signal, an imaging method combining spatial and temporal resolution, to investigate the time course and neuroanatomical substrate of audiovisual integration. We found that audiovisual deviants elicit a short duration response in the middle/superior temporal gyrus, whereas audiovisual integration elicits a more extended response involving also inferior frontal and occipital regions. Interactions between audiovisual integration and deviance detection processes were observed in the posterior/superior temporal gyrus. These data suggest that dynamic interactions between inferior frontal cortex and sensory regions play a significant role in multimodal integration.

  9. Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

  10. A Management Review and Analysis of Purdue University Libraries and Audio-Visual Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaske, Jan; And Others

    A management review and analysis was conducted by the staff of the libraries and audio-visual center of Purdue University. Not only were the study team and the eight task forces drawn from all levels of the libraries and audio-visual center staff, but a systematic effort was sustained through inquiries, draft reports and open meetings to involve…

  11. Audio-Visual Techniques for Industry. Development and Transfer of Technology Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halas, John; Martin-Harris, Roy

    Intended for use by persons in developing countries responsible for initiating or expanding the use of audiovisual facilities and techniques in industry, this manual is designed for those who have limited background in audiovisuals but need detailed information about how certain techniques may be employed in an economical, efficient way. Part one,…

  12. 36 CFR 1237.18 - What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.18 What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage? (a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage? 1237.18 Section 1237.18 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  13. First clinical implementation of audiovisual biofeedback in liver cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Regina; Martin, Darren; McLean, Lisa; Cho, Gwi; Hill, Robin; Pickard, Sheila; Aston, Paul; Huang, Chen‐Yu; Makhija, Kuldeep; O'Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This case report details a clinical trial's first recruited liver cancer patient who underwent a course of stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment utilising audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance. Breathing motion results for both abdominal wall motion and tumour motion are included. Patient 1 demonstrated improved breathing motion regularity with audiovisual biofeedback. A training effect was also observed. PMID:26247520

  14. Evaluating an Experimental Audio-Visual Module Programmed to Teach a Basic Anatomical and Physiological System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    The learning efficiency and effectiveness of teaching an anatomical and physiological system to Air Force enlisted trainees utilizing an experimental audiovisual programed module was compared to that of a commercial linear programed text. It was demonstrated that the audiovisual programed approach to training was more efficient than and equally as…

  15. A Team Approach to Developing an Audiovisual Single-Concept Instructional Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Martha L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In 1973, the National Medical Audiovisual Center undertook the production of several audiovisual teaching units, each addressing a single-concept, using a team approach. The production team on the unit "Left Ventricle Catheterization" were a physiologist acting as content specialist, an artist and film producer as production specialist, and an…

  16. Audiovisual Materials in Archives--A General Picture of Their Role and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booms, Hans

    Delivered on behalf of the International Council of Archives (ICA), this paper briefly discusses the challenge inherent in the processing and preservation of audiovisual materials, the types of media included in the term audiovisual, the concerns of professional archivists, the development and services of archival institutions, the utilization of…

  17. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 1--Classrooms, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Intended to inform school board administrators and teachers of the current (1958) thinking on audio-visual instruction for use in planning new buildings, purchasing equipment, and planning instruction. Attention is given the problem of overcoming obstacles to the incorporation of audio-visual materials into the curriculum. Discussion includes--(1)…

  18. Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

  19. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  20. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  1. The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No

  2. Musical expertise is related to altered functional connectivity during audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kraneburg, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle Cornelia; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Pantev, Christo

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the cortical large-scale functional network underpinning audiovisual integration via magnetoencephalographic recordings. The reorganization of this network related to long-term musical training was investigated by comparing musicians to nonmusicians. Connectivity was calculated on the basis of the estimated mutual information of the sources' activity, and the corresponding networks were statistically compared. Nonmusicians' results indicated that the cortical network associated with audiovisual integration supports visuospatial processing and attentional shifting, whereas a sparser network, related to spatial awareness supports the identification of audiovisual incongruences. In contrast, musicians' results showed enhanced connectivity in regions related to the identification of auditory pattern violations. Hence, nonmusicians rely on the processing of visual clues for the integration of audiovisual information, whereas musicians rely mostly on the corresponding auditory information. The large-scale cortical network underpinning multisensory integration is reorganized due to expertise in a cognitive domain that largely involves audiovisual integration, indicating long-term training-related neuroplasticity.

  3. Musical expertise is related to altered functional connectivity during audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kraneburg, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle Cornelia; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical large-scale functional network underpinning audiovisual integration via magnetoencephalographic recordings. The reorganization of this network related to long-term musical training was investigated by comparing musicians to nonmusicians. Connectivity was calculated on the basis of the estimated mutual information of the sources’ activity, and the corresponding networks were statistically compared. Nonmusicians’ results indicated that the cortical network associated with audiovisual integration supports visuospatial processing and attentional shifting, whereas a sparser network, related to spatial awareness supports the identification of audiovisual incongruences. In contrast, musicians’ results showed enhanced connectivity in regions related to the identification of auditory pattern violations. Hence, nonmusicians rely on the processing of visual clues for the integration of audiovisual information, whereas musicians rely mostly on the corresponding auditory information. The large-scale cortical network underpinning multisensory integration is reorganized due to expertise in a cognitive domain that largely involves audiovisual integration, indicating long-term training-related neuroplasticity. PMID:26371305

  4. Seeing and hearing rotated faces: influences of facial orientation on visual and audiovisual speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T R; Bevan, K

    1997-04-01

    It is well-known that facial orientation affects the processing of static facial information, but similar effects on the processing of visual speech have yet to be explored fully. Three experiments are reported in which the effects of facial orientation on visual speech processing were examined using a talking face presented at 8 orientations through 360 degrees. Auditory and visual forms of the syllables /ba/, /bi/, /ga/, /gi/, /ma/, /mi/, /ta/, and /ti/ were used to produce the following speech stimulus types: auditory, visual, congruent audiovisual, and incongruent audiovisual. Facial orientation did not affect identification of visual speed per se or the near-perfect accuracy of auditory speech report with congruent audiovisual speech stimuli. However, facial orientation did affect the accuracy of auditory speech report with incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli. Moreover, the nature of this effect depended on the type of incongruent visual speech used. Implications for the processing of visual and audiovisual speech are discussed. PMID:9104001

  5. Musical expertise is related to altered functional connectivity during audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kraneburg, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle Cornelia; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Pantev, Christo

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the cortical large-scale functional network underpinning audiovisual integration via magnetoencephalographic recordings. The reorganization of this network related to long-term musical training was investigated by comparing musicians to nonmusicians. Connectivity was calculated on the basis of the estimated mutual information of the sources' activity, and the corresponding networks were statistically compared. Nonmusicians' results indicated that the cortical network associated with audiovisual integration supports visuospatial processing and attentional shifting, whereas a sparser network, related to spatial awareness supports the identification of audiovisual incongruences. In contrast, musicians' results showed enhanced connectivity in regions related to the identification of auditory pattern violations. Hence, nonmusicians rely on the processing of visual clues for the integration of audiovisual information, whereas musicians rely mostly on the corresponding auditory information. The large-scale cortical network underpinning multisensory integration is reorganized due to expertise in a cognitive domain that largely involves audiovisual integration, indicating long-term training-related neuroplasticity. PMID:26371305

  6. Audio-visual perception of compressed speech by profoundly hearing-impaired subjects.

    PubMed

    Drullman, R; Smoorenburg, G F

    1997-01-01

    For many people with profound hearing loss conventional hearing aids give only little support in speechreading. This study aims at optimizing the presentation of speech signals in the severely reduced dynamic range of the profoundly hearing impaired by means of multichannel compression and multichannel amplification. The speech signal in each of six 1-octave channels (125-4000 Hz) was compressed instantaneously, using compression ratios of 1, 2, 3, or 5, and a compression threshold of 35 dB below peak level. A total of eight conditions were composed in which the compression ratio varied per channel. Sentences were presented audio-visually to 16 profoundly hearing-impaired subjects and syllable intelligibility was measured. Results show that all auditory signals are valuable supplements to speechreading. No clear overall preference is found for any of the compression conditions, but relatively high compression ratios (> 3-5) have a significantly detrimental effect. Inspection of the individual results reveals that compression may be beneficial for one subject.

  7. Visual Mislocalization of Moving Objects in an Audiovisual Event

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD). In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance) were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects’ closest distance biased judgments toward “non-overlapping,” and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments) was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift). These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one-to-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies. PMID:27111759

  8. Development of sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony during midchildhood.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya

    2016-02-01

    Temporal proximity is one of the key factors determining whether events in different modalities are integrated into a unified percept. Sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony has been studied in adults in great detail. However, how such sensitivity matures during childhood is poorly understood. We examined perception of audiovisual temporal asynchrony in 7- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 11-year-olds, and adults by using a simultaneity judgment task (SJT). Additionally, we evaluated whether nonverbal intelligence, verbal ability, attention skills, or age influenced children's performance. On each trial, participants saw an explosion-shaped figure and heard a 2-kHz pure tone. These occurred at the following stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs): 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ms. In half of all trials, the visual stimulus appeared first (VA condition), and in the other half, the auditory stimulus appeared first (AV condition). Both groups of children were significantly more likely than adults to perceive asynchronous events as synchronous at all SOAs exceeding 100 ms, in both VA and AV conditions. Furthermore, only adults exhibited a significant shortening of reaction time (RT) at long SOAs compared to medium SOAs. Sensitivities to the VA and AV temporal asynchronies showed different developmental trajectories, with 10- to 11-year-olds outperforming 7- to 8-year-olds at the 300- to 500-ms SOAs, but only in the AV condition. Lastly, age was the only predictor of children's performance on the SJT. These results provide an important baseline against which children with developmental disorders associated with impaired audiovisual temporal function-such as autism, specific language impairment, and dyslexia-may be compared. PMID:26569563

  9. Action-outcome learning and prediction shape the window of simultaneity of audiovisual outcomes.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    To form a coherent representation of the objects around us, the brain must group the different sensory features composing these objects. Here, we investigated whether actions contribute in this grouping process. In particular, we assessed whether action-outcome learning and prediction contribute to audiovisual temporal binding. Participants were presented with two audiovisual pairs: one pair was triggered by a left action, and the other by a right action. In a later test phase, the audio and visual components of these pairs were presented at different onset times. Participants judged whether they were simultaneous or not. To assess the role of action-outcome prediction on audiovisual simultaneity, each action triggered either the same audiovisual pair as in the learning phase ('predicted' pair), or the pair that had previously been associated with the other action ('unpredicted' pair). We found the time window within which auditory and visual events appeared simultaneous increased for predicted compared to unpredicted pairs. However, no change in audiovisual simultaneity was observed when audiovisual pairs followed visual cues, rather than voluntary actions. This suggests that only action-outcome learning promotes temporal grouping of audio and visual effects. In a second experiment we observed that changes in audiovisual simultaneity do not only depend on our ability to predict what outcomes our actions generate, but also on learning the delay between the action and the multisensory outcome. When participants learned that the delay between action and audiovisual pair was variable, the window of audiovisual simultaneity for predicted pairs increased, relative to a fixed action-outcome pair delay. This suggests that participants learn action-based predictions of audiovisual outcome, and adapt their temporal perception of outcome events based on such predictions. PMID:27131076

  10. Action-outcome learning and prediction shape the window of simultaneity of audiovisual outcomes.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    To form a coherent representation of the objects around us, the brain must group the different sensory features composing these objects. Here, we investigated whether actions contribute in this grouping process. In particular, we assessed whether action-outcome learning and prediction contribute to audiovisual temporal binding. Participants were presented with two audiovisual pairs: one pair was triggered by a left action, and the other by a right action. In a later test phase, the audio and visual components of these pairs were presented at different onset times. Participants judged whether they were simultaneous or not. To assess the role of action-outcome prediction on audiovisual simultaneity, each action triggered either the same audiovisual pair as in the learning phase ('predicted' pair), or the pair that had previously been associated with the other action ('unpredicted' pair). We found the time window within which auditory and visual events appeared simultaneous increased for predicted compared to unpredicted pairs. However, no change in audiovisual simultaneity was observed when audiovisual pairs followed visual cues, rather than voluntary actions. This suggests that only action-outcome learning promotes temporal grouping of audio and visual effects. In a second experiment we observed that changes in audiovisual simultaneity do not only depend on our ability to predict what outcomes our actions generate, but also on learning the delay between the action and the multisensory outcome. When participants learned that the delay between action and audiovisual pair was variable, the window of audiovisual simultaneity for predicted pairs increased, relative to a fixed action-outcome pair delay. This suggests that participants learn action-based predictions of audiovisual outcome, and adapt their temporal perception of outcome events based on such predictions.

  11. Sources of Confusion in Infant Audiovisual Speech Perception Research.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kathleen E; Bortfeld, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Speech is a multimodal stimulus, with information provided in both the auditory and visual modalities. The resulting audiovisual signal provides relatively stable, tightly correlated cues that support speech perception and processing in a range of contexts. Despite the clear relationship between spoken language and the moving mouth that produces it, there remains considerable disagreement over how sensitive early language learners-infants-are to whether and how sight and sound co-occur. Here we examine sources of this disagreement, with a focus on how comparisons of data obtained using different paradigms and different stimuli may serve to exacerbate misunderstanding.

  12. Sources of Confusion in Infant Audiovisual Speech Perception Research

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kathleen E.; Bortfeld, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Speech is a multimodal stimulus, with information provided in both the auditory and visual modalities. The resulting audiovisual signal provides relatively stable, tightly correlated cues that support speech perception and processing in a range of contexts. Despite the clear relationship between spoken language and the moving mouth that produces it, there remains considerable disagreement over how sensitive early language learners—infants—are to whether and how sight and sound co-occur. Here we examine sources of this disagreement, with a focus on how comparisons of data obtained using different paradigms and different stimuli may serve to exacerbate misunderstanding. PMID:26696919

  13. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Audiovisual Aids and Publications Available from the VIMS/Sea Grant Marine Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue, Comp.

    This catalog contains an inventory of 16mm films, filmstrips, film loops, slide programs, records, and publications about the marine sciences and sea life that are available from VIMS/Sea Grant Marine Education Center; information on the borrowing of the AV materials is included, as well as prices for books and leaflets. The entries are listed…

  15. The Development of Multi-Level Audio-Visual Teaching Aids for Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, William D.

    The project consisted of making a multi-level teaching film titled "Rocks and Minerals of the Ouachita Mountains," which runs for 25 minutes and is in color. The film was designed to be interesting to earth science students from junior high to college, and consists of dialogue combined with motion pictures of charts, sequential diagrams, outcrops,…

  16. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker's face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker's face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  17. Depth Cues and Perceived Audiovisual Synchrony of Biological Motion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos César; Mendonça, Catarina; Mouta, Sandra; Silva, Rosa; Campos, José Creissac; Santos, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments. Principal Findings In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished. Significance These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available. PMID:24244617

  18. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  19. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual, and Audio-Visual Targets

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn; Wei, Vincent; Burgess, Martin; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20 to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual “bisensory” stimuli. Three metrics were measured—onset, RMS, and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error) varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets. PMID:26778952

  20. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source’s position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot’s mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system’s performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  1. Neural dynamics of audiovisual speech integration under variable listening conditions: an individual participant analysis.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Nicholas; Wenger, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend and Nozawa, 1995), a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of -12 dB, and S/N ratio of -18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude compared to the unisensory signals for lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency) compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration). The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity.

  2. Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events.

  3. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

  4. Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

    2013-11-01

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life.

  5. The role of the posterior superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2008-10-01

    In this study we investigate previous claims that a region in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is more activated by audiovisual than unimodal processing. First, we compare audiovisual to visual-visual and auditory-auditory conceptual matching using auditory or visual object names that are paired with pictures of objects or their environmental sounds. Second, we compare congruent and incongruent audiovisual trials when presentation is simultaneous or sequential. Third, we compare audiovisual stimuli that are either verbal (auditory and visual words) or nonverbal (pictures of objects and their associated sounds). The results demonstrate that, when task, attention, and stimuli are controlled, pSTS activation for audiovisual conceptual matching is 1) identical to that observed for intramodal conceptual matching, 2) greater for incongruent than congruent trials when auditory and visual stimuli are simultaneously presented, and 3) identical for verbal and nonverbal stimuli. These results are not consistent with previous claims that pSTS activation reflects the active formation of an integrated audiovisual representation. After a discussion of the stimulus and task factors that modulate activation, we conclude that, when stimulus input, task, and attention are controlled, pSTS is part of a distributed set of regions involved in conceptual matching, irrespective of whether the stimuli are audiovisual, auditory-auditory or visual-visual.

  6. Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

  7. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  8. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  9. Extraction of composite visual objects from audiovisual materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gwenael; Thienot, Cedric; Faudemay, Pascal

    1999-08-01

    An effective analysis of Visual Objects appearing in still images and video frames is required in order to offer fine grain access to multimedia and audiovisual contents. In previous papers, we showed how our method for segmenting still images into visual objects could improve content-based image retrieval and video analysis methods. Visual Objects are used in particular for extracting semantic knowledge about the contents. However, low-level segmentation methods for still images are not likely to extract a complex object as a whole but instead as a set of several sub-objects. For example, a person would be segmented into three visual objects: a face, hair, and a body. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Composite Visual Object. Such an object is hierarchically composed of sub-objects called Component Objects.

  10. Audiovisual speech perception and eye gaze behavior of adults with asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saalasti, Satu; Kätsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-08-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face articulating /k/, the controls predominantly heard /k/. Instead, the AS group heard /k/ and /t/ with almost equal frequency, but with large differences between individuals. There were no differences in gaze direction or unisensory perception between the AS and control participants that could have contributed to the audiovisual differences. We suggest an explanation in terms of weak support from the motor system for audiovisual speech perception in AS.

  11. The development of sensorimotor influences in the audiovisual speech domain: some critical questions.

    PubMed

    Guellaï, Bahia; Streri, Arlette; Yeung, H Henny

    2014-01-01

    Speech researchers have long been interested in how auditory and visual speech signals are integrated, and the recent work has revived interest in the role of speech production with respect to this process. Here, we discuss these issues from a developmental perspective. Because speech perception abilities typically outstrip speech production abilities in infancy and childhood, it is unclear how speech-like movements could influence audiovisual speech perception in development. While work on this question is still in its preliminary stages, there is nevertheless increasing evidence that sensorimotor processes (defined here as any motor or proprioceptive process related to orofacial movements) affect developmental audiovisual speech processing. We suggest three areas on which to focus in future research: (i) the relation between audiovisual speech perception and sensorimotor processes at birth, (ii) the pathways through which sensorimotor processes interact with audiovisual speech processing in infancy, and (iii) developmental change in sensorimotor pathways as speech production emerges in childhood.

  12. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  13. The Evolution of Audio-Visual Education in the USA since 1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchens, Howard

    1979-01-01

    Explores the development of audiovisual instruction in the United States as an outgrowth of the industrial revolution and the development of more sophisticated communications technology in the mid twentieth century. (RAO)

  14. I can see, hear, and smell your fear: comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels.

  15. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  16. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  17. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  18. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Knowland, Victoria C P; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael S C

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  19. Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Doose-Grünefeld, Sophie; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Müller, Veronika I.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g., facial expressions, prosody, music) have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. Fourty one patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds) emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with Beck’s depression inventory score. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests. In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning. PMID

  20. Behavioural evidence for separate mechanisms of audiovisual temporal binding as a function of leading sensory modality.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    The ability to integrate auditory and visual information is critical for effective perception and interaction with the environment, and is thought to be abnormal in some clinical populations. Several studies have investigated the time window over which audiovisual events are integrated, also called the temporal binding window, and revealed asymmetries depending on the order of audiovisual input (i.e. the leading sense). When judging audiovisual simultaneity, the binding window appears narrower and non-malleable for auditory-leading stimulus pairs and wider and trainable for visual-leading pairs. Here we specifically examined the level of independence of binding mechanisms when auditory-before-visual vs. visual-before-auditory input is bound. Three groups of healthy participants practiced audiovisual simultaneity detection with feedback, selectively training on auditory-leading stimulus pairs (group 1), visual-leading stimulus pairs (group 2) or both (group 3). Subsequently, we tested for learning transfer (crossover) from trained stimulus pairs to non-trained pairs with opposite audiovisual input. Our data confirmed the known asymmetry in size and trainability for auditory-visual vs. visual-auditory binding windows. More importantly, practicing one type of audiovisual integration (e.g. auditory-visual) did not affect the other type (e.g. visual-auditory), even if trainable by within-condition practice. Together, these results provide crucial evidence that audiovisual temporal binding for auditory-leading vs. visual-leading stimulus pairs are independent, possibly tapping into different circuits for audiovisual integration due to engagement of different multisensory sampling mechanisms depending on leading sense. Our results have implications for informing the study of multisensory interactions in healthy participants and clinical populations with dysfunctional multisensory integration. PMID:27003546

  1. Behavioural evidence for separate mechanisms of audiovisual temporal binding as a function of leading sensory modality.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    The ability to integrate auditory and visual information is critical for effective perception and interaction with the environment, and is thought to be abnormal in some clinical populations. Several studies have investigated the time window over which audiovisual events are integrated, also called the temporal binding window, and revealed asymmetries depending on the order of audiovisual input (i.e. the leading sense). When judging audiovisual simultaneity, the binding window appears narrower and non-malleable for auditory-leading stimulus pairs and wider and trainable for visual-leading pairs. Here we specifically examined the level of independence of binding mechanisms when auditory-before-visual vs. visual-before-auditory input is bound. Three groups of healthy participants practiced audiovisual simultaneity detection with feedback, selectively training on auditory-leading stimulus pairs (group 1), visual-leading stimulus pairs (group 2) or both (group 3). Subsequently, we tested for learning transfer (crossover) from trained stimulus pairs to non-trained pairs with opposite audiovisual input. Our data confirmed the known asymmetry in size and trainability for auditory-visual vs. visual-auditory binding windows. More importantly, practicing one type of audiovisual integration (e.g. auditory-visual) did not affect the other type (e.g. visual-auditory), even if trainable by within-condition practice. Together, these results provide crucial evidence that audiovisual temporal binding for auditory-leading vs. visual-leading stimulus pairs are independent, possibly tapping into different circuits for audiovisual integration due to engagement of different multisensory sampling mechanisms depending on leading sense. Our results have implications for informing the study of multisensory interactions in healthy participants and clinical populations with dysfunctional multisensory integration.

  2. Multiple concurrent temporal recalibrations driven by audiovisual stimuli with apparent physical differences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangyong; Bi, Cuihua; Huang, Xiting

    2015-05-01

    Out-of-synchrony experiences can easily recalibrate one's subjective simultaneity point in the direction of the experienced asynchrony. Although temporal adjustment of multiple audiovisual stimuli has been recently demonstrated to be spatially specific, perceptual grouping processes that organize separate audiovisual stimuli into distinctive "objects" may play a more important role in forming the basis for subsequent multiple temporal recalibrations. We investigated whether apparent physical differences between audiovisual pairs that make them distinct from each other can independently drive multiple concurrent temporal recalibrations regardless of spatial overlap. Experiment 1 verified that reducing the physical difference between two audiovisual pairs diminishes the multiple temporal recalibrations by exposing observers to two utterances with opposing temporal relationships spoken by one single speaker rather than two distinct speakers at the same location. Experiment 2 found that increasing the physical difference between two stimuli pairs can promote multiple temporal recalibrations by complicating their non-temporal dimensions (e.g., disks composed of two rather than one attribute and tones generated by multiplying two frequencies); however, these recalibration aftereffects were subtle. Experiment 3 further revealed that making the two audiovisual pairs differ in temporal structures (one transient and one gradual) was sufficient to drive concurrent temporal recalibration. These results confirm that the more audiovisual pairs physically differ, especially in temporal profile, the more likely multiple temporal perception adjustments will be content-constrained regardless of spatial overlap. These results indicate that multiple temporal recalibrations are based secondarily on the outcome of perceptual grouping processes.

  3. Crossmodal integration enhances neural representation of task-relevant features in audiovisual face perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Liu, Yongjian; Liang, Changhong; Sun, Pei

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that audiovisual integration improves identification performance and enhances neural activity in heteromodal brain areas, for example, the posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG). Furthermore, it has also been demonstrated that attention plays an important role in crossmodal integration. In this study, we considered crossmodal integration in audiovisual facial perception and explored its effect on the neural representation of features. The audiovisual stimuli in the experiment consisted of facial movie clips that could be classified into 2 gender categories (male vs. female) or 2 emotion categories (crying vs. laughing). The visual/auditory-only stimuli were created from these movie clips by removing the auditory/visual contents. The subjects needed to make a judgment about the gender/emotion category for each movie clip in the audiovisual, visual-only, or auditory-only stimulus condition as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals were recorded. The neural representation of the gender/emotion feature was assessed using the decoding accuracy and the brain pattern-related reproducibility indices, obtained by a multivariate pattern analysis method from the fMRI data. In comparison to the visual-only and auditory-only stimulus conditions, we found that audiovisual integration enhanced the neural representation of task-relevant features and that feature-selective attention might play a role of modulation in the audiovisual integration.

  4. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Ard, Tyler; Carver, Frederick W; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships.

  5. Children with a history of SLI show reduced sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether school-age children with a history of SLI (H-SLI), their typically developing (TD) peers, and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method 15 H-SLI children, 15 TD children, and 15 adults judged whether a flashed explosion-shaped figure and a 2 kHz pure tone occurred simultaneously. The stimuli were presented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ms temporal offsets. This task was combined with EEG recordings. Results H-SLI children were profoundly less sensitive to temporal separations between auditory and visual modalities compared to their TD peers. Those H-SLI children who performed better at simultaneity judgment also had higher language aptitude. TD children were less accurate than adults, revealing a remarkably prolonged developmental course of the audiovisual temporal discrimination. Analysis of early ERP components suggested that poor sensory encoding was not a key factor in H-SLI children’s reduced sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony. Conclusions Audiovisual temporal discrimination is impaired in H-SLI children and is still immature during mid-childhood in TD children. The present findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the role of atypical audiovisual processing in the development of SLI. PMID:24686922

  6. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships. PMID:25599264

  7. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing.

  8. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  9. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  10. Physical and perceptual factors shape the neural mechanisms that integrate audiovisual signals in speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lee, HweeLing; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-08-01

    Face-to-face communication challenges the human brain to integrate information from auditory and visual senses with linguistic representations. Yet the role of bottom-up physical (spectrotemporal structure) input and top-down linguistic constraints in shaping the neural mechanisms specialized for integrating audiovisual speech signals are currently unknown. Participants were presented with speech and sinewave speech analogs in visual, auditory, and audiovisual modalities. Before the fMRI study, they were trained to perceive physically identical sinewave speech analogs as speech (SWS-S) or nonspeech (SWS-N). Comparing audiovisual integration (interactions) of speech, SWS-S, and SWS-N revealed a posterior-anterior processing gradient within the left superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG): Bilateral posterior STS/STG integrated audiovisual inputs regardless of spectrotemporal structure or speech percept; in left mid-STS, the integration profile was primarily determined by the spectrotemporal structure of the signals; more anterior STS regions discarded spectrotemporal structure and integrated audiovisual signals constrained by stimulus intelligibility and the availability of linguistic representations. In addition to this "ventral" processing stream, a "dorsal" circuitry encompassing posterior STS/STG and left inferior frontal gyrus differentially integrated audiovisual speech and SWS signals. Indeed, dynamic causal modeling and Bayesian model comparison provided strong evidence for a parallel processing structure encompassing a ventral and a dorsal stream with speech intelligibility training enhancing the connectivity between posterior and anterior STS/STG. In conclusion, audiovisual speech comprehension emerges in an interactive process with the integration of auditory and visual signals being progressively constrained by stimulus intelligibility along the STS and spectrotemporal structure in a dorsal fronto-temporal circuitry.

  11. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

  12. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand.

  13. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  14. U.S. Government Films, 1971 Supplement; A Catalog of Audiovisual Materials for Rent and Sale by the National Audiovisual Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    The first edition of the National Audiovisual Center sales catalog (LI 003875) is updated by this supplement. Changes in price and order number as well as deletions from the 1969 edition, are noted in this 1971 version. Purchase and rental information for the sound films and silent filmstrips is provided. The broad subject categories are:…

  15. Discrete neural substrates underlie complementary audiovisual speech integration processes.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Pisoni, David B; James, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    The ability to combine information from multiple sensory modalities into a single, unified percept is a key element in an organism's ability to interact with the external world. This process of perceptual fusion, the binding of multiple sensory inputs into a perceptual gestalt, is highly dependent on the temporal synchrony of the sensory inputs. Using fMRI, we identified two anatomically distinct brain regions in the superior temporal cortex, one involved with processing temporal-synchrony, and one with processing perceptual fusion of audiovisual speech. This dissociation suggests that the superior temporal cortex should be considered a "neuronal hub" composed of multiple discrete subregions that underlie an array of complementary low- and high-level multisensory integration processes. In this role, abnormalities in the structure and function of superior temporal cortex provide a possible common etiology for temporal-processing and perceptual-fusion deficits seen in a number of clinical populations, including individuals with autism spectrum disorder, dyslexia, and schizophrenia. PMID:21195198

  16. Audiovisual speech perception development at varying levels of perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2016-04-01

    This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the level of perceptual processing required to complete them. Adults and children demonstrated visual speech influence at all levels of perceptual processing. Whereas children demonstrated the same visual speech influence at each level of perceptual processing, adults demonstrated greater visual speech influence on tasks requiring higher levels of perceptual processing. These results support previous research demonstrating multiple mechanisms of AV speech processing (general perceptual and speech-specific mechanisms) with independent maturational time courses. The results suggest that adults rely on both general perceptual mechanisms that apply to all levels of perceptual processing and speech-specific mechanisms that apply when making phonetic decisions and/or accessing the lexicon. Six- to eight-year-old children seem to rely only on general perceptual mechanisms across levels. As expected, developmental differences in AV benefit on this and other recognition tasks likely reflect immature speech-specific mechanisms and phonetic processing in children. PMID:27106318

  17. Difference between diotic and dichotic presentations on audiovisual synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Rie; Aikawa, Kiyoaki

    2005-04-01

    Significant differences were found between diotic and dichotic presentations of auditory stimuli on audiovisual synchronization. Two types of moving sphere were used for visual stimuli; (a) a sphere moved straight from left to right at a constant velocity, and (b) it moved up and right and then turned down and right at the midpoint. Auditory stimuli included (1) a continuous pure tone (1000 Hz), (2) a sequence of two short tones of 30 ms (1000 Hz), (3) a sweep tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz), and (4) a Frequency-Modulated tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz --> 500 Hz). The duration of these stimuli was 240 ms each. Visual stimuli were presented on a Liquid-Crystal Display. Auditory stimuli were presented by headphones. The time difference between auditory and visual stimuli was changed between -360 ms and +360 ms. The sound source linearly moved from left to right in case of dichotic presentation. Subjective tests, using the forced-choice of synchronized or not, clarified the significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentations when the auditory stimulus (1) or (4) was presented with the visual stimulus (b). No significance was obtained for other combinations of auditory and visual stimuli. [Work supported by NTT.

  18. Audio-visual perception system for a humanoid robotic head.

    PubMed

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M; Bandera, Juan P; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework.

  19. Impact of language on functional connectivity for audiovisual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Jun; Hiroe, Nobuo; Sato, Masa-Aki; Nagamine, Takashi; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Visual information about lip and facial movements plays a role in audiovisual (AV) speech perception. Although this has been widely confirmed, previous behavioural studies have shown interlanguage differences, that is, native Japanese speakers do not integrate auditory and visual speech as closely as native English speakers. To elucidate the neural basis of such interlanguage differences, 22 native English speakers and 24 native Japanese speakers were examined in behavioural or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiments while mono-syllabic speech was presented under AV, auditory-only, or visual-only conditions for speech identification. Behavioural results indicated that the English speakers identified visual speech more quickly than the Japanese speakers, and that the temporal facilitation effect of congruent visual speech was significant in the English speakers but not in the Japanese speakers. Using fMRI data, we examined the functional connectivity among brain regions important for auditory-visual interplay. The results indicated that the English speakers had significantly stronger connectivity between the visual motion area MT and the Heschl's gyrus compared with the Japanese speakers, which may subserve lower-level visual influences on speech perception in English speakers in a multisensory environment. These results suggested that linguistic experience strongly affects neural connectivity involved in AV speech integration. PMID:27510407

  20. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  1. Audiovisual speech perception development at varying levels of perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2016-04-01

    This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the level of perceptual processing required to complete them. Adults and children demonstrated visual speech influence at all levels of perceptual processing. Whereas children demonstrated the same visual speech influence at each level of perceptual processing, adults demonstrated greater visual speech influence on tasks requiring higher levels of perceptual processing. These results support previous research demonstrating multiple mechanisms of AV speech processing (general perceptual and speech-specific mechanisms) with independent maturational time courses. The results suggest that adults rely on both general perceptual mechanisms that apply to all levels of perceptual processing and speech-specific mechanisms that apply when making phonetic decisions and/or accessing the lexicon. Six- to eight-year-old children seem to rely only on general perceptual mechanisms across levels. As expected, developmental differences in AV benefit on this and other recognition tasks likely reflect immature speech-specific mechanisms and phonetic processing in children.

  2. Effects of the audiovisual conflict on auditory early processes.

    PubMed

    Scannella, Sébastien; Causse, Mickaël; Chauveau, Nicolas; Pastor, Josette; Dehais, Frédéric

    2013-07-01

    Auditory alarm misperception is one of the critical events that lead aircraft pilots to an erroneous flying decision. The rarity of these alarms associated with their possible unreliability may play a role in this misperception. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we manipulated both audiovisual conflict and sound rarity in a simplified landing task. Behavioral data and event related potentials (ERPs) of thirteen healthy participants were analyzed. We found that the presentation of a rare auditory signal (i.e., an alarm), incongruent with visual information, led to a smaller amplitude of the auditory N100 (i.e., less negative) compared to the condition in which both signals were congruent. Moreover, the incongruity between the visual information and the rare sound did not significantly affect reaction times, suggesting that the rare sound was neglected. We propose that the lower N100 amplitude reflects an early visual-to-auditory gating that depends on the rarity of the sound. In complex aircraft environments, this early effect might be partly responsible for auditory alarm insensitivity. Our results provide a new basis for future aeronautic studies and the development of countermeasures.

  3. Impact of language on functional connectivity for audiovisual speech integration

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Jun; Hiroe, Nobuo; Sato, Masa-aki; Nagamine, Takashi; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Visual information about lip and facial movements plays a role in audiovisual (AV) speech perception. Although this has been widely confirmed, previous behavioural studies have shown interlanguage differences, that is, native Japanese speakers do not integrate auditory and visual speech as closely as native English speakers. To elucidate the neural basis of such interlanguage differences, 22 native English speakers and 24 native Japanese speakers were examined in behavioural or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiments while mono-syllabic speech was presented under AV, auditory-only, or visual-only conditions for speech identification. Behavioural results indicated that the English speakers identified visual speech more quickly than the Japanese speakers, and that the temporal facilitation effect of congruent visual speech was significant in the English speakers but not in the Japanese speakers. Using fMRI data, we examined the functional connectivity among brain regions important for auditory-visual interplay. The results indicated that the English speakers had significantly stronger connectivity between the visual motion area MT and the Heschl’s gyrus compared with the Japanese speakers, which may subserve lower-level visual influences on speech perception in English speakers in a multisensory environment. These results suggested that linguistic experience strongly affects neural connectivity involved in AV speech integration. PMID:27510407

  4. The influence of task on gaze during audiovisual speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchan, Julie; Paré, Martin; Yurick, Micheal; Munhall, Kevin

    2001-05-01

    In natural conversation, visual and auditory information about speech not only provide linguistic information but also provide information about the identity and the emotional state of the speaker. Thus, listeners must process a wide range of information in parallel to understand the full meaning in a message. In this series of studies, we examined how different types of visual information conveyed by a speaker's face are processed by measuring the gaze patterns exhibited by subjects watching audiovisual recordings of spoken sentences. In three experiments, subjects were asked to judge the emotion and the identity of the speaker, and to report the words that they heard under different auditory conditions. As in previous studies, eye and mouth regions dominated the distribution of the gaze fixations. It was hypothesized that the eyes would attract more fixations for more social judgment tasks, rather than tasks which rely more on verbal comprehension. Our results support this hypothesis. In addition, the location of gaze on the face did not influence the accuracy of the perception of speech in noise.

  5. Preserving the legacy: Biological treatment technologies (ptl0501). (video). Audiovisual

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Aerobic, anaeorbic and facultative treatments as well as bioremediation (land farming, air sparging, bio-cell, bio-reactor and phytoremediation) are explored with the aid of animation and electron microscope imagery.

  6. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-06-30

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC.

  7. Keeping time in the brain: Autism spectrum disorder and audiovisual temporal processing.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D; Camarata, Stephen; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    A growing area of interest and relevance in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focuses on the relationship between multisensory temporal function and the behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive impairments observed in ASD. Atypical sensory processing is becoming increasingly recognized as a core component of autism, with evidence of atypical processing across a number of sensory modalities. These deviations from typical processing underscore the value of interpreting ASD within a multisensory framework. Furthermore, converging evidence illustrates that these differences in audiovisual processing may be specifically related to temporal processing. This review seeks to bridge the connection between temporal processing and audiovisual perception, and to elaborate on emerging data showing differences in audiovisual temporal function in autism. We also discuss the consequence of such changes, the specific impact on the processing of different classes of audiovisual stimuli (e.g. speech vs. nonspeech, etc.), and the presumptive brain processes and networks underlying audiovisual temporal integration. Finally, possible downstream behavioral implications, and possible remediation strategies are outlined. Autism Res 2016, 9: 720-738. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neurofunctional underpinnings of audiovisual emotion processing in teens with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A R; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B C

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n = 18) and typically developing controls (n = 16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system.

  9. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  10. Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Davison, F M

    1985-04-01

    The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal. PMID:2581645

  11. Audiovisual focus of attention and its application to Ultra High Definition video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rerabek, Martin; Nemoto, Hiromi; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-02-01

    Using Focus of Attention (FoA) as a perceptual process in image and video compression belongs to well-known approaches to increase coding efficiency. It has been shown that foveated coding, when compression quality varies across the image according to region of interest, is more efficient than the alternative coding, when all region are compressed in a similar way. However, widespread use of such foveated compression has been prevented due to two main conflicting causes, namely, the complexity and the efficiency of algorithms for FoA detection. One way around these is to use as much information as possible from the scene. Since most video sequences have an associated audio, and moreover, in many cases there is a correlation between the audio and the visual content, audiovisual FoA can improve efficiency of the detection algorithm while remaining of low complexity. This paper discusses a simple yet efficient audiovisual FoA algorithm based on correlation of dynamics between audio and video signal components. Results of audiovisual FoA detection algorithm are subsequently taken into account for foveated coding and compression. This approach is implemented into H.265/HEVC encoder producing a bitstream which is fully compliant to any H.265/HEVC decoder. The influence of audiovisual FoA in the perceived quality of high and ultra-high definition audiovisual sequences is explored and the amount of gain in compression efficiency is analyzed.

  12. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  13. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...? The provisions of 44 U.S.C. 2107 and 36 CFR part 1228 apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual... transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 Section 1256.96... Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.96...

  14. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256... United States Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.98 Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the...

  15. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  16. Learning and Discrimination of Audiovisual Events in Human Infants: The Hierarchical Relation between Intersensory Temporal Synchrony and Rhythmic Pattern Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments examined 4- to 10-month-olds' perception of audio-visual (A-V) temporal synchrony cues in the presence or absence of rhythmic pattern cues. Results established that infants of all ages could discriminate between two different audio-visual rhythmic events. Only 10-month-olds detected a desynchronization of the auditory and visual…

  17. Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

  18. A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

  19. Educational Practices in an Age of Information Innovation: Audiovisual Education Prize Winning Papers in 1998. AVE in Japan No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This booklet contains two papers that won the 1998 Audiovisual Education Prize of the Japan Audio-Visual Education Association. "Nurturing the Ability To Live in an Advanced Information Network Society: Making the Most Effective Use of Networking" reports on a study of 7th grade students in Okazaki City (Japan). The focus was on an 8-month…

  20. Fused quad audio/visual and tracking data collection to enhance mobile robot and operator performance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Brian A.; Antonishek, Brian; Norcross, Richard

    2008-04-01

    Collecting accurate, adequate ground truth and experimental data to support technology evaluations is critical in formulating exact and methodical analyses of the system's performance. Personnel at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), tasked with developing performance measures and standards for both Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) and bomb disposal robots, have been designing advanced ground truth data collection methods to support these efforts. These new techniques fuse multiple real-time streams of video and robot tracking data to facilitate more complete human robot interaction (HRI) analyses following a robot's experiences. As a robot maneuvers through a test method, video and audio streams are simultaneously collected and fed into a quad compressor providing real-time display. This fused quad audio/visual data provides a complete picture of what the operators and robots are doing throughout their evaluation to not only enhance HRI analyses, but also provide valuable data that can be used to aid operator training, encourage implementation improvements by highlighting successes and failures to the developers/vendors, and demonstrate capabilities to end-users and buyers. Quad data collection system deployments to support US&R test methods/scenarios at the 2007 Robot Response Evaluation in Disaster City, Texas will be highlighted.

  1. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Digitalization of audiovisual resources and network capability offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has developed MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The goal of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable efficient retrieval from digital archives or the filtering of audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet. How could this kind of technology be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on the Dublin Core standard and compliant to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and the UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform which enables encoding and gives access to audiovisual resources in streaming mode. PMID:15694622

  2. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Digitalization of audio-visual resources combined with the performances of the networks offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in the scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has been developing MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The good of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable fast efficient retrieval from digital archives or filtering audiovisual broadcasts on the internet. How this kind of technologies could be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on Dublin Core standard and complaint to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform with enables to encode and give access to audio-visual resources in streaming mode. PMID:14664072

  3. A checklist for planning and designing audiovisual facilities in health sciences libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G J; Bischoff, F A; Foxman, D S

    1984-01-01

    Developed by an MLA/HeSCA (Health Sciences Communications Association) joint committee, this checklist is intended to serve as a conceptual framework for planning a new or renovated audiovisual facility in a health sciences library. Emphasis is placed on the philosophical and organizational decisions that must be made about an audiovisual facility before the technical or spatial decisions can be wisely made. Specific standards for facilities or equipment are not included. The first section focuses on health sciences library settings. Ideas presented in the remaining sections could apply to academic learning resource center environments as well. A bibliography relating to all aspects of audiovisual facilities planning and design is included with references to specific sections of the checklist. PMID:6208957

  4. The development of audio-visual materials to prepare patients for medical procedures: an oncology application.

    PubMed

    Carey, M; Schofield, P; Jefford, M; Krishnasamy, M; Aranda, S

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a systematic process for the development of educational audio-visual materials that are designed to prepare patients for potentially threatening procedures. Literature relating to the preparation of patients for potentially threatening medical procedures, psychological theory, theory of diffusion of innovations and patient information was examined. Four key principles were identified as being important: (1) stakeholder consultation, (2) provision of information to prepare patients for the medical procedure, (3) evidence-based content, and (4) promotion of patient confidence. These principles are described along with an example of the development of an audio-visual resource to prepare patients for chemotherapy treatment. Using this example, practical strategies for the application of each of the principles are described. The principles and strategies described may provide a practical, evidence-based guide to the development of other types of patient audio-visual materials.

  5. Early and late beta-band power reflect audiovisual perception in the McGurk illusion

    PubMed Central

    Senkowski, Daniel; Keil, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The McGurk illusion is a prominent example of audiovisual speech perception and the influence that visual stimuli can have on auditory perception. In this illusion, a visual speech stimulus influences the perception of an incongruent auditory stimulus, resulting in a fused novel percept. In this high-density electroencephalography (EEG) study, we were interested in the neural signatures of the subjective percept of the McGurk illusion as a phenomenon of speech-specific multisensory integration. Therefore, we examined the role of cortical oscillations and event-related responses in the perception of congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech. We compared the cortical activity elicited by objectively congruent syllables with incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Importantly, the latter elicited a subjectively congruent percept: the McGurk illusion. We found that early event-related responses (N1) to audiovisual stimuli were reduced during the perception of the McGurk illusion compared with congruent stimuli. Most interestingly, our study showed a stronger poststimulus suppression of beta-band power (13–30 Hz) at short (0–500 ms) and long (500–800 ms) latencies during the perception of the McGurk illusion compared with congruent stimuli. Our study demonstrates that auditory perception is influenced by visual context and that the subsequent formation of a McGurk illusion requires stronger audiovisual integration even at early processing stages. Our results provide evidence that beta-band suppression at early stages reflects stronger stimulus processing in the McGurk illusion. Moreover, stronger late beta-band suppression in McGurk illusion indicates the resolution of incongruent physical audiovisual input and the formation of a coherent, illusory multisensory percept. PMID:25568160

  6. Early and late beta-band power reflect audiovisual perception in the McGurk illusion.

    PubMed

    Roa Romero, Yadira; Senkowski, Daniel; Keil, Julian

    2015-04-01

    The McGurk illusion is a prominent example of audiovisual speech perception and the influence that visual stimuli can have on auditory perception. In this illusion, a visual speech stimulus influences the perception of an incongruent auditory stimulus, resulting in a fused novel percept. In this high-density electroencephalography (EEG) study, we were interested in the neural signatures of the subjective percept of the McGurk illusion as a phenomenon of speech-specific multisensory integration. Therefore, we examined the role of cortical oscillations and event-related responses in the perception of congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech. We compared the cortical activity elicited by objectively congruent syllables with incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Importantly, the latter elicited a subjectively congruent percept: the McGurk illusion. We found that early event-related responses (N1) to audiovisual stimuli were reduced during the perception of the McGurk illusion compared with congruent stimuli. Most interestingly, our study showed a stronger poststimulus suppression of beta-band power (13-30 Hz) at short (0-500 ms) and long (500-800 ms) latencies during the perception of the McGurk illusion compared with congruent stimuli. Our study demonstrates that auditory perception is influenced by visual context and that the subsequent formation of a McGurk illusion requires stronger audiovisual integration even at early processing stages. Our results provide evidence that beta-band suppression at early stages reflects stronger stimulus processing in the McGurk illusion. Moreover, stronger late beta-band suppression in McGurk illusion indicates the resolution of incongruent physical audiovisual input and the formation of a coherent, illusory multisensory percept.

  7. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190-210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170-200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140-200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100-200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300-340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies.

  8. Reproducibility and discriminability of brain patterns of semantic categories enhanced by congruent audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Wang, Guangyi; Long, Jinyi; Yu, Zhuliang; Huang, Biao; Li, Xiaojian; Yu, Tianyou; Liang, Changhong; Li, Zheng; Sun, Pei

    2011-01-01

    One of the central questions in cognitive neuroscience is the precise neural representation, or brain pattern, associated with a semantic category. In this study, we explored the influence of audiovisual stimuli on the brain patterns of concepts or semantic categories through a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We used a pattern search method to extract brain patterns corresponding to two semantic categories: "old people" and "young people." These brain patterns were elicited by semantically congruent audiovisual, semantically incongruent audiovisual, unimodal visual, and unimodal auditory stimuli belonging to the two semantic categories. We calculated the reproducibility index, which measures the similarity of the patterns within the same category. We also decoded the semantic categories from these brain patterns. The decoding accuracy reflects the discriminability of the brain patterns between two categories. The results showed that both the reproducibility index of brain patterns and the decoding accuracy were significantly higher for semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli than for unimodal visual and unimodal auditory stimuli, while the semantically incongruent stimuli did not elicit brain patterns with significantly higher reproducibility index or decoding accuracy. Thus, the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli enhanced the within-class reproducibility of brain patterns and the between-class discriminability of brain patterns, and facilitate neural representations of semantic categories or concepts. Furthermore, we analyzed the brain activity in superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG). The strength of the fMRI signal and the reproducibility index were enhanced by the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli. Our results support the use of the reproducibility index as a potential tool to supplement the fMRI signal amplitude for evaluating multimodal integration.

  9. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190-210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170-200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140-200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100-200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300-340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies. PMID:26384256

  10. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J

    2016-04-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4-11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality-they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or auditory

  11. Retinotopic effects during spatial audio-visual integration.

    PubMed

    Meienbrock, A; Naumer, M J; Doehrmann, O; Singer, W; Muckli, L

    2007-02-01

    The successful integration of visual and auditory stimuli requires information about whether visual and auditory signals originate from corresponding places in the external world. Here we report crossmodal effects of spatially congruent and incongruent audio-visual (AV) stimulation. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented from one of four horizontal locations in external space. Seven healthy human subjects had to assess the spatial fit of a visual stimulus (i.e. a gray-scaled picture of a cartoon dog) and a simultaneously presented auditory stimulus (i.e. a barking sound). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed two distinct networks of cortical regions that processed preferentially either spatially congruent or spatially incongruent AV stimuli. Whereas earlier visual areas responded preferentially to incongruent AV stimulation, higher visual areas of the temporal and parietal cortex (left inferior temporal gyrus [ITG], right posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus [pSTG/STS], left intra-parietal sulcus [IPS]) and frontal regions (left pre-central gyrus [PreCG], left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex [DLPFC]) responded preferentially to congruent AV stimulation. A position-resolved analysis revealed three robust cortical representations for each of the four visual stimulus locations in retinotopic visual regions corresponding to the representation of the horizontal meridian in area V1 and at the dorsal and ventral borders between areas V2 and V3. While these regions of interest (ROIs) did not show any significant effect of spatial congruency, we found subregions within ROIs in the right hemisphere that showed an incongruency effect (i.e. an increased fMRI signal during spatially incongruent compared to congruent AV stimulation). We interpret this finding as a correlate of spatially distributed recurrent feedback during mismatch processing: whenever a spatial mismatch is detected in multisensory regions (such as the IPS), processing resources are re

  12. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

  13. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J

    2016-04-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4-11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality-they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or auditory

  14. AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCES ON THE TEACHING PROCESS IN SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    PUPULIM, Guilherme Luiz Lenzi; IORIS, Rafael Augusto; GAMA, Ricardo Ribeiro; RIBAS, Carmen Australia Paredes Marcondes; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; GAMA, Mirnaluci

    2015-01-01

    Background: The development of didactic means to create opportunities to permit complete and repetitive viewing of surgical procedures is of great importance nowadays due to the increasing difficulty of doing in vivo training. Thus, audiovisual resources favor the maximization of living resources used in education, and minimize problems arising only with verbalism. Aim: To evaluate the use of digital video as a pedagogical strategy in surgical technique teaching in medical education. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 48 students of the third year of medicine, when studying in the surgical technique discipline. They were divided into two groups with 12 in pairs, both subject to the conventional method of teaching, and one of them also exposed to alternative method (video) showing the technical details. All students did phlebotomy in the experimental laboratory, with evaluation and assistance of the teacher/monitor while running. Finally, they answered a self-administered questionnaire related to teaching method when performing the operation. Results: Most of those who did not watch the video took longer time to execute the procedure, did more questions and needed more faculty assistance. The total exposed to video followed the chronology of implementation and approved the new method; 95.83% felt able to repeat the procedure by themselves, and 62.5% of those students that only had the conventional method reported having regular capacity of technique assimilation. In both groups mentioned having regular difficulty, but those who have not seen the video had more difficulty in performing the technique. Conclusion: The traditional method of teaching associated with the video favored the ability to understand and transmitted safety, particularly because it is activity that requires technical skill. The technique with video visualization motivated and arouse interest, facilitated the understanding and memorization of the steps for procedure implementation, benefiting the

  15. Audio-Visual Detection Benefits in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gleiss, Stephanie; Kayser, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Human psychophysical studies have described multisensory perceptual benefits such as enhanced detection rates and faster reaction times in great detail. However, the neural circuits and mechanism underlying multisensory integration remain difficult to study in the primate brain. While rodents offer the advantage of a range of experimental methodologies to study the neural basis of multisensory processing, rodent studies are still limited due to the small number of available multisensory protocols. We here demonstrate the feasibility of an audio-visual stimulus detection task for rats, in which the animals detect lateralized uni- and multi-sensory stimuli in a two-response forced choice paradigm. We show that animals reliably learn and perform this task. Reaction times were significantly faster and behavioral performance levels higher in multisensory compared to unisensory conditions. This benefit was strongest for dim visual targets, in agreement with classical patterns of multisensory integration, and was specific to task-informative sounds, while uninformative sounds speeded reaction times with little costs for detection performance. Importantly, multisensory benefits for stimulus detection and reaction times appeared at different levels of task proficiency and training experience, suggesting distinct mechanisms inducing these two multisensory benefits. Our results demonstrate behavioral multisensory enhancement in rats in analogy to behavioral patterns known from other species, such as humans. In addition, our paradigm enriches the set of behavioral tasks on which future studies can rely, for example to combine behavioral measurements with imaging or pharmacological studies in the behaving animal or to study changes of integration properties in disease models. PMID:23029179

  16. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.

    2016-01-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4–11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality—they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or

  17. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

  18. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  19. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  20. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  1. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  2. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  3. Audio-Visual Media and the Disadvantaged Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mee, Ellen C.

    Since a child's performance in school is closely correlated with his previous linguistic experience and since deprived children are likely to need language enrichment, technological aids can help in children's language development. They present language in action in meaningful situations which can be shown visually along with the sound. They can…

  4. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  5. SURVEY OF AUDIO-VISUAL EDUCATION IN HAWAII--ITS STATUS AND NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHULLER, CHARLES F.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSES OF THE SURVEY WERE (1) TO MAKE AN OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION NEEDS OF THE PUBLIC EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF THE STATE OF HAWAII, AND (2) TO MAKE SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR SHORT AND LONG RANGE IMPROVEMENTS WHERE NEEDED. TOP PRIORITY RECOMMENDATIONS ARE RECORDED, INCLUDING SUGGESTED ALLOCATIONS OF…

  6. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  7. Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

  8. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  9. USE OF NEW AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES TO TEACH MENTALLY-RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSS, DOROTHEA M.

    DEPENDENCY LEARNING, THE ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL INTERRELATIONSHIP VALUES, WAS STUDIED AS A TECHNIQUE FOR FOSTERING AUDIOVISUAL ACADEMIC LEARNING AMONG 54 YOUNG, EDUCABLE MENTAL RETARDATES. SOME OF THESE SUBJECTS WERE TAUGHT TO VALUE SIMULATED DEPENDENCY MODELS. THESE MODELS WERE CONSISTENTLY PAIRED WITH SUCH REWARDING STIMULI AS…

  10. Audiovisual Education in Primary Schools: A Curriculum Project in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketzer, Jan W.

    Audiovisual, or mass media education can play a significant role in children's social, emotional, cognitive, sensory, motor, and creative development. It includes all school activities which teach children to interact with The field includes all school activities which teach children to interact with visualize ideas. Students can be involved in…

  11. Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeau, Peggie L.

    The purpose of this literature review was to summarize results of experimental studies on the instructional effectiveness of audiovisual media in post-secondary education. Studies which met seven major screening criteria were used. A study was generally accepted if it compared performance of experimental and control groups on objective measures of…

  12. Audiovisual Records in the National Archives Relating to Black History. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waffen, Leslie; And Others

    A representative selection of the National Archives and Records Services' audiovisual collection relating to black history is presented. The intention is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather to indicate the breadth and scope of materials available for study and to suggest areas for concentrated research. The materials include sound…

  13. A Reference List of Audiovisual Materials Produced by the United States Government, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    This reference guide describes over 6,000 audiovisual materials selected from more than 10,000 programs produced by 175 federal agencies covering a wide range of subjects, including medicine, dentistry, allied health, education, science, social studies, industrial technology/training, safety, and the environmental sciences. Materials are cited by…

  14. Talker and Lexical Effects on Audiovisual Word Recognition by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Adam R.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined how 20 adults with postlingual deafness with cochlear implants combined visual information from lip reading with auditory cues in an open-set word recognition task. Word recognition performance was highest for audiovisual presentation followed by auditory-only and then visual-only stimulus presentation, and for single-talker…

  15. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  16. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  17. Sciences: A Select List of U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials - 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    This publication is a catalog that contains the National Audiovisual Center's materials on Science. There are twelve areas in this catalog: Aerospace Technology, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Electronics and Electricity, Energy, Environmental Studies, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Oceanography, Physics, and Weather/Meteorology. Each…

  18. Teacher's Guide to Aviation Education Resources. Including: Career Information, Audiovisuals, Publications, Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    Currently available aviation education resource materials are listed alphabetically by title under four headings: (1) career information; (2) audiovisual materials; (3) publications; and (4) periodicals. Each entry includes: title; format (16mm film, slides, slide/tape presentation, VHS/Beta videotape, book, booklet, newsletter, pamphlet, poster,…

  19. Guide to Recommended Curriculum and Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    Designed to assist teachers in planning units on Japan, this guide identifies widely available instructional materials that have been found to be effective. The guide is organized in six sections. Sections 1-4 list recommended curriculum and audiovisual materials for elementary and secondary classrooms with purchase and/or rental information…

  20. Comparisons of Audio and Audiovisual Measures of Stuttering Frequency and Severity in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Isabelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether measures of stuttering frequency and measures of overall stuttering severity in preschoolers differ when made from audio-only recordings compared with audiovisual recordings. Method: Four blinded speech-language pathologists who had extensive experience with preschoolers who stutter measured stuttering frequency and…

  1. AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 1961-64--A PROFILE OF CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GODFREY, ELEANOR P.; AND OTHERS

    A FOLLOWUP SURVEY WAS MADE OF 238 SCHOOL DISTRICTS OF VARIOUS SIZES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES TO SURVEY CHANGES IN THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCES OVER AN INTERVENING 3-YEAR PERIOD. THE SURVEY EXAMINED NOT ONLY THE EXTENT AND DURATION OF CHANGE, BUT ALSO THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS SCHOOL DISTRICT CHARACTERISTICS ON CHANGE. FROM QUESTIONNAIRES ADDRESSED…

  2. An Exploration of Why Preschoolers Perform Differently than Do Adults in Audiovisual Speech Perception Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Renee N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined whether experience correctly producing consonants plays role in developing underlying representation which mediates perception of visible speech. Tested preschoolers (divided by their making of substitution errors) and adults in auditory-only, visual-only, and audiovisual conditions. Found children overall showed less visual influence and…

  3. Audio-Visual Resources Related to Family Interaction with a Handicapped Member. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Eleanor M.; Watts, Janine A.

    This annotated bibliography lists 78 selected audiovisual resources (film, filmstrip, or video formats) in the general topic area of family interaction with a handicapped member. Sources older than 1970 are not included. Each listing provides information on length, format, audience, method of acquisition (rent or purchase, and price), source, and…

  4. The Impact of Audiovisual Feedback on the Learning Outcomes of a Remote and Virtual Laboratory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, E.; Good, M.

    2009-01-01

    Remote and virtual laboratory classes are an increasingly prevalent alternative to traditional hands-on laboratory experiences. One of the key issues with these modes of access is the provision of adequate audiovisual (AV) feedback to the user, which can be a complicated and resource-intensive challenge. This paper reports on a comparison of two…

  5. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  6. Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education; Selected Evaluative Reviews from the Journal of Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sue Ellen, Comp.

    Audiovisual materials suitable for the teaching of nutrition are listed. Materials include coloring books, flannelboard stories, games, kits, audiotapes, records, charts, posters, study prints, films, videotapes, filmstrips, slides, and transparencies. Each entry contains bibliographic data, educational level, price and evaluation. Mateiral is…

  7. Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education. Nutrition Education Resource Series No. 9. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.

    This bibliography contains reviews of more than 250 audiovisual materials in eight subject areas related to nutrition: (1) general nutrition; (2) life cycle; (3) diet/health and disease; (4) health and athletics; (5) food - general; (6) food preparation and service; (7) food habits and preferences; and (8) food economics and concerns. Materials…

  8. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or... records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that clarify connections between related... audio recordings), and that associate records with the relevant creating, sponsoring, or...

  9. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or... records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that clarify connections between related... audio recordings), and that associate records with the relevant creating, sponsoring, or...

  10. Audiovisual cues benefit recognition of accented speech in noise but not perceptual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Briony; Gowen, Emma; Munro, Kevin J; Adank, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual adaptation allows humans to recognize different varieties of accented speech. We investigated whether perceptual adaptation to accented speech is facilitated if listeners can see a speaker's facial and mouth movements. In Study 1, participants listened to sentences in a novel accent and underwent a period of training with audiovisual or audio-only speech cues, presented in quiet or in background noise. A control group also underwent training with visual-only (speech-reading) cues. We observed no significant difference in perceptual adaptation between any of the groups. To address a number of remaining questions, we carried out a second study using a different accent, speaker and experimental design, in which participants listened to sentences in a non-native (Japanese) accent with audiovisual or audio-only cues, without separate training. Participants' eye gaze was recorded to verify that they looked at the speaker's face during audiovisual trials. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for audiovisual than for audio-only stimuli; however, no statistical difference in perceptual adaptation was observed between the two modalities. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. Our results suggest that although the availability of visual speech cues may be immediately beneficial for recognition of unfamiliar accented speech in noise, it does not improve perceptual adaptation.

  11. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  12. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  13. Psychophysics of the McGurk and Other Audiovisual Speech Integration Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Jintao; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2011-01-01

    When the auditory and visual components of spoken audiovisual nonsense syllables are mismatched, perceivers produce four different types of perceptual responses, auditory correct, visual correct, fusion (the so-called "McGurk effect"), and combination (i.e., two consonants are reported). Here, quantitative measures were developed to account for…

  14. Audiovisual Translation and Assistive Technology: Towards a Universal Design Approach for Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiniotaki, Emmanouela

    2016-01-01

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and Assistive Technology (AST) are two fields that share common grounds within accessibility-related research, yet they are rarely studied in combination. The reason most often lies in the fact that they have emerged from different disciplines, i.e. Translation Studies and Computer Science, making a possible combined…

  15. Brief Report: Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their…

  16. Comparing Infants' Preference for Correlated Audiovisual Speech with Signal-Level Computational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollich, George; Prince, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type of model…

  17. Hearing impairment and audiovisual speech integration ability: a case study report.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Nicholas; Hudock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in audiovisual speech perception has demonstrated that sensory factors such as auditory and visual acuity are associated with a listener's ability to extract and combine auditory and visual speech cues. This case study report examined audiovisual integration using a newly developed measure of capacity in a sample of hearing-impaired listeners. Capacity assessments are unique because they examine the contribution of reaction-time (RT) as well as accuracy to determine the extent to which a listener efficiently combines auditory and visual speech cues relative to independent race model predictions. Multisensory speech integration ability was examined in two experiments: an open-set sentence recognition and a closed set speeded-word recognition study that measured capacity. Most germane to our approach, capacity illustrated speed-accuracy tradeoffs that may be predicted by audiometric configuration. Results revealed that some listeners benefit from increased accuracy, but fail to benefit in terms of speed on audiovisual relative to unisensory trials. Conversely, other listeners may not benefit in the accuracy domain but instead show an audiovisual processing time benefit.

  18. Audio-Visual Materials in Adult Consumer Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgue, Raymond E.; And Others

    Designed to provide a quick but thorough reference for consumer educators of adults to use when choosing audio-visual materials, this annotated bibliography includes eighty-five titles from the currently available 1,500 films, slidesets, cassettes, records, and transparencies. (Materials were rejected because they were out-of-date; not relevant to…

  19. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  20. An Annotated Guide to Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Richard N.

    Audio-visual materials, found in a variety of periodicals, catalogs, and reference works, are listed in this guide to expedite the process of finding appropriate classroom materials for a study of William Shakespeare in the classroom. Separate listings of films, filmstrips, and recordings are provided, with subdivisions for "The Plays" and…

  1. Nutrition Education Printed Materials and Audiovisuals: Grades Preschool-6, January 1979-May 1990. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Shirley King

    This annotated bibliography contains 327 citations from AGRICOLA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture database, dating from January 1979 through May 1990. The bibliography cites books, print materials, and audiovisual materials on the subject of nutrition education for grades preschool through six. Each citation contains complete bibliographic…

  2. Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frederic; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances "sensitivity" to acoustic information, decreasing the…

  3. 78 FR 48190 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for Statements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for Statements... and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically...

  4. Audiovisual Records Relating to Indians in the National Archives. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Joe Doan

    Approximately 11,000 still pictures, 300 sound recordings, and 125 reels of motion picture film relating to Indians in the United States are among the holdings of the Audiovisual Archives Division of the National Archives. The materials include Eskimos in Alaska, but not Eskimos in Greenland and Canada or Indians in Canada. The descriptions are…

  5. Evaluation of Modular EFL Educational Program (Audio-Visual Materials Translation & Translation of Deeds & Documents)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imani, Sahar Sadat Afshar

    2013-01-01

    Modular EFL Educational Program has managed to offer specialized language education in two specific fields: Audio-visual Materials Translation and Translation of Deeds and Documents. However, no explicit empirical studies can be traced on both internal and external validity measures as well as the extent of compatibility of both courses with the…

  6. Audio-visual summary of passive solar commercial buildings development in the MASEC region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    An audio-visual presentation documenting the use of passive solar technologies in commercial buildings within the Mid-American Region is summarized. The presentation consists of 50 35-millimeter slides with accompanying narrative. The slide show gives a brief introduction to the use of direct gain, indirect gain, and isolated gain systems with commercial examples of each.

  7. Hotel and Restaurant Management; A Bibliography of Books and Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkames, James P.; And Others

    This bibliography represents a collection of 1,300 book volumes and audiovisual materials collected by the Luzerne County Community College Library in support of the college's Hotel and Restaurant Management curriculum. It covers such diverse topics as advertising, business practices, decoration, nutrition, hotel law, insurance landscaping, health…

  8. The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency: Helping You Grow Your Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) is a public body created by a Decision of the European Commission and operates under its supervision. It is located in Brussels and has been operational since January 2006. Its role is to manage European funding opportunities and networks in the fields of education and training,…

  9. Discriminating audiovisual speed: optimal integration of speed defaults to probability summation when component reliabilities diverge.

    PubMed

    Bentvelzen, Adam; Leung, Johahn; Alais, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigated audiovisual speed perception to test the maximum-likelihood-estimation (MLE) model of multisensory integration. According to MLE, audiovisual speed perception will be based on a weighted average of visual and auditory speed estimates, with each component weighted by its inverse variance, a statistically optimal combination that produces a fused estimate with minimised variance and thereby affords maximal discrimination. We use virtual auditory space to create ecologically valid auditory motion, together with visual apparent motion around an array of 63 LEDs. To degrade the usual dominance of vision over audition, we added positional jitter to the motion sequences, and also measured peripheral trajectories. Both factors degraded visual speed discrimination, while auditory speed perception was unaffected by trajectory location. In the bimodal conditions, a speed conflict was introduced (48 degrees versus 60 degrees s(-1)) and two measures were taken: perceived audiovisual speed, and the precision (variability) of audiovisual speed discrimination. These measures showed only a weak tendency to follow MLE predictions. However, splitting the data into two groups based on whether the unimodal component weights were similar or disparate revealed interesting findings: similarly weighted components were integrated in a manner closely matching MLE predictions, while dissimilarity weighted components (greater than 3 : 1 difference) were integrated according to probability-summation predictions. These results suggest that different multisensory integration strategies may be implemented depending on relative component reliabilities, with MLE integration vetoed when component weights are highly disparate. PMID:19764300

  10. Primary School Pupils' Response to Audio-Visual Learning Process in Port-Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olube, Friday K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine primary school children's response on the use of audio-visual learning processes--a case study of Chokhmah International Academy, Port-Harcourt (owned by Salvation Ministries). It looked at the elements that enhance pupils' response to educational television programmes and their hindrances to these…

  11. Audiovisual cues benefit recognition of accented speech in noise but not perceptual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Briony; Gowen, Emma; Munro, Kevin J; Adank, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual adaptation allows humans to recognize different varieties of accented speech. We investigated whether perceptual adaptation to accented speech is facilitated if listeners can see a speaker's facial and mouth movements. In Study 1, participants listened to sentences in a novel accent and underwent a period of training with audiovisual or audio-only speech cues, presented in quiet or in background noise. A control group also underwent training with visual-only (speech-reading) cues. We observed no significant difference in perceptual adaptation between any of the groups. To address a number of remaining questions, we carried out a second study using a different accent, speaker and experimental design, in which participants listened to sentences in a non-native (Japanese) accent with audiovisual or audio-only cues, without separate training. Participants' eye gaze was recorded to verify that they looked at the speaker's face during audiovisual trials. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for audiovisual than for audio-only stimuli; however, no statistical difference in perceptual adaptation was observed between the two modalities. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. Our results suggest that although the availability of visual speech cues may be immediately beneficial for recognition of unfamiliar accented speech in noise, it does not improve perceptual adaptation. PMID:26283946

  12. Audiovisual Materials and Techniques for Teaching Foreign Languages: Recent Trends and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Carolyn

    Recent experimentation with audio-visual (A-V) materials has provided insight into the language learning process. Researchers and teachers alike have recognized the importance of using A-V materials to achieve goals related to meaningful and relevant communication, retention and recall of language items, non-verbal aspects of communication, and…

  13. Audiovisuals and Non-Print Learning Resources in a Health Sciences Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinow, Beatrix H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the assembly and delivery of the self-instructional learning resources of the premedical undergraduate program at McMaster University, placing emphasis on the practical library problems of cataloging, shelving, maintenance, and distribution of such audiovisual materials as pathology specimens, films, videotape, and slide/tape sets.…

  14. Project DECISION: Audiovisual-Tutorial Career Education for the High School Student. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waukesha County Technical Inst., Waukesha, WI.

    The final report describes "Project Decision", an exemplary program designed and implemented by the Waukesha County Technical Institute (WCTI) for the 17 high schools in Waukesha County, Wisconsin. "Career libraries" were established in each high school, with an audiovisual-tutorial device and 29 filmstrips providing information on careers and…

  15. Catalogo de peliculas educativas y otros materiales audiovisuales (Catalogue of Educational Films and other Audiovisual Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This catalogue of educational films and other audiovisual materials consists predominantly of films in Spanish and English which are intended for use in elementary and secondary schools. A wide variety of topics including films for social studies, language arts, humanities, physical and natural sciences, safety and health, agriculture, physical…

  16. Strategies for Media Literacy: Audiovisual Skills and the Citizenship in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguaded-Gomez, Ignacio; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Amor

    2012-01-01

    Media consumption is an undeniable fact in present-day society. The hours that members of all social segments spend in front of a screen take up a large part of their leisure time worldwide. Audiovisual communication becomes especially important within the context of today's digital society (society-network), where information and communication…

  17. Photojournalism: The Basic Course. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Edd

    Designed to help instructors choose appropriate audio-visual materials for the basic course in photojournalism, this bibliography contains 11 annotated entries. Annotations include the name of the materials, running time, whether black-and-white or color, and names of institutions from which the materials can be secured, as well as brief…

  18. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space. PMID:26226930

  19. Multinational Exchange Mechanisms of Educational Audio-Visual Materials. Situation and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center of Studies and Realizations for Permanent Education, Paris (France).

    An analysis of existing multinational audiovisual materials exchange organizations, including five nonproducing and three producing national systems and seven nonproducing and five producing international networks, provided the data for an analysis of problems associated with cooperative endeavors, some suggestions for appropriate institutional…

  20. Sources of Audiovisual Materials about Handicapping Conditions. Reference Circular No. 85-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular lists sources of audiovisual materials on handicapping conditions with separate sections on adults and children. The materials, which include films, videocassettes, and slides address such adult-related topics as accessibility, arthritis, attitudes toward disabled persons, communication, deafness, mainstreaming, employment,…

  1. A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel

    Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

  2. Audiovisual cues benefit recognition of accented speech in noise but not perceptual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Briony; Gowen, Emma; Munro, Kevin J.; Adank, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual adaptation allows humans to recognize different varieties of accented speech. We investigated whether perceptual adaptation to accented speech is facilitated if listeners can see a speaker’s facial and mouth movements. In Study 1, participants listened to sentences in a novel accent and underwent a period of training with audiovisual or audio-only speech cues, presented in quiet or in background noise. A control group also underwent training with visual-only (speech-reading) cues. We observed no significant difference in perceptual adaptation between any of the groups. To address a number of remaining questions, we carried out a second study using a different accent, speaker and experimental design, in which participants listened to sentences in a non-native (Japanese) accent with audiovisual or audio-only cues, without separate training. Participants’ eye gaze was recorded to verify that they looked at the speaker’s face during audiovisual trials. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for audiovisual than for audio-only stimuli; however, no statistical difference in perceptual adaptation was observed between the two modalities. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. Our results suggest that although the availability of visual speech cues may be immediately beneficial for recognition of unfamiliar accented speech in noise, it does not improve perceptual adaptation. PMID:26283946

  3. MushyPeek: A Framework for Online Investigation of Audiovisual Dialogue Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlund, Jens; Beskow, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of methods and techniques for conversational and multimodal spoken dialogue systems is complex, as is gathering data for the modeling and tuning of such techniques. This article describes MushyPeek, an experiment framework that allows us to manipulate the audiovisual behavior of interlocutors in a setting similar to face-to-face…

  4. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech.

  5. Audiovisual Resources for Teaching Instructional Technology; an Annotated List of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P., Ed.; Beilby, Albert, Ed.

    The audiovisual resources listed in this catalog cover 10 instructional-technology topics: administration; facilities; instructional design; learning and communication; media equipment; media production; media utilization; research; instructional techniques; and society, education, and technology. Any entry falling into more than one category is…

  6. The Effects of Summation of Audiovisual and Textual Instructional Cues on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Bernell; Gerlach, Vernon

    A study was made to determine whether instructional cues presented to the learner as variations of audiovisual and textual information including a cue summation condition (combined textual, pictorial, and auditory cues) can facilitate the achievement of precise instructional objectives. Some 112 education students enrolled in a course on mental…

  7. A Working Bibliography of Commercially Available Audio-Visual Materials for the Teaching of Library Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Irving

    Commercially available audiovisual materials to be used in conjuncton with the teaching of library science is the subject of this selective, non-evaluative bibliography. Unless otherwise specified, the entries are films. The citations were found in various general bibliographies. Annotations are presented as given in the various bibliographic…

  8. Annotated Bibliography of the Audiovisual Collection: Videocassettes, Audiocassettes, Slide Sets. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garzillo, Robert R., Ed.

    This bibliography lists all audiovisual materials--audiocassettes, videocassettes, and slide sets--held by the Franklin F. Moore Library at Rider College (New Jersey) as of the summer of 1989. Arrangement is by title; a subject index based on Library of Congress subject headings follows the main listing. Information provided for each entry…

  9. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  10. Audio-Visual Technology and Learning. The Educational Technology Reviews Series. Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

    Composed of articles selected from recent issues of "Educational Technology" magazine, this volume in the review series focuses on audiovisual technology and learning. Articles in this volume cover such topics as communications media, software design, teacher roles and attitudes, televised instruction, videotape recordings, instructional media,…

  11. Perception of Dynamic and Static Audiovisual Sequences in 3- and 4-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated perception of audiovisual sequences in 3- and 4-month-old infants. Infants were habituated to sequences consisting of moving/sounding or looming/sounding objects and then tested for their ability to detect changes in the order of the objects, sounds, or both. Results showed that 3-month-olds perceived the order of 3-element…

  12. An Audio-Visual Tutorial Laboratory Program for Introductory Geology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Walter C.; Bates, Robert L.

    Described is an audio-visual tutorial laboratory program designed to provide a uniform, regularly reinforced, programmatic introduction to a limited set of geologic concepts and features; to provide a sequence of problem-solving exercises on which the student can work as an individual and in which he is required repeatedly to use all elements of…

  13. Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

  14. Federal Audiovisual Policy Act. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 3325 to Establish in the Office of Management and Budget an Office to Be Known as the Office of Federal Audiovisual Policy, and for Other Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    The views of private industry and government are offered in this report of a hearing on the Federal Audiovisual Policy Act, which would establish an office to coordinate federal audiovisual activity and require most audiovisual material produced for federal agencies to be acquired under contract from private producers. Testimony is included from…

  15. Inactivation of Primate Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Auditory and Audiovisual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive functions that include planning, reasoning, decision-making, working memory, and communication. Neurophysiology and neuropsychology studies have established that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential in spatial working memory while the ventral frontal lobe processes language and communication signals. Single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates has shown that ventral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons integrate face and vocal information and are active during audiovisual working memory. However, whether VLPFC is essential in remembering face and voice information is unknown. We therefore trained nonhuman primates in an audiovisual working memory paradigm using naturalistic face-vocalization movies as memoranda. We inactivated VLPFC, with reversible cortical cooling, and examined performance when faces, vocalizations or both faces and vocalization had to be remembered. We found that VLPFC inactivation impaired subjects' performance in audiovisual and auditory-alone versions of the task. In contrast, VLPFC inactivation did not disrupt visual working memory. Our studies demonstrate the importance of VLPFC in auditory and audiovisual working memory for social stimuli but suggest a different role for VLPFC in unimodal visual processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ventral frontal lobe, or inferior frontal gyrus, plays an important role in audiovisual communication in the human brain. Studies with nonhuman primates have found that neurons within ventral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) encode both faces and vocalizations and that VLPFC is active when animals need to remember these social stimuli. In the present study, we temporarily inactivated VLPFC by cooling the cortex while nonhuman primates performed a working memory task. This impaired the ability of subjects to remember a face and vocalization pair or just the vocalization alone. Our work highlights the importance of the primate VLPFC in the processing of faces and

  16. Audio-visual congruency alters power and coherence of oscillatory activity within and between cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Lange, Joachim; Christian, Nadine; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2013-10-01

    Dynamic communication between functionally specialized, but spatially distributed areas of the brain is essential for effective brain functioning. A candidate mechanism for effective neuronal communication is oscillatory neuronal synchronization. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the role of oscillatory neuronal synchronization in audio-visual speech perception. Subjects viewed congruent audio-visual stimuli of a speaker articulating the vowels /a/ or /o/. In addition, we presented modified, incongruent versions in which visual and auditory signals mismatched. We identified a left hemispheric network for processing congruent audio-visual speech as well as network interaction between areas: low frequency (4-12 Hz) power was suppressed for congruent stimuli at auditory onset around auditory cortex, while power in the high gamma (120-140 Hz)-band was enhanced in the Broca's area around auditory offset. In addition, beta-power (20-30 Hz) was suppressed in supramarginal gyrus for incongruent stimuli. Interestingly, coherence analysis revealed a functional coupling between auditory cortex and Broca's area for congruent stimuli demonstrated by an increase of coherence. In contrast, coherence decreased for incongruent stimuli, suggesting a decoupling of auditory cortex and Broca's area. In addition, the increase of coherence was positively correlated with the increase of high gamma-power. The results demonstrate that oscillatory power in several frequency bands correlates with the processing of matching audio-visual speech on a large spatio-temporal scale. The findings provide evidence that coupling of neuronal groups can be mediated by coherence in the theta/alpha band and that low frequency coherence and high frequency power modulations are correlated in audio-visual speech perception.

  17. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on.

  18. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  19. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-06-13

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder. PMID:27478568

  20. The history of health and medicine in contemporary Britain: reflections on the role of audio-visual sources.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, K

    2000-04-01

    Recent policy discussions about extending the system of legal deposit to material published in formats other than print, for example film, video, and television, offer an opportunity to reflect on the role of audio-visual sources in the contemporary history of health and medicine. In the course of the twentieth century, audio-visual media have become the means of communicating ideas and information about health and medicine to a mass audience. However, health and medical historians rarely draw upon film, television, or video as historical source material. This paper encourages a greater role for these sources by outlining different ways of approaching audio-visual material as historical source, and introducing a selection of research tools and tips for accessing our audio-visual heritage.

  1. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder. PMID:27478568

  2. Use of Audiovisual Information in Speech Perception by Prelingually Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: A First Report

    PubMed Central

    Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there has been a great deal of recent empirical work and new theoretical interest in audiovisual speech perception in both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired adults, relatively little is known about the development of these abilities and skills in deaf children with cochlear implants. This study examined how prelingually deafened children combine visual information available in the talker’s face with auditory speech cues provided by their cochlear implants to enhance spoken language comprehension. Design Twenty-seven hearing-impaired children who use cochlear implants identified spoken sentences presented under auditory-alone and audiovisual conditions. Five additional measures of spoken word recognition performance were used to assess auditory-alone speech perception skills. A measure of speech intelligibility was also obtained to assess the speech production abilities of these children. Results A measure of audiovisual gain, “Ra,” was computed using sentence recognition scores in auditory-alone and audiovisual conditions. Another measure of audiovisual gain, “Rv,” was computed using scores in visual-alone and audiovisual conditions. The results indicated that children who were better at recognizing isolated spoken words through listening alone were also better at combining the complementary sensory information about speech articulation available under audiovisual stimulation. In addition, we found that children who received more benefit from audiovisual presentation also produced more intelligible speech, suggesting a close link between speech perception and production and a common underlying linguistic basis for audiovisual enhancement effects. Finally, an examination of the distribution of children enrolled in Oral Communication (OC) and Total Communication (TC) indicated that OC children tended to score higher on measures of audiovisual gain, spoken word recognition, and speech intelligibility. Conclusions The relationships

  3. Perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech in infancy: its emergence and the role of experience.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, David J; Minar, Nicholas J; Tift, Amy H; Brandon, Melissa

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the developmental emergence of the perception of the multisensory coherence of native and non-native audiovisual fluent speech, we tested 4-, 8- to 10-, and 12- to 14-month-old English-learning infants. Infants first viewed two identical female faces articulating two different monologues in silence and then in the presence of an audible monologue that matched the visible articulations of one of the faces. Neither the 4-month-old nor 8- to 10-month-old infants exhibited audiovisual matching in that they did not look longer at the matching monologue. In contrast, the 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited matching and, consistent with the emergence of perceptual expertise for the native language, perceived the multisensory coherence of native-language monologues earlier in the test trials than that of non-native language monologues. Moreover, the matching of native audible and visible speech streams observed in the 12- to 14-month-olds did not depend on audiovisual synchrony, whereas the matching of non-native audible and visible speech streams did depend on synchrony. Overall, the current findings indicate that the perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech emerges late in infancy, that audiovisual synchrony cues are more important in the perception of the multisensory coherence of non-native speech than that of native audiovisual speech, and that the emergence of this skill most likely is affected by perceptual narrowing.

  4. Perception of the Multisensory Coherence of Fluent Audiovisual Speech in Infancy: Its Emergence & the Role of Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Minar, Nicholas J.; Tift, Amy H.; Brandon, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the developmental emergence of the ability to perceive the multisensory coherence of native and non-native audiovisual fluent speech, we tested 4-, 8–10, and 12–14 month-old English-learning infants. Infants first viewed two identical female faces articulating two different monologues in silence and then in the presence of an audible monologue that matched the visible articulations of one of the faces. Neither the 4-month-old nor the 8–10 month-old infants exhibited audio-visual matching in that neither group exhibited greater looking at the matching monologue. In contrast, the 12–14 month-old infants exhibited matching and, consistent with the emergence of perceptual expertise for the native language, they perceived the multisensory coherence of native-language monologues earlier in the test trials than of non-native language monologues. Moreover, the matching of native audible and visible speech streams observed in the 12–14 month olds did not depend on audio-visual synchrony whereas the matching of non-native audible and visible speech streams did depend on synchrony. Overall, the current findings indicate that the perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech emerges late in infancy, that audio-visual synchrony cues are more important in the perception of the multisensory coherence of non-native than native audiovisual speech, and that the emergence of this skill most likely is affected by perceptual narrowing. PMID:25462038

  5. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  6. Bimodal bilingualism as multisensory training?: Evidence for improved audiovisual speech perception after sign language exposure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize effects of learning a sign language on the processing of a spoken language. Specifically, audiovisual phoneme comprehension was assessed before and after 13 weeks of sign language exposure. L2 ASL learners performed this task in the fMRI scanner. Results indicated that L2 American Sign Language (ASL) learners' behavioral classification of the speech sounds improved with time compared to hearing nonsigners. Results indicated increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) after sign language exposure, which suggests concomitant increased phonological processing of speech. A multiple regression analysis indicated that learner's rating on co-sign speech use and lipreading ability was correlated with SMG activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increased use of mouthing and possibly lipreading during sign language acquisition may concurrently improve audiovisual speech processing in budding hearing bimodal bilinguals. PMID:26740404

  7. Audiovisual presentation of video-recorded stimuli at a high frame rate.

    PubMed

    Lidestam, Björn

    2014-06-01

    A method for creating and presenting video-recorded synchronized audiovisual stimuli at a high frame rate-which would be highly useful for psychophysical studies on, for example, just-noticeable differences and gating-is presented. Methods for accomplishing this include recording audio and video separately using an exact synchronization signal, editing the recordings and finding exact synchronization points, and presenting the synchronized audiovisual stimuli with a desired frame rate on a cathode ray tube display using MATLAB and Psychophysics Toolbox 3. The methods from an empirical gating study (Moradi, Lidestam, & Rönnberg, Frontiers in Psychology 4:359, 2013) are presented as an example of the implementation of playback at 120 fps. PMID:24197711

  8. Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Julia; Preston, Jonathan; Brancazio, Lawrence; D'angelo, Michael; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perception of spoken language requires attention to acoustic as well as visible phonetic information. This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8-10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance on an untrained auditory speech-in-noise task.

  9. Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    IRWIN, JULIA; PRESTON, JONATHAN; BRANCAZIO, LAWRENCE; D’ANGELO, MICHAEL; TURCIOS, JACQUELINE

    2015-01-01

    Perception of spoken language requires attention to acoustic as well as visible phonetic information. This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8–10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance on an untrained auditory speech-in-noise task. PMID:25313714

  10. Audio-visual relaxation training for anxiety, sleep, and relaxation among Chinese adults with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sing-Ling

    2004-12-01

    The long-term effect of an audio-visual relaxation training (RT) treatment involving deep breathing, exercise, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and meditation was compared with routine nursing care for reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and promoting relaxation in Chinese adults with cardiac disease. This research was a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest study. A convenience sample of 100 cardiology patients (41 treatment, 59 control) admitted to one large medical center hospital in the Republic of China (ROC) was studied for 1 year. The hypothesized relationships were supported. RT significantly (p <.05) improved anxiety, sleep, and relaxation in the treatment group as compared to the control group. It appears audio-visual RT might be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for adult cardiac patients. However, considerable further work using stronger research designs is needed to determine the most appropriate instructional methods and the factors that contribute to long-term consistent practice of RT with Chinese populations.

  11. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  12. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  13. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  14. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  15. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  16. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  17. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  18. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  19. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  20. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  1. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  2. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  3. Sight and sound out of synch: fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elliot D; Ipser, Alberta; Palmbaha, Austra; Paunoiu, Diana; Brown, Peter; Lambert, Christian; Leff, Alex; Driver, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical. But few studies have examined normal and pathological individual differences in such measures. Case PH, with lesions in pons and basal ganglia, hears people speak before seeing their lips move. Temporal order judgements (TOJs) confirmed this: voices had to lag lip-movements (by ∼200 msec) to seem synchronous to PH. Curiously, voices had to lead lips (also by ∼200 msec) to maximise the McGurk illusion (a measure of audiovisual speech integration). On average across these measures, PH's timing was therefore still veridical. Age-matched control participants showed similar discrepancies. Indeed, normal individual differences in TOJ and McGurk timing correlated negatively: subjects needing an auditory lag for subjective simultaneity needed an auditory lead for maximal McGurk, and vice versa. This generalised to the Stream-Bounce illusion. Such surprising antagonism seems opposed to good sensory resynchronisation, yet average timing across tasks was still near-veridical. Our findings reveal remarkable disunity of audiovisual timing within and between subjects. To explain this we propose that the timing of audiovisual signals within different brain mechanisms is perceived relative to the average timing across mechanisms. Such renormalisation fully explains the curious antagonistic relationship between disparate timing

  4. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (<100 ms) were ~2-3× shorter than nonmusicians' (~200 ms), suggesting more refined multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner.

  5. Sight and sound out of synch: fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elliot D; Ipser, Alberta; Palmbaha, Austra; Paunoiu, Diana; Brown, Peter; Lambert, Christian; Leff, Alex; Driver, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical. But few studies have examined normal and pathological individual differences in such measures. Case PH, with lesions in pons and basal ganglia, hears people speak before seeing their lips move. Temporal order judgements (TOJs) confirmed this: voices had to lag lip-movements (by ∼200 msec) to seem synchronous to PH. Curiously, voices had to lead lips (also by ∼200 msec) to maximise the McGurk illusion (a measure of audiovisual speech integration). On average across these measures, PH's timing was therefore still veridical. Age-matched control participants showed similar discrepancies. Indeed, normal individual differences in TOJ and McGurk timing correlated negatively: subjects needing an auditory lag for subjective simultaneity needed an auditory lead for maximal McGurk, and vice versa. This generalised to the Stream-Bounce illusion. Such surprising antagonism seems opposed to good sensory resynchronisation, yet average timing across tasks was still near-veridical. Our findings reveal remarkable disunity of audiovisual timing within and between subjects. To explain this we propose that the timing of audiovisual signals within different brain mechanisms is perceived relative to the average timing across mechanisms. Such renormalisation fully explains the curious antagonistic relationship between disparate timing

  6. Top-down attention regulates the neural expression of audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Morís Fernández, Luis; Visser, Maya; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Ávila, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The interplay between attention and multisensory integration has proven to be a difficult question to tackle. There are almost as many studies showing that multisensory integration occurs independently from the focus of attention as studies implying that attention has a profound effect on integration. Addressing the neural expression of multisensory integration for attended vs. unattended stimuli can help disentangle this apparent contradiction. In the present study, we examine if selective attention to sound pitch influences the expression of audiovisual integration in both behavior and neural activity. Participants were asked to attend to one of two auditory speech streams while watching a pair of talking lips that could be congruent or incongruent with the attended speech stream. We measured behavioral and neural responses (fMRI) to multisensory stimuli under attended and unattended conditions while physical stimulation was kept constant. Our results indicate that participants recognized words more accurately from an auditory stream that was both attended and audiovisually (AV) congruent, thus reflecting a benefit due to AV integration. On the other hand, no enhancement was found for AV congruency when it was unattended. Furthermore, the fMRI results indicated that activity in the superior temporal sulcus (an area known to be related to multisensory integration) was contingent on attention as well as on audiovisual congruency. This attentional modulation extended beyond heteromodal areas to affect processing in areas classically recognized as unisensory, such as the superior temporal gyrus or the extrastriate cortex, and to non-sensory areas such as the motor cortex. Interestingly, attention to audiovisual incongruence triggered responses in brain areas related to conflict processing (i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula). Based on these results, we hypothesize that AV speech integration can take place automatically only when both

  7. Audiovisuals and non-print learning resources in a health sciences library.

    PubMed

    Robinow, B H

    1979-03-01

    The MD undergraduate program at McMaster University, based entirely on self-instruction, requires the provision of all kinds of learning resources. How these are assembled and made available is described. Emphasis is placed on the practical library problems of cataloging, shelving, maintenance, and distribution of audiovisual materials including pathology specimens and 'problem boxes' as well as the more usual films, videotapes and slide/tape sets. Evaluation is discussed briefly. PMID:85624

  8. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (<100 ms) were ~2-3× shorter than nonmusicians' (~200 ms), suggesting more refined multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner. PMID:27334887

  9. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  11. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  12. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  13. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  14. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  15. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  16. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  17. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  18. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  19. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  20. The effect of visual spatial attention on audiovisual speech perception in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saalasti, Satu; Tiippana, Kaisa; Kätsyri, Jari; Sams, Mikko

    2011-09-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) have problems in following conversation, especially in the situations where several people are talking. This might result from impairments in audiovisual speech perception, especially from difficulties in focusing attention to speech-relevant visual information and ignoring distracting information. We studied the effect of visual spatial attention on the audiovisual speech perception of adult individuals with AS and matched control participants. Two faces were presented side by side, one uttering /aka/ and the other /ata/, while an auditory stimulus of /apa/ was played. The participants fixated on a central cross and directed their attention to the face that an arrow pointed to, reporting which consonant they heard. We hypothesized that the adults with AS would be more distracted by a competing talking face than the controls. Instead, they were able to covertly attend to the talking face, and they were as distracted by a competing face as the controls. Independently of the attentional effect, there was a qualitative difference in audiovisual speech perception: when the visual articulation was /aka/, the control participants heard /aka/ almost exclusively, while the participants with AS heard frequently /ata/. This finding may relate to difficulties in face-to-face communication in AS.

  1. Language/Culture Modulates Brain and Gaze Processes in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Hisanaga, Satoko; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Igasaki, Tomohiko; Murayama, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that the interplay between voice and face information in audiovisual speech perception is not universal. Native English speakers (ESs) are influenced by visual mouth movement to a greater degree than native Japanese speakers (JSs) when listening to speech. However, the biological basis of these group differences is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the time-varying processes of group differences in terms of event-related brain potentials (ERP) and eye gaze for audiovisual and audio-only speech perception. On a behavioural level, while congruent mouth movement shortened the ESs’ response time for speech perception, the opposite effect was observed in JSs. Eye-tracking data revealed a gaze bias to the mouth for the ESs but not the JSs, especially before the audio onset. Additionally, the ERP P2 amplitude indicated that ESs processed multisensory speech more efficiently than auditory-only speech; however, the JSs exhibited the opposite pattern. Taken together, the ESs’ early visual attention to the mouth was likely to promote phonetic anticipation, which was not the case for the JSs. These results clearly indicate the impact of language and/or culture on multisensory speech processing, suggesting that linguistic/cultural experiences lead to the development of unique neural systems for audiovisual speech perception. PMID:27734953

  2. Representation-based user interfaces for the audiovisual library of the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Philippe; Joly, Philippe; Lepain, Philippe; Longueville, Veronique

    1995-03-01

    The audiovisual library of the future will be based on computerized access to digitized documents. In this communication, we address the user interface issues which will arise from this new situation. One cannot simply transfer a user interface designed for the piece by piece production of some audiovisual presentation and make it a tool for accessing full-length movies in an electronic library. One cannot take a digital sound editing tool and propose it as a means to listen to a musical recording. In our opinion, when computers are used as mediations to existing contents, document representation-based user interfaces are needed. With such user interfaces, a structured visual representation of the document contents is presented to the user, who can then manipulate it to control perception and analysis of these contents. In order to build such manipulable visual representations of audiovisual documents, one needs to automatically extract structural information from the documents contents. In this communication, we describe possible visual interfaces for various temporal media, and we propose methods for the economically feasible large scale processing of documents. The work presented is sponsored by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France: it is part of the program aiming at developing for image and sound documents an experimental counterpart to the digitized text reading workstation of this library.

  3. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  4. Infant perception of audio-visual speech synchrony in familiar and unfamiliar fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effects of linguistic experience and language familiarity on the perception of audio-visual (A-V) synchrony in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, we tested a group of monolingual Spanish- and Catalan-learning 8-month-old infants to a video clip of a person speaking Spanish. Following habituation to the audiovisually synchronous video, infants saw and heard desynchronized clips of the same video where the audio stream now preceded the video stream by 366, 500, or 666 ms. In Experiment 2, monolingual Catalan and Spanish infants were tested with a video clip of a person speaking English. Results indicated that in both experiments, infants detected a 666 and a 500 ms asynchrony. That is, their responsiveness to A-V synchrony was the same regardless of their specific linguistic experience or familiarity with the tested language. Compared to previous results from infant studies with isolated audiovisual syllables, these results show that infants are more sensitive to A-V temporal relations inherent in fluent speech. Furthermore, the absence of a language familiarity effect on the detection of A-V speech asynchrony at eight months of age is consistent with the broad perceptual tuning usually observed in infant response to linguistic input at this age.

  5. Cross-modal matching of audio-visual German and French fluent speech in infancy.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Claudia; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Dupierrix, Eve; Pascalis, Olivier; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined when and how the ability to cross-modally match audio-visual fluent speech develops in 4.5-, 6- and 12-month-old German-learning infants. In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants' audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only. Results were discussed with regard to multisensory perceptual narrowing during the first year of life.

  6. Audiovisual integration in near and far space: effects of changes in distance and stimulus effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Smagt, M J

    2016-05-01

    A factor that is often not considered in multisensory research is the distance from which information is presented. Interestingly, various studies have shown that the distance at which information is presented can modulate the strength of multisensory interactions. In addition, our everyday multisensory experience in near and far space is rather asymmetrical in terms of retinal image size and stimulus intensity. This asymmetry is the result of the relation between the stimulus-observer distance and its retinal image size and intensity: an object that is further away is generally smaller on the retina as compared to the same object when it is presented nearer. Similarly, auditory intensity decreases as the distance from the observer increases. We investigated how each of these factors alone, and their combination, affected audiovisual integration. Unimodal and bimodal stimuli were presented in near and far space, with and without controlling for distance-dependent changes in retinal image size and intensity. Audiovisual integration was enhanced for stimuli that were presented in far space as compared to near space, but only when the stimuli were not corrected for visual angle and intensity. The same decrease in intensity and retinal size in near space did not enhance audiovisual integration, indicating that these results cannot be explained by changes in stimulus efficacy or an increase in distance alone, but rather by an interaction between these factors. The results are discussed in the context of multisensory experience and spatial uncertainty, and underline the importance of studying multisensory integration in the depth space.

  7. Audiovisual associations alter the perception of low-level visual motion.

    PubMed

    Kafaligonul, Hulusi; Oluk, Can

    2015-01-01

    Motion perception is a pervasive nature of vision and is affected by both immediate pattern of sensory inputs and prior experiences acquired through associations. Recently, several studies reported that an association can be established quickly between directions of visual motion and static sounds of distinct frequencies. After the association is formed, sounds are able to change the perceived direction of visual motion. To determine whether such rapidly acquired audiovisual associations and their subsequent influences on visual motion perception are dependent on the involvement of higher-order attentive tracking mechanisms, we designed psychophysical experiments using regular and reverse-phi random dot motions isolating low-level pre-attentive motion processing. Our results show that an association between the directions of low-level visual motion and static sounds can be formed and this audiovisual association alters the subsequent perception of low-level visual motion. These findings support the view that audiovisual associations are not restricted to high-level attention based motion system and early-level visual motion processing has some potential role.

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of individual differences in perception of audiovisual temporal asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity to the temporal relationship between auditory and visual stimuli is key to efficient audiovisual integration. However, even adults vary greatly in their ability to detect audiovisual temporal asynchrony. What underlies this variability is currently unknown. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed a simultaneity judgment task on a range of audiovisual (AV) and visual-auditory (VA) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and compared ERP responses in good and poor performers to the 200ms SOA, which showed the largest individual variability in the number of synchronous perceptions. Analysis of ERPs to the VA200 stimulus yielded no significant results. However, those individuals who were more sensitive to the AV200 SOA had significantly more positive voltage between 210 and 270ms following the sound onset. In a follow-up analysis, we showed that the mean voltage within this window predicted approximately 36% of variability in sensitivity to AV temporal asynchrony in a larger group of participants. The relationship between the ERP measure in the 210-270ms window and accuracy on the simultaneity judgment task also held for two other AV SOAs with significant individual variability -100 and 300ms. Because the identified window was time-locked to the onset of sound in the AV stimulus, we conclude that sensitivity to AV temporal asynchrony is shaped to a large extent by the efficiency in the neural encoding of sound onsets.

  9. High visual resolution matters in audiovisual speech perception, but only for some.

    PubMed

    Alsius, Agnès; Wayne, Rachel V; Paré, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G

    2016-07-01

    The basis for individual differences in the degree to which visual speech input enhances comprehension of acoustically degraded speech is largely unknown. Previous research indicates that fine facial detail is not critical for visual enhancement when auditory information is available; however, these studies did not examine individual differences in ability to make use of fine facial detail in relation to audiovisual speech perception ability. Here, we compare participants based on their ability to benefit from visual speech information in the presence of an auditory signal degraded with noise, modulating the resolution of the visual signal through low-pass spatial frequency filtering and monitoring gaze behavior. Participants who benefited most from the addition of visual information (high visual gain) were more adversely affected by the removal of high spatial frequency information, compared to participants with low visual gain, for materials with both poor and rich contextual cues (i.e., words and sentences, respectively). Differences as a function of gaze behavior between participants with the highest and lowest visual gains were observed only for words, with participants with the highest visual gain fixating longer on the mouth region. Our results indicate that the individual variance in audiovisual speech in noise performance can be accounted for, in part, by better use of fine facial detail information extracted from the visual signal and increased fixation on mouth regions for short stimuli. Thus, for some, audiovisual speech perception may suffer when the visual input (in addition to the auditory signal) is less than perfect.

  10. Visual and Auditory Components in the Perception of Asynchronous Audiovisual Speech.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2015-12-01

    Research on asynchronous audiovisual speech perception manipulates experimental conditions to observe their effects on synchrony judgments. Probabilistic models establish a link between the sensory and decisional processes underlying such judgments and the observed data, via interpretable parameters that allow testing hypotheses and making inferences about how experimental manipulations affect such processes. Two models of this type have recently been proposed, one based on independent channels and the other using a Bayesian approach. Both models are fitted here to a common data set, with a subsequent analysis of the interpretation they provide about how experimental manipulations affected the processes underlying perceived synchrony. The data consist of synchrony judgments as a function of audiovisual offset in a speech stimulus, under four within-subjects manipulations of the quality of the visual component. The Bayesian model could not accommodate asymmetric data, was rejected by goodness-of-fit statistics for 8/16 observers, and was found to be nonidentifiable, which renders uninterpretable parameter estimates. The independent-channels model captured asymmetric data, was rejected for only 1/16 observers, and identified how sensory and decisional processes mediating asynchronous audiovisual speech perception are affected by manipulations that only alter the quality of the visual component of the speech signal.

  11. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  12. Visual and Auditory Components in the Perception of Asynchronous Audiovisual Speech.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2015-12-01

    Research on asynchronous audiovisual speech perception manipulates experimental conditions to observe their effects on synchrony judgments. Probabilistic models establish a link between the sensory and decisional processes underlying such judgments and the observed data, via interpretable parameters that allow testing hypotheses and making inferences about how experimental manipulations affect such processes. Two models of this type have recently been proposed, one based on independent channels and the other using a Bayesian approach. Both models are fitted here to a common data set, with a subsequent analysis of the interpretation they provide about how experimental manipulations affected the processes underlying perceived synchrony. The data consist of synchrony judgments as a function of audiovisual offset in a speech stimulus, under four within-subjects manipulations of the quality of the visual component. The Bayesian model could not accommodate asymmetric data, was rejected by goodness-of-fit statistics for 8/16 observers, and was found to be nonidentifiable, which renders uninterpretable parameter estimates. The independent-channels model captured asymmetric data, was rejected for only 1/16 observers, and identified how sensory and decisional processes mediating asynchronous audiovisual speech perception are affected by manipulations that only alter the quality of the visual component of the speech signal. PMID:27551361

  13. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  14. Visual and Auditory Components in the Perception of Asynchronous Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Research on asynchronous audiovisual speech perception manipulates experimental conditions to observe their effects on synchrony judgments. Probabilistic models establish a link between the sensory and decisional processes underlying such judgments and the observed data, via interpretable parameters that allow testing hypotheses and making inferences about how experimental manipulations affect such processes. Two models of this type have recently been proposed, one based on independent channels and the other using a Bayesian approach. Both models are fitted here to a common data set, with a subsequent analysis of the interpretation they provide about how experimental manipulations affected the processes underlying perceived synchrony. The data consist of synchrony judgments as a function of audiovisual offset in a speech stimulus, under four within-subjects manipulations of the quality of the visual component. The Bayesian model could not accommodate asymmetric data, was rejected by goodness-of-fit statistics for 8/16 observers, and was found to be nonidentifiable, which renders uninterpretable parameter estimates. The independent-channels model captured asymmetric data, was rejected for only 1/16 observers, and identified how sensory and decisional processes mediating asynchronous audiovisual speech perception are affected by manipulations that only alter the quality of the visual component of the speech signal. PMID:27551361

  15. Brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational audiovisual stimuli on psychophysiological responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; Silva, Vinícius B; Karageorghis, Costas I; Bird, Jonathan M; Santos, Priscila C; Altimari, Leandro R

    2016-05-01

    Motivational audiovisual stimuli such as music and video have been widely used in the realm of exercise and sport as a means by which to increase situational motivation and enhance performance. The present study addressed the mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational stimuli on psychophysiological responses and exercise performance. Twenty-two participants completed fatiguing isometric handgrip-squeezing tasks under two experimental conditions (motivational audiovisual condition and neutral audiovisual condition) and a control condition. Electrical activity in the brain and working muscles was analyzed by use of electroencephalography and electromyography, respectively. Participants were asked to squeeze the dynamometer maximally for 30s. A single-item motivation scale was administered after each squeeze. Results indicated that task performance and situational motivational were superior under the influence of motivational stimuli when compared to the other two conditions (~20% and ~25%, respectively). The motivational stimulus downregulated the predominance of low-frequency waves (theta) in the right frontal regions of the cortex (F8), and upregulated high-frequency waves (beta) in the central areas (C3 and C4). It is suggested that motivational sensory cues serve to readjust electrical activity in the brain; a mechanism by which the detrimental effects of fatigue on the efferent control of working muscles is ameliorated. PMID:26948160

  16. Brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational audiovisual stimuli on psychophysiological responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; Silva, Vinícius B; Karageorghis, Costas I; Bird, Jonathan M; Santos, Priscila C; Altimari, Leandro R

    2016-05-01

    Motivational audiovisual stimuli such as music and video have been widely used in the realm of exercise and sport as a means by which to increase situational motivation and enhance performance. The present study addressed the mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational stimuli on psychophysiological responses and exercise performance. Twenty-two participants completed fatiguing isometric handgrip-squeezing tasks under two experimental conditions (motivational audiovisual condition and neutral audiovisual condition) and a control condition. Electrical activity in the brain and working muscles was analyzed by use of electroencephalography and electromyography, respectively. Participants were asked to squeeze the dynamometer maximally for 30s. A single-item motivation scale was administered after each squeeze. Results indicated that task performance and situational motivational were superior under the influence of motivational stimuli when compared to the other two conditions (~20% and ~25%, respectively). The motivational stimulus downregulated the predominance of low-frequency waves (theta) in the right frontal regions of the cortex (F8), and upregulated high-frequency waves (beta) in the central areas (C3 and C4). It is suggested that motivational sensory cues serve to readjust electrical activity in the brain; a mechanism by which the detrimental effects of fatigue on the efferent control of working muscles is ameliorated.

  17. Audiovisual associations alter the perception of low-level visual motion.

    PubMed

    Kafaligonul, Hulusi; Oluk, Can

    2015-01-01

    Motion perception is a pervasive nature of vision and is affected by both immediate pattern of sensory inputs and prior experiences acquired through associations. Recently, several studies reported that an association can be established quickly between directions of visual motion and static sounds of distinct frequencies. After the association is formed, sounds are able to change the perceived direction of visual motion. To determine whether such rapidly acquired audiovisual associations and their subsequent influences on visual motion perception are dependent on the involvement of higher-order attentive tracking mechanisms, we designed psychophysical experiments using regular and reverse-phi random dot motions isolating low-level pre-attentive motion processing. Our results show that an association between the directions of low-level visual motion and static sounds can be formed and this audiovisual association alters the subsequent perception of low-level visual motion. These findings support the view that audiovisual associations are not restricted to high-level attention based motion system and early-level visual motion processing has some potential role. PMID:25873869

  18. Commissioning and quality assurance for a respiratory training system based on audiovisual biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guoqiang; Gopalan, Siddharth; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Berger, Jonathan; Maxim, Peter G; Keall, Paul J

    2010-07-12

    A respiratory training system based on audiovisual biofeedback has been implemented at our institution. It is intended to improve patients' respiratory regularity during four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) image acquisition. The purpose is to help eliminate the artifacts in 4D-CT images caused by irregular breathing, as well as improve delivery efficiency during treatment, where respiratory irregularity is a concern. This article describes the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) procedures developed for this peripheral respiratory training system, the Stanford Respiratory Training (START) system. Using the Varian real-time position management system for the respiratory signal input, the START software was commissioned and able to acquire sample respiratory traces, create a patient-specific guiding waveform, and generate audiovisual signals for improving respiratory regularity. Routine QA tests that include hardware maintenance, visual guiding-waveform creation, auditory sounds synchronization, and feedback assessment, have been developed for the START system. The QA procedures developed here for the START system could be easily adapted to other respiratory training systems based on audiovisual biofeedback.

  19. A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Nalliveettil George; Alidmat, Ali Odeh Hammoud

    2013-01-01

    A resourceful English language teacher equipped with eclecticism is desirable in English as a foreign language classroom. The challenges of classroom instruction increases when prescribed English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course books (textbooks) are constituted with too many interactive language proficiency activities. Most importantly, it has…

  20. Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction in Dental Education. (Updates Literature Search 72-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    National Library of Medicine (NLM) Literature Searches are selected computer-generated bibliographies produced by the Library's Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Selection is made on the basis of a significant current interest of the subject matter to a substantial audience of health professionals. Each Literature Search…

  1. Audio-Visual Aids and Computer Assisted and Programmed Instruction in Medical Education. (Updates Literature Search No. 72-10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Geraldine D.

    National Library of Medicine (NLM) Literature Searches are selected computer-generated bibliographies produced by the Library's Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Selection is made on the basis of a significant current interest of the subject matter to a substantial audience of health professionals. Each Literature Search…

  2. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  3. Costless Aids for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, K. W.

    Intended primarily for language teachers in underfinanced school districts or underdeveloped countries where educational resources are scarce, this article suggests ways and means of using material resources as instructional realia. The author proposes several principles on which the use of audiovisual materials in the classroom should be based.…

  4. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  5. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  6. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  7. A STUDY TO DETERMINE SPECIFIC SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS BY COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURES FOR OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS TO OPTIMUM USE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; MCINTYRE, KENNETH

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO (1) DETERMINE THE EXTENT OF USE OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS BY THE FACULTY, (2) IDENTIFY SPECIFIC SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS, (3) STUDY AND ASSEMBLE INFORMATION ON AUDIOVISUAL FACILITIES AND PROCEDURES WHICH WOULD BE CONDUCIVE TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF COLLEGE TEACHING, AND (4) DEVELOP…

  8. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Infancy: The Influence of Vowel Identity and Infants' Productive Abilities on Sensitivity to (Mis)Matches between Auditory and Visual Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that infants' audiovisual speech perception is influenced by articulatory experience (Mugitani et al., 2008; Yeung & Werker, 2013). The current study extends these findings by testing if infants' emerging ability to produce native sounds in babbling impacts their audiovisual speech perception. We tested 44 6-month-olds…

  9. Processing of Audiovisually Congruent and Incongruent Speech in School-Age Children with a History of Specific Language Impairment: A Behavioral and Event-Related Potentials Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we…

  10. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  11. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  12. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  13. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  15. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  16. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  17. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  18. The Impact of Politics 2.0 in the Spanish Social Media: Tracking the Conversations around the Audiovisual Political Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, José M.; Correyero, Beatriz

    After the consolidation of weblogs as interactive narratives and producers, audiovisual formats are gaining ground on the Web. Videos are spreading all over the Internet and establishing themselves as a new medium for political propaganda inside social media with tools so powerful like YouTube. This investigation proceeds in two stages: on one hand we are going to examine how this audiovisual formats have enjoyed an enormous amount of attention in blogs during the Spanish pre-electoral campaign for the elections of March 2008. On the other hand, this article tries to investigate the social impact of this phenomenon using data from a content analysis of the blog discussion related to these videos centered on the most popular Spanish political blogs. Also, we study when the audiovisual political messages (made by politicians or by users) "born" and "die" in the Web and with what kind of rules they do.

  19. Effects of auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane on audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Li, Qi; Ochi, Tatsuya; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one location in an equidistant horizontal plane at the front (0°, the fixation point), right (90°), back (180°), or left (270°) of the participants, and audiovisual stimuli that include both visual stimuli and auditory stimuli originating from one of the four locations were simultaneously presented. These stimuli were presented randomly with equal probability; during this time, participants were asked to attend to the visual stimulus and respond promptly only to visual target stimuli (a unimodal visual target stimulus and the visual target of the audiovisual stimulus). A significant facilitation of reaction times and hit rates was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in the front or back of the participant. However, no significant interactions were found between visual stimuli and auditory stimuli from the right or left. Two main ERP components related to audiovisual integration were found: first, auditory stimuli from the front location produced an ERP reaction over the right temporal area and right occipital area at approximately 160-200 milliseconds; second, auditory stimuli from the back produced a reaction over the parietal and occipital areas at approximately 360-400 milliseconds. Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration was also elicited, even though auditory stimuli were presented behind the participant, but no integration occurred when auditory stimuli were presented in the right or left spaces, suggesting that the human brain might be particularly sensitive to information received from behind than both sides.

  20. The AORN Audiovisual Committee. Thirty-three years of perioperative nursing education.

    PubMed

    Riall, C T

    1993-11-01

    The productions of the AORN Audiovisual Committee are best measured by their popularity. Enthusiastic audiences at Congress premieres and demands for bookings by chapters and individual instructors represent thousands of viewers for each film. A complete list of all films produced by the Committee is available in the archives, located in the AORN library at Headquarters. Readers may obtain a complete list of all perioperative nursing film topics produced by this program in the past 33 years from the author. The out-of-pocket costs for producing these films and videotapes during the past 33 years exceeds $33 million. Of even greater significance is the great number of hours devoted by the Committee members. Serving on the Audiovisual Committee is similar to taking an advanced college course. Selected for their specialized knowledge, members need to learn and apply the techniques of the cinema. Far more than just showing a surgical procedure, teaching films require the staging of the ideal method while explaining its superiority over the method it replaces. Films must be forceful enough to overcome the common attitude, "This is the way we've always done it." In the course of writing the scripts, which are critiqued by the Committee, authors must research the subjects and review the state of the art. They are challenged to improve on the past and remain current on changing techniques. Service on the Audiovisual Committee prepares members for further involvement in AORN activities. Twenty members of the Committee have been elected to the Board of Directors, and seven of those have served as AORN Presidents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)