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Sample records for audiovisual semantic congruency

  1. Assessing the effects of audiovisual semantic congruency on the perception of a bistable figure.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Jhih-Yun; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Bistable figures provide a fascinating window through which to explore human visual awareness. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the semantic context provided by a background auditory soundtrack (the voice of a young or old female) can modulate an observer's predominant percept while watching the bistable "my wife or my mother-in-law" figure (Experiment 1). The possibility of a response-bias account-that participants simply reported the percept that happened to be congruent with the soundtrack that they were listening to-was excluded in Experiment 2. We further demonstrate that this crossmodal semantic effect was additive with the manipulation of participants' visual fixation (Experiment 3), while it interacted with participants' voluntary attention (Experiment 4). These results indicate that audiovisual semantic congruency constrains the visual processing that gives rise to the conscious perception of bistable visual figures. Crossmodal semantic context therefore provides an important mechanism contributing to the emergence of visual awareness.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Audiovisual Interactions of Semantically Different Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Giovannelli, Fabio; Giganti, Fiorenza; Rossi, Arianna; Metitieri, Tiziana; Rebai, Mohamed; Guerrini, Renzo; Cincotta, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Converging results have shown that adults benefit from congruent multisensory stimulation in the identification of complex stimuli, whereas the developmental trajectory of the ability to integrate multisensory inputs in children is less well understood. In this study we explored the effects of audiovisual semantic congruency on identification of…

  3. Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof

    2014-11-01

    Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration.

  4. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  5. ERPs and Contextual Semantic Discrimination: Degrees of Congruence in Wakefulness and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Agustin; Lopez, Vladimir; Cornejo, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This study explores whether the brain can discriminate degrees of semantic congruency during wakefulness and sleep. Experiment 1 was conducted during wakefulness to test degrees of congruency by means of N400 amplitude. In Experiment 2, the same paradigm was applied to a different group of participants during natural night sleep. Stimuli were 108…

  6. Semantic congruence reverses effects of sleep restriction on associative encoding.

    PubMed

    Alberca-Reina, Esther; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2014-04-01

    Encoding and memory consolidation are influenced by factors such as sleep and congruency of newly learned information with prior knowledge (i.e., schema). However, only a few studies have examined the contribution of sleep to enhancement of schema-dependent memory. Based on previous studies showing that total sleep deprivation specifically impairs hippocampal encoding, and that coherent schemas reduce the hippocampal consolidation period after learning, we predict that sleep loss in the pre-training night will mainly affect schema-unrelated information whereas sleep restriction in the post-training night will have similar effects on schema-related and unrelated information. Here, we tested this hypothesis by presenting participants with face-face associations that could be semantically related or unrelated under different sleep conditions: normal sleep before and after training, and acute sleep restriction either before or after training. Memory was tested one day after training, just after introducing an interference task, and two days later, without any interference. Significant results were evident on the second retesting session. In particular, sleep restriction before training enhanced memory for semantically congruent events in detriment of memory for unrelated events, supporting the specific role of sleep in hippocampal memory encoding. Unexpectedly, sleep restriction after training enhanced memory for both related and unrelated events. Although this finding may suggest a poorer encoding during the interference task, this hypothesis should be specifically tested in future experiments. All together, the present results support a framework in which encoding processes seem to be more vulnerable to sleep loss than consolidation processes.

  7. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli. PMID:25538576

  8. Delineating the Effect of Semantic Congruency on Episodic Memory: The Role of Integration and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect—the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759

  9. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  10. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smayda, Kirsten E.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Maddox, W. Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18–35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60–90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when

  11. Event Congruency Enhances Episodic Memory Encoding through Semantic Elaboration and Relational Binding

    PubMed Central

    Staresina, Bernhard P.; Gray, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral research consistently shows that congruous events, that is, events whose constituent elements match along some specific dimension, are better remembered than incongruous events. Although it has been speculated that this “congruency subsequent memory effect” (cSME) results from enhanced semantic elaboration, empirical evidence for this account is lacking. Here, we report a set of behavioral and neuroimaging experiments demonstrating that congruous events engage regions along the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)—consistently related to semantic elaboration—to a significantly greater degree than incongruous events, providing evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Critically, we additionally report 3 novel findings in relation to event congruency: First, congruous events yield superior memory not only for a given study item but also for associated source details. Second, the cSME is evident not only for events that matched a semantic context but also for those that matched a subjective aesthetic schema. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging brain/behavior correlation analysis reveals a strong link between 1) across-subject variation in the magnitude of the cSME and 2) differential right hippocampal activation, suggesting that episodic memory for congruous events is effectively bolstered by the extent to which semantic associations are generated and relationally integrated via LIFG-hippocampal–encoding mechanisms. PMID:18820289

  12. Unconscious congruency priming from unpracticed words is modulated by prime-target semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllón, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility were used in all experiments. On 80% of the trials the primes and targets belonged to different categories (incongruent trials), whereas in the remaining 20% (congruent trials) they could be either strong or weak semantically related category members. Positive congruency effects (reaction times faster on congruent than on incongruent trials) were consistently found, but only when the mask immediately followed the primes, and participants reported being unaware of the identity of the primes. Primes followed by a delayed mask (such that participants reported being aware of their identity) produced either nonreliable facilitation or reliable reversed priming (strategic), depending on whether the prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony was either short (200 ms; Experiments 1 and 4) or long (1,000 ms; Experiment 4). Facilitatory priming with immediate mask was found strong (a) even for participants who performed at chance in prime visibility tests; and (b) for high but not for weakly semantically related category coordinates, irrespective of category size (animals, body parts). These findings provide evidence that unconscious congruency priming by unpracticed words from large stimulus sets critically depends on associative strength and/or semantic similarity between category coexemplars.

  13. Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

  14. Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)

  15. The semantic origin of unconscious priming: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence during category congruency priming from strongly and weakly related masked words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Kiefer, Markus; Castillo, Alejandro; Megías, Montserrat; Morillas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying masked congruency priming, semantic mechanisms such as semantic activation or non-semantic mechanisms, for example response activation, remain a matter of debate. In order to decide between these alternatives, reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in the present study, while participants performed a semantic categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded either 167 ms (Experiment 1) or 34 ms before (Experiment 2) by briefly presented (33 ms) novel (unpracticed) masked prime words. The primes and targets belonged to different categories (unrelated), or they were either strongly or weakly semantically related category co-exemplars. Behavioral (RT) and electrophysiological masked congruency priming effects were significantly greater for strongly related pairs than for weakly related pairs, indicating a semantic origin of effects. Priming in the latter condition was not statistically reliable. Furthermore, priming effects modulated the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, but not ERPs in the time range of the N200 component, associated with response conflict and visuo-motor response priming. The present results demonstrate that masked congruency priming from novel prime words also depends on semantic processing of the primes and is not exclusively driven by non-semantic mechanisms such as response activation.

  16. Semantic integration of audio-visual information of polyphonic characters in a sentence context: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Gaoyan; Liu, Baolin

    2017-04-01

    In the Chinese language, a polyphone is a kind of special character that has more than one pronunciation, with each pronunciation corresponding to a different meaning. Here, we aimed to reveal the cognitive processing of audio-visual information integration of polyphones in a sentence context using the event-related potential (ERP) method. Sentences ending with polyphones were presented to subjects simultaneously in both an auditory and a visual modality. Four experimental conditions were set in which the visual presentations were the same, but the pronunciations of the polyphones were: the correct pronunciation; another pronunciation of the polyphone; a semantically appropriate pronunciation but not the pronunciation of the polyphone; or a semantically inappropriate pronunciation but also not the pronunciation of the polyphone. The behavioral results demonstrated significant differences in response accuracies when judging the semantic meanings of the audio-visual sentences, which reflected the different demands on cognitive resources. The ERP results showed that in the early stage, abnormal pronunciations were represented by the amplitude of the P200 component. Interestingly, because the phonological information mediated access to the lexical semantics, the amplitude and latency of the N400 component changed linearly across conditions, which may reflect the gradually increased semantic mismatch in the four conditions when integrating the auditory pronunciation with the visual information. Moreover, the amplitude of the late positive shift (LPS) showed a significant correlation with the behavioral response accuracies, demonstrating that the LPS component reveals the demand of cognitive resources for monitoring and resolving semantic conflicts when integrating the audio-visual information.

  17. Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

    2008-01-01

    Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

  18. Are Automatic Conceptual Cores the Gold Standard of Semantic Processing? The Context-Dependence of Spatial Meaning in Grounded Congruency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebois, Lauren A. M.; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    According to grounded cognition, words whose semantics contain sensory-motor features activate sensory-motor simulations, which, in turn, interact with spatial responses to produce grounded congruency effects (e.g., processing the spatial feature of "up" for sky should be faster for up vs. down responses). Growing evidence shows these…

  19. Between- and within-ear congruency and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/emotional prosody conflict task.

    PubMed

    Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and identified a target word or emotion under one of two conditions. In the within-ear condition, the congruent or incongruent dimensions were bound within a single stimulus and therefore, presented to the same ear. In the between-ear condition, the two dimensions were split between two stimuli and, therefore, presented in separate ears. Findings indicated interference in both conditions. However, the expected right ear advantage (EA) for words and left EA for emotions were obtained only in the between-ear condition. Factors involved in producing interference and laterality effects in dichotic listening tasks are discussed.

  20. Audiovisual speech integration in autism spectrum disorders: ERP evidence for atypicalities in lexical-semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Megnin, Odette; Flitton, Atlanta; Jones, Catherine R G; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Charman, Tony

    2012-02-01

    In typically developing (TD) individuals, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest that audiovisual (AV) integration enables faster and more efficient processing of speech. However, little is known about AV speech processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined ERP responses to spoken words to elucidate the effects of visual speech (the lip movements accompanying a spoken word) on the range of auditory speech processing stages from sound onset detection to semantic integration. The study also included an AV condition, which paired spoken words with a dynamic scrambled face in order to highlight AV effects specific to visual speech. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD (15-17 years old) and 14 age- and verbal IQ-matched TD boys participated. The ERP of the TD group showed a pattern and topography of AV interaction effects consistent with activity within the superior temporal plane, with two dissociable effects over frontocentral and centroparietal regions. The posterior effect (200-300 ms interval) was specifically sensitive to lip movements in TD boys, and no AV modulation was observed in this region for the ASD group. Moreover, the magnitude of the posterior AV effect to visual speech correlated inversely with ASD symptomatology. In addition, the ASD boys showed an unexpected effect (P2 time window) over the frontocentral region (pooled electrodes F3, Fz, F4, FC1, FC2, FC3, FC4), which was sensitive to scrambled face stimuli. These results suggest that the neural networks facilitating processing of spoken words by visual speech are altered in individuals with ASD.

  1. Semantic Size and Contextual Congruency Effects during Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Cook, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent lexical decision studies have produced conflicting evidence about whether an object's semantic size influences word recognition. The present study examined this variable in online reading. Target words representing small and large objects were embedded in sentence contexts that were either neutral, congruent, or incongruent with respect to…

  2. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Digitalization of audio-visual resources combined with the performances of the networks offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in the scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has been developing MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The good of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable fast efficient retrieval from digital archives or filtering audiovisual broadcasts on the internet. How this kind of technologies could be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on Dublin Core standard and complaint to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform with enables to encode and give access to audio-visual resources in streaming mode.

  3. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Digitalization of audiovisual resources and network capability offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has developed MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The goal of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable efficient retrieval from digital archives or the filtering of audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet. How could this kind of technology be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on the Dublin Core standard and compliant to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and the UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform which enables encoding and gives access to audiovisual resources in streaming mode.

  4. When Hearing the Bark Helps to Identify the Dog: Semantically-Congruent Sounds Modulate the Identification of Masked Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the…

  5. Are Automatic Conceptual Cores the Gold Standard of Semantic Processing? The Context-Dependence of Spatial Meaning in Grounded Congruency Effects.

    PubMed

    Lebois, Lauren A M; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2015-11-01

    According to grounded cognition, words whose semantics contain sensory-motor features activate sensory-motor simulations, which, in turn, interact with spatial responses to produce grounded congruency effects (e.g., processing the spatial feature of up for sky should be faster for up vs. down responses). Growing evidence shows these congruency effects do not always occur, suggesting instead that the grounded features in a word's meaning do not become active automatically across contexts. Researchers sometimes use this as evidence that concepts are not grounded, further concluding that grounded information is peripheral to the amodal cores of concepts. We first review broad evidence that words do not have conceptual cores, and that even the most salient features in a word's meaning are not activated automatically. Then, in three experiments, we provide further evidence that grounded congruency effects rely dynamically on context, with the central grounded features in a concept becoming active only when the current context makes them salient. Even when grounded features are central to a word's meaning, their activation depends on task conditions.

  6. Congruence Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Keith; Worrall, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Carl Rogers' definitions of congruence, and identifies four specific requirements for the concept and practice of therapeutic congruence. Examines the interface between congruence and the other necessary and sufficient conditions of change, drawing on examples from practice. (JPS)

  7. When hearing the bark helps to identify the dog: semantically-congruent sounds modulate the identification of masked pictures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2010-03-01

    We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the picture at a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) that varied between 0 and 533 ms (auditory lagging). The sound could be semantically congruent, semantically incongruent, or else neutral (white noise) with respect to the target picture. The results showed that when the onset of the picture and sound occurred simultaneously, a semantically-congruent sound improved, whereas a semantically-incongruent sound impaired, participants' picture identification performance, as compared to performance in the white-noise control condition. A significant facilitatory effect was also observed at SOAs of around 300 ms, whereas no such semantic congruency effects were observed at the longest interval (533 ms). These results therefore suggest that the neural representations associated with visual and auditory stimuli can interact in a shared semantic system. Furthermore, this crossmodal semantic interaction is not constrained by the need for the strict temporal coincidence of the constituent auditory and visual stimuli. We therefore suggest that audiovisual semantic interactions likely occur in a short-term buffer which rapidly accesses, and temporarily retains, the semantic representations of multisensory stimuli in order to form a coherent multisensory object representation. These results are explained in terms of Potter's (1993) notion of conceptual short-term memory.

  8. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio-visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes.

  9. Audiovisual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed is an eight module course in respiratory physiology that utilizes audiovisual cassettes and tapes. The topics include the lung, ventilation, blood flow, and breathing. It is rated excellent in content and quality. (SL)

  10. Congruence of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    By looking at the history of geometry and the concept of congruence in geometry we can get a new perspective on how to think about the closeness in meaning of two sentences. As in the analysis of congruence in geometry, a definite and concrete set of proposals about congruence of meaning depends essentially on the kind of theoretical framework…

  11. Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. HEATH/Closer Look Resource Center.

    The fact sheet presents a suggested evaluation framework for use in previewing audiovisual materials, a list of selected resources, and an annotated list of films which were shown at the AHSSPPE '83 Media Fair as part of the national conference of the Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Postsecondary Education. Evaluation…

  12. Audiovisual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  13. Dissociating Verbal and Nonverbal Audiovisual Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…

  14. Teacher Beliefs-Practice Congruency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Russell L.; Dobson, Judith E.

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are reasons why teacher beliefs-practice congruency is desirable. An argument is presented for teacher beliefs-practice congruency; reasons are established why congruency is neglected; and "dialogue" is presented as a process for arriving at congruency. (Authors/JM)

  15. Audiovisual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

    Information about the objects and events in the external world is received via multiple sense organs, especially via eyes and ears. For example, a singing bird can be heard and seen. Typically, audiovisual objects are detected, localized and identified more rapidly and accurately than objects which are perceived via only one sensory system (see, e.g. Welch and Warren, 1986; Stein and Meredith, 1993; de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003; Calvert et al., 2004). The ability of the central nervous system to utilize sensory inputs mediated by different sense organs is called multisensory processing.

  16. [Ventriloquism and audio-visual integration of voice and face].

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Kanaya, Shoko

    2012-07-01

    Presenting synchronous auditory and visual stimuli in separate locations creates the illusion that the sound originates from the direction of the visual stimulus. Participants' auditory localization bias, called the ventriloquism effect, has revealed factors affecting the perceptual integration of audio-visual stimuli. However, many studies on audio-visual processes have focused on performance in simplified experimental situations, with a single stimulus in each sensory modality. These results cannot necessarily explain our perceptual behavior in natural scenes, where various signals exist within a single sensory modality. In the present study we report the contributions of a cognitive factor, that is, the audio-visual congruency of speech, although this factor has often been underestimated in previous ventriloquism research. Thus, we investigated the contribution of speech congruency on the ventriloquism effect using a spoken utterance and two videos of a talking face. The salience of facial movements was also manipulated. As a result, when bilateral visual stimuli are presented in synchrony with a single voice, cross-modal speech congruency was found to have a significant impact on the ventriloquism effect. This result also indicated that more salient visual utterances attracted participants' auditory localization. The congruent pairing of audio-visual utterances elicited greater localization bias than did incongruent pairing, whereas previous studies have reported little dependency on the reality of stimuli in ventriloquism. Moreover, audio-visual illusory congruency, owing to the McGurk effect, caused substantial visual interference to auditory localization. This suggests that a greater flexibility in responding to multi-sensory environments exists than has been previously considered.

  17. Making and Using Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes nine articles that discuss audiovisuals in junior and senior high school libraries. Highlights include skills that various media require and foster; teaching students how to make effective audiovisuals; film production; state media contests; library orientation videos; slide-tape shows; photographic skills; and the use of audiovisuals to…

  18. The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No

  19. Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; Dahl, Sofia; Rocchesso, Davide; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Avanzini, Federico; Puce, Aina; Pollick, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos x three accents x nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual incongruency conditions x nine audiovisual delays were presented to 13 drummers and 13 novices. Participants gave forced-choice judgments of audiovisual synchrony. The results of Experiment 1 show an enhancement in experts' ability to detect asynchrony, especially for slower drumming tempos. In Experiment 2 an increase in sensitivity to asynchrony was found for incongruent stimuli; this increase, however, is attributable only to the novice group. Altogether the results indicated that through musical practice we learn to ignore variations in stimulus characteristics that otherwise would affect our multisensory integration processes.

  20. Neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing in a second language.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Visser, Maya; Alsius, Agnès; Pallier, Christophe; Avila Rivera, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of audiovisual speech processing have exclusively addressed listeners' native language (L1). Yet, several behavioural studies now show that AV processing plays an important role in non-native (L2) speech perception. The current fMRI study measured brain activity during auditory, visual, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent utterances in L1 and L2. BOLD responses to congruent AV speech in the pSTS were stronger than in either unimodal condition in both L1 and L2. Yet no differences in AV processing were expressed according to the language background in this area. Instead, the regions in the bilateral occipital lobe had a stronger congruency effect on the BOLD response (congruent higher than incongruent) in L2 as compared to L1. According to these results, language background differences are predominantly expressed in these unimodal regions, whereas the pSTS is similarly involved in AV integration regardless of language dominance.

  1. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

  2. Goal Congruence in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Lily; Neumann, Yoram

    1983-01-01

    A questionnaire administered to 150 undergraduates and 90 faculty members compared their relative levels of goal congruence with those of their university. Programs in medicine, social sciences, and engineering were studied. (JW)

  3. Papers in Semantics. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jae-Hak, Ed.; Kathol, Andreas, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Papers on semantic theory and research include: "Presupposition, Congruence, and Adverbs of Quantification" (Mike Calcagno); "A Unified Account of '(Ta)myen'-Conditionals in Korean" (Chan Chung); "Spanish 'imperfecto' and 'preterito': Truth Conditions and Aktionsart Effects in a Situation Semantics" (Alicia Cipria,…

  4. Congruence as a Predictor of Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lynette F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the relationship among nine measures of Holland's concept of congruence and their relationship to job stress used data from 154 workers. Iachan's M index was the best predictor of stress and strain. The relationship between congruence and stress was significant but dependent on the congruence measure used. (SK)

  5. AUDIOVISUAL SERVICES CATALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton Unified School District, CA.

    A CATALOG HAS BEEN PREPARED TO HELP TEACHERS SELECT AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS WHICH MIGHT BE HELPFUL IN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMS. INCLUDED ARE FILMSTRIPS, SLIDES, RECORDS, STUDY PRINTS, FILMS, TAPE RECORDINGS, AND SCIENCE EQUIPMENT. TEACHERS ARE REMINDED THAT THEY ARE NOT LIMITED TO USE OF THE SUGGESTED MATERIALS. APPROPRIATE GRADE LEVELS HAVE BEEN…

  6. Utilizing New Audiovisual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glen

    1975-01-01

    The University of Arizona's Agriculture Department has found that video cassette systems and 8 mm films are excellent audiovisual aids to classroom instruction at the high school level in small gasoline engines. Each system is capable of improving the instructional process for motor skill development. (MW)

  7. [Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs,…

  8. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  9. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  10. Audiovisuals in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…

  11. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  12. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  13. Visual stimulus locking of EEG is modulated by temporal congruency of auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schall, Sonja; Quigley, Cliodhna; Onat, Selim; König, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Disparate sensory streams originating from a common underlying event share similar dynamics, and this plays an important part in multisensory integration. Here we investigate audiovisual binding by presenting continuously changing, temporally congruent and incongruent stimuli. Recorded EEG signals are used to quantify spectrotemporal and waveform locking of neural activity to stimulus dynamics. Spectrotemporal analysis reveals locking to visual stimulus dynamics in both a broad alpha and the beta band. The properties of these effects suggest they are a correlate of bottom-up processing in the visual system. Waveform locking reveals two cortically distinct processes that lock to visual stimulus dynamics with differing topographies and time lags relative to the stimuli. Most importantly, these are modulated in strength by the congruency of an accompanying auditory stream. In addition, the waveform locking found at occipital electrodes shows an increase over stimulus duration for visual and congruent audiovisual stimuli. Hence we argue that these effects reflect audiovisual interaction. We thus propose that spectrotemporal and waveform locking reflect different mechanisms involved in the processing of dynamic audiovisual stimuli.

  14. Audiovisual Materials for Teaching Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronish, Sidney J.

    The Audiovisual Materials Evaluation Committee prepared this report to guide elementary and secondary teachers in their selection of supplementary economic education audiovisual materials. It updates a 1969 publication by adding 107 items to the original guide. Materials included in this report: (1) contain elements of economic analysis--facts,…

  15. The Audio-Visual Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babin, Pierre, Ed.

    A series of twelve essays discuss the use of audiovisuals in religious education. The essays are divided into three sections: one which draws on the ideas of Marshall McLuhan and other educators to explore the newest ideas about audiovisual language and faith, one that describes how to learn and use the new language of audio and visual images, and…

  16. Semantic processing of crowded stimuli?

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke; Knops, Andre; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    Effects of semantic processing of crowded characters were investigated using numbers as stimuli. In an identification task, typical spacing effects in crowding were replicated. Using the same stimuli in a magnitude comparison task, a smaller effect of spacing was observed as well as an effect of response congruency. These effects were replicated in a second experiment with varying stimulus-onset asynchronies. In addition, decreasing performance with increasing onset-asynchrony (so-called type-B masking) for incongruent flankers indicates semantic processing of target and flankers. The data show that semantic processing takes place even in crowded stimuli. This argues strongly against common accounts of crowding in terms of early stimulus-driven impairments of processing.

  17. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-03-31

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.

  18. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.

  19. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations. PMID:27029650

  20. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  1. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ.

  2. Congruence Approximations for Entrophy Endowed Hyperbolic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Building upon the standard symmetrization theory for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, congruence properties of the symmetrized system are explored. These congruence properties suggest variants of several stabilized numerical discretization procedures for hyperbolic equations (upwind finite-volume, Galerkin least-squares, discontinuous Galerkin) that benefit computationally from congruence approximation. Specifically, it becomes straightforward to construct the spatial discretization and Jacobian linearization for these schemes (given a small amount of derivative information) for possible use in Newton's method, discrete optimization, homotopy algorithms, etc. Some examples will be given for the compressible Euler equations and the nonrelativistic MHD equations using linear and quadratic spatial approximation.

  3. Congruence and Career Change in Employed Adults

    PubMed

    Oleski; Subich

    1996-12-01

    Holland's theory of congruence was applied to adults changing careers. Forty-two nontraditional students attending college to attain a new occupation were surveyed. The group's average experience in the work force was 14.5 years, and their average age was 34.4 years. Using the C index (Brown & Gore, 1994) and Kwak and Pulvino's (1982) K-P index to measure congruence, data supported the hypothesis that employed adults in the process of changing their careers move in a direction of greater congruence. Further, job satisfaction was correlated significantly with congruence as operationalized by the C index (r = .33, p < .03) and the K-P index (r = .32, p < .04).

  4. Congruences for the Andrews spt function

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Ramanujan-type congruences for the Andrews spt(n) partition function have been found for prime moduli 5 ≤ ℓ ≤ 37 in the work of Andrews [Andrews GE, (2008) J Reine Angew Math 624:133–142] and Garvan [Garvan F, (2010) Int J Number Theory 6:1–29]. We exhibit unexpectedly simple congruences for all ℓ≥5. Confirming a conjecture of Garvan, we show that if ℓ≥5 is prime and , then (mod ℓ). This congruence gives (ℓ - 1)/2 arithmetic progressions modulo ℓ3 which support a mod ℓ congruence. This result follows from the surprising fact that the reduction of a certain mock theta function modulo ℓ, for every ℓ≥5, is an eigenform of the Hecke operator T(ℓ2). PMID:21177432

  5. Top-down attention regulates the neural expression of audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Morís Fernández, Luis; Visser, Maya; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Ávila, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The interplay between attention and multisensory integration has proven to be a difficult question to tackle. There are almost as many studies showing that multisensory integration occurs independently from the focus of attention as studies implying that attention has a profound effect on integration. Addressing the neural expression of multisensory integration for attended vs. unattended stimuli can help disentangle this apparent contradiction. In the present study, we examine if selective attention to sound pitch influences the expression of audiovisual integration in both behavior and neural activity. Participants were asked to attend to one of two auditory speech streams while watching a pair of talking lips that could be congruent or incongruent with the attended speech stream. We measured behavioral and neural responses (fMRI) to multisensory stimuli under attended and unattended conditions while physical stimulation was kept constant. Our results indicate that participants recognized words more accurately from an auditory stream that was both attended and audiovisually (AV) congruent, thus reflecting a benefit due to AV integration. On the other hand, no enhancement was found for AV congruency when it was unattended. Furthermore, the fMRI results indicated that activity in the superior temporal sulcus (an area known to be related to multisensory integration) was contingent on attention as well as on audiovisual congruency. This attentional modulation extended beyond heteromodal areas to affect processing in areas classically recognized as unisensory, such as the superior temporal gyrus or the extrastriate cortex, and to non-sensory areas such as the motor cortex. Interestingly, attention to audiovisual incongruence triggered responses in brain areas related to conflict processing (i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula). Based on these results, we hypothesize that AV speech integration can take place automatically only when both

  6. Towards Postmodernist Television: INA's Audiovisual Magazine Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Bowman, Susan

    Over the last 10 years, French television's Institute of Audiovisual Communication (INA) has shifted from modernist to post-modernist practice in broadcasting in a series of innovative audiovisual magazine programs about communication, and in a series of longer "compilation" documentaries. The first of INA's audiovisual magazines,…

  7. Neurofunctional underpinnings of audiovisual emotion processing in teens with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A R; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B C

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n = 18) and typically developing controls (n = 16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system.

  8. Neurofunctional Underpinnings of Audiovisual Emotion Processing in Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A.R.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n = 18) and typically developing controls (n = 16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system. PMID:23750139

  9. Audiovisual Resources for Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilds, Thomas, Comp.; And Others

    Provided is a compilation of recently annotated audiovisual materials which present techniques, models, or other specific information that can aid in providing comprehensive services to the handicapped. Entries which include a brief description, name of distributor, technical information, and cost are presented alphabetically by title in eight…

  10. Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.

    The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

  11. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  12. Audiovisual Materials for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.

    This list of audiovisual materials for environmental education was prepared by the State of Minnesota, Department of Education, Division of Instruction, to accompany the pilot curriculum in environmental education. The majority of the materials listed are available from the University of Minnesota, or from state or federal agencies. The…

  13. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  14. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  15. An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…

  16. Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, King-Shy; Miyahara, Koji; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay

    2003-12-01

    Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM_Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into W8-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each chunk with a commercial/program label. In contrast to other methods, we do not make any assumptions regarding the program content. Thus, our method is highly content-adaptive and computationally inexpensive. Through empirical studies on various content, including American news, Japanese news, and sports programs, we demonstrate that our method is able to filter out most of the commercials without falsely removing the regular program.

  17. An Investigation of Person-Environment Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Marissa Johnstun

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesis derived from Holland's (1997) theory of personality and environment that congruence between person and environment would influence satisfaction with doctoral training environments and career certainty. Doctoral students' (N = 292) vocational interests were measured using questions from the Interest Item Pool, and…

  18. A Congruence Approach to Syntax and Codeswitching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebba, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Argues that an adequate theory of codeswitching syntax is one that holds that the actual nature of the switching is relative not only to the language pairs, but also to other situational factors. Suggests that congruence of categories is constructed by bilinguals in a given situation with four alternative outcomes for the given candidate switch:…

  19. Some Extensions of the Iachan Congruence Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachan, Ronaldo

    1990-01-01

    Extends Iachan's congruence index (1984) to cover situations when ties occur in three-letter codes (as used in Holland's vocational theory) and when only two top letters are recorded and/or used. Suggests methodologies for breaking ties and for measuring agreement between two-letter codes and includes computer algorithm for computing the index.…

  20. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    PubMed

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  1. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    PubMed Central

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

  2. The effects of stereo disparity on the behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of perception of audio-visual motion in depth.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil R; Witheridge, Sian; Makin, Alexis; Wuerger, Sophie M; Pegna, Alan J; Meyer, Georg F

    2015-11-01

    Motion is represented by low-level signals, such as size-expansion in vision or loudness changes in the auditory modality. The visual and auditory signals from the same object or event may be integrated and facilitate detection. We explored behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of congruent and incongruent audio-visual depth motion in conditions where auditory level changes, visual expansion, and visual disparity cues were manipulated. In Experiment 1 participants discriminated auditory motion direction whilst viewing looming or receding, 2D or 3D, visual stimuli. Responses were faster and more accurate for congruent than for incongruent audio-visual cues, and the congruency effect (i.e., difference between incongruent and congruent conditions) was larger for visual 3D cues compared to 2D cues. In Experiment 2, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected during presentation of the 2D and 3D, looming and receding, audio-visual stimuli, while participants detected an infrequent deviant sound. Our main finding was that audio-visual congruity was affected by retinal disparity at an early processing stage (135-160ms) over occipito-parietal scalp. Topographic analyses suggested that similar brain networks were activated for the 2D and 3D congruity effects, but that cortical responses were stronger in the 3D condition. Differences between congruent and incongruent conditions were observed between 140-200ms, 220-280ms, and 350-500ms after stimulus onset.

  3. Interplay Between the Object and Its Symbol: The Size-Congruency Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Manqiong; Xie, Jiushu; Liu, Wenjuan; Lin, Wenjie; Chen, Zhuoming; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Wang, Ruiming

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that conceptual processing shares cognitive resources with perceptual processing. Hence, conceptual processing should be affected by perceptual processing, and vice versa. The current study explored the relationship between conceptual and perceptual processing of size. Within a pair of words, we manipulated the font size of each word, which was either congruent or incongruent with the actual size of the referred object. In Experiment 1a, participants compared object sizes that were referred to by word pairs. Higher accuracy was observed in the congruent condition (e.g., word pairs referring to larger objects in larger font sizes) than in the incongruent condition. This is known as the size-congruency effect. In Experiments 1b and 2, participants compared the font sizes of these word pairs. The size-congruency effect was not observed. In Experiments 3a and 3b, participants compared object and font sizes of word pairs depending on a task cue. Results showed that perceptual processing affected conceptual processing, and vice versa. This suggested that the association between conceptual and perceptual processes may be bidirectional but further modulated by semantic processing. Specifically, conceptual processing might only affect perceptual processing when semantic information is activated. The current study PMID:27512529

  4. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System

    PubMed Central

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., “kiss” in footstep sound context; “kick” in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound–word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  5. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System.

    PubMed

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-05-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., "kiss" in footstep sound context; "kick" in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound-word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain.

  6. Gender affects semantic competition: the effect of gender in a non-gender-marking language.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete

    2013-07-01

    English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an alternative hypothesis is that the competitor's gender congruence affects semantic competition, making the referent less accessible relative to when the competitor has a different gender (Arnold & Griffin, 2007). Experiment 1 found that even in Finnish, which is a nongendered language, the competitor's gender congruence results in fewer pronouns, supporting the semantic competition account. In Experiment 2, Finnish native speakers took part in an English version of the same experiment. The effect of gender congruence was larger in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that the presence of a same-gender competitor resulted in a larger reduction in pronoun use in English than in Finnish. In contrast, other nonlinguistic similarity had similar effects in both experiments. This indicates that the effect of gender congruence in English is not entirely driven by semantic competition: Speakers also avoid gender-ambiguous pronouns.

  7. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples.

  8. AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTION, AN ADMINISTRATIVE HANDBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    THIS HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED FOR USE BY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN DEVELOPING A TOTAL AUDIOVISUAL (AV) PROGRAM. ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA TO EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION, ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS FOR AN AV PROGRAM, BUDGETING FOR AV INSTRUCTION, PROPER UTILIZATION OF AV MATERIALS, SELECTION OF AV EQUIPMENT AND…

  9. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping.

  10. Solar Energy Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This directory presents an annotated bibliography of non-print information resources dealing with solar energy. The document is divided by type of audio-visual medium, including: (1) Films, (2) Slides and Filmstrips, and (3) Videotapes. A fourth section provides addresses and telephone numbers of audiovisual aids sources, and lists the page…

  11. A Guide for Audiovisual and Newer Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, William D.

    One of the principal values of audiovisual materials is that they permit the teacher to depart from verbal and printed symbolism, and at the same time to provide a wider real or vicarious experience for pupils. This booklet is designed to aid the teacher in using audiovisual material effectively. It covers visual displays, non-projected materials,…

  12. Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

    An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

  13. Emotionally charged earcons reveal affective congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P M C; De Haan, A; Van Galen, G P; Meulenbroek, R G J

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, the affective impact of earcons on stimulus classification is investigated. We show, using a picture-categorization task, that the affective connotation of earcons in major and minor mode (representing positive and negative valence, respectively) can be congruent or incongruent with response valence. Twenty participants classified pictures of animals and instruments in 256 trials, using positive and negative Yes or No responses. Together with the pictures, either a chord in major mode or minor mode was played. The affective valence of the chords either did or did not match the valence of responses. Response-time latencies show congruency effects of the matching and non matching sound and response valences, indicating that it is important to carefully investigate human-computer interfaces for potential affective congruency effects, as these can either facilitate or inhibit user performance.

  14. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  15. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  16. Attention rivalry under irrelevant audiovisual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2008-06-13

    Audiovisual integration has been known to enhance perception; nevertheless, another fundamental audiovisual interaction, i.e. attention rivalry, has not been well investigated. This paper studied the attention rivalry under irrelevant audiovisual stimulation using event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral analysis, and tested the existence of a vision dominated rivalry model. Participants need respond to the target in a bi- or unimodal audiovisual stimulation paradigm. The enhanced amplitude of central P300 under visual target bimodal stimulus indicated that vision demanded more cognitive resources, and the significant amplitude of frontal P200 under bimodal stimulus with non-target auditory stimulus implied that the brain mostly restrained the process of the non-target auditory information. ERP results, together with the analysis of the behavioral data and the subtraction waves, indicated a vision dominated attention rivalry model involved in audiovisual interaction. Furthermore, the latencies of P200 and P300 components implied that audiovisual attention rivalry occurred within the first 300ms after stimulus onset, i.e. significant differences were found in P200 latencies among three target bimodal stimuli, while no difference existed in P300 latencies. Attention shifting and re-directing might be the cause of such early audiovisual rivalry.

  17. Effect of Perceptual Load on Semantic Access by Speech in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method: Children ("N" = 200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multimodal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual- dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal task had a low load,…

  18. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  19. Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences.

  20. Variational guidewire tracking using phase congruency.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Greg; Kong, Koon; Unal, Gozde; Fang, Tong

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel method to track a guidewire in cardiac x-ray video. Using variational calculus, we derive differential equations that deform a spline, subject to intrinsic and extrinsic forces, so that it matches the image data, remains smooth, and preserves an a priori length. We analytically derive these equations from first principles, and show how they include tangential terms, which we include in our model. To address the poor contrast often observed in x-ray video, we propose using phase congruency as an image-based feature. Experimental results demonstrate the success of the method in tracking guidewires in low contrast x-ray video.

  1. Audio-visual simultaneity judgments.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Guest, Steve; Shore, David I; Spence, Charles

    2005-04-01

    The relative spatiotemporal correspondence between sensory events affects multisensory integration across a variety of species; integration is maximal when stimuli in different sensory modalities are presented from approximately the same position at about the same time. In the present study, we investigated the influence of spatial and temporal factors on audio-visual simultaneity perception in humans. Participants made unspeeded simultaneous versus successive discrimination responses to pairs of auditory and visual stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies from either the same or different spatial positions using either the method of constant stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) or psychophysical staircases (Experiment 3). The participants in all three experiments were more likely to report the stimuli as being simultaneous when they originated from the same spatial position than when they came from different positions, demonstrating that the apparent perception of multisensory simultaneity is dependent on the relative spatial position from which stimuli are presented.

  2. An Audio-Visual Approach to Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearnshaw, Trevor

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development of an audiovisual training course in duck husbandry which consists of synchronized tapes and slides. The production of the materials, equipment needs, operations, cost, and advantages of the program are discussed. (BM)

  3. Congruence and Welsh-English Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to elucidating the notion of congruence in code-switching with particular reference to Welsh-English data. It has been suggested that a sufficient degree of congruence or equivalence between the constituents of one language and another is necessary in order for code-switching to take place. We shall distinguish…

  4. Congruence Extended: A Setting for Activity in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, Gail; Weinstein, Marian

    1976-01-01

    An activity-based unit on congruence and similarity is described. The themes underlying the unit are the usefulness of analogy in determining mathematical principles, and the notion that the number of conditions imposed on figures affects the number of factors which must be specified to insure congruence or similarity. (SD)

  5. Environmental Congruence, Group Importance, and Well-Being among Paratroopers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal-Halevi, Anat

    2001-01-01

    Israeli paratroopers (n=267) completed measures of group importance, role satisfaction, vocational interests, and somatic complaints. Group importance correlated with satisfaction and somatic complaints; congruence with environment did not. Congruence interacted with group importance to enhance satisfaction. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  6. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  7. Ways of making-sense: Local gamma synchronization reveals differences between semantic processing induced by music and language.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Paulo; Chavez, Mario; Rodríguez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Similar to linguistic stimuli, music can also prime the meaning of a subsequent word. However, it is so far unknown what is the brain dynamics underlying the semantic priming effect induced by music, and its relation to language. To elucidate these issues, we compare the brain oscillatory response to visual words that have been semantically primed either by a musical excerpt or by an auditory sentence. We found that semantic violation between music-word pairs triggers a classical ERP N400, and induces a sustained increase of long-distance theta phase synchrony, along with a transient increase of local gamma activity. Similar results were observed after linguistic semantic violation except for gamma activity, which increased after semantic congruence between sentence-word pairs. Our findings indicate that local gamma activity is a neural marker that signals different ways of semantic processing between music and language, revealing the dynamic and self-organized nature of the semantic processing.

  8. The N400 reveals how personal semantics is processed: Insights into the nature and organization of self-knowledge.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Jason C; Federmeier, Kara D

    2016-04-01

    There is growing recognition that some important forms of long-term memory are difficult to classify into one of the well-studied memory subtypes. One example is personal semantics. Like the episodes that are stored as part of one's autobiography, personal semantics is linked to an individual, yet, like general semantic memory, it is detached from a specific encoding context. Access to general semantics elicits an electrophysiological response known as the N400, which has been characterized across three decades of research; surprisingly, this response has not been fully examined in the context of personal semantics. In this study, we assessed responses to congruent and incongruent statements about people's own, personal preferences. We found that access to personal preferences elicited N400 responses, with congruency effects that were similar in latency and distribution to those for general semantic statements elicited from the same participants. These results suggest that the processing of personal and general semantics share important functional and neurobiological features.

  9. An ALE Meta-Analysis on the Audiovisual Integration of Speech Signals

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Laura C.; Heeg, Elizabeth; Rauschecker, Josef P.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    The brain improves speech processing through the integration of audiovisual (AV) signals. Situations involving AV speech integration may be crudely dichotomized into those where auditory and visual inputs contain 1) equivalent, complementary signals (validating AV speech), or 2) inconsistent, different signals (conflicting AV speech). This simple framework may allow for the systematic examination of broad commonalities and differences between AV neural processes engaged by various experimental paradigms frequently used to study AV speech integration. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 22 functional imaging studies comprising 33 experiments, 311 subjects, and 347 foci examining “conflicting” versus “validating” AV speech. Experimental paradigms included content congruency, timing synchrony, and perceptual measures, such as the McGurk effect or synchrony judgments, across AV speech stimulus types (sub-lexical to sentence). Co-localization of conflicting AV speech experiments revealed consistency across at least two contrast types (e.g., synchrony and congruency) in a network of dorsal-stream regions in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. There was consistency across all contrast types (synchrony, congruency, and percept) in the bilateral posterior superior/middle temporal cortex. Although fewer studies were available, validating AV speech experiments were localized to other regions, such as ventral-stream visual areas in the occipital and inferior temporal cortex. These results suggest that while equivalent, complementary AV speech signals may evoke activity in regions related to the corroboration of sensory input, conflicting AV speech signals recruit widespread dorsal-stream areas likely involved in the resolution of conflicting sensory signals. PMID:24996043

  10. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    PubMed Central

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. PMID:25468667

  11. The perception of geometrical structure from congruence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lappin, Joseph S.; Wason, Thomas D.

    1989-01-01

    The principle function of vision is to measure the environment. As demonstrated by the coordination of motor actions with the positions and trajectories of moving objects in cluttered environments and by rapid recognition of solid objects in varying contexts from changing perspectives, vision provides real-time information about the geometrical structure and location of environmental objects and events. The geometric information provided by 2-D spatial displays is examined. It is proposed that the geometry of this information is best understood not within the traditional framework of perspective trigonometry, but in terms of the structure of qualitative relations defined by congruences among intrinsic geometric relations in images of surfaces. The basic concepts of this geometrical theory are outlined.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Congruence and Well-Being Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Moti; Meir, Elchanan I.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes results of meta-analysis on findings of 41 different studies, yielding 77 correlation coefficients between measures of personality-environment congruence and well-being. Demonstrates congruence-achievement and congruence-stability correlations of .06 and .15 respectively, and a mean congruence-satisfaction correlation of .21, and after…

  13. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  14. Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2011-05-15

    We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

  15. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect in ASL: the role of semantics vs. perception*

    PubMed Central

    SECORA, KRISTEN; EMMOREY, KAREN

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition propose that humans use sensorimotor systems in processing language. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect (ACE) refers to the finding that motor responses are facilitated after comprehending sentences that imply movement in the same direction. In sign languages there is a potential conflict between sensorimotor systems and linguistic semantics: movement away from the signer is perceived as motion toward the comprehender. We examined whether perceptual processing of sign movement or verb semantics modulate the ACE. Deaf ASL signers performed a semantic judgment task while viewing signed sentences expressing toward or away motion. We found a significant congruency effect relative to the verb’s semantics rather than to the perceived motion. This result indicates that (a) the motor system is involved in the comprehension of a visual–manual language, and (b) motor simulations for sign language are modulated by verb semantics rather than by the perceived visual motion of the hands. PMID:26052352

  16. Govt. Pubs: U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korman, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Describes the availability of United States government-produced audiovisual materials and discusses two audiovisual clearinghouses--the National Audiovisual Center (NAC) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Finding aids made available by NAC, NLM, and other government agencies are mentioned. NAC and the U.S. Government Printing Office…

  17. Guidelines for Audio-Visual Services in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    The purpose of these guidelines, prepared by the Audio-Visual Committee of the Association of College and Research Libraries, is to supply basic assistance to those academic libraries that will assume all or a major portion of an audio-visual program. They attempt to assist librarians to recognize and develop their audio-visual responsibilities…

  18. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  19. Cataloging audiovisual materials: a new dimension.

    PubMed Central

    Knotts, M A; Mueller, D

    1975-01-01

    A new more comprehensive system for cataloging audiovisual materials is described. Existing audiovisual cataloging systems contain mostly descriptive information, publishers' or producers' summaries, and order information. This paper discusses the addition of measurable learning objectives to this standard information, thereby enabling the potential user to determine what can be learned from a particular audiovisual unit. The project included media in nursing only. A committee of faculty and students from the University of Alabama in Birmingham School of Nursing reviewed the materials. The system was field-tested at nursing schools throughout Alabama; the schools offered four different types of programs. The system and its sample product, the AVLOC catalog, were also evaluated by medical librarians, media specialists, and other nursing instructors throughout the United States. PMID:50106

  20. An Improvement on SSA Congruence for Geometry and Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshurun, Shraga; Kay, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Three ideas are explored: (1) an improvement of the SSA congruence theorem for trigonometry; (2) a discussion of the failure of SSA in spherical geometry; and (3) an extension of SSA to spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry. (MNS)

  1. The relation between body semantics and spatial body representations.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    The present study addressed the relation between body semantics (i.e. semantic knowledge about the human body) and spatial body representations, by presenting participants with word pairs, one below the other, referring to body parts. The spatial position of the word pairs could be congruent (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or incongruent (MOUTH / EYE) with respect to the spatial position of the words' referents. In addition, the spatial distance between the words' referents was varied, resulting in word pairs referring to body parts that are close (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or far in space (e.g. EYE / FOOT). A spatial congruency effect was observed when subjects made an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) but not when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1). In addition, when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1) reaction times increased with increased distance between the body parts but when making an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) reaction times decreased with increased distance. These findings suggest that the processing of body-semantics results in the activation of a detailed visuo-spatial body representation that is modulated by the specific task requirements. We discuss these new data with respect to theories of embodied cognition and body semantics.

  2. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions. PMID:26966646

  3. Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es

    2012-12-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.

  4. Emotional speech processing at the intersection of prosody and semantics.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rachel; Pell, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately perceive emotions is crucial for effective social interaction. Many questions remain regarding how different sources of emotional cues in speech (e.g., prosody, semantic information) are processed during emotional communication. Using a cross-modal emotional priming paradigm (Facial affect decision task), we compared the relative contributions of processing utterances with single-channel (prosody-only) versus multi-channel (prosody and semantic) cues on the perception of happy, sad, and angry emotional expressions. Our data show that emotional speech cues produce robust congruency effects on decisions about an emotionally related face target, although no processing advantage occurred when prime stimuli contained multi-channel as opposed to single-channel speech cues. Our data suggest that utterances with prosodic cues alone and utterances with combined prosody and semantic cues both activate knowledge that leads to emotional congruency (priming) effects, but that the convergence of these two information sources does not always heighten access to this knowledge during emotional speech processing.

  5. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  6. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  7. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  8. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  9. Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

  10. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  11. Audiovisual Equipment Self Instruction Manual. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Stanton C.

    An audiovisual equipment manual provides both the means of learning how to operate equipment and information needed to adjust equipment that is not performing properly. The manual covers the basic principles of operation for filmstrip-slide projectors, motion picture projectors, opaque projectors, overhead projectors, portable screens, record…

  12. A Selection of Audiovisual Materials on Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Kathleen; Rider, Sheila

    Disabled persons, family members, organizations, and libraries are often looking for materials to help inform, educate, or challenge them regarding the issues surrounding disabilities. This directory of audiovisual materials available from the State Library of Florida includes materials that present ideas and personal experiences covering a range…

  13. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  14. Audiovisual Facilities in Schools in Japan Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    This paper summarizes the findings of a national survey conducted for the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture in 1986 to determine the kinds of audiovisual equipment available in Japanese schools, together with the rate of diffusion for the various types of equipment, the amount of teacher participation in training for their use, and the…

  15. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  16. Balloons and bavoons versus spikes and shikes: ERPs reveal shared neural processes for shape-sound-meaning congruence in words, and shape-sound congruence in pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Sučević, Jelena; Savić, Andrej M; Popović, Mirjana B; Styles, Suzy J; Ković, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    There is something about the sound of a pseudoword like takete that goes better with a spiky, than a curvy shape (Köhler, 1929:1947). Yet despite decades of research into sound symbolism, the role of this effect on real words in the lexicons of natural languages remains controversial. We report one behavioural and one ERP study investigating whether sound symbolism is active during normal language processing for real words in a speaker's native language, in the same way as for novel word forms. The results indicate that sound-symbolic congruence has a number of influences on natural language processing: Written forms presented in a congruent visual context generate more errors during lexical access, as well as a chain of differences in the ERP. These effects have a very early onset (40-80 ms, 100-160 ms, 280-320 ms) and are later overshadowed by familiar types of semantic processing, indicating that sound symbolism represents an early sensory-co-activation effect.

  17. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  18. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  19. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  20. Attributes of Quality in Audiovisual Materials for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Emanuel; Waddell, Wendy H.

    1981-01-01

    Defines attributes of quality in content, instructional design, technical production, and packaging of audiovisual materials used in the education of health professionals. Seven references are listed. (FM)

  1. Stuttering and speech naturalness: audio and audiovisual judgments.

    PubMed

    Martin, R R; Haroldson, S K

    1992-06-01

    Unsophisticated raters, using 9-point interval scales, judged speech naturalness and stuttering severity of recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples. Raters judged separately the audio-only and audiovisual presentations of each sample. For speech naturalness judgments of stutterer samples, raters invariably judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample; but for the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings. Stuttering severity ratings did not differ significantly between audio and audiovisual presentations of the same samples. Rater reliability, interrater agreement, and intrarater agreement for speech naturalness judgments were assessed.

  2. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  3. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention.

  4. Achieving Congruence in Tavistock Groups: Empirical Findings and Implications for Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugel, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Examined acceptance and congruence in four Tavistock groups consisting of college student volunteers (N=30) using scales measuring curative factors, group process, and congruence. Found participants with higher rankings on the group acceptance measures experienced greater degrees of congruence following the group experience. Discusses implications…

  5. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  6. Congruence and Vocational Identity: Outcomes of Career Counseling with Persuasive Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.; Mourton, Don L.

    1985-01-01

    Examined whether congruence between occupational choice and inventoried interests and vocational identity related to typical career counseling outcomes in college students. Results showed that women higher in identity estimated higher career maturity; women high in congruence reported less anxiety; and women high in both congruence and identity…

  7. Epistemological Belief Congruency in Mathematics between Vocational Technology Students and Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Unruh, Susan; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Three questions were addressed in this study. Is there evidence of epistemological beliefs congruency between students and their instructor? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict mathematical anxiety? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict…

  8. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    PubMed Central

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  9. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  10. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  11. Improving Students' Attitudes toward Science Using Instructional Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Rohandi, Robertus; Jusoh, Azman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve students' attitudes toward science using instructional congruence. The study was conducted in Malaysia, in three low-performing secondary schools in the state of Penang. Data collected with an Attitudes in Science instrument were analysed using Rasch modeling. Qualitative data based on the reflections of…

  12. Congruence between Disabled Elders and Their Primary Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Amy; Goodman, Caryn R.; Reinhardt, Joann P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the extent and independent correlates of congruence between disabled elders and their caregivers on several aspects of the caregiving experience. Design and Methods: Participants were 117 visually impaired elders and their caregivers. Correlational analyses, kappa statistics, and paired t tests were used to examine the…

  13. Workplace Congruence and Occupational Outcomes among Social Service Workers

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Nicholas, David

    2016-01-01

    Workplace expectations reflect an important consideration in employee experience. A higher prevalence of workplace congruence between worker and employer expectations has been associated with higher levels of productivity and overall workplace satisfaction across multiple occupational groups. Little research has investigated the relationship between workplace congruence and occupational health outcomes among social service workers. This study sought to better understand the extent to which occupational congruence contributes to occupational outcomes by surveying unionised social service workers (n = 674) employed with the Government of Alberta, Canada. Multiple regression analysis shows that greater congruence between workplace and worker expectations around workloads, workplace values and the quality of the work environment significantly: (i) decreases symptoms related to distress and secondary traumatic stress; (ii) decreases intentions to leave; and (iii) increases overall life satisfaction. The findings provide some evidence of areas within the workplace of large government run social welfare programmes that can be better aligned to worker expectations to improve occupational outcomes among social service workers. PMID:27559216

  14. Predicting Engineering Major Status from Mathematics Achievement and Interest Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade C.; Robbins, Steven; Sawyer, Richard; Hovland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study proposed that precollege students' standardized mathematics achievement score and the congruence between their occupational interests and engineering tasks would predict their second-year retention in college and the stability of their major. Binary response models were used to predict second-year major status (i.e., continue, transfer…

  15. Partner choice, relationship satisfaction, and oral contraception: the congruency hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Cobey, Kelly D; Klapilová, Kateřina; Havlíček, Jan; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa; Petrie, Marion

    2014-07-01

    Hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle explains temporal variation in women's judgment of the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Use of hormonal contraceptives could therefore influence both initial partner choice and, if contraceptive use subsequently changes, intrapair dynamics. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and relationship satisfaction may thus be best understood by considering whether current use is congruent with use when relationships formed, rather than by considering current use alone. In the study reported here, we tested this congruency hypothesis in a survey of 365 couples. Controlling for potential confounds (including relationship duration, age, parenthood, and income), we found that congruency in current and previous hormonal contraceptive use, but not current use alone, predicted women's sexual satisfaction with their partners. Congruency was not associated with women's nonsexual satisfaction or with the satisfaction of their male partners. Our results provide empirical support for the congruency hypothesis and suggest that women's sexual satisfaction is influenced by changes in partner preference associated with change in hormonal contraceptive use.

  16. Caregivers' Retirement Congruency: A Case for Caregiver Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Aine M.; Keefe, Janice M.; Auton, Greg M.

    2012-01-01

    Using the concept of "retirement congruency" (RC), which takes into account greater variation in retirement decisions (low, moderate, or high RC) than a dichotomous conceptualization (forced versus chosen), multinomial logistic regression was conducted on a sample of caregivers from the 2002 Canadian General Social Survey who were…

  17. Congruency of scapula locking plates: implications for implant design.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew Y; DiStefano, James G; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Buckley, Jenni M; Montgomery, William H; Grimsrud, Chris D

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate the congruency of fit of current scapular plate designs. Three-dimensional image-processing and -analysis software, and computed tomography scans of 12 cadaveric scapulae were used to generate 3 measurements: mean distance from plate to bone, maximum distance, and percentage of plate surface within 2 mm of bone. These measurements were used to quantify congruency. The scapular spine plate had the most congruent fit in all 3 measured variables. The lateral border and glenoid plates performed statistically as well as the scapular spine plate in at least 1 of the measured variables. The medial border plate had the least optimal measurements in all 3 variables. With locking-plate technology used in a wide variety of anatomical locations, the locking scapula plate system can allow for a fixed-angle construct in this region. Our study results showed that the scapular spine, glenoid, and lateral border plates are adequate in terms of congruency. However, design improvements may be necessary for the medial border plate. In addition, we describe a novel method for quantifying hardware congruency, a method that can be applied to any anatomical location.

  18. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  19. MMPI--2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ronald B.; Jennings, Earl; Colotla, Victor A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Shercliffe, Regan J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for…

  20. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  1. Semantically Transparent and Opaque Compounds in German Noun-Phrase Production: Evidence for Morphemes in Speaking

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Antje; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the lexical representation and processing of noun-noun compounds and their grammatical gender during speech production in German, a language that codes for grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter). Using a picture-word interference paradigm, participants produced determiner-compound noun phrases in response to pictures, while ignoring written distractor words. Compound targets were either semantically transparent (e.g., birdhouse) or opaque (e.g., hotdog), and their constituent nouns either had the same or a different gender (internal gender match). Effects of gender-congruent but otherwise unrelated distractor nouns, and of two morphologically related distractors corresponding to the first or second constituent were assessed relative to a completely unrelated, gender-incongruent distractor baseline. Both constituent distractors strongly facilitated compound naming, and these effects were independent of the targets' semantic transparency. This supports retrieval of constituent morphemes for semantically transparent and opaque compounds during speech production. Furthermore, gender congruency between compounds and distractors did not speed up naming in general, but interacted with gender match of the compounds' constituent nouns, and their semantic transparency. A significant gender-congruency effect was obtained with semantically transparent compounds, consisting of two constituent nouns of the same gender, only. In principle, this pattern is compatible with a multiple lemma representation account for semantically transparent, but not for opaque compounds. The data also fit with a more parsimonious, holistic representation for all compounds at the lemma level, when differences in co-activation patterns for semantically transparent and opaque compounds are considered. PMID:28082925

  2. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  3. Development of Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony during Midchildhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    Temporal proximity is one of the key factors determining whether events in different modalities are integrated into a unified percept. Sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony has been studied in adults in great detail. However, how such sensitivity matures during childhood is poorly understood. We examined perception of audiovisual temporal…

  4. Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pula, Fred John

    Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

  5. Audiovisual Media and the Disabled. AV in Action 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Designed to provide information on public library services to the handicapped, this pamphlet contains case studies from three different countries on various aspects of the provision of audiovisual services to the disabled. The contents include: (1) "The Value of Audiovisual Materials in a Children's Hospital in Sweden" (Lis Byberg); (2)…

  6. The Audio-Visual Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Tom

    This how-to booklet offers specific advice on producing video or slide/tape programs for marketing independent schools. Five chapters present guidelines for various stages in the process: (1) Audio-Visual Marketing in Context (aesthetics and economics of audiovisual marketing); (2) A Question of Identity (identifying the audience and deciding on…

  7. Principles of Managing Audiovisual Materials and Equipment. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Biomedical Library.

    This manual offers information on a wide variety of health-related audiovisual materials (AVs) in many formats: video, motion picture, slide, filmstrip, audiocassette, transparencies, microfilm, and computer assisted instruction. Intended for individuals who are just learning about audiovisual materials and equipment management, the manual covers…

  8. Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

  9. Use of Audiovisual Texts in University Education Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksandrov, Evgeniy P.

    2014-01-01

    Audio-visual learning technologies offer great opportunities in the development of students' analytical and projective abilities. These technologies can be used in classroom activities and for homework. This article discusses the features of audiovisual media texts use in a series of social sciences and humanities in the University curriculum.

  10. Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

  11. Knowledge Generated by Audiovisual Narrative Action Research Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of…

  12. Perceived congruence between expectations and outcomes: implications for mental health among Caribbean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eleanor J; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on the psychological adjustment of immigrants has cited the perceived congruence between premigratory expectations and postmigratory realities as a primary determinant of psychological well-being. Using a sample of 137 first-generation Caribbean immigrants, a measure of the perceived congruence between expectations and outcomes was developed to examine the relationship between perceived congruence in various life domains, and indexes of psychological well being, such as anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction. Overall, perceived congruence was positively associated with life satisfaction and negatively associated with depression. Factor analyses revealed the presence of two reliable domains (social and professional) in the congruence measure. Perceived congruence in both domains was positively associated with life satisfaction, and perceived congruence in the professional domain was negatively associated with depression symptoms. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of differences in quality of experience features for test stimuli of good-only and bad-only overall audiovisual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Kunze, Kristina; Göbel, Klemens; Liebetrau, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Assessing audiovisual Quality of Experience (QoE) is a key element to ensure quality acceptance of today's multimedia products. The use of descriptive evaluation methods allows evaluating QoE preferences and the underlying QoE features jointly. From our previous evaluations on QoE for mobile 3D video we found that mainly one dimension, video quality, dominates the descriptive models. Large variations of the visual video quality in the tests may be the reason for these findings. A new study was conducted to investigate whether test sets of low QoE are described differently than those of high audiovisual QoE. Reanalysis of previous data sets seems to confirm this hypothesis. Our new study consists of a pre-test and a main test, using the Descriptive Sorted Napping method. Data sets of good-only and bad-only video quality were evaluated separately. The results show that the perception of bad QoE is mainly determined one-dimensionally by visual artifacts, whereas the perception of good quality shows multiple dimensions. Here, mainly semantic-related features of the content and affective descriptors are used by the naïve test participants. The results show that, with increasing QoE of audiovisual systems, content semantics and users' a_ective involvement will become important for assessing QoE differences.

  14. The Natural Statistics of Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Trubanova, Andrea; Stillittano, Sébastien; Caplier, Alice; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, are exposed to a continuous stream of signals, which are dynamic, multimodal, extended, and time varying in nature. This complex input space must be transduced and sampled by our sensory systems and transmitted to the brain where it can guide the selection of appropriate actions. To simplify this process, it's been suggested that the brain exploits statistical regularities in the stimulus space. Tests of this idea have largely been confined to unimodal signals and natural scenes. One important class of multisensory signals for which a quantitative input space characterization is unavailable is human speech. We do not understand what signals our brain has to actively piece together from an audiovisual speech stream to arrive at a percept versus what is already embedded in the signal structure of the stream itself. In essence, we do not have a clear understanding of the natural statistics of audiovisual speech. In the present study, we identified the following major statistical features of audiovisual speech. First, we observed robust correlations and close temporal correspondence between the area of the mouth opening and the acoustic envelope. Second, we found the strongest correlation between the area of the mouth opening and vocal tract resonances. Third, we observed that both area of the mouth opening and the voice envelope are temporally modulated in the 2–7 Hz frequency range. Finally, we show that the timing of mouth movements relative to the onset of the voice is consistently between 100 and 300 ms. We interpret these data in the context of recent neural theories of speech which suggest that speech communication is a reciprocally coupled, multisensory event, whereby the outputs of the signaler are matched to the neural processes of the receiver. PMID:19609344

  15. The natural statistics of audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Trubanova, Andrea; Stillittano, Sébastien; Caplier, Alice; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-07-01

    Humans, like other animals, are exposed to a continuous stream of signals, which are dynamic, multimodal, extended, and time varying in nature. This complex input space must be transduced and sampled by our sensory systems and transmitted to the brain where it can guide the selection of appropriate actions. To simplify this process, it's been suggested that the brain exploits statistical regularities in the stimulus space. Tests of this idea have largely been confined to unimodal signals and natural scenes. One important class of multisensory signals for which a quantitative input space characterization is unavailable is human speech. We do not understand what signals our brain has to actively piece together from an audiovisual speech stream to arrive at a percept versus what is already embedded in the signal structure of the stream itself. In essence, we do not have a clear understanding of the natural statistics of audiovisual speech. In the present study, we identified the following major statistical features of audiovisual speech. First, we observed robust correlations and close temporal correspondence between the area of the mouth opening and the acoustic envelope. Second, we found the strongest correlation between the area of the mouth opening and vocal tract resonances. Third, we observed that both area of the mouth opening and the voice envelope are temporally modulated in the 2-7 Hz frequency range. Finally, we show that the timing of mouth movements relative to the onset of the voice is consistently between 100 and 300 ms. We interpret these data in the context of recent neural theories of speech which suggest that speech communication is a reciprocally coupled, multisensory event, whereby the outputs of the signaler are matched to the neural processes of the receiver.

  16. The Use of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching: A Study in the Saudi Girls Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal A.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of faculty in girls colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, investigated teaching experience, academic rank, importance of audiovisual aids, teacher training, availability of audiovisual centers, and reasons for not using audiovisual aids. Proposes changes to increase use of audiovisual aids: more training courses, more teacher release time,…

  17. Minding the PS, queues, and PXQs: Uniformity of semantic processing across multiple stimulus types

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    An assumption in the reading literature is that access to semantics is gated by stimulus properties such as orthographic regularity or familiarity. In the electrophysiological domain, this assumption has led to a debate about the features necessary to initiate semantic processing as indexed by theN400 event-related potential (ERP) component. To examine this, we recorded ERPs to sentences with endings that were familiar and legal (words), familiar and illegal (acronyms), or unfamiliar and illegal (consonant or vowel strings). N400 congruency effects (reduced negativity to expected relative to unexpected endings) were observed for words and acronyms; these were identical in size, timing, and scalp distribution. Notably, clear N400 potentials were also elicited by unfamiliar, illegal strings, suggesting that, at least in a verbal context, semantic access may be attempted for any letter string, regardless of familiarity or regularity. PMID:18221447

  18. Personalizing politics: a congruency model of political preference.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2004-10-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions.

  19. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  20. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  1. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations. PMID:27551918

  2. Crossmodal Congruency Benefits for Tactile and Visual Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    SIGNALING James L. Merlo , Ricard Gilson, Peter .A. Hancock University of Central Florida Office of Research University of Central Florida Orlando, FL 32826...154193120805201830 2008 52: 1297Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting James L. Merlo , Richard Gilson and P. A. Hancock Crossmodal...CONGRUENCY BENEFITS FOR TACTILE AND VISUAL SIGNALING James L. Merlo Richard Gilson P. A. Hancock United

  3. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  4. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  5. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  6. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H. Charles; Russo, Frank A.; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants’ ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants’ ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception. PMID:27760134

  7. Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepping, C.; Bethmann, F.; Luhmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking) that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis). For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

  8. Instruction-based task-rule congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Wenke, Dorit; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of task sets that were never applied before and were formed only on the basis of instructions. We tested if such task sets could elicit a task-rule congruency effect, which implies the automatic activation of responses in the context of another task. To this end, a novel procedure was developed that revealed instruction-based task-rule congruency effects in 2 experiments. Although the effect seems quite general (Experiment 1), it still necessitates the formation of a task set, as it cannot be induced by the mere maintenance of instructions in declarative working memory (Experiment 2). We conclude that a task set representing only key features of an upcoming task can be formed on the basis of instructions alone to such a degree that it can automatically trigger a response tendency in another task. Implications of our results for the impact of instructions on performance in general and for the occurrence of task-rule congruency effects in particular are discussed.

  9. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions.

  10. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions. PMID:26750244

  11. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  12. Future-saving audiovisual content for Data Science: Preservation of geoinformatics video heritage with the TIB|AV-Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    of Science and Technology. The web-based portal allows for extended search capabilities based on enhanced metadata derived by automated video analysis. By combining state-of-the-art multimedia retrieval techniques such as speech-, text-, and image recognition with semantic analysis, content-based access to videos at the segment level is provided. Further, by using the open standard Media Fragment Identifier (MFID), a citable Digital Object Identifier is displayed for each video segment. In addition to the continuously growing footprint of contemporary content, the importance of vintage audiovisual information needs to be considered: This paper showcases the successful application of the TIB|AV-Portal in the preservation and provision of a newly discovered version of a GRASS GIS promotional video produced by US Army -Corps of Enginers Laboratory (US-CERL) in 1987. The video is provides insight into the constraints of the very early days of the GRASS GIS project, which is the oldest active Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) GIS project which has been active for over thirty years. GRASS itself has turned into a collaborative scientific platform and a repository of scientific peer-reviewed code and algorithm/knowledge hub for future generation of scientists [1]. This is a reference case for future preservation activities regarding semantic-enhanced Web 2.0 content from geospatial software projects within Academia and beyond. References: [1] Chemin, Y., Petras V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P.: GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research Repository, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-8314-1, 2015 (submitted)

  13. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  14. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  15. Integration of Sentence-Level Semantic Information in Parafovea: Evidence from the RSVP-Flanker Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjia; Li, Nan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    During text reading, the parafoveal word was usually presented between 2° and 5° from the point of fixation. Whether semantic information of parafoveal words can be processed during sentence reading is a critical and long-standing issue. Recently, studies using the RSVP-flanker paradigm have shown that the incongruent parafoveal word, presented as right flanker, elicited a more negative N400 compared with the congruent parafoveal word. This suggests that the semantic information of parafoveal words can be extracted and integrated during sentence reading, because the N400 effect is a classical index of semantic integration. However, as most previous studies did not control the word-pair congruency of the parafoveal and the foveal words that were presented in the critical triad, it is still unclear whether such integration happened at the sentence level or just at the word-pair level. The present study addressed this question by manipulating verbs in Chinese sentences to yield either a semantically congruent or semantically incongruent context for the critical noun. In particular, the interval between the critical nouns and verbs was controlled to be 4 or 5 characters. Thus, to detect the incongruence of the parafoveal noun, participants had to integrate it with the global sentential context. The results revealed that the N400 time-locked to the critical triads was more negative in incongruent than in congruent sentences, suggesting that parafoveal semantic information can be integrated at the sentence level during Chinese reading.

  16. An audiovisual database of English speech sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Stefan A.; Nikjeh, Dee Adams

    2003-10-01

    A preliminary audiovisual database of English speech sounds has been developed for teaching purposes. This database contains all Standard English speech sounds produced in isolated words in word initial, word medial, and word final position, unless not allowed by English phonotactics. There is one example of each word spoken by a male and a female talker. The database consists of an audio recording, video of the face from a 45 deg angle off of center, and ultrasound video of the tongue in the mid-saggital plane. The files contained in the database are suitable for examination by the Wavesurfer freeware program in audio or video modes [Sjolander and Beskow, KTH Stockholm]. This database is intended as a multimedia reference for students in phonetics or speech science. A demonstration and plans for further development will be presented.

  17. Multimodal Feature Integration in the Angular Gyrus during Episodic and Semantic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Heidi M.; Richter, Franziska R.; Yazar, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Much evidence from distinct lines of investigation indicates the involvement of angular gyrus (AnG) in the retrieval of both episodic and semantic information, but the region's precise function and whether that function differs across episodic and semantic retrieval have yet to be determined. We used univariate and multivariate fMRI analysis methods to examine the role of AnG in multimodal feature integration during episodic and semantic retrieval. Human participants completed episodic and semantic memory tasks involving unimodal (auditory or visual) and multimodal (audio-visual) stimuli. Univariate analyses revealed the recruitment of functionally distinct AnG subregions during the retrieval of episodic and semantic information. Consistent with a role in multimodal feature integration during episodic retrieval, significantly greater AnG activity was observed during retrieval of integrated multimodal episodic memories compared with unimodal episodic memories. Multivariate classification analyses revealed that individual multimodal episodic memories could be differentiated in AnG, with classification accuracy tracking the vividness of participants' reported recollections, whereas distinct unimodal memories were represented in sensory association areas only. In contrast to episodic retrieval, AnG was engaged to a statistically equivalent degree during retrieval of unimodal and multimodal semantic memories, suggesting a distinct role for AnG during semantic retrieval. Modality-specific sensory association areas exhibited corresponding activity during both episodic and semantic retrieval, which mirrored the functional specialization of these regions during perception. The results offer new insights into the integrative processes subserved by AnG and its contribution to our subjective experience of remembering. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using univariate and multivariate fMRI analyses, we provide evidence that functionally distinct subregions of angular gyrus (An

  18. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2015-07-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing the precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate that oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to acoustic information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration

  19. Effect of perceptual load on semantic access by speech in children

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervè

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method Children (N=200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multi-modal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual-dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal had a low load, and the multi-modal had a high load [i.e., respectively naming pictures displayed 1) on a blank screen vs 2) below the talker’s face on his T-shirt]. Semantic content of distractors was manipulated to be related vs unrelated to picture (e.g., picture dog with distractors bear vs cheese). Lavie's (2005) perceptual load model proposes that semantic access is independent of capacity limited attentional resources if irrelevant semantic-content manipulation influences naming times on both tasks despite variations in loads but dependent on attentional resources exhausted by higher load task if irrelevant content influences naming only on cross-modal (low load). Results Irrelevant semantic content affected performance for both tasks in 6- to 9-year-olds, but only on cross-modal in 4–5-year-olds. The addition of visual speech did not influence results on the multi-modal task. Conclusion Younger and older children differ in dependence on attentional resources for semantic access by speech. PMID:22896045

  20. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  1. Phylogenetic congruence and ecological coherence in terrestrial Thaumarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Oton, Eduard Vico; Quince, Christopher; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota form a ubiquitously distributed archaeal phylum, comprising both the ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and other archaeal groups in which ammonia oxidation has not been demonstrated (including Group 1.1c and Group 1.3). The ecology of AOA in terrestrial environments has been extensively studied using either a functional gene, encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, which show phylogenetic coherence with respect to soil pH. To test phylogenetic congruence between these two markers and to determine ecological coherence in all Thaumarchaeota, we performed high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes in 46 UK soils presenting 29 available contextual soil characteristics. Adaptation to pH and organic matter content reflected strong ecological coherence at various levels of taxonomic resolution for Thaumarchaeota (AOA and non-AOA), whereas nitrogen, total mineralisable nitrogen and zinc concentration were also important factors associated with AOA thaumarchaeotal community distribution. Other significant associations with environmental factors were also detected for amoA and 16S rRNA genes, reflecting different diversity characteristics between these two markers. Nonetheless, there was significant statistical congruence between the markers at fine phylogenetic resolution, supporting the hypothesis of low horizontal gene transfer between Thaumarchaeota. Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota were also widely distributed, with two clusters predominating, particularly in environments with higher moisture content and organic matter, whereas a similar ecological pattern was observed for Group 1.3 Thaumarchaeota. The ecological and phylogenetic congruence identified is fundamental to understand better the life strategies, evolutionary history and ecosystem function of the Thaumarchaeota.

  2. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    PubMed

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  3. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lobben, Marit; D’Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded. PMID:26379611

  4. The N400 reveals how personal semantics is processed: Insights into the nature and organization of self-knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition that some important forms of long-term memory are difficult to classify into one of the well-studied memory subtypes. One example is personal semantics. Like the episodes that are stored as part of one’s autobiography, personal semantics is linked to an individual, yet, like general semantic memory, it is detached from a specific encoding context. Access to general semantics elicits an electrophysiological response known as the N400, which has been characterized across three decades of research; surprisingly, this response has not been fully examined in the context of personal semantics. In this study, we assessed responses to congruent and incongruent statements about people’s own, personal preferences. We found that access to personal preferences elicited N400 responses, with congruency effects that were similar in latency and distribution to those for general semantic statements elicited from the same participants. These results suggest that the processing of personal and general semantics share important functional and neurobiological features. PMID:26825011

  5. Self-Concept and Degree of Congruence between Vocational Interests and Academic Major in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gaylen R.; Walker, Susan P.

    Several writers have hypothesized that college students highest in degree of congruence between their college major and their personality type tend to have the highest level of achievement, satisfaction, and stability. This study investigated congruency between college students' vocational interests and their chosen academic major as an…

  6. Values Congruence: Its Effect on Perceptions of Montana Elementary School Principal Leadership Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Daniel Roy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between principal and teacher values congruence and perceived principal leadership practices. Additionally, this study considered the relationship between values congruence, leadership practices, and student achievement. The perceptions teachers hold regarding their principal's…

  7. Dharma and Interest-Occupation Congruence in Asian Indian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Saurabh; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Interest-occupation congruence and career exploration behaviors were examined in a sample of 107 White and 83 Asian Indian American college students. It was hypothesized that there would be both intergroup differences and intragroup differences. Asian Indians were expected to evidence less congruence and career exploration than Whites. The…

  8. Different Levels of Learning Interact to Shape the Congruency Sequence Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Hawks, Zoë W.; Egner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The congruency effect in distracter interference tasks is often reduced after incongruent relative to congruent trials. Moreover, this "congruency sequence effect" (CSE) is influenced by learning related to concrete stimulus and response features as well as by learning related to abstract cognitive control processes. There is an ongoing…

  9. Congruence between Culturally Competent Treatment and Cultural Needs of Older Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G.; Primavera, Louis H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated a new 2-factor construct, termed "cultural congruence", which is related to cultural competence in the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients. Cultural congruence was defined as the distance between the cultural competence characteristics of the health care organization and the clients' perception of…

  10. Quantifying the Level of Congruence between Two Career Measures: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the level of congruency between scores on the Self-Directed Search--Form R (J. L. Holland, 1994) and scores from an online instrument, both of which measure Holland types (J. L. Holland, 1985, 1997). A reasonably high level of congruence was found. Implications for career counselors are briefly delineated.

  11. The contribution of dynamic visual cues to audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Jaekl, Philip; Pesquita, Ana; Alsius, Agnes; Munhall, Kevin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial gestures can significantly improve speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. However, the nature of the visual information from the speaker's facial movements that is relevant for this enhancement is still unclear. Like auditory speech signals, visual speech signals unfold over time and contain both dynamic configural information and luminance-defined local motion cues; two information sources that are thought to engage anatomically and functionally separate visual systems. Whereas, some past studies have highlighted the importance of local, luminance-defined motion cues in audiovisual speech perception, the contribution of dynamic configural information signalling changes in form over time has not yet been assessed. We therefore attempted to single out the contribution of dynamic configural information to audiovisual speech processing. To this aim, we measured word identification performance in noise using unimodal auditory stimuli, and with audiovisual stimuli. In the audiovisual condition, speaking faces were presented as point light displays achieved via motion capture of the original talker. Point light displays could be isoluminant, to minimise the contribution of effective luminance-defined local motion information, or with added luminance contrast, allowing the combined effect of dynamic configural cues and local motion cues. Audiovisual enhancement was found in both the isoluminant and contrast-based luminance conditions compared to an auditory-only condition, demonstrating, for the first time the specific contribution of dynamic configural cues to audiovisual speech improvement. These findings imply that globally processed changes in a speaker's facial shape contribute significantly towards the perception of articulatory gestures and the analysis of audiovisual speech.

  12. Phylogenetic congruence of mealybugs and their primary endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Downie, D A; Gullan, P J

    2005-03-01

    Tight interactions between unrelated organisms such as is seen in plant-insect, host-parasite, or host-symbiont associations may lead to speciation of the smaller partners when their hosts speciate. Totally congruent phylogenies of interacting taxa have not been observed often but a number of studies have provided evidence that various hemipteran insect taxa and their primary bacterial endosymbionts share phylogenetic histories. Like other hemipterans, mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) harbour multiple intracellular bacterial symbionts, which are thought to be strictly vertically inherited, implying codivergence of hosts and symbionts. Here, robust estimates of phylogeny were generated from four fragments of three nuclear genes for mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudococcinae, and a substantial fragment of the 16S-23S rDNA of their P-endosymbionts. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant, with 75% of nodes on the two trees identical, and significant correlation of branch lengths indicated coincident timing of cladogenesis. It is suggested that the low level of observed incongruence was influenced by uncertainty in phylogenetic estimation, but evolutionary outcomes other than congruence, including host shifts, could not be rejected.

  13. Measurement of Radiation - Light Field Congruence using a Photodiode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderson, Michael J.

    Improved treatment techniques in radiation therapy provide incentive to reduce treatment margins, thereby increasing the necessity for more accurate geometrical setup of the linear accelerator and accompanying components. In this thesis, we describe the development of a novel device that enables precise and automated measurement of radiation-light field congruence of medical linear accelerators for the purpose of improving setup accuracy, and standardizing repeated quality control activities. The device consists of a silicon photodiode array, an evaluation board, a data acquisition card, and a laptop. Using the device, we show that the radiation-light field congruence for both 6 and 15 MV beams is within 2 mm on a Varian Clinac 21 EX medical linear accelerator. Because measurements are automated, ambiguities resulting from observer variability are removed, greatly improving the reproducibility of measurements over time and across observers. We expect the device to be useful in providing consistent measurements on linear accelerators used for stereotactic radiosurgery, during the commissioning of new linear accelerators, and as an alternative to film or other commercially available devices for performing monthly or annual quality control checks.

  14. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels.

  15. An analysis of the relation between employee-organization value congruence and employee attitudes.

    PubMed

    Amos, Elizabeth A; Weathington, Bart L

    2008-11-01

    Researchers have examined the fit or match between a person and an organization extensively in the empirical literature. Overall findings have supported the existence of a positive relation between the congruence of employee and organizational values with employee attitudes toward the organization. However, this relation is not fully understood, and more research is needed to understand the relation between the congruence of different value dimensions and multiple employee attitudes. Therefore, the authors aimed to analyze value congruence across 7 dimensions and its relation to (a) job satisfaction, (b) organizational commitment, (c) satisfaction with the organization as a whole, and (d) turnover intentions. The results suggest that the perceived congruence of employee-organizational values by employees is positively associated with satisfaction with the job and organization as a whole and employee commitment to the organization. The results also support a negative relation between value congruence and employee turnover intentions.

  16. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Arielle S.; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193

  17. Auditory and audiovisual inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Spence, C; Driver, J

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments examined any inhibition-of-return (IOR) effects from auditory cues and from preceding auditory targets upon reaction times (RTs) for detecting subsequent auditory targets. Auditory RT was delayed if the preceding auditory cue was on the same side as the target, but was unaffected by the location of the auditory target from the preceding trial, suggesting that response inhibition for the cue may have produced its effects. By contrast, visual detection RT was inhibited by the ipsilateral presentation of a visual target on the preceding trial. In a third experiment, targets could be unpredictably auditory or visual, and no peripheral cues intervened. Both auditory and visual detection RTs were now delayed following an ipsilateral versus contralateral target in either modality on the preceding trial, even when eye position was monitored to ensure central fixation throughout. These data suggest that auditory target-target IOR arises only when target modality is unpredictable. They also provide the first unequivocal evidence for cross-modal IOR, since, unlike other recent studies (e.g., Reuter-Lorenz, Jha, & Rosenquist, 1996; Tassinari & Berlucchi, 1995; Tassinari & Campara, 1996), the present cross-modal effects cannot be explained in terms of response inhibition for the cue. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies and audiovisual links in saccade programming.

  18. Audio-visual integration through the parallel visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Kaposvári, Péter; Csete, Gergő; Bognár, Anna; Csibri, Péter; Tóth, Eszter; Szabó, Nikoletta; Vécsei, László; Sáry, Gyula; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2015-10-22

    Audio-visual integration has been shown to be present in a wide range of different conditions, some of which are processed through the dorsal, and others through the ventral visual pathway. Whereas neuroimaging studies have revealed integration-related activity in the brain, there has been no imaging study of the possible role of segregated visual streams in audio-visual integration. We set out to determine how the different visual pathways participate in this communication. We investigated how audio-visual integration can be supported through the dorsal and ventral visual pathways during the double flash illusion. Low-contrast and chromatic isoluminant stimuli were used to drive preferably the dorsal and ventral pathways, respectively. In order to identify the anatomical substrates of the audio-visual interaction in the two conditions, the psychophysical results were correlated with the white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging.The psychophysiological data revealed a robust double flash illusion in both conditions. A correlation between the psychophysical results and local fractional anisotropy was found in the occipito-parietal white matter in the low-contrast condition, while a similar correlation was found in the infero-temporal white matter in the chromatic isoluminant condition. Our results indicate that both of the parallel visual pathways may play a role in the audio-visual interaction.

  19. Spatial Frequency Requirements and Gaze Strategy in Visual-Only and Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Amanda H.; Alsius, Agnès; Parè, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to examine the effects of visual image degradation on performance and gaze behavior in audiovisual and visual-only speech perception tasks. Method: We presented vowel-consonant-vowel utterances visually filtered at a range of frequencies in visual-only, audiovisual congruent, and audiovisual incongruent…

  20. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  1. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  2. Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference.

  3. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events

    PubMed Central

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli. PMID:26082738

  4. Application of phase congruency for discriminating some lung diseases using chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Omar Mohd; Ebrahimian, Hossein; Noor, Norliza Mohd; Hussin, Amran; Yunus, Ashari; Mahayiddin, Aziah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ) and the probability of Type II Error (β). However, since 1 -  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF) and β is the false positive fraction (FPF), an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor.

  5. Application of Phase Congruency for Discriminating Some Lung Diseases Using Chest Radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Omar Mohd; Ebrahimian, Hossein; Noor, Norliza Mohd; Yunus, Ashari; Mahayiddin, Aziah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ) and the probability of Type II Error (β). However, since 1 −  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF) and β is the false positive fraction (FPF), an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor. PMID:25918551

  6. Cognitive tasks during expectation affect the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy congruency has been shown to modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional stimuli, such as facial expressions. However, it is unknown whether the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions can be modulated by cognitive manipulations during stimulus expectation. To this end, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants viewed (neutral and fearful) facial expressions. Each trial started with a cue, predicting a facial expression, followed by an expectancy interval without any cues and subsequently the face. In half of the trials, participants had to solve a cognitive task in which different letters were presented for target letter detection during the expectancy interval. Furthermore, facial expressions were congruent with the cues in 75% of all trials. ERP results revealed that for fearful faces, the cognitive task during expectation altered the congruency effect in N170 amplitude; congruent compared to incongruent fearful faces evoked larger N170 in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not evident in the task condition. Regardless of facial expression, the congruency effect was generally altered by the cognitive task during expectation in P3 amplitude; the amplitudes were larger for incongruent compared to congruent faces in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not shown in the task condition. The findings indicate that cognitive tasks during expectation reduce the processing of expectation and subsequently, alter congruency ERP effects to facial expressions. PMID:26578938

  7. Cognitive tasks during expectation affect the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy congruency has been shown to modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional stimuli, such as facial expressions. However, it is unknown whether the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions can be modulated by cognitive manipulations during stimulus expectation. To this end, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants viewed (neutral and fearful) facial expressions. Each trial started with a cue, predicting a facial expression, followed by an expectancy interval without any cues and subsequently the face. In half of the trials, participants had to solve a cognitive task in which different letters were presented for target letter detection during the expectancy interval. Furthermore, facial expressions were congruent with the cues in 75% of all trials. ERP results revealed that for fearful faces, the cognitive task during expectation altered the congruency effect in N170 amplitude; congruent compared to incongruent fearful faces evoked larger N170 in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not evident in the task condition. Regardless of facial expression, the congruency effect was generally altered by the cognitive task during expectation in P3 amplitude; the amplitudes were larger for incongruent compared to congruent faces in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not shown in the task condition. The findings indicate that cognitive tasks during expectation reduce the processing of expectation and subsequently, alter congruency ERP effects to facial expressions.

  8. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. Methods: An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Results: Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001) for abdominal wall and diaphragm respiratory motion, respectively. Conclusions: This study was the first to demonstrate that the reduction of respiratory irregularities due to the implementation of AV biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion

  9. Congruence of decay chains of elements 113, 115, and 117

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Ulrika; Fahlander, Claes; Rudolph, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Superheavy element research relies heavily on the detection of correlated decay chains. When several chains have been detected, it is natural to ask whether they form one congruent set, or whether they should be further divided into subsets. To statistically assess the congruence between the chains in a data set, we developed a procedure to calculate a Figure-of-Merit for low-number statistics. In this work, the method is applied to the world data set of odd-Z superheavy nuclei with Z ≥ 113. Some of the postulated sets of chains are found to be congruent, while others are not. The findings are of relevance for the IUPAC and IUPAP approvals of the new elements Z = 113, 115, and 117.

  10. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Legg, David A; Sutton, Mark D; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of major arthropod clades have long been contentious, but refinements in molecular phylogenetics underpin an emerging consensus. Nevertheless, molecular phylogenies have recovered topologies that morphological phylogenies have not, including the placement of hexapods within a paraphyletic Crustacea, and an alliance between myriapods and chelicerates. Here we show enhanced congruence between molecular and morphological phylogenies based on 753 morphological characters for 309 fossil and Recent panarthropods. We resolve hexapods within Crustacea, with remipedes as their closest extant relatives, and show that the traditionally close relationship between myriapods and hexapods is an artefact of convergent character acquisition during terrestrialisation. The inclusion of fossil morphology mitigates long-branch artefacts as exemplified by pycnogonids: when fossils are included, they resolve with euchelicerates rather than as a sister taxon to all other euarthropods.

  11. Embedding of Semantic Predications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2017-03-08

    This paper concerns the generation of distributed vector representations of biomedical concepts from structured knowledge, in the form of subject-relation-object triplets known as semantic predications. Specifically, we evaluate the extent to which a representational approach we have developed for this purpose previously, known as Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), might benefit from insights gleaned from neural-probabilistic language models, which have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years as a means to generate distributed vector representations of terms from free text. To do so, we develop a novel neural-probabilistic approach to encoding predications, called Embedding of Semantic Predications (ESP), by adapting aspects of the Skipgram with Negative Sampling (SGNS) algorithm to this purpose. We compare ESP and PSI across a number of tasks including recovery of encoded information, estimation of semantic similarity and relatedness, and identification of potentially therapeutic and harmful relationships using both analogical retrieval and supervised learning. We find advantages for ESP in some, but not all of these tasks, revealing the contexts in which the additional computational work of neural-probabilistic modeling is justified.

  12. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  13. Semantically Grounded Briefings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    occurring relations. AeroText and consequently AeroDAML can be tailored to particular domains through training sessions with annotated corpuses...the complexities of semantic markup by using mnemonic names for URIs, hiding unnamed intermediate objects (represented by “ GenSym ” identifiers), and

  14. Semantic and Lexical Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

  15. "Dyslexia": Toward Semantical Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Duffelmeyer, Fred

    A formulated definition of the term dyslexia is proposed in this paper in order to clarify the semantical confusion which exists among both specialists and the general public. Dyslexia is explained as a generic term for severe and puzzling reading disability, found to be both acute (where reading-age lags 25 percent or more below mental age) and…

  16. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  17. Semantic Web Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    many documents are not expressible in logica at all, and many in logic but not in N3. However, we are building a system for which a prime goal is the...demonstrate that conventional logica programming tools are efficent and straightforwradly adapted to semantic web work. • Jena RDF toolkit now accepts N3 as

  18. Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.

  19. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from music improvisation does not depend on temporal correspondence.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Pollick, Frank

    2010-04-06

    In the present study we applied a paradigm often used in face-voice affect perception to solo music improvisation to examine how the emotional valence of sound and gesture are integrated when perceiving an emotion. Three brief excerpts expressing emotion produced by a drummer and three by a saxophonist were selected. From these bimodal congruent displays the audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisually incongruent conditions (obtained by combining the two signals both within and between instruments) were derived. In Experiment 1 twenty musical novices judged the perceived emotion and rated the strength of each emotion. The results indicate that sound dominated the visual signal in the perception of affective expression, though this was more evident for the saxophone. In Experiment 2 a further sixteen musical novices were asked to either pay attention to the musicians' movements or to the sound when judging the perceived emotions. The results showed no effect of visual information when judging the sound. On the contrary, when judging the emotional content of the visual information, a worsening in performance was obtained for the incongruent condition that combined different emotional auditory and visual information for the same instrument. The effect of emotionally discordant information thus became evident only when the auditory and visual signals belonged to the same categorical event despite their temporal mismatch. This suggests that the integration of emotional information may be reinforced by its semantic attributes but might be independent from temporal features.

  20. Audio-Visual Space Reorganization Study. RDU-75-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Martha

    Space layout and work flow patterns in the Audiovisual Center at Purdue University were studied with respect to effective space utilization and the need for planning space requirements in relationship to the activities being performed. Space and work areas were reorganized to facilitate the flow of work and materials between areas, and equipment…

  1. Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

  2. Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

  3. The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

  4. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

  5. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  6. Guide to Audiovisual Terminology. Product Information Supplement, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiatowski, Gregory, Ed.

    1968-01-01

    The terms appearing in this glossary have been specifically selected for use by educators from a larger text, which was prepared by the Commission on Definition and Terminology of the Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association. Specialized areas covered in the glossary include audio reproduction, audiovisual…

  7. Facilitating Personality Change with Audiovisual Self-confrontation and Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Henry A.; And Others

    Two studies are reported, each of which achieves personality change with both audiovisual self-confrontation (AVSC) and supportive, nondirective interviews. The first study used Ericksonian identity achievement as a dependent variable. Sixty-one male subjects were measured using Anne Constantinople's inventory. The results of this study…

  8. Audiovisual Aids and Techniques in Managerial and Supervisory Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Robinson P.

    An attempt is made to show the importance of modern audiovisual (AV) aids and techniques to management training. The first two chapters give the background to the present situation facing the training specialist. Chapter III considers the AV aids themselves in four main groups: graphic materials, display equipment which involves projection, and…

  9. PRECIS for Subject Access in a National Audiovisual Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidd, Donald; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This overview of PRECIS indexing system use by the National Film Board of Canada covers reasons for its choice, challenge involved in subject analysis and indexing of audiovisual documents, the methodology and software used to process PRECIS records, the resulting catalog subject indexes, and user reaction. Twenty-one references are cited. (EJS)

  10. School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

  11. Adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony modulates the speeded detection of sound

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Jordi; Hartcher-O'Brien, Jessica; Piazza, Elise; Spence, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The brain adapts to asynchronous audiovisual signals by reducing the subjective temporal lag between them. However, it is currently unclear which sensory signal (visual or auditory) shifts toward the other. According to the idea that the auditory system codes temporal information more precisely than the visual system, one should expect to find some temporal shift of vision toward audition (as in the temporal ventriloquism effect) as a result of adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual signals. Given that visual information gives a more exact estimate of the time of occurrence of distal events than auditory information (due to the fact that the time of arrival of visual information regarding an external event is always closer to the time at which this event occurred), the opposite result could also be expected. Here, we demonstrate that participants' speeded reaction times (RTs) to auditory (but, critically, not visual) stimuli are altered following adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual stimuli. After receiving “baseline” exposure to synchrony, participants were exposed either to auditory-lagging asynchrony (VA group) or to auditory-leading asynchrony (AV group). The results revealed that RTs to sounds became progressively faster (in the VA group) or slower (in the AV group) as participants' exposure to asynchrony increased, thus providing empirical evidence that speeded responses to sounds are influenced by exposure to audiovisual asynchrony. PMID:19458252

  12. Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

  13. Audio-Visual Training in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of audio-visual training in the discrimination of the phonetic feature of voicing on the recognition of written words by young children deemed to at risk of dyslexia (experiment 1) as well as on dyslexic children's phonological skills (experiment 2). In addition, the third experiment studied the effectiveness of…

  14. Summary of Findings and Recommendations on Federal Audiovisual Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissit, Robert; And Others

    At the direction of President Carter, a year-long study of government audiovisual programs was conducted out of the Office of Telecommunications Policy in the Executive Office of the President. The programs in 16 departments and independent agencies, and the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force have been reviewed to identify the scope of…

  15. Design for Safety: The Audiovisual Cart Hazard Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Annette C.; Strojny, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the design of carts for moving audiovisual equipment in schools emphasizes safety factors. Topics addressed include poor design of top-heavy carts that has led to deaths and injuries; cart navigation; new manufacturing standards; and an alternative, safer cart design. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  16. Producing Slide and Tape Presentations: Readings from "Audiovisual Instruction"--4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchens, Howard, Ed.

    Designed to serve as a reference and source of ideas on the use of slides in combination with audiocassettes for presentation design, this book of readings from Audiovisual Instruction magazine includes three papers providing basic tips on putting together a presentation, five articles describing techniques for improving the visual images, five…

  17. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  18. An Audio-Visual Lecture Course in Russian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Lauren G.

    1977-01-01

    An audio-visual course in Russian culture is given at Northern Illinois University. A collection of 4-5,000 color slides is the basis for the course, with lectures focussed on literature, philosophy, religion, politics, art and crafts. Acquisition, classification, storage and presentation of slides, and organization of lectures are discussed. (CHK)

  19. Audio-Visual Equipment Depreciation. RDU-75-07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.; Baker, Martha

    A study was conducted at Purdue University to gather operational and budgetary planning data for the Libraries and Audiovisual Center. The objectives were: (1) to complete a current inventory of equipment including year of purchase, costs, and salvage value; (2) to determine useful life data for general classes of equipment; and (3) to determine…

  20. Effect of Audiovisual Cancer Programs on Patients and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Four audiovisual programs about cancer and cancer treatment were evaluated. Cancer patients, their families, and friends were asked to complete questionnaires before and after watching a program to determine the effects of the program on their knowledge of cancer, anxiety levels, and perceived ability to communicate with the staff. (Author/MLW)

  1. Selected Bibliography and Audiovisual Materials for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide to resource materials on environmental education is in two sections: 1) Selected Bibliography of Printed Materials, compiled in April, 1970; and, 2) Audio-Visual materials, Films and Filmstrips, compiled in February, 1971. 99 book annotations are given with an indicator of elementary, junior or senior high school levels. Other book…

  2. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  3. Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: quadratic congruence and factoring integers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weng-Long

    2012-03-01

    Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ≡ C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA.

  4. Unconscious context-specific proportion congruency effect in a stroop-like task.

    PubMed

    Panadero, A; Castellanos, M C; Tudela, P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is a central topic of interest in psychology and cognitive neuroscience and has traditionally been associated with consciousness. However, recent research suggests that cognitive control may be unconscious in character. The main purpose of our study was to further explore this area of research focusing on the possibly unconscious nature of the conflict adaptation effect, specifically the context-specific proportion congruency effect (CSPCE), by using a masked Stroop-like task where the proportion of congruency was associated to various masks. We used electrophysiological measures to analyze the neural correlates of the CSPCE. Results showed evidence of an unconscious CSPCE in reaction times (RTs) and the N2 and P3 components. In addition, the P2 component evoked by both target and masks indicated that the proportion of congruency was processed earlier than the congruency between the color word and the ink color of the target. Taken together, our results provided evidence pointing to an unconscious CSPCE.

  5. Maxwell, Yang-Mills, Weyl and eikonal fields defined by any null shear-free congruence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassandrov, Vladimir V.; Rizcallah, Joseph A.

    We show that (specifically scaled) equations of shear-free null geodesic congruences on the Minkowski space-time possess intrinsic self-dual, restricted gauge and algebraic structures. The complex eikonal, Weyl 2-spinor, SL(2, ℂ) Yang-Mills and complex Maxwell fields, the latter produced by integer-valued electric charges (“elementary” for the Kerr-like congruences), can all be explicitly associated with any shear-free null geodesic congruence. Using twistor variables, we derive the general solution of the equations of the shear-free null geodesic congruence (as a modification of the Kerr theorem) and analyze the corresponding “particle-like” field distributions, with bounded singularities of the associated physical fields. These can be obtained in a straightforward algebraic way and exhibit nontrivial collective dynamics simulating physical interactions.

  6. Leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and ethical satisfaction: a polynomial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Wan; Byun, Gukdo; Park, Hun-Joon

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents empirical research into the relationship between leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and the level of ethical satisfaction for employees in the workplace. 163 dyads were analyzed, each consisting of a team leader and an employee working at a large manufacturing company in South Korea. Following current methodological recommendations for congruence research, polynomial regression and response surface modeling methodologies were used to determine the effects of value congruence. Results indicate that leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility was positively related to the ethical satisfaction of employees. Furthermore, employees' ethical satisfaction was stronger when aligned with a leader with high social responsibility. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Judging emotional congruency: Explicit attention to situational context modulates processing of facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Aguado, Luis; Albert, Jacobo; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The influence of explicit evaluative processes on the contextual integration of facial expressions of emotion was studied in a procedure that required the participants to judge the congruency of happy and angry faces with preceding sentences describing emotion-inducing situations. Judgments were faster on congruent trials in the case of happy faces and on incongruent trials in the case of angry faces. At the electrophysiological level, a congruency effect was observed in the face-sensitive N170 component that showed larger amplitudes on incongruent trials. An interactive effect of congruency and emotion appeared on the LPP (late positive potential), with larger amplitudes in response to happy faces that followed anger-inducing situations. These results show that the deliberate intention to judge the contextual congruency of facial expressions influences not only processes involved in affective evaluation such as those indexed by the LPP but also earlier processing stages that are involved in face perception.

  8. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  9. Neural correlates of audiovisual integration in music reading.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily S; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-10-01

    Integration of auditory and visual information is important to both language and music. In the linguistic domain, audiovisual integration alters event-related potentials (ERPs) at early stages of processing (the mismatch negativity (MMN)) as well as later stages (P300(Andres et al., 2011)). However, the role of experience in audiovisual integration is unclear, as reading experience is generally confounded with developmental stage. Here we tested whether audiovisual integration of music appears similar to reading, and how musical experience altered integration. We compared brain responses in musicians and non-musicians on an auditory pitch-interval oddball task that evoked the MMN and P300, while manipulating whether visual pitch-interval information was congruent or incongruent with the auditory information. We predicted that the MMN and P300 would be largest when both auditory and visual stimuli deviated, because audiovisual integration would increase the neural response when the deviants were congruent. The results indicated that scalp topography differed between musicians and non-musicians for both the MMN and P300 response to deviants. Interestingly, musicians' musical training modulated integration of congruent deviants at both early and late stages of processing. We propose that early in the processing stream, visual information may guide interpretation of auditory information, leading to a larger MMN when auditory and visual information mismatch. At later attentional stages, integration of the auditory and visual stimuli leads to a larger P300 amplitude. Thus, experience with musical visual notation shapes the way the brain integrates abstract sound-symbol pairings, suggesting that musicians can indeed inform us about the role of experience in audiovisual integration.

  10. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  11. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  12. CLIMCONG: A framework-tool for assessing CLIMate CONGruency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Kölling, Christian; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the anticipated elevational and latitudinal shifting of climate forces living organisms (including humans) to track these changes in space over a certain time. Due to the complexity of climate change, prediction of consequent migrations is a difficult procedure afflicted with many uncertainties. To simplify climate complexity and ease respective attempts, various approaches aimed at classifying global climates. For instance, the frequently used Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Köppen, 1900) has been applied to predict the shift of climate zones throughout the 21st century (Rubel and Kottek, 2010). Another - more objective but also more complex - classification approach has recently been presented by Metzger et al. (2013). Though being comprehensive, classifications have certain drawbacks, as I) often focusing on few variables, II) having discrete borders at the margins of classes, and III) subjective selection of an arbitrary number of classes. Ecological theory suggests that when only considering temperature and precipitation (such as Köppen, 1900) particular climate features - e.g. radiation and plant water availability - may not be represented with sufficient precision. Furthermore, sharp boundaries among homogeneous classes do not reflect natural gradients. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks, we here present CLIMCONG - a framework-tool for assessing climate congruency for quantitatively describing climate similarity through continua in space and time. CLIMCONG allows users to individually select variables for calculation of climate congruency. By this, particular foci can be specified, depending on actual research questions posed towards climate change. For instance, while ecologists focus on a multitude of parameters driving net ecosystem productivity, water managers may only be interested in variables related to drought extremes and water availability. Based on the chosen parameters CLIMCONG determines congruency of

  13. Complex Semantic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  14. Can conceptual congruency effects between number, time, and space be accounted for by polarity correspondence?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julio; Lakens, Daniël

    2015-03-01

    Conceptual congruency effects have been interpreted as evidence for the idea that the representations of abstract conceptual dimensions (e.g., power, affective valence, time, number, importance) rest on more concrete dimensions (e.g., space, brightness, weight). However, an alternative theoretical explanation based on the notion of polarity correspondence has recently received empirical support in the domains of valence and morality, which are related to vertical space (e.g., good things are up). In the present study we provide empirical arguments against the applicability of the polarity correspondence account to congruency effects in two conceptual domains related to lateral space: number and time. Following earlier research, we varied the polarity of the response dimension (left-right) by manipulating keyboard eccentricity. In a first experiment we successfully replicated the congruency effect between vertical and lateral space and its interaction with response eccentricity. We then examined whether this modulation of a concrete-concrete congruency effect can be extended to two types of concrete-abstract effects, those between left-right space and number (in both parity and magnitude judgment tasks), and temporal reference. In all three tasks response eccentricity failed to modulate the congruency effects. We conclude that polarity correspondence does not provide an adequate explanation of conceptual congruency effects in the domains of number and time.

  15. Congruency sequence effects and previous response times: conflict adaptation or temporal learning?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; Weissman, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we followed up on a recent report of two experiments in which the congruency sequence effect-the reduction of the congruency effect after incongruent relative to congruent trials in Stroop-like tasks-was observed without feature repetition or contingency learning confounds. Specifically, we further scrutinized these data to determine the plausibility of a temporal learning account as an alternative to the popular conflict adaptation account. To this end, we employed a linear mixed effects model to investigate the role of previous response time in producing the congruency sequence effect, because previous response time is thought to influence temporal learning. Interestingly, slower previous response times were associated with a reduced current-trial congruency effect, but only when the previous trial was congruent. An adapted version of the parallel episodic processing (PEP) model was able to fit these data if it was additionally assumed that attention "wanders" during different parts of the experiment (e.g., due to fatigue or other factors). Consistent with this assumption, the magnitude of the congruency effect was correlated across small blocks of trials. These findings demonstrate that a temporal learning mechanism provides a plausible account of the congruency sequence effect.

  16. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  17. Identification of emission sources of umbral flashes using phase congruency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Yu, Lan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Ji, Kai-Fan

    2014-08-01

    The emission sources of umbral flashes (UFs) are believed to be closely related to running umbral and penumbral waves, and are concluded to be associated with umbral dots in the solar photosphere. Accurate identification of emission sources of UFs is crucial for investigating these physical phenomena and their inherent relationships. A relatively novel model of shape perception, namely phase congruency (PC), uses phase information in the Fourier domain to identify the geometrical shape of the region of interest in different intensity levels, rather than intensity or gradient. Previous studies indicate that the model is suitable for identifying features with low contrast and low luminance. In the present paper, we applied the PC model to identify the emission sources of UFs and to locate their positions. For illustrating the high performance of our proposed method, two time sequences of Ca II H images derived from the Hinode/SOT on 2010 August 10 and 2013 August 20 were used. Furthermore, we also compared these results with the analysis results that are identified by the traditional/classical identification methods, including the gray-scale adjusted technique and the running difference technique. The result of our analysis demonstrates that our proposed method is more accurate and effective than the traditional identification methods when applied to identifying the emission sources of UFs and to locating their positions.

  18. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition.

  19. Audiovisual Temporal Processing and Synchrony Perception in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Schormans, Ashley L.; Scott, Kaela E.; Vo, Albert M. Q.; Tyker, Anna; Typlt, Marei; Stolzberg, Daniel; Allman, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research on humans has improved our understanding of how the brain integrates information from our different senses, and has begun to uncover the brain regions and large-scale neural activity that contributes to an observer’s ability to perceive the relative timing of auditory and visual stimuli. In the present study, we developed the first behavioral tasks to assess the perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony in rats. Modeled after the parameters used in human studies, separate groups of rats were trained to perform: (1) a simultaneity judgment task in which they reported whether audiovisual stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were presented simultaneously or not; and (2) a temporal order judgment task in which they reported whether they perceived the auditory or visual stimulus to have been presented first. Furthermore, using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the lateral extrastriate visual (V2L) cortex of anesthetized rats, we performed the first investigation of how neurons in the rat multisensory cortex integrate audiovisual stimuli presented at different SOAs. As predicted, rats (n = 7) trained to perform the simultaneity judgment task could accurately (~80%) identify synchronous vs. asynchronous (200 ms SOA) trials. Moreover, the rats judged trials at 10 ms SOA to be synchronous, whereas the majority (~70%) of trials at 100 ms SOA were perceived to be asynchronous. During the temporal order judgment task, rats (n = 7) perceived the synchronous audiovisual stimuli to be “visual first” for ~52% of the trials, and calculation of the smallest timing interval between the auditory and visual stimuli that could be detected in each rat (i.e., the just noticeable difference (JND)) ranged from 77 ms to 122 ms. Neurons in the rat V2L cortex were sensitive to the timing of audiovisual stimuli, such that spiking activity was greatest during trials when the visual stimulus preceded the auditory by 20–40 ms. Ultimately

  20. Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2013-10-01

    Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440 ms audio-lead to 440 ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning.

  1. The UMLS Semantic Network and the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  2. Interlibrary loan of audiovisual materials in the health sciences: how a system operates in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Crowley, C M

    1976-10-01

    An audiovisual loan program developed by the library of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey is described. This program, supported by an NLM grant, has circulated audiovisual software from CMDNJ to libraries since 1974. Project experiences and statistics reflect the great demand for audiovisuals by health science libraries and demonstrate that a borrowing system following the pattern of traditional interlibrary loan can operate effectively and efficiently to serve these needs.

  3. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  4. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  5. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  6. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  7. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  8. Information tables with neighborhood semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yiyu

    2000-04-01

    Information tables provide a convenient and useful tool for representing a set of objects using a group of attributes. This notion is enriched by introducing neighborhood systems on attribute values. The neighborhood systems represent the semantics relationships between, and knowledge about, attribute values. With added semantics, neighborhood based information tables may provide a more general framework for knowledge discovery, data mining, and information retrieval.

  9. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  10. Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult is unknown. In particular, developmental differences in the network for audiovisual speech comprehension could manifest through the incorporation of additional brain regions, or through different patterns of effective connectivity. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling (SEM) to characterize the developmental changes in network interactions for audiovisual speech comprehension. The brain response was recorded while children 8- to 11-years-old and adults passively listened to stories under audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only (A) conditions. Results showed that in children and adults, AV comprehension activated the same fronto-temporo-parietal network of regions known for their contribution to speech production and perception. However, the SEM network analysis revealed age-related differences in the functional interactions among these regions. In particular, the influence of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex on supramarginal gyrus differed across age groups during AV, but not A speech. This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and sensory information used by the listener to identify speech sounds. Further, its development might reflect changes in the mechanisms that relate visual speech information to articulatory speech representations through experience producing and perceiving speech.

  11. Role of audiovisual synchrony in driving head orienting responses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cristy; Gray, Rob; Spence, Charles

    2013-06-01

    Many studies now suggest that optimal multisensory integration sometimes occurs under conditions where auditory and visual stimuli are presented asynchronously (i.e. at asynchronies of 100 ms or more). Such observations lead to the suggestion that participants' speeded orienting responses might be enhanced following the presentation of asynchronous (as compared to synchronous) peripheral audiovisual spatial cues. Here, we report a series of three experiments designed to investigate this issue. Upon establishing the effectiveness of bimodal cuing over the best of its unimodal components (Experiment 1), participants had to make speeded head-turning or steering (wheel-turning) responses toward the cued direction (Experiment 2), or an incompatible response away from the cue (Experiment 3), in response to random peripheral audiovisual stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies ranging from -100 to 100 ms. Race model inequality analysis of the results (Experiment 1) revealed different mechanisms underlying the observed multisensory facilitation of participants' head-turning versus steering responses. In Experiments 2 and 3, the synchronous presentation of the component auditory and visual cues gave rise to the largest facilitation of participants' response latencies. Intriguingly, when the participants had to subjectively judge the simultaneity of the audiovisual stimuli, the point of subjective simultaneity occurred when the auditory stimulus lagged behind the visual stimulus by 22 ms. Taken together, these results appear to suggest that the maximally beneficial behavioural (head and manual) orienting responses resulting from peripherally presented audiovisual stimuli occur when the component signals are presented in synchrony. These findings suggest that while the brain uses precise temporal synchrony in order to control its orienting responses, the system that the human brain uses to consciously judge synchrony appears to be less fine tuned.

  12. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or...-wide, clear captioning standards, procedures, and responsibilities. (e) Maintain current and...

  13. [Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking].

    PubMed

    Azcoaga, J E

    1993-06-01

    Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

  14. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  15. Primary and multisensory cortical activity is correlated with audiovisual percepts.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion.

  16. Modeling the Development of Audiovisual Cue Integration in Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Laura M.; Nordeen, Elke R.; Vrabic, Sarah C.; Toscano, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories. Is this also true for the more complex problem of acquiring audiovisual correspondences, which require the learner to integrate information from multiple modalities? In this paper, we present simulations using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) that learn cue weights and combine cues on the basis of their distributional statistics. First, we simulate the developmental process of acquiring phonological categories from auditory and visual cues, asking whether simple statistical learning approaches are sufficient for learning multi-modal representations. Second, we use this time course information to explain audiovisual speech perception in adult perceivers, including cases where auditory and visual input are mismatched. Overall, we find that domain-general statistical learning techniques allow us to model the developmental trajectory of audiovisual cue integration in speech, and in turn, allow us to better understand the mechanisms that give rise to unified percepts based on multiple cues. PMID:28335558

  17. Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

  18. Audiovisual Delay as a Novel Cue to Visual Distance

    PubMed Central

    Jaekl, Philip; Seidlitz, Jakob; Harris, Laurence R.; Tadin, Duje

    2015-01-01

    For audiovisual sensory events, sound arrives with a delay relative to light that increases with event distance. It is unknown, however, whether humans can use these ubiquitous sound delays as an information source for distance computation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that audiovisual delays can both bias and improve human perceptual distance discrimination, such that visual stimuli paired with auditory delays are perceived as more distant and are thereby an ordinal distance cue. In two experiments, participants judged the relative distance of two repetitively displayed three-dimensional dot clusters, both presented with sounds of varying delays. In the first experiment, dot clusters presented with a sound delay were judged to be more distant than dot clusters paired with equivalent sound leads. In the second experiment, we confirmed that the presence of a sound delay was sufficient to cause stimuli to appear as more distant. Additionally, we found that ecologically congruent pairing of more distant events with a sound delay resulted in an increase in the precision of distance judgments. A control experiment determined that the sound delay duration influencing these distance judgments was not detectable, thereby eliminating decision-level influence. In sum, we present evidence that audiovisual delays can be an ordinal cue to visual distance. PMID:26509795

  19. Event Related Potentials Index Rapid Recalibration to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony

    PubMed Central

    Simon, David M.; Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown. Here, we investigated the neural basis of rapid recalibration to audiovisual temporal asynchrony in human participants using a combination of psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG). Consistent with previous reports, participant’s perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony on a given trial (t) was influenced by the temporal structure of stimuli on the previous trial (t−1). When examined physiologically, event related potentials (ERPs) were found to be modulated by the temporal structure of the previous trial, manifesting as late differences (>125 ms post second-stimulus onset) in central and parietal positivity on trials with large stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). These findings indicate that single trial adaptation to audiovisual temporal asynchrony is reflected in modulations of late evoked components that have previously been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision-making. PMID:28381993

  20. Audiovisual integration for speech during mid-childhood: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of visual speech cues reduces the amplitude and latency of the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by speech stimuli. However, the developmental trajectory of this effect is not yet fully mapped. We examined ERP responses to auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech in two groups of school-age children (7-8-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds) and in adults. Audiovisual speech led to the attenuation of the N1 and P2 components in all groups of participants, suggesting that the neural mechanisms underlying these effects are functional by early school years. Additionally, while the reduction in N1 was largest over the right scalp, the P2 attenuation was largest over the left and midline scalp. The difference in the hemispheric distribution of the N1 and P2 attenuation supports the idea that these components index at least somewhat disparate neural processes within the context of audiovisual speech perception.

  1. No rapid audiovisual recalibration in adults on the autism spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Turi, Marco; Karaminis, Themelis; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Burr, David

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social cognition, but are also associated with atypicalities in sensory and perceptual processing. Several groups have reported that autistic individuals show reduced integration of socially relevant audiovisual signals, which may contribute to the higher-order social and cognitive difficulties observed in autism. Here we use a newly devised technique to study instantaneous adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony in autism. Autistic and typical participants were presented with sequences of brief visual and auditory stimuli, varying in asynchrony over a wide range, from 512 ms auditory-lead to 512 ms auditory-lag, and judged whether they seemed to be synchronous. Typical adults showed strong adaptation effects, with trials proceeded by an auditory-lead needing more auditory-lead to seem simultaneous, and vice versa. However, autistic observers showed little or no adaptation, although their simultaneity curves were as narrow as the typical adults. This result supports recent Bayesian models that predict reduced adaptation effects in autism. As rapid audiovisual recalibration may be fundamental for the optimisation of speech comprehension, recalibration problems could render language processing more difficult in autistic individuals, hindering social communication. PMID:26899367

  2. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from others' social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Piwek, Lukasz; Pollick, Frank; Petrini, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Audiovisual perception of emotions has been typically examined using displays of a solitary character (e.g., the face-voice and/or body-sound of one actor). However, in real life humans often face more complex multisensory social situations, involving more than one person. Here we ask if the audiovisual facilitation in emotion recognition previously found in simpler social situations extends to more complex and ecological situations. Stimuli consisting of the biological motion and voice of two interacting agents were used in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with visual, auditory, auditory filtered/noisy, and audiovisual congruent and incongruent clips. We asked participants to judge whether the two agents were interacting happily or angrily. In Experiment 2, another group of participants repeated the same task, as in Experiment 1, while trying to ignore either the visual or the auditory information. The findings from both experiments indicate that when the reliability of the auditory cue was decreased participants weighted more the visual cue in their emotional judgments. This in turn translated in increased emotion recognition accuracy for the multisensory condition. Our findings thus point to a common mechanism of multisensory integration of emotional signals irrespective of social stimulus complexity. PMID:26005430

  3. Audiovisual communication and therapeutic jurisprudence: Cognitive and social psychological dimensions.

    PubMed

    Feigenson, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The effects of audiovisual communications on the emotional and psychological well-being of participants in the legal system have not been previously examined. Using as a framework for analysis what Slobogin (1996) calls internal balancing (of therapeutic versus antitherapeutic effects) and external balancing (of therapeutic jurisprudence [TJ] effects versus effects on other legal values), this brief paper discusses three examples that suggest the complexity of evaluating courtroom audiovisuals in TJ terms. In each instance, audiovisual displays that are admissible based on their arguable probative or explanatory value - day-in-the-life movies, victim impact videos, and computer simulations of litigated events - might well reduce stress and thus improve the psychological well-being of personal injury plaintiffs, survivors, and jurors, respectively. In each situation, however, other emotional and cognitive effects may prove antitherapeutic for the target or other participants, and/or may undermine other important values including outcome accuracy, fairness, and even the conception of the legal decision maker as a moral actor.

  4. Modeling the Development of Audiovisual Cue Integration in Speech Perception.

    PubMed

    Getz, Laura M; Nordeen, Elke R; Vrabic, Sarah C; Toscano, Joseph C

    2017-03-21

    Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories. Is this also true for the more complex problem of acquiring audiovisual correspondences, which require the learner to integrate information from multiple modalities? In this paper, we present simulations using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) that learn cue weights and combine cues on the basis of their distributional statistics. First, we simulate the developmental process of acquiring phonological categories from auditory and visual cues, asking whether simple statistical learning approaches are sufficient for learning multi-modal representations. Second, we use this time course information to explain audiovisual speech perception in adult perceivers, including cases where auditory and visual input are mismatched. Overall, we find that domain-general statistical learning techniques allow us to model the developmental trajectory of audiovisual cue integration in speech, and in turn, allow us to better understand the mechanisms that give rise to unified percepts based on multiple cues.

  5. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  6. Semantic Workflows and Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While sharing and disseminating data is widely practiced across scientific communities, we have yet to recognize the importance of sharing and disseminating the analytic processes that leads to published data. Data retrieved from shared repositories and archives is often hard to interpret because we lack documentation about those processes: what models were used, what assumptions were made, what calibrations were carried out, etc. This process documentation is also key to aggregate data in a meaningful way, whether aggregating shared third party data or aggregating shared data with local sensor data collected by individual investigators. We suggest that augmenting published data with process documentation would greatly enhance our ability to find, reuse, interpret, and aggregate data and therefore have a significant impact in the utility of data repositories and archives. We will show that semantic workflows and provenance provide key technologies for capturing process documentation. Semantic workflows describe the kinds of data transformation and analysis steps used to create new data products, and can include useful constraints about why specific models were selected or parameters chosen. Provenance records can be used to publish workflow descriptions in standard formats that can be reused to enable verification and reproducibility of data products.

  7. Moral Values Congruence and Miners' Policy Following Behavior: The Role of Supervisor Morality.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Hong; Du, Wei; Long, Ruyin

    2016-09-23

    Ethical culture construction is beneficial to maximize policy following behavior (PFB) and avoid accidents of coal miners in an economic downturn. This paper examines the congruence between coal mine ethical culture values (ECVs) and miners' moral values (MVs) and the relationship with PFB. To shed light on this relationship, supervisor moral values (SMVs) act as a key moderator. We build on the initial structure of values to measure ECVs, MVs, and SMVs. At the same time, available congruence was defined to describe the relationship between the two values. Drawing upon a survey of 267 miners in Chinese large state-owned coal mining enterprises, results revealed that ECVs-MVs congruence had a linear relationship with intrinsic PFB (IPFB) and a non-linear relationship with extrinsic PFB. These findings demonstrate that SMVs had a moderating effect on the relationship between ECVs-MVs congruence and extrinsic PFB. Thus, we continued to calculate the available congruence scope in tested enterprises. Furthermore, this study gives relative management proposals and suggestions to improve miners' moral standards and to reduce coal mine accidents.

  8. Effects of working memory span on processing of lexical associations and congruence in spoken discourse.

    PubMed

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working memory (WM) capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g., "He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise"). These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context [e.g., a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent) or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent)]. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control) and WM capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high WM capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects). Furthermore, differences in WM capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of WM. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation.

  9. Congruence between culturally competent treatment and cultural needs of older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G; Primavera, Louis H

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated a new 2-factor construct, termed cultural congruence, which is related to cultural competence in the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients. Cultural congruence was defined as the distance between the cultural competence characteristics of the health care organization and the clients' perception of those elements according to their cultural needs. The measure evidenced both reliability and validity in predicting criterion-related indicators. Older Hispanic/Latino clients (N = 272) receiving mental health services either through integrated primary care or referral to specialized mental health care were assessed for depression and anxiety symptomatology and health status at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up treatment. Results indicated that cultural congruence predicted treatment outcomes (reduction of symptomatology) independent of treatment and evidenced moderator effects with respect to depression, suicidality, anxiety, and physical health criteria. Cultural congruence was more effective under the condition of the enhanced specialty referral model than under the integrated primary care model. Results are discussed in terms of how the new construct of cultural congruence extends knowledge of culturally competent mental health practice among the older Hispanic/Latino population.

  10. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  11. Semantic Representation and Naming in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Friedman, Rena M.; Reilly, Renee M.; Newman, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined children's semantic representations and semantic naming errors. Results suggested that functional and physical properties are core aspects of object representations in the semantic lexicon and that the degree of semantic knowledge makes words more or less vulnerable to retrieval failure. Discussion focuses on the dynamic…

  12. The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the Semantic Distance Model (SDM) of Relevance Assessment, a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Discusses premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic…

  13. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  14. Congruency between Word Position and Meaning is Caused by Task-Induced Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Pecher, Diane; Van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Zanolie, Kiki; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    We report an experiment that compared two explanations for the effect of congruency between a word's on screen spatial position and its meaning. On one account, congruency is explained by the match between position and a mental simulation of meaning. Alternatively, congruency is explained by the polarity alignment principle. To distinguish between these accounts we presented the same object names (e.g., shark, helicopter) in a sky decision task or an ocean decision task, such that response polarity and typical location were disentangled. Sky decision responses were faster to words at the top of the screen compared to words at the bottom of the screen, but the reverse was found for ocean decision responses. These results are problematic for the polarity principle, and support the claim that spatial attention is directed by mental simulation of the task-relevant conceptual dimension. PMID:21833200

  15. The relationship between work status congruence and work-related attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Holtom, Brooks C; Lee, Thomas W; Tidd, Simon T

    2002-10-01

    Research investigating differences in attitudes among full-time and part-time employees has a long history. Unfortunately, the empirical results have been mixed and conflicting. To resolve inconsistencies in prior research, the authors conducted 2 studies. In the 1st study, the authors developed a measure of work status congruence, which measures the degree to which employers match employee preferences for full-time or part-time status, schedule, shift, and number of hours. The authors hypothesized that a match or congruence between worker preferences and organizational staffing practices would be associated with positive employee attitudes and behaviors. In the 2nd study, the authors tested these hypotheses. The results indicate that work status congruence is positively associated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, employee retention, as well as in-role and extra-role performance.

  16. Leader-follower values congruence: are socialized charismatic leaders better able to achieve it?

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

    2009-03-01

    In a field study, the authors investigated the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and values congruence between leaders and followers. Socialized charismatic leadership theory holds that charismatic leaders convey a values-based message and bring about values congruence between themselves and their followers. Yet, other research suggests that individuals' values are stable and closely linked to occupational membership and that employees' values are therefore likely to be quite difficult to change. Results of this study suggest that occupations are indeed associated with multiple types of employee values. The results also demonstrate that, for 3 of the 4 values studied, socialized charismatic leadership is associated with values congruence between the specific values leaders say they transmit to their followers and the values their followers say they use in work. The findings shed additional light on the values alignment process. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  18. Culture, salience, and psychiatric diagnosis: exploring the concept of cultural congruence & its practical application

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture as religious, national or ethnic group and of congruence as validation by that group. This article attempts to address these shortcomings to arrive at a cogent construct. Results The article distinguishes symbolic from phenomenological conceptions of culture, the latter expanded upon through two sources: Husserl’s phenomenological analysis of background intentionality and neuropsychological literature on salience. It is argued that culture is not limited to symbolic presuppositions and shapes subjects’ experiential dispositions. This conception is deployed to re-examine the meaning of (in)congruence. The main argument is that a significant, since foundational, deviation from culture is not from a value or belief but from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions, in what is salient to an individual in a particular context. Conclusion Applying the concept of cultural congruence must not be limited to assessing violations of the symbolic order and must consider alignment with or deviations from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions. By virtue of being foundational to a shared experience of the world, such dispositions are more accurate indicators of potential vulnerability. Notwithstanding problems of access and expertise, clinical practice should aim to accommodate this richer meaning of cultural congruence. PMID:23870676

  19. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  20. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  1. Predicting Occupational Considerations: A Comparison of Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Outcome Expectations, and Person-Environment Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade C.

    2000-01-01

    Regression analysis of data from 93 college students showed that self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations are more powerful predictors of occupations considered than person-environment congruence. Congruence alone is a weak predictor of occupational considerations. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Holland's Theory of Career Choice…

  2. Moderation of the Relation between Person-Environment Congruence and Academic Success: Environmental Constraint, Personal Flexibility and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined as it was moderated by environmental constraint, individual flexibility, and congruence definition in an initial sample of 88,813 undergraduates (38,787 men and 50,026 women) from 42 different colleges and universities in 16 states. College achievement (GPA…

  3. Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

  4. Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

  5. Design of variable-weight quadratic congruence code for optical CDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wen-Qing; Chen, Fu-Jun

    2015-09-01

    A variable-weight code family referred to as variable-weight quadratic congruence code (VWQCC) is constructed by algebraic transformation for incoherent synchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems. Compared with quadratic congruence code (QCC), VWQCC doubles the code cardinality and provides the multiple code-sets with variable code-weight. Moreover, the bit-error rate (BER) performance of VWQCC is superior to those of conventional variable-weight codes by removing or padding pulses under the same chip power assumption. The experiment results show that VWQCC can be well applied to the OCDMA with quality of service (QoS) requirements.

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CONGRUENCE OF REQUIRED AND PERCEIVED LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND SATISFACTION IN ATHLETES.

    PubMed

    Kao, San-Fu; Watson Ii, Jack C; Chen, Yu-Fang; Halbrook, Meghan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between the congruence of perceived and required leadership behavior and the effect of this relationship upon athlete satisfaction in a Chinese setting. Using a sample of volleyball players (n = 233) and athletic directors (n = 19), the present study examined the congruence between required and perceived leadership behavior and the resulting satisfaction of Taiwanese athletes. Analyses revealed athletes were more likely to be satisfied when their perceptions of their coaches' positive feedback behavior conformed to the expectations of their athletic directors. These results confirmed aspects of the multidimensional model of leadership in a cultural perspective.

  7. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets.

  8. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana P.; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W.; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension. PMID:22434931

  9. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    PubMed

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-04-01

    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory.

  10. Sequential modulation of distractor-interference produced by semantic generalization of stimulus features

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sequential modulations of distractor-related interference (i.e., reduced congruency effect after incongruent as compared to congruent predecessor trials, a.k.a. Gratton effect) have been taken to reflect conflict-induced attentional focusing. To dismiss an alternative interpretation based on integration and retrieval of low-level features, it is important to exert experimental control of stimulus and response feature sequences. This has been achieved by considering only trials associated with complete feature changes. Furthermore, distractors from two different perceptual dimensions, such as stimulus location and shape, have been combined in the same experiment to investigate the question of specificity vs. generality of conflict adaptation. With this method feature sequence control can be exerted, in principle, without disregarding data from feature repetition trials. However, such control may be insufficient when the distractor dimensions overlap semantically. In two experiments we found evidence consistent with the assumption that semantic generalization of stimulus features, such as between a stimulus presented at a left-sided location and a stimulus shape pointing to the left, may yield a between-dimension Gratton effect. These findings raise doubts about inferring generalized attentional conflict adaptation when semantically related distractor dimensions are used. PMID:25452735

  11. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  12. A General Audiovisual Temporal Processing Deficit in Adult Readers with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Ana A.; Jesse, Alexandra; Groen, Margriet A.; McQueen, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with dyslexia on their sensitivity to the simultaneity of…

  13. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  14. A-V Buyer's Guide. A User's Look At the Audio-Visual World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Dugan

    To enable a potential user to select the proper medium for his message, buy the appropriate equipment, and take proper care of it, this guide provides an accumulation of questions, answers, and tips on getting the most out of audiovisual buying decisions. Common questions about audiovisual equipment are discussed, along with more detailed…

  15. Audiovisual Between-Channel Redundancy and Its Effects upon Immediate Recall and Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, H. J.

    In an attempt to ascertain the facilitating functions of audiovisual between-channel redundancy in information processing, a series of audiovisual experiments alternating auditory and visual as the dominant and redundant channels were conducted. As predicted, results generally supported the between-channel redundancy when input (stimulus) was…

  16. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  17. Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

  18. Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

  19. A Cross-Over Experimental Design for Testing Audiovisual Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolovitch, Harold D.; Bordeleau, Pierre

    This paper contains a description of the cross-over type of experimental design as well as a case study of its use in field testing audiovisual materials related to teaching handicapped children. Increased efficiency is an advantage of the cross-over design, while difficulty in selecting similar format audiovisual materials for field testing is a…

  20. How Children and Adults Produce and Perceive Uncertainty in Audiovisual Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We describe two experiments on signaling and detecting uncertainty in audiovisual speech by adults and children. In the first study, utterances from adult speakers and child speakers (aged 7-8) were elicited and annotated with a set of six audiovisual features. It was found that when adult speakers were uncertain they were more likely to produce…

  1. THE IROQUOIS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS--WITH SUPPLEMENT. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLERHOUSE, KENNETH; AND OTHERS

    APPROXIMATELY 25 SOURCES OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS PERTAINING TO THE IROQUOIS AND OTHER NORTHEASTERN AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES ARE LISTED ACCORDING TO TYPE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIUM. AMONG THE LESS-COMMON MEDIA ARE RECORDINGS OF IROQUOIS MUSIC AND DO-IT-YOURSELF REPRODUCTIONS OF IROQUOIS ARTIFACTS. PRICES ARE GIVEN WHERE APPLICABLE. (BR)

  2. Importance of Audiovisual Instruction in the Associateship Diploma in Education in Nigerian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agun, Ibitayo

    1976-01-01

    The Associateship Diploma in Education is seen as an important means of promoting and encouraging the use of audiovisual aids in Nigerian primary schools. Objectives of audiovisual instruction, a course outline, and procedures for teaching the course are suggested, and use of aids in primary schools is surveyed. (Author/MLW)

  3. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 1--Classrooms, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Intended to inform school board administrators and teachers of the current (1958) thinking on audio-visual instruction for use in planning new buildings, purchasing equipment, and planning instruction. Attention is given the problem of overcoming obstacles to the incorporation of audio-visual materials into the curriculum. Discussion includes--(1)…

  4. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or deliberate alteration or erasure. (c) If different versions of audiovisual productions (e.g., short and long versions or foreign-language versions) are prepared, keep...

  5. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or deliberate alteration or erasure. (c) If different versions of audiovisual productions (e.g., short and long versions or foreign-language versions) are prepared, keep...

  6. Audio-Visual Techniques for Industry. Development and Transfer of Technology Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halas, John; Martin-Harris, Roy

    Intended for use by persons in developing countries responsible for initiating or expanding the use of audiovisual facilities and techniques in industry, this manual is designed for those who have limited background in audiovisuals but need detailed information about how certain techniques may be employed in an economical, efficient way. Part one,…

  7. The Current Status of Audiovisual Definitions and Terminology: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Because no published glossary of audiovisual terms has yet gained international currency, there is a need to: (1) explore international acceptance of a list of audiovisual terms and definitions; (2) review current efforts to do so; (3) propose criteria for acceptable terms and definitions; and (4) recommend procedures for acceptance of…

  8. A Team Approach to Developing an Audiovisual Single-Concept Instructional Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Martha L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In 1973, the National Medical Audiovisual Center undertook the production of several audiovisual teaching units, each addressing a single-concept, using a team approach. The production team on the unit "Left Ventricle Catheterization" were a physiologist acting as content specialist, an artist and film producer as production specialist,…

  9. An Analysis of Audiovisual Machines for Individual Program Presentation. Research Memorandum Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, James D.; Weintraub, Royd

    The Medical Information Project (MIP) purpose to select the right type of audiovisual equipment for communicating new medical information to general practitioners of medicine was hampered by numerous difficulties. There is a lack of uniformity and standardization in audiovisual equipment that amounts to chaos. There is no evaluative literature on…

  10. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  11. Nine Principles of Semantic Harmonization.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James A; Van Speybroeck, Michel; Kalra, Dipak; Verbeeck, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmonization do lead however to the development of bespoke and ad-hoc systems; this is particularly the case when it comes to cohort data, the format of which is often specific to a cohort's area of focus. Guided by work we have undertaken in developing the 'EMIF Knowledge Object Library', a semantic harmonization framework underpinning the collation of pan-European Alzheimer's cohort data, we have developed a set of nine generic guiding principles for developing semantic harmonization frameworks, the application of which will establish a solid base for constructing similar frameworks.

  12. Nine Principles of Semantic Harmonization

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, James A.; Van Speybroeck, Michel; Kalra, Dipak; Verbeeck, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmonization do lead however to the development of bespoke and ad-hoc systems; this is particularly the case when it comes to cohort data, the format of which is often specific to a cohort’s area of focus. Guided by work we have undertaken in developing the ‘EMIF Knowledge Object Library’, a semantic harmonization framework underpinning the collation of pan-European Alzheimer’s cohort data, we have developed a set of nine generic guiding principles for developing semantic harmonization frameworks, the application of which will establish a solid base for constructing similar frameworks. PMID:28269840

  13. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  14. Musical expertise is related to altered functional connectivity during audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kraneburg, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle Cornelia; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical large-scale functional network underpinning audiovisual integration via magnetoencephalographic recordings. The reorganization of this network related to long-term musical training was investigated by comparing musicians to nonmusicians. Connectivity was calculated on the basis of the estimated mutual information of the sources’ activity, and the corresponding networks were statistically compared. Nonmusicians’ results indicated that the cortical network associated with audiovisual integration supports visuospatial processing and attentional shifting, whereas a sparser network, related to spatial awareness supports the identification of audiovisual incongruences. In contrast, musicians’ results showed enhanced connectivity in regions related to the identification of auditory pattern violations. Hence, nonmusicians rely on the processing of visual clues for the integration of audiovisual information, whereas musicians rely mostly on the corresponding auditory information. The large-scale cortical network underpinning multisensory integration is reorganized due to expertise in a cognitive domain that largely involves audiovisual integration, indicating long-term training-related neuroplasticity. PMID:26371305

  15. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  16. Semantic Interoperability on the Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    these agents would not be affected by presentation changes if the pages were available in XML, they would still break if the XML representation of the... these semantics into tools that are used to interpret or translate the XML documents, but software tools cannot acquire these semantics independently...mapping differences in naming conventions. As with natural language, XML DTDs have the problems of polysemy and synonymy. For example, the elements

  17. Neural substrates of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Anand, Raksha; Zoccoli, Sandra; Maguire, Mandy; Gamino, Jacque; Tillman, Gail; King, Richard; Kraut, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Semantic memory is described as the storage of knowledge, concepts, and information that is common and relatively consistent across individuals (e.g., memory of what is a cup). These memories are stored in multiple sensorimotor modalities and cognitive systems throughout the brain (e.g., how a cup is held and manipulated, the texture of a cup's surface, its shape, its function, that is related to beverages such as coffee, and so on). Our ability to engage in purposeful interactions with our environment is dependent on the ability to understand the meaning and significance of the objects and actions around us that are stored in semantic memory. Theories of the neural basis of the semantic memory of objects have produced sophisticated models that have incorporated to varying degrees the results of cognitive and neural investigations. The models are grouped into those that are (1) cognitive models, where the neural data are used to reveal dissociations in semantic memory after a brain lesion occurs; (2) models that incorporate both cognitive and neuroanatomical information; and (3) models that use cognitive, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiological data. This review highlights the advances and issues that have emerged from these models and points to future directions that provide opportunities to extend these models. The models of object memory generally describe how category and/or feature representations encode for object memory, and the semantic operations engaged in object processing. The incorporation of data derived from multiple modalities of investigation can lead to detailed neural specifications of semantic memory organization. The addition of neurophysiological data can potentially provide further elaboration of models to include semantic neural mechanisms. Future directions should incorporate available and newly developed techniques to better inform the neural underpinning of semantic memory models.

  18. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Primary and Multisensory Cortical Activity is Correlated with Audiovisual Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion. PMID:19780040

  20. Visual Mislocalization of Moving Objects in an Audiovisual Event

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD). In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance) were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects’ closest distance biased judgments toward “non-overlapping,” and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments) was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift). These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one-to-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies. PMID:27111759

  1. Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in audiovisual temporal order judgments.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Miyazaki, Makoto; Iwano, Takayuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation). In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to bayesian integration theory (bayesian calibration). We further showed, in theory, that the effect of bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone) in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "light-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to "light-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli.

  2. Visual Mislocalization of Moving Objects in an Audiovisual Event.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD). In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance) were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects' closest distance biased judgments toward "non-overlapping," and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments) was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift). These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one-to-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies.

  3. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  4. Child physical activity and parent-child attitude congruence of athletic competence and activity type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...

  5. The modulation of spatial congruency by object-based attention: analysing the "locus" of the modulation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunming; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Fu, Xiaolan

    2011-12-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that spatial cueing differentially reduces stimulus-stimulus congruency (e.g., spatial Stroop) interference but not stimulus-response congruency (e.g., Simon; e.g., Lupiáñez & Funes, 2005). This spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop seems to be entirely attributable to object-based attention (e.g., Luo, Lupiáñez, Funes, & Fu, 2010). In the present study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether the cueing modulation of spatial Stroop is object based and/or space based and to analyse the "locus" of this modulation. In Experiment 1, we found that the cueing modulation over spatial Stroop is entirely object based, independent of stimulus-response congruency. In Experiment 2, we observed that the modulation of object-based attention over the spatial Stroop only occurred at a short cue-target interval (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony; SOA), whereas the stimulus-response congruency effect was not modulated either by object-based or by location-based attentional cueing. The overall pattern of results suggests that the spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop arises from object-based attention and occurs at the perceptual stage of processing.

  6. Person-Environment Interaction in an Evolving Profession: Examining the Congruence and Job Satisfaction of Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, William D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    John Holland's theory considers congruence between the vocational interests of the individual and characteristics of the work environment to be the primary predictor of job satisfaction and stability. The managed care model has markedly changed the demands of the work environment of mental health counselors. Changes in the way services are…

  7. The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

  8. Effect of Syllable Congruency in Sixth Graders in the Lexical Decision Task with Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the syllable in visual recognition of French words in Grade 6. To do so, the syllabic congruency effect was examined in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming. Target words were preceded by pseudoword primes sharing the first letters that either corresponded to the syllable…

  9. Examining Congruence within School-Family Partnerships: Definition, Importance, and Current Measurement Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Courtney L.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the construct of congruence, particularly with regard to school-family collaboration and partnerships. An in-depth review of the empirical and theoretical literature supporting a shift in focus from encouraging family involvement to creating effective school-family partnerships is presented, followed by an…

  10. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  11. Exploring the Congruence between the Lesotho Junior Secondary Geography Curriculum and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raselimo, Mohaeka; Irwin, Pat; Wilmot, Di

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the Lesotho junior secondary geography curriculum document with the purpose of exploring the congruence between geography and environmental education. The study is based on a curriculum reform process introduced by the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP) in 2001. we draw theoretical insights from…

  12. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  13. The Interest-Major Congruence and College Success Relation: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Robbins, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined in an initial sample of 80, 574 individuals enrolled in 87 colleges. Both college achievement (GPA after 1 year, after 2 years and at graduation) as well as persistence (enrollment status after 1 year, after 2 years and graduation after 5 years) were used as…

  14. Congruence between the Democratic Purposes of Schools and School Principal Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the recent emphases in school education and school leadership training in Australia and the state of Tasmania as they relate to the democratic purposes of schools. It finds a strong emphasis on the democratic purposes of schools and congruence between these purposes and the means of achieving them, in respect of…

  15. The role of congruency and pleasantness in odor-induced taste enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, H N; Verlegh, P W

    1996-10-01

    Although odorants and tastants are perceived by two different senses, the rated intensity of a tastant may increase if an odorant is added. The size of the odor-induced taste enhancement is said to depend on the perceptual similarity between the tastant and the odorant, and on the task instruction which affects subjects' working concepts of attribute categories. It is investigated whether congruency or pleasantness (halo-effects) can replace perceptual similarity in accounting for odor-induced taste enhancement. Sweetness intensity, pleasantness, and degree of congruency are determined for three sucrose/odorant combinations. Odor-induced enhancement is found only for congruent mixtures (sucrose/strawberry and sucrose/lemon). In addition, highly congruent mixtures are more pleasant than expected under additivity. The pleasantness judgments for incongruent combinations (sucrose/ham) follow a subtractive rule. The congruency ratings can account for a significant part of the pleasantness ratings, but not for the degree of sweetness enhancement. Also, the pleasantness ratings are not related to the degree of enhancement. Therefore, congruency or pleasantness ratings cannot replace similarity ratings in accounting for odor-induced taste enhancement.

  16. Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

  17. Children's Appreciation of Humor: A Test of the Cognitive-Congruency Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Paul E.

    According to the cognitive-congruency principle, humor appreciation peaks when the cognitive demands of the stimulus are congruent with the cognitive level of the child. This study tested the principle with jokes based on concepts associated with concrete operational thinking, conservation of mass and weight. This method provides a satisfactory…

  18. Applying the "Congruence" Principle of Bloom's Taxonomy to Designing Online Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung-Youn; Stepich, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. A case study is then presented that explains how the use of the taxonomy was instrumental in the development of graduate-level online instruction and how the taxonomy helped to maintain the congruence among the components of online instruction. (MES)

  19. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  20. Functional brain and age-related changes associated with congruency in task switching.

    PubMed

    Eich, Teal S; Parker, David; Liu, Dan; Oh, Hwamee; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-10-01

    Alternating between completing two simple tasks, as opposed to completing only one task, has been shown to produce costs to performance and changes to neural patterns of activity, effects which are augmented in old age. Cognitive conflict may arise from factors other than switching tasks, however. Sensorimotor congruency (whether stimulus-response mappings are the same or different for the two tasks) has been shown to behaviorally moderate switch costs in older, but not younger adults. In the current study, we used fMRI to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of response-conflict congruency effects within a task switching paradigm in older (N=75) and younger (N=62) adults. Behaviorally, incongruency moderated age-related differences in switch costs. Neurally, switch costs were associated with greater activation in the dorsal attention network for older relative to younger adults. We also found that older adults recruited an additional set of brain areas in the ventral attention network to a greater extent than did younger adults to resolve congruency-related response-conflict. These results suggest both a network and an age-based dissociation between congruency and switch costs in task switching.

  1. Histogram of oriented phase (HOP): a new descriptor based on phase congruency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragb, Hussin K.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a low level image descriptor called Histogram of Oriented Phase based on phase congruency concept and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Since the phase of the signal conveys more information regarding signal structure than the magnitude, the proposed descriptor can precisely identify and localize image features over the gradient based techniques, especially in the regions affected by illumination changes. The proposed features can be formed by extracting the phase congruency information for each pixel in the image with respect to its neighborhood. Histograms of the phase congruency values of the local regions in the image are computed with respect to its orientation. These histograms are concatenated to construct the Histogram of Oriented Phase (HOP) features. The dimensionality of HOP features is reduced using PCA algorithm to form HOP-PCA descriptor. The dimensionless quantity of the phase congruency leads the HOP-PCA descriptor to be more robust to the image scale variations as well as contrast and illumination changes. Several experiments were performed using INRIA and DaimlerChrysler datasets to evaluate the performance of the HOP-PCA descriptor. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptor has better detection performance and less error rates than a set of the state of the art feature extraction methodologies.

  2. Development and Field Test of the Multiple Intelligences Learning Instruction Congruency Impact Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peifer, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the academic discussion regarding the validity of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory through focusing on the validity of an important construct embedded in the theory, that of congruence between instructional style and preferred MI style for optimal learning. Currently there is insufficient empirical…

  3. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

  4. Collision error avoidance: influence of proportion congruency and sensorimotor memory on open-loop grasp control.

    PubMed

    Brydges, Ryan; Dubrowski, Adam

    2009-10-01

    Grasping behaviour involves the integration of current and historical knowledge about an object, a process that can be influenced by sensory uncertainty. In the present study, participants simultaneously interacted with a visual cue and a haptic cue before reaching to grasp a target object. The visual cue was either congruent (equal in size to haptic cue and target) or incongruent (larger than haptic cue and target). To enhance sensory uncertainty, we manipulated the proportion of congruent trials to be either 80 or 20%. We compared grasp kinematics and forces between congruent and incongruent trials and between the 20 and 80% proportion congruency groups. We also studied the effects of trial history by comparing the performance of congruent and incongruent trials preceded by either the same or opposite trial type. Proportion congruency did not affect temporal kinematics but did affect maximum grip aperture (MGA) as the 80% proportion congruency group used a greater MGA, regardless of trial type. For grasping forces, an interaction effect showed that the 20% proportion congruency group used a greater peak load force on congruent trials. Incongruent trials that followed congruent trials had decreased movement time, increased MGA and increased grasping forces, relative to those that followed incongruent trials. We interpret the data to suggest that the grasp control system integrates multisensory information using flexible, yet specific criteria regarding task constraints. The prevention of collision error (i.e., an inadequate MGA when contacting the target) may be one guiding principle in the control process.

  5. Ecological Congruence Assessment for Classroom Activities and Routines: Identifying Goals and Intervention Practices in Childcare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; Brashers, Margaret Sigalove; Neitzel, Jennifer C.

    2002-01-01

    This article explains how educators can use the ecological congruence assessment process for identifying functional goals for young children with disabilities. Process steps include: teacher collects information about functioning in usual classroom activities, routines, and transitions; summarizes the collected information; and shares the…

  6. The Flip Side of Holland Type Congruence: Incongruence and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Strife, Samantha Roberts; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Holland type (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional; Holland, 1959, 1997) congruence and incongruence (i.e., lack of ft between an occupation's 3-letter Holland code and a person's lowest 3 Holland interest types) and tested whether incongruence predicts unique…

  7. Correlating anatomy and congruence of the patellofemoral joint with cartilage lesions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Tan, Hongbo; Yang, Lui; Dai, Gang; Guo, Botao

    2009-01-01

    Cartilage lesion of the patellofemoral joint is a common and challenging disease of the knee and an important cause of anterior knee pain. There are many naturally occurring variations in the anatomy and congruence of the patella and femoral trochlea. The purpose of this study was to identify the variations in patellofemoral anatomy and congruency that predispose to cartilage lesions. Among patients who underwent knee arthroscopy in our center from January 2005 to December 2006, 111 patients with chronic patellofemoral cartilage lesions and anterior knee pain were selected as the lesion group, while 124 patients with isolated meniscus rupture without anterior knee pain were selected as the control group. Twenty-one parameters measured on magnetic resonance images were used to assess the patellofemoral anatomy and congruence. A binary logistic regression model was used to look for possible associations between each of these parameters and the occurrence of patellofemoral cartilage lesions. The Bonferroni correction with a type I error rate of 0.0024 (0.05/21) was adopted to indicate statistical significance. Based on examination of the patellofemoral anatomy, 4 parameters were significantly associated with patellofemoral cartilage lesions. These were the patella lateral facet width, patella lateral facet ratio, sulcus depth and sulcus relative depth (P for linear trend <.0024). For patellofemoral congruence, 3 parameters were significantly associated with patellofemoral cartilage lesions. These were the lateral patella displacement, patella epicondylar axis angle and congruence angle (P for linear trend <.0024). Among the many kinds of patellofemoral variations, several were found to correlate with the development of patellofemoral cartilage lesions. These problems could be important risk factors for patellofemoral cartilage lesions.

  8. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application.

  9. Depth Cues and Perceived Audiovisual Synchrony of Biological Motion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos César; Mendonça, Catarina; Mouta, Sandra; Silva, Rosa; Campos, José Creissac; Santos, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments. Principal Findings In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished. Significance These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available. PMID:24244617

  10. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual, and Audio-Visual Targets

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn; Wei, Vincent; Burgess, Martin; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20 to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual “bisensory” stimuli. Three metrics were measured—onset, RMS, and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error) varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets. PMID:26778952

  11. Lexical and context effects in children's audiovisual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Rachael; Kirk, Karen; Pisoni, David; Burckhartzmeyer, Lisa; Lin, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The Audiovisual Lexical Neighborhood Sentence Test (AVLNST), a new, recorded speech recognition test for children with sensory aids, was administered in multiple presentation modalities to children with normal hearing and vision. Each sentence consists of three key words whose lexical difficulty is controlled according to the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) of spoken word recognition. According to NAM, the recognition of spoken words is influenced by two lexical factors: the frequency of occurrence of individual words in a language, and how phonemically similar the target word is to other words in the listeners lexicon. These predictions are based on auditory similarity only, and thus do not take into account how visual information can influence the perception of speech. Data from the AVLNST, together with those from recorded audiovisual versions of isolated word recognition measures, the Lexical Neighborhood, and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests, were used to examine the influence of visual information on speech perception in children. Further, the influence of top-down processing on speech recognition was examined by evaluating performance on the recognition of words in isolation versus words in sentences. [Work supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the NIDCD, T32 DC00012 to Indiana University.

  12. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  13. Predictability affects the perception of audiovisual synchrony in complex sequences.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura A; Van Valkenburg, David L; Badcock, David R

    2011-10-01

    The ability to make accurate audiovisual synchrony judgments is affected by the "complexity" of the stimuli: We are much better at making judgments when matching single beeps or flashes as opposed to video recordings of speech or music. In the present study, we investigated whether the predictability of sequences affects whether participants report that auditory and visual sequences appear to be temporally coincident. When we reduced their ability to predict both the next pitch in the sequence and the temporal pattern, we found that participants were increasingly likely to report that the audiovisual sequences were synchronous. However, when we manipulated pitch and temporal predictability independently, the same effect did not occur. By altering the temporal density (items per second) of the sequences, we further determined that the predictability effect occurred only in temporally dense sequences: If the sequences were slow, participants' responses did not change as a function of predictability. We propose that reduced predictability affects synchrony judgments by reducing the effective pitch and temporal acuity in perception of the sequences.

  14. The Influence of Selective and Divided Attention on Audiovisual Integration in Children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanna; Yang, Dan Ou; Yuan, Xue; Wu, Jinglong

    2016-01-24

    This article aims to investigate whether there is a difference in audiovisual integration in school-aged children (aged 6 to 13 years; mean age = 9.9 years) between the selective attention condition and divided attention condition. We designed a visual and/or auditory detection task that included three blocks (divided attention, visual-selective attention, and auditory-selective attention). The results showed that the response to bimodal audiovisual stimuli was faster than to unimodal auditory or visual stimuli under both divided attention and auditory-selective attention conditions. However, in the visual-selective attention condition, no significant difference was found between the unimodal visual and bimodal audiovisual stimuli in response speed. Moreover, audiovisual behavioral facilitation effects were compared between divided attention and selective attention (auditory or visual attention). In doing so, we found that audiovisual behavioral facilitation was significantly difference between divided attention and selective attention. The results indicated that audiovisual integration was stronger in the divided attention condition than that in the selective attention condition in children. Our findings objectively support the notion that attention can modulate audiovisual integration in school-aged children. Our study might offer a new perspective for identifying children with conditions that are associated with sustained attention deficit, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  15. Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

  16. Neural dynamics of audiovisual speech integration under variable listening conditions: an individual participant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Nicholas; Wenger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend and Nozawa, 1995), a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of −12 dB, and S/N ratio of −18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude compared to the unisensory signals for lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency) compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration). The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity. PMID:24058358

  17. Audiovisual Integration Delayed by Stimulus Onset Asynchrony Between Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanna; Yang, Weiping; Nakahashi, Kohei; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2017-02-01

    Although neuronal studies have shown that audiovisual integration is regulated by temporal factors, there is still little knowledge about the impact of temporal factors on audiovisual integration in older adults. To clarify how stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between auditory and visual stimuli modulates age-related audiovisual integration, 20 younger adults (21-24 years) and 20 older adults (61-80 years) were instructed to perform an auditory or visual stimuli discrimination experiment. The results showed that in younger adults, audiovisual integration was altered from an enhancement (AV, A ± 50 V) to a depression (A ± 150 V). In older adults, the alterative pattern was similar to that for younger adults with the expansion of SOA; however, older adults showed significantly delayed onset for the time-window-of-integration and peak latency in all conditions, which further demonstrated that audiovisual integration was delayed more severely with the expansion of SOA, especially in the peak latency for V-preceded-A conditions in older adults. Our study suggested that audiovisual facilitative integration occurs only within a certain SOA range (e.g., -50 to 50 ms) in both younger and older adults. Moreover, our results confirm that the response for older adults was slowed and provided empirical evidence that integration ability is much more sensitive to the temporal alignment of audiovisual stimuli in older adults.

  18. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  19. Congruence of Holland's theory of vocational and work environments with GPA of college students in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al Khatib, Saleh A

    2007-06-01

    Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environment, extended to educational environments, was used as a theoretical framework for the study of the relation of congruence and sex on self-reported GPA. 617 students at Ajman University of Science and Technology responded to the Vocational Preference Inventory. Analysis of variance indicated that students' congruence and sex were significant predictors of GPA and the interaction of GPA and sex. Associations of sex with congruence and with Academic Environment were significant, represented by choice of major. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  20. Cognitive conflict in audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qinqing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin; Wen, Xiaohui

    2008-03-26

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive conflict in audiovisual integration during an audiovisual task. ERP analyses revealed: (i) the anterior N1 and P1 were elicited in both matched and mismatched conditions and (ii) audiovisual mismatched answers elicited a more negative ERP deflection at 490 ms (N490) than matched answers. Dipole analysis of the difference wave (mismatched minus matched) localized the generator of the N490 to the posterior cingulate cortex, which may be involved in the control and modulation of conflict processing of Chinese characters when visual and auditory information is mismatched.

  1. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  2. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.

    2009-01-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies. PMID:20186256

  3. Semantic Web Research Trends and Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    social trust on the semantic web that builds upon the previous work to create end user applications that benefit from the semantic foundation. 2 Swoop...security, authentication, and privacy. However, the social component of trust is one that is both important and ideally suited for the Semantic Web. When the...Semantic Web-based social networks are augmented with trust information, it is possible to make computations over the values, and integrate the

  4. Semantic processing in information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts represented by phrases, will in fact enhance retrieval effectiveness. The availability of the UMLS domain model, which we exploit extensively, significantly contributes to the feasibility of this processing. PMID:8130547

  5. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  6. Language networks in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L; Dronkers, Nina F; Brambati, Simona M; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during a reading activation task. The left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus and fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus were tracked in five semantic dementia patients and eight healthy controls. The left uncinate fasciculus and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were also obtained for comparison with previous studies. From each tract, mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, as well as parallel and transverse diffusivities were obtained. Diffusion tensor imaging results were related to grey and white matter atrophy volume assessed by voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during a reading task. Semantic dementia patients had significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The arcuate and uncinate fasciculi demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse and significantly lower fractional anisotropy. The fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus was relatively spared, with a significant difference observed for transverse diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, only. In the corpus callosum, the genu showed lower fractional anisotropy compared with controls, while no difference was found in the splenium. The left parietal cortex did not show significant volume changes on voxel-based morphometry and demonstrated normal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to reading items that

  7. Language networks in semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G.; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Brambati, Simona M.; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during a reading activation task. The left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus and fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus were tracked in five semantic dementia patients and eight healthy controls. The left uncinate fasciculus and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were also obtained for comparison with previous studies. From each tract, mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, as well as parallel and transverse diffusivities were obtained. Diffusion tensor imaging results were related to grey and white matter atrophy volume assessed by voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during a reading task. Semantic dementia patients had significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The arcuate and uncinate fasciculi demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity, parallel and transverse and significantly lower fractional anisotropy. The fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus was relatively spared, with a significant difference observed for transverse diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, only. In the corpus callosum, the genu showed lower fractional anisotropy compared with controls, while no difference was found in the splenium. The left parietal cortex did not show significant volume changes on voxel-based morphometry and demonstrated normal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to reading items that

  8. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  9. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Ridgway, Hayley J.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic

  10. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Hannah L; Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D; Cruickshank, Robert H; Ridgway, Hayley J; Paterson, Adrian M

    2014-01-01

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence

  11. Automated x-ray/light field congruence using the LINAC EPID panel

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Wojciech; O'Doherty, Jim; Jones, Matt

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: X-ray/light field alignment is a test described in many guidelines for the routine quality control of clinical linear accelerators (LINAC). Currently, the gold standard method for measuring alignment is through utilization of radiographic film. However, many modern LINACs are equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that may be used to perform this test and thus subsequently reducing overall cost, processing, and analysis time, removing operator dependency and the requirement to sustain the departmental film processor. Methods: This work describes a novel method of utilizing the EPID together with a custom inhouse designed jig and automatic image processing software allowing measurement of the light field size, x-ray field size, and congruence between them. The authors present results of testing the method for aS1000 and aS500 Varian EPID detectors for six LINACs at a range of energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) in comparison with the results obtained from the use of radiographic film. Results: Reproducibility of the software in fully automatic operation under a range of operating conditions for a single image showed a congruence of 0.01 cm with a coefficient of variation of 0. Slight variation in congruence repeatability was noted through semiautomatic processing by four independent operators due to manual marking of positions on the jig. Testing of the methodology using the automatic method shows a high precision of 0.02 mm compared to a maximum of 0.06 mm determined by film processing. Intraindividual examination of operator measurements of congruence was shown to vary as much as 0.75 mm. Similar congruence measurements of 0.02 mm were also determined for a lower resolution EPID (aS500 model), after rescaling of the image to the aS1000 image size. Conclusions: The designed methodology was proven to be time efficient, cost effective, and at least as accurate as using the gold standard radiographic film. Additionally, congruence testing can be

  12. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  13. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  14. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  15. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  16. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  17. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, Jeanne A; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16) = 17.153, p = 0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25) = 0.09, p = 0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41) = 4.466, p = 0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  18. Brain oscillations in switching vs. focusing audio-visual attention.

    PubMed

    Rapela, Joaquin; Gramann, Klaus; Westerfield, Marissa; Townsend, Jeanne; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention contributes to perceptual efficiency by modulating cortical activity according to task demands. The majority of attentional research has focused on the effects of attention to a single modality, and little is known about the role of attention in multimodal sensory processing. Here we employ a novel experimental design to examine the electrophysiological basis of audio-visual attention shifting. We use electroencephalography (EEG) to study differences in brain dynamics between quickly shifting attention between modalities and focusing attention on a single modality for extended periods of time. We also address interactions between attentional effects generated by the attention-shifting cue and those generated by subsequent stimuli. The conclusions from these examinations address key issues in attentional research, including the supramodal theory of attention, or the role of attention in foveal vision. The experimental design and analysis methods used here may suggest new directions in the study of the physiological basis of attention.

  19. Audio-visual speech in noise perception in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Laarhoven, Thijs; Keetels, Mirjam; Schakel, Lemmy; Vroomen, Jean

    2016-12-18

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) may experience, besides reading problems, other speech-related processing deficits. Here, we examined the influence of visual articulatory information (lip-read speech) at various levels of background noise on auditory word recognition in children and adults with DD. We found that children with a documented history of DD have deficits in their ability to gain benefit from lip-read information that disambiguates noise-masked speech. We show with another group of adult individuals with DD that these deficits persist into adulthood. These deficits could not be attributed to impairments in unisensory auditory word recognition. Rather, the results indicate a specific deficit in audio-visual speech processing and suggest that impaired multisensory integration might be an important aspect of DD.

  20. The audiovisual temporal binding window narrows in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, David J; Flom, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked whether the voice and face went together (Experiment 1) or whether the desynchronized videos differed from the synchronized one (Experiment 2). Four-year-olds detected the 666-ms asynchrony, 5-year-olds detected the 666- and 500-ms asynchrony, and 6-year-olds detected all asynchronies. These results show that the A-V temporal binding window narrows slowly during early childhood and that it is still wider at 6 years of age than in older children and adults.

  1. Audiovisual integration in noise by children and adults.

    PubMed

    Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-, 22-, 12-, and 9-dB across the different age groups were compared. Multisensory facilitation was greater in adults than in children, although performance for all age groups was affected by the presence of background noise. It is posited that changes in multisensory facilitation with increased auditory noise may be due to changes in attention bias.

  2. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  3. I can see, hear, and smell your fear: comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels.

  4. The Use of Audio-Visual Media for the Education of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    An Indian adult educator discusses the value of "pleasure-oriented" audiovisual adult education, the use of both commercial and subsidized films, television, and radio for their educational potential. He notes several production needs and techniques. (MF)

  5. 36 CFR 1237.18 - What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Photographic film and prints. The requirements in this paragraph apply to permanent, long-term temporary, and unscheduled audiovisual records. (1) General guidance. Keep all film in cold storage following guidance by...

  6. The absence of a gender congruency effect in romance languages: a matter of stimulus onset asynchrony?

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Costa, Albert; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2002-03-01

    Using the picture-word interference paradigm, H. Schriefers and E. Teruel (2000) found that in German the grammatical gender of the distractor word affects the production of phrases composed of article+picture name: Latencies were longer for picture-word pairs of different genders. However, the effect was found only at positive stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; i.e., when pictures were presented 75 or 150 ms earlier than word distractors). This gender congruency effect is not obtained in Romance languages. The present article examines whether in these languages, as in German, the effect appears at positive SOAs. No effect was observed in Italian and Spanish at positive SOAs. An account is proposed to explain why the gender congruency effect is obtained in Germanic (Dutch and German) but not in Romance languages.

  7. Leadership and satisfaction in tennis: examination of congruence, gender, and ability.

    PubMed

    Riemer, H A; Toon, K

    2001-09-01

    The study investigated: (a) the congruency hypothesis, and (b) the member characteristics hypotheses relating to ability and gender, of Chelladurai's (1978) Multidimensional Model of Leadership. One hundred forty-eight tennis players (77 women) competing at the NCAA Division I and II Tennis Championship level participated in the study. Results indicated athlete satisfaction (Athlete Satisfaction Scale; Riemer & Chelladurai, 1998) was not dependent on the congruence between preferred and perceived leadership behavior. Other results indicated that an athlete's level of ability did affect preferences for leadership behavior. Further, while athlete gender was responsible for some variance in preferences for autocratic behavior and positive feedback behavior, the gender of the athlete's coach had a significant effect on the athlete's preferences for social support behavior.

  8. Value congruence in health care priority setting: social values, institutions and decisions in three countries.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Claudia; Klinnert, Dorothea

    2015-04-01

    Most developed democracies have faced the challenge of priority setting in health care by setting up specialized agencies to take decisions on which medical services to include in public health baskets. Under the influence of Daniels and Sabin's seminal work on the topic, agencies increasingly aim to fulfil criteria of procedural justice, such as accountability and transparency. We assume, however, that the institutional design of agencies also and necessarily reflects substantial value judgments on the respective weight of distributive principles such as efficiency, need and equality. The public acceptance of prioritization decisions, and eventually of the health care system at large, will ultimately depend not only on considerations of procedural fairness, but also on the congruence between a society's values and its institutions. We study social values, institutions and decisions in three countries (France, Germany and the United Kingdom) in order to assess such congruence and formulate expectations on its effects.

  9. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  10. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  11. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  12. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  13. Genres, Semantics, and Classroom Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay

    1988-01-01

    Argues that competence in academic subjects depends on mastery of their specialized patterns of language use. These patterns are described in terms of: 1) the semantics underlying Halliday's functional linguistics and 2) the structural analysis of communication genres. A sample classroom episode illustrates relationships among semantic…

  14. A Note on Semantic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The notions of categorical selection (c-selection) and semantic selection (s-selection) as outlined in recent research on generative grammar are discussed. The first section addresses the type of selectional constraint imposed on English small clauses (e.g., "John considers [Mary smart]"). In the second section, it is suggested that the constraint…

  15. Taxonomic and Thematic Semantic Systems.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Britt, Allison E

    2017-03-23

    Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory. We propose 2 principles that may drive the development of distinct taxonomic and thematic semantic systems: differences between which features determine taxonomic versus thematic relations, and differences in the processing required to extract taxonomic versus thematic relations. This review brings together distinct threads of behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research on semantic memory in support of a functional and neural dissociation, and defines a framework for future studies of semantic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  17. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  18. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  19. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  20. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  1. Local directional pattern of phase congruency features for illumination invariant face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essa, Almabrok E.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2014-04-01

    An illumination-robust face recognition system using Local Directional Pattern (LDP) descriptors in Phase Congruency (PC) space is proposed in this paper. The proposed Directional Pattern of Phase Congruency (DPPC) is an oriented and multi-scale local descriptor that is able to encode various patterns of face images under different lighting conditions. It is constructed by applying LDP on the oriented PC images. A LDP feature is obtained by computing the edge response values in eight directions at each pixel position and encoding them into an eight bit binary code using the relative strength magnitude of these edge responses. Phase congruency and local directional pattern have been independently used in the field of face and facial expression recognition, since they are robust to illumination changes. When the PC extracts the discontinuities in the image such as edges and corners, the LDP computes the edge response values in different directions and uses these to encode the image texture. The local directional pattern descriptor on the phase congruency image is subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction for fast and effective face recognition application. The performance evaluation of the proposed DPPC algorithm is conducted on several publicly available databases and observed promising recognition rates. Better classification accuracy shows the superiority of the LDP descriptor against other appearance-based feature descriptors such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP). In other words, our result shows that by using the LDP descriptor the Euclidean distance between reference image and testing images in the same class is much less than that between reference image and testing images from the other classes.

  2. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  3. Seeing to hear better: evidence for early audio-visual interactions in speech identification.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frédéric; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-09-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances sensitivity to acoustic information, decreasing the auditory detection threshold of speech embedded in noise [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109 (2001) 2272; J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108 (2000) 1197]. However, detection is different from comprehension, and it remains to be seen whether improved sensitivity also results in an intelligibility gain in audio-visual speech perception. In this work, we use an original paradigm to show that seeing the speaker's lips enables the listener to hear better and hence to understand better. The audio-visual stimuli used here could not be differentiated by lip reading per se since they contained exactly the same lip gesture matched with different compatible speech sounds. Nevertheless, the noise-masked stimuli were more intelligible in the audio-visual condition than in the audio-only condition due to the contribution of visual information to the extraction of acoustic cues. Replacing the lip gesture by a non-speech visual input with exactly the same time course, providing the same temporal cues for extraction, removed the intelligibility benefit. This early contribution to audio-visual speech identification is discussed in relationships with recent neurophysiological data on audio-visual perception.

  4. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Ard, Tyler; Carver, Frederick W; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships.

  5. An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  6. Students' academic performance in nursing as a function of student and faculty learning style congruency.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Nagata, B

    1996-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of traditional baccalaureate nursing students, registered nurse baccalaureate students, baccalaureate nursing students holding a previous non-nursing degree, and nursing educators and to determine the effects of teacher/student learning style congruency on academic performance, when controlled for students' previous academic achievement. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and a Descriptive Data Questionnaire were administered to 334 nursing students and their respective nurse educators from two nursing schools in Mississippi. Learning style scores were computed and faculty and student learning style congruency was described as: 1) matched on both abstract-concrete and active-reflective dimensions; 2) matched on only the abstract-concrete dimension; 3) matched on only the active-reflective dimension; or 4) not matched on either dimension. There were no significant differences in learning style among the three groups of nursing students, and learning style congruency between student and faculty did not appear to significantly affect academic performance of students.

  7. Application of the instructional congruence framework: Developing supplemental materials for English language learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Tina Skjerping

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation is a study of the instructional congruence framework as it was used to develop and pilot a supplemental science unit on energy and the environment for sixth grade students in Arizona. With the growing linguistic and cultural diversity of children in American schools, congruent materials are more important now than ever before. The supplemental materials were designed by the researcher and underwent a six person, three educator and three engineer, panel review. The revised materials were then piloted in two sixth grade classrooms in the Southwest with high numbers of English language learners. Classroom observation, teacher interviews, and the classroom observation protocol were utilized to understand the fidelity to the instructional congruence framework. The fidelity of implementation of materials was subject to the realities of varied educational contexts. Piloting materials in urban contexts with diverse students involved additional challenges. The results of the study explore the challenges in creating instructionally congruent materials for diverse students in urban contexts. Recommendations are provided for curriculum developers that undertake the task of creating instructionally congruent materials and emphasize the need to devise innovative methods of creation, while understanding that there is no perfect solution. The education community as a whole could benefit from incorporating and synthesizing the instructional congruence framework in order to provide maximum opportunities in science for all students.

  8. Relationships among client-therapist personality congruence, working alliance, and therapeutic outcome.

    PubMed

    Taber, Brian J; Leibert, Todd W; Agaskar, Vaibhavee R

    2011-12-01

    Despite the importance of the working alliance in therapeutic outcome, little is known about the factors associated with its formation. We advance that personality similarity between client and therapist is one such factor pertinent to the working alliance. In this study, personality similarity in 32 client-therapist dyads was examined for its relations to the bond, task, and goal elements of the working alliance (Bordin, 1979, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16, 252-260) and therapeutic outcome. Personality similarity was conceptualized using Holland's (1997, Making vocational choices [3rd ed.]) congruence construct. Therapists completed the Self-Directed Search pretreatment and clients completed the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised and Self-Directed Search after the third session. Results indicated that (a) client-therapist personality congruence was associated with the bond, (b) bond was associated with task and goal, and (c) task and goal were associated with therapeutic outcome. Congruence was not associated with task, goal, or therapeutic outcome. Holland's theory provides a framework for adapting to clients of varying personality types. By understanding how client-therapist personalities relate to each other in therapy, client-therapist bonds may be more efficiently realized.

  9. Value importance and value congruence as determinants of trust in health policy actors.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Susan M; Ponting, J Rick

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines levels and determinants of trust in a health care system and in key actors in the health policy community. Talcott Parsons theorizes that the sharing of common values is a necessary condition for interpersonal trust to exist; this paper tests that notion at the level of systemic (institutional) trust. The paper reports findings of a 1999 survey of 493 randomly selected residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It uses multiple regression analysis to identify the determinants of three different types of trust-generalized systemic trust, fiduciary trust, and generalized trust in particular actors' input to health system changes. Among the numerous independent variables, special attention is devoted to the degree of congruence or incongruence between the importance which respondents attach to one of the values enunciated in the Canada Health Act-namely, 'accessibility' (equal access to quality health care)-and the importance which respondents believe is attached to that value by the Regional Health Authority and by the Premier of the province. Both value importance and value congruence on equal accessibility are found to be important factors explaining variation in all three types of trust. In explaining levels of trust in the Premier on the issue of health care system reform, congruence on equal accessibility proved to be even more important than such factors as political partisanship, political cynicism, and personal experience as a patient in the health care system. Findings also suggest that there is an emotional component to systemic trust.

  10. Context-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects: An Episodic Learning Account and Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, James R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Stroop task, participants identify the print color of color words. The congruency effect is the observation that response times and errors are increased when the word and color are incongruent (e.g., the word “red” in green ink) relative to when they are congruent (e.g., “red” in red). The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the finding that congruency effects are reduced when trials are mostly incongruent rather than mostly congruent. This PC effect can be context-specific. For instance, if trials are mostly incongruent when presented in one location and mostly congruent when presented in another location, the congruency effect is smaller for the former location. Typically, PC effects are interpreted in terms of strategic control of attention in response to conflict, termed conflict adaptation or conflict monitoring. In the present manuscript, however, an episodic learning account is presented for context-specific proportion congruent (CSPC) effects. In particular, it is argued that context-specific contingency learning can explain part of the effect, and context-specific rhythmic responding can explain the rest. Both contingency-based and temporal-based learning can parsimoniously be conceptualized within an episodic learning framework. An adaptation of the Parallel Episodic Processing model is presented. This model successfully simulates CSPC effects, both for contingency-biased and contingency-unbiased (transfer) items. The same fixed-parameter model can explain a range of other findings from the learning, timing, binding, practice, and attentional control domains. PMID:27899907

  11. Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Samuel T; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2014-12-07

    Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole.

  12. Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Samuel T.; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole. PMID:25320172

  13. Fine-scale phylogeographic congruence despite demographic incongruence in two low-mobility saproxylic springtails.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Simmons, Chris S; Hillis, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Evolutionary trajectories of codistributed taxa with comparable ecological preferences and dispersal abilities may be similarly impacted by historical landscape-level processes. Species' responses to changes in a shared biogeographic landscape may be purely concerted, completely independent, or classified as falling within an intermediate part of the continuum bounded by these two extremes. With sufficient molecular data, temporal contrasts of congruence among taxa with respect to these responses can be made. Such contrasts provide insights into the relative influence of ancient versus more recent climatic (and other) impacts on genetic structuring. Using phylogenetic, allele frequency, and genotypic data from two low-mobility, rotting-log-adapted (saproxylic) springtail species (Collembola) from an isolated 100-km-long section of the Great Dividing Range in southeastern Australia, we tested the concerted-response hypothesis over three timescales. Tests of phylogeographic, demographic, and contemporary population-genetic congruence were performed using an integrative approach that draws on both direct (pattern-based) and indirect (scenario-based) analyses. Our data revealed a general pattern of broad-scale similarities in species' responses to the interaction between Pleistocene climatic cycles and landscape setting, overlaid with some species-specific differences on local geographic and more recent temporal scales. This general pattern of phylogeographic congruence was accompanied by evidence for contemporaneous demographic incongruence indicating that, even at relatively small spatial scales, biogeographic context can exert an overarching influence on genetic structuring.

  14. Category-specific semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a semantic priming study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Reñé, Ramón

    2008-03-07

    Category-specific semantic deficits in individuals suffering brain damage after relatively focal lesions provide an important source of evidence about the organization of semantic knowledge. However, whether Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which the brain damage is more widespread, affects semantic categories to a different extent is still controversial. In the present study, we assess this issue by means of the semantic priming technique. AD patients with a mild impairment of their semantic knowledge showed comparable priming effects to that of controls for the categories of animals and artifacts. Interestingly, however, patients with a moderate impairment of their semantic knowledge showed a normal priming effect for animals but a very reduced priming effect (if any) for artifacts. These results reveal that AD may affect the semantic knowledge of different semantic categories to a different extent. The implications of this observation for current theoretical accounts of semantic representation in the brain are discussed.

  15. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  16. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing.

  17. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    PubMed

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance.

  18. The evolution of semantic systems.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-05-01

    Semantic or cultural systems are sets of concepts connected by meaningful relationships, and they exhibit properties similar to those of populations of biological organisms. Drawing upon ideas from evolutionary biology and methods from information technology, this article explores the potential for research and engineering on the evolution of semantic systems. Such work in cultural genetics requires two things: (1) a rigorous but evolving taxonomic system to categorize cultural artifacts, elements, and clusters, and (2) a set of hypotheses about the processes that cause evolutionary change. This article illustrates systematic approaches to cultural taxonomy with data on the popular ideology of the space program, science fiction motion pictures, nanotechnology books, and nanotechnology research grants. It offers hypotheses derived from evolutionary and population biology that might be useful in explaining cultural evolution.

  19. The Formal Semantics of PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

  20. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  1. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  2. Physical and perceptual factors shape the neural mechanisms that integrate audiovisual signals in speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lee, HweeLing; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-08-03

    Face-to-face communication challenges the human brain to integrate information from auditory and visual senses with linguistic representations. Yet the role of bottom-up physical (spectrotemporal structure) input and top-down linguistic constraints in shaping the neural mechanisms specialized for integrating audiovisual speech signals are currently unknown. Participants were presented with speech and sinewave speech analogs in visual, auditory, and audiovisual modalities. Before the fMRI study, they were trained to perceive physically identical sinewave speech analogs as speech (SWS-S) or nonspeech (SWS-N). Comparing audiovisual integration (interactions) of speech, SWS-S, and SWS-N revealed a posterior-anterior processing gradient within the left superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG): Bilateral posterior STS/STG integrated audiovisual inputs regardless of spectrotemporal structure or speech percept; in left mid-STS, the integration profile was primarily determined by the spectrotemporal structure of the signals; more anterior STS regions discarded spectrotemporal structure and integrated audiovisual signals constrained by stimulus intelligibility and the availability of linguistic representations. In addition to this "ventral" processing stream, a "dorsal" circuitry encompassing posterior STS/STG and left inferior frontal gyrus differentially integrated audiovisual speech and SWS signals. Indeed, dynamic causal modeling and Bayesian model comparison provided strong evidence for a parallel processing structure encompassing a ventral and a dorsal stream with speech intelligibility training enhancing the connectivity between posterior and anterior STS/STG. In conclusion, audiovisual speech comprehension emerges in an interactive process with the integration of auditory and visual signals being progressively constrained by stimulus intelligibility along the STS and spectrotemporal structure in a dorsal fronto-temporal circuitry.

  3. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    father, and turned thirty-graduate school has been a long varied haul and I could never have made it alone. Thus it is a good time to thank all the...distinction between world and linguistic knowledge has a long history in philosophy. Whether the distinction exists and if so how it should be drawn are...explaining human language acquisition. Language semantics cueing is more promising from a computational perspective and consequently has a long (for

  4. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand.

  5. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  6. U.S. Government Films, 1971 Supplement; A Catalog of Audiovisual Materials for Rent and Sale by the National Audiovisual Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    The first edition of the National Audiovisual Center sales catalog (LI 003875) is updated by this supplement. Changes in price and order number as well as deletions from the 1969 edition, are noted in this 1971 version. Purchase and rental information for the sound films and silent filmstrips is provided. The broad subject categories are:…

  7. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    George, Rohini; Chung, Theodore D.; Vedam, Sastry S.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Mohan, Radhe; Weiss, Elisabeth; Keall, Paul J. . E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

  8. Semantic search via concept annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  9. Entropy, semantic relatedness and proximity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Lance W; Sivley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although word co-occurrences within a document have been demonstrated to be semantically useful, word interactions over a local range have been largely neglected by psychologists due to practical challenges. Shannon's (Bell Systems Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-665, 1948) conceptualization of information theory suggests that these interactions should be useful for understanding communication. Computational advances make an examination of local word-word interactions possible for a large text corpus. We used Brants and Franz's (2006) dataset to generate conditional probabilities for 62,474 word pairs and entropy calculations for 9,917 words in Nelson, McEvoy, and Schreiber's (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 402-407, 2004) free association norms. Semantic associativity correlated moderately with the probabilities and was stronger when the two words were not adjacent. The number of semantic associates for a word and the entropy of a word were also correlated. Finally, language entropy decreases from 11 bits for single words to 6 bits per word for four-word sequences. The probabilities and entropies discussed here are included in the supplemental materials for the article.

  10. Semantic priming in the prime task effect: evidence of automatic semantic processing of distractors.

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, P; Fuentes, L J; Catena, A; Houghton, G

    2000-06-01

    The automaticity of the semantic processing of words has been questioned because of the reduction of semantic priming when the prime word is processed nonsemantically--for example, in letter search (the prime task effect). In two experiments, prime distractor words produced semantic priming in a subsequent lexical decision task, but with the direction of priming (positive or negative) depending on the prime task. Lexico-semantic tasks produced negative semantic priming, whereas letter search produced positive semantic priming. These results are discussed in terms of task-based inhibition. We argue that, given the results from the distractors, the absence of semantic priming does not indicate an absence of semantic activation but reflects the action of control processes on prepotent responses when less practiced responses are needed.

  11. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  12. Of the family tree: congruence on filial obligation between older parents and adult children in Japanese Canadian families.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Karen M; Funk, Laura

    2010-03-01

    Drawing on the intergenerational stake hypothesis (Bengtson and Kuypers, 1971), this article explores intergenerational congruence and incongruence on filial obligation, and implications for social support, between older nisei (second generation) parents and adult sansei (third generation) children in Japanese Canadian families. Using data from semi-structured interviews with 100 parent-child dyads in British Columbia, congruence on close-ended responses to value statements (degree congruence) and the content congruence of open-ended responses are examined. The findings show the majority of parent-child dyads indicate overall (both degree and content) congruence in filial obligation, especially when a parent is female, widowed, and/or has poor/fair health status. We conclude that despite markedly different historical life course experiences and acculturation processes, both generations continue to regard filial obligation as important. These findings are discussed with respect to implications for social support exchanges given a continued valuation of filial obligation in Asian post-immigrant (North American-born) and immigrant families.

  13. Audiovisual speech perception development at varying levels of perceptual processing

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2016-01-01

    This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the level of perceptual processing required to complete them. Adults and children demonstrated visual speech influence at all levels of perceptual processing. Whereas children demonstrated the same visual speech influence at each level of perceptual processing, adults demonstrated greater visual speech influence on tasks requiring higher levels of perceptual processing. These results support previous research demonstrating multiple mechanisms of AV speech processing (general perceptual and speech-specific mechanisms) with independent maturational time courses. The results suggest that adults rely on both general perceptual mechanisms that apply to all levels of perceptual processing and speech-specific mechanisms that apply when making phonetic decisions and/or accessing the lexicon. Six- to eight-year-old children seem to rely only on general perceptual mechanisms across levels. As expected, developmental differences in AV benefit on this and other recognition tasks likely reflect immature speech-specific mechanisms and phonetic processing in children. PMID:27106318

  14. Audiovisual speech perception development at varying levels of perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2016-04-01

    This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the level of perceptual processing required to complete them. Adults and children demonstrated visual speech influence at all levels of perceptual processing. Whereas children demonstrated the same visual speech influence at each level of perceptual processing, adults demonstrated greater visual speech influence on tasks requiring higher levels of perceptual processing. These results support previous research demonstrating multiple mechanisms of AV speech processing (general perceptual and speech-specific mechanisms) with independent maturational time courses. The results suggest that adults rely on both general perceptual mechanisms that apply to all levels of perceptual processing and speech-specific mechanisms that apply when making phonetic decisions and/or accessing the lexicon. Six- to eight-year-old children seem to rely only on general perceptual mechanisms across levels. As expected, developmental differences in AV benefit on this and other recognition tasks likely reflect immature speech-specific mechanisms and phonetic processing in children.

  15. Audio-visual enhancement of speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Girin, L; Schwartz, J L; Feng, G

    2001-06-01

    A key problem for telecommunication or human-machine communication systems concerns speech enhancement in noise. In this domain, a certain number of techniques exist, all of them based on an acoustic-only approach--that is, the processing of the audio corrupted signal using audio information (from the corrupted signal only or additive audio information). In this paper, an audio-visual approach to the problem is considered, since it has been demonstrated in several studies that viewing the speaker's face improves message intelligibility, especially in noisy environments. A speech enhancement prototype system that takes advantage of visual inputs is developed. A filtering process approach is proposed that uses enhancement filters estimated with the help of lip shape information. The estimation process is based on linear regression or simple neural networks using a training corpus. A set of experiments assessed by Gaussian classification and perceptual tests demonstrates that it is indeed possible to enhance simple stimuli (vowel-plosive-vowel sequences) embedded in white Gaussian noise.

  16. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  17. Audio-visual perception system for a humanoid robotic head.

    PubMed

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M; Bandera, Juan P; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-05-28

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework.

  18. Effects of the audiovisual conflict on auditory early processes.

    PubMed

    Scannella, Sébastien; Causse, Mickaël; Chauveau, Nicolas; Pastor, Josette; Dehais, Frédéric

    2013-07-01

    Auditory alarm misperception is one of the critical events that lead aircraft pilots to an erroneous flying decision. The rarity of these alarms associated with their possible unreliability may play a role in this misperception. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we manipulated both audiovisual conflict and sound rarity in a simplified landing task. Behavioral data and event related potentials (ERPs) of thirteen healthy participants were analyzed. We found that the presentation of a rare auditory signal (i.e., an alarm), incongruent with visual information, led to a smaller amplitude of the auditory N100 (i.e., less negative) compared to the condition in which both signals were congruent. Moreover, the incongruity between the visual information and the rare sound did not significantly affect reaction times, suggesting that the rare sound was neglected. We propose that the lower N100 amplitude reflects an early visual-to-auditory gating that depends on the rarity of the sound. In complex aircraft environments, this early effect might be partly responsible for auditory alarm insensitivity. Our results provide a new basis for future aeronautic studies and the development of countermeasures.

  19. Hearing flashes and seeing beeps: Timing audiovisual events

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Many events from daily life are audiovisual (AV). Handclaps produce both visual and acoustic signals that are transmitted in air and processed by our sensory systems at different speeds, reaching the brain multisensory integration areas at different moments. Signals must somehow be associated in time to correctly perceive synchrony. This project aims at quantifying the mutual temporal attraction between senses and characterizing the different interaction modes depending on the offset. In every trial participants saw four beep-flash pairs regularly spaced in time, followed after a variable delay by a fifth event in the test modality (auditory or visual). A large range of AV offsets was tested. The task was to judge whether the last event came before/after what was expected given the perceived rhythm, while attending only to the test modality. Flashes were perceptually shifted in time toward beeps, the attraction being stronger for lagging than leading beeps. Conversely, beeps were not shifted toward flashes, indicating a nearly total auditory capture. The subjective timing of the visual component resulting from the AV interaction could easily be forward but not backward in time, an intuitive constraint stemming from minimum visual processing delays. Finally, matching auditory and visual time-sensitivity with beeps embedded in pink noise produced very similar mutual attractions of beeps and flashes. Breaking the natural auditory preference for timing allowed vision to take over as well, showing that this preference is not hardwired. PMID:28207786

  20. Teleconferences and Audiovisual Materials in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Unidad de Educacion Continua y a Distancia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoaca 04510 Mexico, MEXICO As stated in the special session description, 21st century undergraduate education has access to resources/experiences that go beyond university classrooms. However in some cases, resources may go largely unused and a number of factors may be cited such as logistic problems, restricted internet and telecommunication service access, miss-information, etc. We present and comment on our efforts and experiences at the National University of Mexico in a new unit dedicated to teleconferences and audio-visual materials. The unit forms part of the geosciences institutes, located in the central UNAM campus and campuses in other States. The use of teleconference in formal graduate and undergraduate education allows teachers and lecturers to distribute course material as in classrooms. Course by teleconference requires learning and student and teacher effort without physical contact, but they have access to multimedia available to support their exhibition. Well selected multimedia material allows the students to identify and recognize digital information to aid understanding natural phenomena integral to Earth Sciences. Cooperation with international partnerships providing access to new materials and experiences and to field practices will greatly add to our efforts. We will present specific examples of the experiences that we have at the Earth Sciences Postgraduate Program of UNAM with the use of technology in the education in geosciences.

  1. Sensorimotor synchronization with audio-visual stimuli: limited multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alan; Issartel, Johann

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how we synchronize our actions with stimuli from different sensory modalities plays a central role in helping to establish how we interact with our multisensory environment. Recent research has shown better performance with multisensory over unisensory stimuli; however, the type of stimuli used has mainly been auditory and tactile. The aim of this article was to expand our understanding of sensorimotor synchronization with multisensory audio-visual stimuli and compare these findings to their individual unisensory counterparts. This research also aims to assess the role of spatio-temporal structure for each sensory modality. The visual and/or auditory stimuli had either temporal or spatio-temporal information available and were presented to the participants in unimodal and bimodal conditions. Globally, the performance was significantly better for the bimodal compared to the unimodal conditions; however, this benefit was limited to only one of the bimodal conditions. In terms of the unimodal conditions, the level of synchronization with visual stimuli was better than auditory, and while there was an observed benefit with the spatio-temporal compared to temporal visual stimulus, this was not replicated with the auditory stimulus.

  2. Impact of language on functional connectivity for audiovisual speech integration

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Jun; Hiroe, Nobuo; Sato, Masa-aki; Nagamine, Takashi; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Visual information about lip and facial movements plays a role in audiovisual (AV) speech perception. Although this has been widely confirmed, previous behavioural studies have shown interlanguage differences, that is, native Japanese speakers do not integrate auditory and visual speech as closely as native English speakers. To elucidate the neural basis of such interlanguage differences, 22 native English speakers and 24 native Japanese speakers were examined in behavioural or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiments while mono-syllabic speech was presented under AV, auditory-only, or visual-only conditions for speech identification. Behavioural results indicated that the English speakers identified visual speech more quickly than the Japanese speakers, and that the temporal facilitation effect of congruent visual speech was significant in the English speakers but not in the Japanese speakers. Using fMRI data, we examined the functional connectivity among brain regions important for auditory-visual interplay. The results indicated that the English speakers had significantly stronger connectivity between the visual motion area MT and the Heschl’s gyrus compared with the Japanese speakers, which may subserve lower-level visual influences on speech perception in English speakers in a multisensory environment. These results suggested that linguistic experience strongly affects neural connectivity involved in AV speech integration. PMID:27510407

  3. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  4. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  5. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  6. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F.; Hassan, Yasser F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. PMID:26933673

  7. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory.

  8. Synonyms Provide Semantic Preview Benefit in English

    PubMed Central

    Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of semantic preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that semantic preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning, e.g., curlers-rollers). However, no semantic preview benefit was observed for semantic associates (e.g., curlers-styling). These different preview conditions represent different degrees to which the meaning of the sentence changes when the preview is replaced by the target. When this continuous variable (determined by a norming procedure) was used as the predictor in the analyses, there was a significant relationship between it and all reading time measures, suggesting that similarity in meaning between what is accessed parafoveally and what is processed foveally may be an important influence on the presence of semantic preview benefit. Why synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in reading English is discussed in relation to (1) previous failures to find semantic preview benefit in English and (2) the fact that semantic preview benefit is observed in other languages even for non-synonymous words. Semantic preview benefit is argued to depend on several factors—attentional resources, depth of orthography, and degree of similarity between preview and target. PMID:24347813

  9. Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

    Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

  10. An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

  11. Spatial and temporal factors during processing of audiovisual speech: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, E; George, N; Dolan, R; Spence, C; Driver, J

    2004-02-01

    Speech perception can use not only auditory signals, but also visual information from seeing the speaker's mouth. The relative timing and relative location of auditory and visual inputs are both known to influence crossmodal integration psychologically, but previous imaging studies of audiovisual speech focused primarily on just temporal aspects. Here we used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) during audiovisual speech processing to study how temporal and spatial factors might jointly affect brain activations. In agreement with previous work, synchronous versus asynchronous audiovisual speech yielded increased activity in multisensory association areas (e.g., superior temporal sulcus [STS]), plus in some unimodal visual areas. Our orthogonal manipulation of relative stimulus position (auditory and visual stimuli presented at same location vs. opposite sides) and stimulus synchrony showed that (i) ventral occipital areas and superior temporal sulcus were unaffected by relative location; (ii) lateral and dorsal occipital areas were selectively activated for synchronous bimodal stimulation at the same external location; (iii) right inferior parietal lobule was activated for synchronous auditory and visual stimuli at different locations, that is, in the condition classically associated with the 'ventriloquism effect' (shift of perceived auditory position toward the visual location). Thus, different brain regions are involved in different aspects of audiovisual integration. While ventral areas appear more affected by audiovisual synchrony (which can influence speech identification), more dorsal areas appear to be associated with spatial multisensory interactions.

  12. Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Davison, F M

    1985-04-01

    The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal.

  13. On two mathematical definitions of observational equivalence: Manifest isomorphism and ε-congruence reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    In this paper I examine two mathematical definitions of observational equivalence, one proposed by Charlotte Werndl and based on manifest isomorphism, and the other based on Ornstein and Weiss's ε-congruence. I argue, for two related reasons, that neither can function as a purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence. First, each definition permits of counterexamples; second, overcoming these counterexamples will introduce non-mathematical premises about the systems in question. Accordingly, the prospects for a broadly applicable and purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence are unpromising. Despite this critique, I suggest that Werndl's proposals are valuable because they clarify the distinction between provable and unprovable elements in arguments for observational equivalence.

  14. Learning and Discrimination of Audiovisual Events in Human Infants: The Hierarchical Relation between Intersensory Temporal Synchrony and Rhythmic Pattern Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments examined 4- to 10-month-olds' perception of audio-visual (A-V) temporal synchrony cues in the presence or absence of rhythmic pattern cues. Results established that infants of all ages could discriminate between two different audio-visual rhythmic events. Only 10-month-olds detected a desynchronization of the auditory and visual…

  15. Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: Juni 1971 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. June 1971 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

    This listing, updating the 1969 publication, cites commerically available language instruction programs having audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids are available only as components of total programs noted in this work. Organization is by language and commerical source. Indications for classroom applications and prices (in German…

  16. Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: August 1969 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. August 1969 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter, Comp.

    This listing cites commercially available programs for foreign language instruction which have audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids without accompanying basic text materials are not included. Organization is by language and commercial source. Indications for classroom application and prices (in German currency) are provided. The…

  17. A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

  18. Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

  19. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copied as follows: (a) USIA audiovisual records prepared for dissemination abroad that NARA determines... audiovisual records prepared for dissemination abroad that NARA determines may have copyright protection or may contain copyrighted material are provided to you if you seek the release of such materials in...

  20. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... copied as follows: (a) USIA audiovisual records prepared for dissemination abroad that NARA determines... audiovisual records prepared for dissemination abroad that NARA determines may have copyright protection or may contain copyrighted material are provided to you if you seek the release of such materials in...