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Sample records for auditory brain regions

  1. Brain Region-Specific Activity Patterns after Recent or Remote Memory Retrieval of Auditory Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or…

  2. Brain Region-Specific Activity Patterns after Recent or Remote Memory Retrieval of Auditory Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or…

  3. Sex differences in brain structure in auditory and cingulate regions.

    PubMed

    Brun, Caroline C; Leporé, Natasha; Luders, Eileen; Chou, Yi-Yu; Madsen, Sarah K; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-07-01

    We applied a new method to visualize the three-dimensional profile of sex differences in brain structure based on MRI scans of 100 young adults. We compared 50 men with 50 women, matched for age and other relevant demographics. As predicted, left hemisphere auditory and language-related regions were proportionally expanded in women versus men, suggesting a possible structural basis for the widely replicated sex differences in language processing. In men, primary visual, and visuo-spatial association areas of the parietal lobes were proportionally expanded, in line with prior reports of relative strengths in visuo-spatial processing in men. We relate these three-dimensional patterns to prior functional and structural studies, and to theoretical predictions based on nonlinear scaling of brain morphometry.

  4. Quantitative map of multiple auditory cortical regions with a stereotaxic fine-scale atlas of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2016-02-29

    Optical imaging studies have recently revealed the presence of multiple auditory cortical regions in the mouse brain. We have previously demonstrated, using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, at least six regions in the mouse auditory cortex, including the anterior auditory field (AAF), primary auditory cortex (AI), the secondary auditory field (AII), dorsoanterior field (DA), dorsomedial field (DM), and dorsoposterior field (DP). While multiple regions in the visual cortex and somatosensory cortex have been annotated and consolidated in recent brain atlases, the multiple auditory cortical regions have not yet been presented from a coronal view. In the current study, we obtained regional coordinates of the six auditory cortical regions of the C57BL/6 mouse brain and illustrated these regions on template coronal brain slices. These results should reinforce the existing mouse brain atlases and support future studies in the auditory cortex.

  5. Quantitative map of multiple auditory cortical regions with a stereotaxic fine-scale atlas of the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging studies have recently revealed the presence of multiple auditory cortical regions in the mouse brain. We have previously demonstrated, using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, at least six regions in the mouse auditory cortex, including the anterior auditory field (AAF), primary auditory cortex (AI), the secondary auditory field (AII), dorsoanterior field (DA), dorsomedial field (DM), and dorsoposterior field (DP). While multiple regions in the visual cortex and somatosensory cortex have been annotated and consolidated in recent brain atlases, the multiple auditory cortical regions have not yet been presented from a coronal view. In the current study, we obtained regional coordinates of the six auditory cortical regions of the C57BL/6 mouse brain and illustrated these regions on template coronal brain slices. These results should reinforce the existing mouse brain atlases and support future studies in the auditory cortex. PMID:26924462

  6. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    PubMed

    San Juan, Juan; Hu, Xiao-Su; Issa, Mohamad; Bisconti, Silvia; Kovelman, Ioulia; Kileny, Paul; Basura, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex) and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices) and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz), broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to conscious phantom

  7. High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, Angela; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Richter, Sandra; Engler, Alexander; Pielot, Rainer; Dieterich, Daniela C.; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael; Kähne, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    The molecular synaptic mechanisms underlying auditory learning and memory remain largely unknown. Here, the workflow of a proteomic study on auditory discrimination learning in mice is described. In this learning paradigm, mice are trained in a shuttle box Go/NoGo-task to discriminate between rising and falling frequency-modulated tones in order to avoid a mild electric foot-shock. The protocol involves the enrichment of synaptosomes from four brain areas, namely the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, at different stages of training. Synaptic protein expression patterns obtained from trained mice are compared to naïve controls using a proteomic approach. To achieve sufficient analytical depth, samples are fractionated in three different ways prior to mass spectrometry, namely 1D SDS-PAGE/in-gel digestion, in-solution digestion and phospho-peptide enrichment. High-resolution proteomic analysis on a mass spectrometer and label-free quantification are used to examine synaptic protein profiles in phospho-peptide-depleted and phospho-peptide-enriched fractions of synaptosomal protein samples. A commercial software package is utilized to reveal proteins and phospho-peptides with significantly regulated relative synaptic abundance levels (trained/naïve controls). Common and differential regulation modes for the synaptic proteome in the investigated brain regions of mice after training were observed. Subsequently, meta-analyses utilizing several databases are employed to identify underlying cellular functions and biological pathways. PMID:28060347

  8. High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, Angela; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Richter, Sandra; Engler, Alexander; Pielot, Rainer; Dieterich, Daniela C; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael; Kähne, Thilo

    2016-12-15

    The molecular synaptic mechanisms underlying auditory learning and memory remain largely unknown. Here, the workflow of a proteomic study on auditory discrimination learning in mice is described. In this learning paradigm, mice are trained in a shuttle box Go/NoGo-task to discriminate between rising and falling frequency-modulated tones in order to avoid a mild electric foot-shock. The protocol involves the enrichment of synaptosomes from four brain areas, namely the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, at different stages of training. Synaptic protein expression patterns obtained from trained mice are compared to naïve controls using a proteomic approach. To achieve sufficient analytical depth, samples are fractionated in three different ways prior to mass spectrometry, namely 1D SDS-PAGE/in-gel digestion, in-solution digestion and phospho-peptide enrichment. High-resolution proteomic analysis on a mass spectrometer and label-free quantification are used to examine synaptic protein profiles in phospho-peptide-depleted and phospho-peptide-enriched fractions of synaptosomal protein samples. A commercial software package is utilized to reveal proteins and phospho-peptides with significantly regulated relative synaptic abundance levels (trained/naïve controls). Common and differential regulation modes for the synaptic proteome in the investigated brain regions of mice after training were observed. Subsequently, meta-analyses utilizing several databases are employed to identify underlying cellular functions and biological pathways.

  9. Expression of c-fos in auditory and non-auditory brain regions of the gerbil after manipulations that induce tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Wallhäusser-Franke, E; Mahlke, C; Oliva, R; Braun, S; Wenz, G; Langner, G

    2003-12-01

    Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound sensation that does not result from acoustic stimulation and is audible to the affected subject only. Tinnitus-like sensations in animals can be evoked by procedures that also cause tinnitus in humans. In gerbils, we investigated brain activation after systemic application of sodium salicylate or exposure to loud noise, both known to be reliable tinnitus-inductors. Brains were screened for neurons containing the c-fos protein. After salicylate injections, auditory cortex was the only auditory area with consistently increased numbers of immunoreactive neurons compared to controls. Exposure to impulse noise led to prolonged c-fos expression in auditory cortex and dorsal cochlear nucleus. After both manipulations c-fos expression was increased in the amygdala, in thalamic midline, and intralaminar areas, in frontal cortex, as well as in hypothalamic and brainstem regions involved in behavioral and physiological defensive reactions. Activation of these non-auditory areas was attributed to acute stress, to aversive-affective components and autonomous reactions associated with the treatments and a resulting tinnitus. The present findings are in accordance with former results that provided evidence for suppressed activation in auditory midbrain but enhanced activation of the auditory cortex after injecting high doses of salicylate. In addition, our present results provide evidence that acute stress coinciding with a disruption of hearing may evoke activation of the auditory cortex. We interpret these results in favor of our model of central tinnitus generation.

  10. Synaptic proteome changes in mouse brain regions upon auditory discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Kähne, Thilo; Kolodziej, Angela; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Eisenschmidt, Elke; Haus, Utz-Uwe; Weismantel, Robert; Kropf, Siegfried; Wetzel, Wolfram; Ohl, Frank W; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael; Gundelfinger, Eckart D

    2012-08-01

    Changes in synaptic efficacy underlying learning and memory processes are assumed to be associated with alterations of the protein composition of synapses. Here, we performed a quantitative proteomic screen to monitor changes in the synaptic proteome of four brain areas (auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus striatum) during auditory learning. Mice were trained in a shuttle box GO/NO-GO paradigm to discriminate between rising and falling frequency modulated tones to avoid mild electric foot shock. Control-treated mice received corresponding numbers of either the tones or the foot shocks. Six hours and 24 h later, the composition of a fraction enriched in synaptic cytomatrix-associated proteins was compared to that obtained from naïve mice by quantitative mass spectrometry. In the synaptic protein fraction obtained from trained mice, the average percentage (±SEM) of downregulated proteins (59.9 ± 0.5%) exceeded that of upregulated proteins (23.5 ± 0.8%) in the brain regions studied. This effect was significantly smaller in foot shock (42.7 ± 0.6% down, 40.7 ± 1.0% up) and tone controls (43.9 ± 1.0% down, 39.7 ± 0.9% up). These data suggest that learning processes initially induce removal and/or degradation of proteins from presynaptic and postsynaptic cytoskeletal matrices before these structures can acquire a new, postlearning organisation. In silico analysis points to a general role of insulin-like signalling in this process.

  11. Research of brain activation regions of "yes" and "no" responses by auditory stimulations in human EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Min; Liu, GuoZhong

    2011-11-01

    People with neuromuscular disorders are difficult to communicate with the outside world. It is very important to the clinician and the patient's family that how to distinguish vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) for a disorders of consciousness (DOC) patient. If a patient is diagnosed with VS, this means that the hope of recovery is greatly reduced, thus leading to the family to abandon the treatment. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is aiming to help those people by analyzing patients' electroencephalogram (EEG). This paper focus on analyzing the corresponding activated regions of the brain when a subject responses "yes" or "no" to an auditory stimuli question. When the brain concentrates, the phase of the related area will become orderly from desultorily. So in this paper we analyzed EEG from the angle of phase. Seven healthy subjects volunteered to participate in the experiment. A total of 84 groups of repeatability stimulation test were done. Firstly, the frequency is fragmented by using wavelet method. Secondly, the phase of EEG is extracted by Hilbert. At last, we obtained approximate entropy and information entropy of each frequency band of EEG. The results show that brain areas are activated of the central area when people say "yes", and the areas are activated of the central area and temporal when people say "no". This conclusion is corresponding to magnetic resonance imaging technology. This study provides the theory basis and the algorithm design basis for designing BCI equipment for people with neuromuscular disorders.

  12. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Gregory D; Karns, Christina M; Dow, Mark W; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11-15° vs. 2-7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory, and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex (PPC), frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal, and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in congenitally deaf adults.

  13. Noise Trauma Induced Plastic Changes in Brain Regions outside the Classical Auditory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Di; Sheppard, Adam; Salvi, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The effects of intense noise exposure on the classical auditory pathway have been extensively investigated; however, little is known about the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on non-classical auditory areas in the brain such as the lateral amygdala (LA) and striatum (Str). To address this issue, we compared the noise-induced changes in spontaneous and tone-evoked responses from multiunit clusters (MUC) in the LA and Str with those seen in auditory cortex (AC). High-frequency octave band noise (10–20 kHz) and narrow band noise (16–20 kHz) induced permanent thresho ld shifts (PTS) at high-frequencies within and above the noise band but not at low frequencies. While the noise trauma significantly elevated spontaneous discharge rate (SR) in the AC, SRs in the LA and Str were only slightly increased across all frequencies. The high-frequency noise trauma affected tone-evoked firing rates in frequency and time dependent manner and the changes appeared to be related to severity of noise trauma. In the LA, tone-evoked firing rates were reduced at the high-frequencies (trauma area) whereas firing rates were enhanced at the low-frequencies or at the edge-frequency dependent on severity of hearing loss at the high frequencies. The firing rate temporal profile changed from a broad plateau to one sharp, delayed peak. In the AC, tone-evoked firing rates were depressed at high frequencies and enhanced at the low frequencies while the firing rate temporal profiles became substantially broader. In contrast, firing rates in the Str were generally decreased and firing rate temporal profiles become more phasic and less prolonged. The altered firing rate and pattern at low frequencies induced by high frequency hearing loss could have perceptual consequences. The tone-evoked hyperactivity in low-frequency MUC could manifest as hyperacusis whereas the discharge pattern changes could affect temporal resolution and integration. PMID:26701290

  14. Effect of low-frequency rTMS on electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) and regional brain metabolism (PET) in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Horacek, Jiri; Brunovsky, Martin; Novak, Tomas; Skrdlantova, Lucie; Klirova, Monika; Bubenikova-Valesova, Vera; Krajca, Vladimir; Tislerova, Barbora; Kopecek, Milan; Spaniel, Filip; Mohr, Pavel; Höschl, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations are characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia with high clinical importance. It was repeatedly reported that low frequency (auditory hallucinations. A neuroimaging study elucidating the effect of rTMS in auditory hallucinations has yet to be published. To evaluate the distribution of neuronal electrical activity and the brain metabolism changes after low-frequency rTMS in patients with auditory hallucinations. Low-frequency rTMS (0.9 Hz, 100% of motor threshold, 20 min) applied to the left temporoparietal cortex was used for 10 days in the treatment of medication-resistant auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia (n = 12). The effect of rTMS on the low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) and brain metabolism ((18)FDG PET) was measured before and after 2 weeks of treatment. We found a significant improvement in the total and positive symptoms (PANSS), and on the hallucination scales (HCS, AHRS). The rTMS decreased the brain metabolism in the left superior temporal gyrus and in interconnected regions, and effected increases in the contralateral cortex and in the frontal lobes. We detected a decrease in current densities (LORETA) for the beta-1 and beta-3 bands in the left temporal lobe whereas an increase was found for beta-2 band contralaterally. Our findings implicate that the effect is connected with decreased metabolism in the cortex underlying the rTMS site, while facilitation of metabolism is propagated by transcallosal and intrahemispheric connections. The LORETA indicates that the neuroplastic changes affect the functional laterality and provide the substrate for a metabolic effect. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Brain Regions Underlying Repetition and Auditory-Verbal Short-term Memory Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Juliana V.; Katseff, Shira; Dronkers, Nina F.

    2014-01-01

    Background A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question. Aims The goal of this study was to identify the neural correlates of repetition and a related process, auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM). Both repetition and AVSTM involve common elements such as auditory and phonological analysis and translation to speech output processes. Based on previous studies, we predicted that both repetition and AVSTM would be most dependent on posterior language regions in left temporo-parietal cortex. Methods & Procedures We tested 84 individuals with left hemisphere lesions due to stroke on an experimental battery of repetition and AVSTM tasks. Participants were tested on word, pseudoword, and number-word repetition, as well as digit and word span tasks. Brain correlates of these processes were identified using a statistical, lesion analysis approach known as voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). VLSM allows for a voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain areas most critical to performance on a given task, including both grey and white matter regions. Outcomes & Results The VLSM analyses showed that left posterior temporo-parietal cortex, not the arcuate fasciculus, was most critical for repetition as well as for AVSTM. The location of maximal foci, defined as the voxels with the highest t values, varied somewhat among measures: Word and pseudoword repetition had maximal foci in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, on the border with inferior parietal cortex, while word and digit span, as well as number-word repetition, were centered on the border between the middle temporal and superior temporal gyri and the underlying white matter

  16. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of auditory temporal assimilation.

    PubMed

    Hironaga, Naruhito; Mitsudo, Takako; Hayamizu, Mariko; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Takeichi, Hiroshige; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2017-09-12

    Time is a fundamental dimension, but millisecond-level judgments sometimes lead to perceptual illusions. We previously introduced a "time-shrinking illusion" using a psychological paradigm that induces auditory temporal assimilation (ATA). In ATA, the duration of two successive intervals (T1 and T2), marked by three auditory stimuli, can be perceived as equal when they are not. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of human temporal judgments using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Behavioural results showed typical ATA: participants judged T1 and T2 as equal when T2 - T1 ≤ +80 ms. MEG source-localisation analysis demonstrated that regional activity differences between judgment and no-judgment conditions emerged in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during T2. This observation in the TPJ may indicate its involvement in the encoding process when T1 ≠ T2. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was enhanced irrespective of the stimulus patterns when participants engaged in temporal judgment. Furthermore, just after the final marker, activity in the IFG was enhanced specifically for the time-shrinking pattern. This indicates that activity in the IFG is also related to the illusory perception of time-interval equality. Based on these observations, we propose neural signatures for judgments of temporal equality in the human brain.

  17. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  18. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C.

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies. PMID:26483710

  19. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-04-20

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Kumar et al.

  20. Auditory multistability and neurotransmitter concentrations in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hirohito M; Farkas, Dávid; Denham, Susan L; Asai, Tomohisa; Winkler, István

    2017-02-19

    Multistability in perception is a powerful tool for investigating sensory-perceptual transformations, because it produces dissociations between sensory inputs and subjective experience. Spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects occurs during prolonged listening to a sound sequence of tone triplets or repeated words (termed auditory streaming and verbal transformations, respectively). We used these examples of auditory multistability to examine to what extent neurochemical and cognitive factors influence the observed idiosyncratic patterns of switching between perceptual objects. The concentrations of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain regions were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, while personality traits and executive functions were assessed using questionnaires and response inhibition tasks. Idiosyncratic patterns of perceptual switching in the two multistable stimulus configurations were identified using a multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Intriguingly, although switching patterns within each individual differed between auditory streaming and verbal transformations, similar MDS dimensions were extracted separately from the two datasets. Individual switching patterns were significantly correlated with Glx and GABA concentrations in auditory cortex and inferior frontal cortex but not with the personality traits and executive functions. Our results suggest that auditory perceptual organization depends on the balance between neural excitation and inhibition in different brain regions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  1. Brain Metabolism during Hallucination-Like Auditory Stimulation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Guillermo; Fernández-Egea, Emilio; Mané, Anna; Font, Mireia; Schatz, Kelly C.; Falcon, Carles; Lomeña, Francisco; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are typically characterized by rich emotional content. Despite the prominent role of emotion in regulating normal perception, the neural interface between emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala and auditory regions involved in perception remains relatively unexplored in AVH. Here, we studied brain metabolism using FDG-PET in 9 remitted patients with schizophrenia that previously reported severe AVH during an acute psychotic episode and 8 matched healthy controls. Participants were scanned twice: (1) at rest and (2) during the perception of aversive auditory stimuli mimicking the content of AVH. Compared to controls, remitted patients showed an exaggerated response to the AVH-like stimuli in limbic and paralimbic regions, including the left amygdala. Furthermore, patients displayed abnormally strong connections between the amygdala and auditory regions of the cortex and thalamus, along with abnormally weak connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by limbic-thalamic structures might be involved in the pathophysiology of AVH and may potentially account for the emotional features that characterize hallucinatory percepts in schizophrenia. PMID:24416328

  2. Brain metabolism during hallucination-like auditory stimulation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horga, Guillermo; Fernández-Egea, Emilio; Mané, Anna; Font, Mireia; Schatz, Kelly C; Falcon, Carles; Lomeña, Francisco; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are typically characterized by rich emotional content. Despite the prominent role of emotion in regulating normal perception, the neural interface between emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala and auditory regions involved in perception remains relatively unexplored in AVH. Here, we studied brain metabolism using FDG-PET in 9 remitted patients with schizophrenia that previously reported severe AVH during an acute psychotic episode and 8 matched healthy controls. Participants were scanned twice: (1) at rest and (2) during the perception of aversive auditory stimuli mimicking the content of AVH. Compared to controls, remitted patients showed an exaggerated response to the AVH-like stimuli in limbic and paralimbic regions, including the left amygdala. Furthermore, patients displayed abnormally strong connections between the amygdala and auditory regions of the cortex and thalamus, along with abnormally weak connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by limbic-thalamic structures might be involved in the pathophysiology of AVH and may potentially account for the emotional features that characterize hallucinatory percepts in schizophrenia.

  3. Auditory brain stem responses in the detection of brain death.

    PubMed

    Ozgirgin, O Nuri; Ozçelik, Tuncay; Sevimli, Nilay Kizilkaya

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated comatose patients by auditory brain stem responses (ABR) to determine the role of ABR in the diagnosis of impending brain death. Sixty comatose patients in the intensive care unit were evaluated by brain stem evoked response audiometry. Correlations were sought between the absence or presence of ABRs and the presenting pathology, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, and ultimate diagnoses. The brain stem responses were totally absent in 41 patients. Presence of wave I could be obtained in only 10 patients. All the waveforms were found in nine patients; however, in eight patients the potentials disappeared as the GCS scores decreased to 3. Detection of wave I alone strongly suggested dysfunction of the brain stem. However, loss of wave I particularly in trauma patients aroused doubt as to whether the absence was associated with auditory end organ injury or brain stem dysfunction. The results suggest that evaluation of ABR may support brain death in a comatose patient (i) when wave I is present alone, (ii) the absence of wave I is accompanied by a documented auditory end organ injury, or (iii) when previously recorded potentials are no longer detectable.

  4. Specific activation of operculum 3 (OP3) brain region during provoked tinnitus-related phantom auditory perceptions in humans.

    PubMed

    Job, Agnès; Jacob, Roland; Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Kossowski, Michel; Gauthier, Jérôme; Lombard, Bertrand; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2016-03-01

    The phantom sound perception mechanism by which a sound perception occurs without any external sound source is still enigmatic. According to our previous fMRI study, a small region in the parietal operculum 3 was hyperactivated as a function of tinnitus periodicity in subjects with acoustic trauma tinnitus sequelae. This region was localized in the vicinity of neural correlates of middle-ear tympano-ossicular chain movements due to pressure variations. Disturbed proprioceptors are known to trigger illusory perceptions; therefore, we hypothesized that a disturbance of middle-ear proprioceptors may originate phantom sound perceptions. We designed an fMRI study that aimed to stimulate middle-ear proprioceptors by repetitive vibrations using various rates of click trains. In this study, we report that exposure to specific rates of stimuli for a few minutes at comfortable intensity level in healthy subjects distinctly triggered transient tinnitus-like aftereffects. The fMRI neural correlates of the aftereffects were unequivocally localized in the same parietal region as in acoustic trauma tinnitus sufferers. Our results strongly suggest that a middle-ear kinesthetic/proprioceptive illusion exists at the origin of acoustic trauma tinnitus via a somatosensory pathway encompassing the trigeminal system.

  5. Bilinguals at the "cocktail party": dissociable neural activity in auditory-linguistic brain regions reveals neurobiological basis for nonnative listeners' speech-in-noise recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Dexter, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    We examined a consistent deficit observed in bilinguals: poorer speech-in-noise (SIN) comprehension for their nonnative language. We recorded neuroelectric mismatch potentials in mono- and bi-lingual listeners in response to contrastive speech sounds in noise. Behaviorally, late bilinguals required ∼10dB more favorable signal-to-noise ratios to match monolinguals' SIN abilities. Source analysis of cortical activity demonstrated monotonic increase in response latency with noise in superior temporal gyrus (STG) for both groups, suggesting parallel degradation of speech representations in auditory cortex. Contrastively, we found differential speech encoding between groups within inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)-adjacent to Broca's area-where noise delays observed in nonnative listeners were offset in monolinguals. Notably, brain-behavior correspondences double dissociated between language groups: STG activation predicted bilinguals' SIN, whereas IFG activation predicted monolinguals' performance. We infer higher-order brain areas act compensatorily to enhance impoverished sensory representations but only when degraded speech recruits linguistic brain mechanisms downstream from initial auditory-sensory inputs.

  6. Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Benasich, April A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid auditory processing and acoustic change detection abilities play a critical role in allowing human infants to efficiently process the fine spectral and temporal changes that are characteristic of human language. These abilities lay the foundation for effective language acquisition; allowing infants to hone in on the sounds of their native language. Invasive procedures in animals and scalp-recorded potentials from human adults suggest that simultaneous, rhythmic activity (oscillations) between and within brain regions are fundamental to sensory development; determining the resolution with which incoming stimuli are parsed. At this time, little is known about oscillatory dynamics in human infant development. However, animal neurophysiology and adult EEG data provide the basis for a strong hypothesis that rapid auditory processing in infants is mediated by oscillatory synchrony in discrete frequency bands. In order to investigate this, 128-channel, high-density EEG responses of 4-month old infants to frequency change in tone pairs, presented in two rate conditions (Rapid: 70 msec ISI and Control: 300 msec ISI) were examined. To determine the frequency band and magnitude of activity, auditory evoked response averages were first co-registered with age-appropriate brain templates. Next, the principal components of the response were identified and localized using a two-dipole model of brain activity. Single-trial analysis of oscillatory power showed a robust index of frequency change processing in bursts of Theta band (3 - 8 Hz) activity in both right and left auditory cortices, with left activation more prominent in the Rapid condition. These methods have produced data that are not only some of the first reported evoked oscillations analyses in infants, but are also, importantly, the product of a well-established method of recording and analyzing clean, meticulously collected, infant EEG and ERPs. In this article, we describe our method for infant EEG net

  7. Selective entrainment of brain oscillations drives auditory perceptual organization.

    PubMed

    Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Sussman, Elyse S; Escera, Carles

    2017-07-27

    Perceptual sound organization supports our ability to make sense of the complex acoustic environment, to understand speech and to enjoy music. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the subjective experience of perceiving univocal auditory patterns that can be listened to, despite hearing all sounds in a scene, are poorly understood. We hereby investigated the manner in which competing sound organizations are simultaneously represented by specific brain activity patterns and the way attention and task demands prime the internal model generating the current percept. Using a selective attention task on ambiguous auditory stimulation coupled with EEG recordings, we found that the phase of low-frequency oscillatory activity dynamically tracks multiple sound organizations concurrently. However, whereas the representation of ignored sound patterns is circumscribed to auditory regions, large-scale oscillatory entrainment in auditory, sensory-motor and executive-control network areas reflects the active perceptual organization, thereby giving rise to the subjective experience of a unitary percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Auditory temporal processing deficits in children with periventricular brain injury.

    PubMed

    Downie, Andrea L S; Jakobson, Lorna S; Frisk, Virginia; Ushycky, Irene

    2002-02-01

    The present study investigated whether auditory temporal processing deficits are related to the presence and/or the severity of periventricular brain injury and the reading difficulties experienced by extremely low birthweight (ELBW: birthweight <1000 g) children. Results indicate that ELBW children with mild or severe brain lesions obtained significantly lower scores on a test requiring auditory temporal order judgments than ELBW children without periventricular brain injury or children who were full-term. Structural equation modeling indicated that a model in which auditory temporal processing deficits predicted speech sound discrimination and phonological processing ability provided a better fit for the data than did a second model, which hypothesized that auditory temporal processing deficits are associated with poor reading abilities through a working memory deficit. These findings suggest that an impairment in auditory temporal processing may contribute to the reading difficulties experienced by ELBW children. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. [Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in brain death state].

    PubMed

    Kojder, I; Garell, S; Włodarczyk, E; Sagan, L; Jezewski, D; Slósarek, J

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied auditory brainstem evoked potentials (BAEP) in 27 organ donors aged 40 to 68 years treated in neurosurgery units in Szczecin and Grenoble. Abnormal results were found in all cases. In 63% of cases no evoked action potentials were obtained, in 34% only the 1st wave was obtained, and in two cases evolution was observed with activity extinction. The authors believe that in the process of shaping of BAEP morphotic extinction begins from the later waves to earlier ones in agreement with the rostrocaudal direction of extinction of the functions or brain midline structures, and in a single study various findings may be obtained.

  10. Network Analysis of Functional Brain Connectivity Driven by Gamma-Band Auditory Steady-State Response in Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Zhou, Dan; Lin, Ke; Gao, Xiaorong

    The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain. Particularly, it was reported that the gamma-band ASSR plays an important role in working memory, speech understanding, and recognition. Traditionally, the ASSR has been determined by power spectral density analysis, which cannot detect the exact overall distributed properties of the ASSR. Functional network analysis has recently been applied in electroencephalography studies. Previous studies on resting or working state found a small-world organization of the brain network. Some researchers have studied dysfunctional networks caused by diseases. The present study investigates the brain connection networks of schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations during an ASSR task. A directed transfer function is utilized to estimate the brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, the structures of brain networks are analyzed by converting the connectivity matrices into graphs. It is found that for normal subjects, network connections are mainly distributed at the central and frontal-temporal regions. This indicates that the central regions act as transmission hubs of information under ASSR stimulation. For patients, network connections seem unordered. The finding that the path length was larger in patients compared to that in normal subjects under most thresholds provides insight into the structures of connectivity patterns. The results suggest that there are more synchronous oscillations that cover a long distance on the cortex but a less efficient network for patients with auditory hallucinations.

  11. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (P< or =0.05) in the level of the ZENK mRNA in MNH and Field L, and in the two forebrain hemispheres; no increase was seen in the ectostriatum, which is a visual projection area. The data obtained implicate the immediate-early gene, zenk, in auditory imprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  12. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  13. Auditory brain stem response to complex sounds: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2010-06-01

    This tutorial provides a comprehensive overview of the methodological approach to collecting and analyzing auditory brain stem responses to complex sounds (cABRs). cABRs provide a window into how behaviorally relevant sounds such as speech and music are processed in the brain. Because temporal and spectral characteristics of sounds are preserved in this subcortical response, cABRs can be used to assess specific impairments and enhancements in auditory processing. Notably, subcortical auditory function is neither passive nor hardwired but dynamically interacts with higher-level cognitive processes to refine how sounds are transcribed into neural code. This experience-dependent plasticity, which can occur on a number of time scales (e.g., life-long experience with speech or music, short-term auditory training, on-line auditory processing), helps shape sensory perception. Thus, by being an objective and noninvasive means for examining cognitive function and experience-dependent processes in sensory activity, cABRs have considerable utility in the study of populations where auditory function is of interest (e.g., auditory experts such as musicians, and persons with hearing loss, auditory processing, and language disorders). This tutorial is intended for clinicians and researchers seeking to integrate cABRs into their clinical or research programs.

  14. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) modulates auditory processing in the fish brain.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Tricas, Timothy C

    2011-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) neurons control reproductive activity, but GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons have widespread projections and function as neuromodulators in the vertebrate brain. While these extra-hypothalamic GnRH forms function as olfactory and visual neuromodulators, their potential effect on processing of auditory information is unknown. To test the hypothesis that GnRH modulates the processing of auditory information in the brain, we used immunohistochemistry to determine seasonal variations in these neuropeptide systems, and in vivo single-neuron recordings to identify neuromodulation in the midbrain torus semicircularis of the soniferous damselfish Abudefduf abdominalis. Our results show abundant GnRH-immunoreactive (-ir) axons in auditory processing regions of the midbrain and hindbrain. The number of extra-hypothalamic GnRH somata and the density of GnRH-ir axons within the auditory torus semicircularis also varied across the year, suggesting seasonal changes in GnRH influence of auditory processing. Exogenous application of GnRH (sGnRH and cGnRHII) caused a primarily inhibitory effect on auditory-evoked single neuron responses in the torus semicircularis. In the majority of neurons, GnRH caused a long-lasting decrease in spike rate in response to both tone bursts and playbacks of complex natural sounds. GnRH also decreased response latency and increased auditory thresholds in a frequency and stimulus type-dependent manner. To our knowledge, these results show for the first time in any vertebrate that GnRH can influence context-specific auditory processing in vivo in the brain, and may function to modulate seasonal auditory-mediated social behaviors.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Cook, Peter F.; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L.; Marino, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of ‘associative′ regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  16. Oscillatory alpha modulations in right auditory regions reflect the validity of acoustic cues in an auditory spatial attention task.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Nathan; Müller, Nadia; Jatzev, Sabine; Bertrand, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Anticipation of targets in the left or right hemifield leads to alpha modulations in posterior brain areas. Recently using magnetoencephalography, we showed increased right auditory alpha activity when attention was cued ipsilaterally. Here, we investigated the issue how cue validity itself influences oscillatory alpha activity. Acoustic cues were presented either to the right or left ear, followed by a compound dichotically presented target plus distractor. The preceding cue was either informative (75% validity) or uninformative (50%) about the location of the upcoming target. Cue validity × side-related alpha modulations were identified in pre- and posttarget periods in a right lateralized network, comprising auditory and nonauditory regions. This replicates and extends our previous finding of the right hemispheric dominance of auditory attentional modulations. Importantly, effective connectivity analysis showed that, in the pretarget period, this effect is accompanied by a pronounced and time-varying connectivity pattern of the right auditory cortex to the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), with influence of IPS on superior temporal gyrus dominating at earlier intervals of the cue-target period. Our study underlines the assumption that alpha oscillations may play a similar functional role in auditory cortical regions as reported in other sensory modalities and suggests that these effects may be mediated via IPS.

  17. [Analysis of auditory information in the brain of the cetacean].

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Ia

    2006-01-01

    The cetacean brain specifics involve an exceptional development of the auditory neural centres. The place of projection sensory areas including the auditory that in the cetacean brain cortex is essentially different from that in other mammals. The EP characteristics indicated presence of several functional divisions in the auditory cortex. Physiological studies of the cetacean auditory centres were mainly performed using the EP technique. Of several types of the EPs, the short-latency auditory EP was most thoroughly studied. In cetacean, it is characterised by exceptionally high temporal resolution with the integration time about 0.3 ms which corresponds to the cut-off frequency 1700 Hz. This much exceeds the temporal resolution of the hearing in terranstrial mammals. The frequency selectivity of hearing in cetacean was measured using a number of variants of the masking technique. The hearing frequency selectivity acuity in cetacean exceeds that of most terraneous mammals (excepting the bats). This acute frequency selectivity provides the differentiation among the finest spectral patterns of auditory signals.

  18. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  19. An auditory brain-computer interface using virtual sound field.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haiyang; Ouyang, Minhui; Zhang, Dan; Hong, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) exploring the auditory communication channel might be preferable for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with poor sight or with the visual system being occupied for other uses. Spatial attention was proven to be able to modulate the event-related potentials (ERPs); yet up to now, there is no auditory BCI based on virtual sound field. In this study, auditory spatial attention was introduced by using stimuli in a virtual sound field. Subjects attended selectively to the virtual location of the target sound and discriminated its relevant properties. The concurrently recorded ERP components and the users' performance were compared with those of the paradigm where all sounds were presented in the frontal direction. The early ERP components (100-250 ms) and the simulated online accuracies indicated that spatial attention indeed added effective discriminative information for BCI classification. The proposed auditory paradigm using virtual sound field may lead to a high-performance and portable BCI system.

  20. The TLC: a novel auditory nucleus of the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Enrique; Viñuela, Antonio; Marshall, Allen F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora

    2007-11-28

    We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning the midbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter. It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep superior colliculus and the most medial region of the inferior colliculus. The TLC differs from the neighboring nuclei of the superior and inferior colliculi and the periaqueductal gray by its distinct connections and cytoarchitecture. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings show that TLC neurons respond to auditory stimuli with physiologic properties that differ from those of neurons in the inferior or superior colliculi. We have identified the TLC in rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, nonhuman primates, and humans, which indicates that the nucleus is conserved across mammals. The discovery of the TLC reveals an unexpected level of longitudinal organization in the mammalian tectum and raises questions as to the participation of this mesencephalic region in essential, yet completely unexplored, aspects of multisensory and/or sensorimotor integration.

  1. Methods for the analysis of auditory processing in the brain.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Frédéric E; Woolley, Sarah M N; Hsu, Anne; Fremouw, Thane

    2004-06-01

    Understanding song perception and singing behavior in birds requires the study of auditory processing of complex sounds throughout the avian brain. We can divide the basics of auditory perception into two general processes: (1) encoding, the process whereby sound is transformed into neural activity and (2) decoding, the process whereby patterns of neural activity take on perceptual meaning and therefore guide behavioral responses to sounds. In birdsong research, most studies have focused on the decoding process: What are the responses of the specialized auditory neurons in the song control system? and What do they mean for the bird? Recently, new techniques addressing both encoding and decoding have been developed for use in songbirds. Here, we first describe some powerful methods for analyzing what acoustical aspects of complex sounds like songs are encoded by auditory processing neurons in songbird brain. These methods include the estimation and analysis of spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) for auditory neurons. Then we discuss the decoding methods that have been used to understand how songbird neurons may discriminate among different songs and other sounds based on mean spike-count rates.

  2. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Analysis of auditory function using brainstem auditory evoked potentials and auditory steady state responses in infants with perinatal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Porras-Kattz, Eneida

    2010-02-01

    Approximately 2-4 % of newborns with perinatal risk factors present hearing loss. The aim of this study was to analyse the auditory function in infants with perinatal brain injury (PBI). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), auditory steady state responses (ASSRs), and tympanometry studies were carried out in 294 infants with PBI (586 ears, two infants had unilateral microtia-atresia). BAEPs were abnormal in 158 (27%) ears, ASSRs in 227 (39%), and tympanometry anomalies were present in 131 (22%) ears. When ASSR thresholds were compared with BAEPs, the assessment yielded 92% sensitivity and 68% specificity. When ASSR thresholds were compared with tympanometry results as an indicator of middle-ear pathology, the assessment gave 96% sensitivity and 77% specificity. When BAEP thresholds were compared with tympanometry results, sensitivity was 35% and specificity 95%. In conclusion, BAEPs are useful test for neonatal auditory screening; they identify with more accuracy sensorineural hearing losses. ASSRs are more pertinent for identifying conductive hearing loss associated with middle-ear pathology. The consistency and accuracy of these results could be considered in additional studies.

  4. Analysis of auditory information in the brains of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Ya

    2007-03-01

    A characteristic feature of the brains of toothed cetaceans is the exclusive development of the auditory neural centers. The location of the projection sensory zones, including the auditory zones, in the cetacean cortex is significantly different from that in other mammals. The characteristics of evoked potentials demonstrate the existence of several functional subdivisions in the auditory cortex. Physiological studies of the auditory neural centers of cetaceans have been performed predominantly using the evoked potentials method. Of the several types of evoked potentials available for non-invasive recording, the most detailed studies have been performed using short-latency auditory evoked potentials (SLAEP). SLAEP in cetaceans are characterized by exclusively high time resolution, with integration times of about 0.3 msec, which on the frequency scale corresponds to a cut-off frequency of 1700 Hz. This is more than an order of magnitude greater than the time resolution of hearing in terrestrial mammals. The frequency selectivity of hearing in cetaceans has been measured using several versions of the masking method. The acuity of frequency selectivity in cetaceans is several times greater than that in most terrestrial mammals (except bats). The acute frequency selectivity allows the discrimination of very fine spectral patterns of sound signals.

  5. Brain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information.

    PubMed

    Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Clemens, Benjamin; Chechko, Natalya; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sack, Alexander T; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Mental imagery is a complex cognitive process that resembles the experience of perceiving an object when this object is not physically present to the senses. It has been shown that, depending on the sensory nature of the object, mental imagery also involves correspondent sensory neural mechanisms. However, it remains unclear which areas of the brain subserve supramodal imagery processes that are independent of the object modality, and which brain areas are involved in modality-specific imagery processes. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to reveal supramodal and modality-specific networks of mental imagery for auditory and visual information. A common supramodal brain network independent of imagery modality, two separate modality-specific networks for imagery of auditory and visual information, and a common deactivation network were identified. The supramodal network included brain areas related to attention, memory retrieval, motor preparation and semantic processing, as well as areas considered to be part of the default-mode network and multisensory integration areas. The modality-specific networks comprised brain areas involved in processing of respective modality-specific sensory information. Interestingly, we found that imagery of auditory information led to a relative deactivation within the modality-specific areas for visual imagery, and vice versa. In addition, mental imagery of both auditory and visual information widely suppressed the activity of primary sensory and motor areas, for example deactivation network. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that are involved in generation of mental imagery. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of prenatal lignocaine on auditory brain stem evoked response.

    PubMed Central

    Bozynski, M E; Schumacher, R E; Deschner, L S; Kileny, P

    1989-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that there would be a positive correlation between the interpeak wave (I-V) interval as measured by auditory brain stem evoked response and the ratio of umbilical cord blood arterial to venous lignocaine concentrations in infants born after maternal epidural anaesthesia, 10 normal infants born at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Umbilical cord arterial and venous plasma samples were assayed for lignocaine, and auditory brain stem evoked responses were elicited at 35 and 70 dB at less than 4 (test 1) and greater than or equal to 48 hours (test 2). Mean wave I-V intervals were prolonged in test 1 when compared with test 2. Linear regression showed the arterial:venous ratio accounted for 66% (left ear) and 43% (right ear) of the variance in test 1 intervals. No association was found in test 2. In newborn infants, changes in serial auditory brain stem evoked response tests occur after maternal lignocaine epidural anaesthesia and these changes correlate with blood lignocaine concentrations. PMID:2774635

  7. Interaction of language, auditory and memory brain networks in auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Ford, Judith M; Hubl, Daniela; Orlov, Natasza D; Sommer, Iris E; Waters, Flavie; Allen, Paul; Jardri, Renaud; Woodruff, Peter W; David, Olivier; Mulert, Christoph; Woodward, Todd S; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH. We distinguish between functional connectivity during an actual hallucination experience (symptom capture) and functional connectivity during either the resting state or a task comparing individuals who hallucinate with those who do not (symptom association studies). Symptom capture studies clearly reveal a pattern of increased coupling among the auditory, language and striatal regions. Anatomical and symptom association functional studies suggest that the interhemispheric connectivity between posterior auditory regions may depend on the phase of illness, with increases in non-psychotic individuals and first episode patients and decreases in chronic patients. Leading hypotheses involving concepts as unstable memories, source monitoring, top-down attention, and hybrid models of hallucinations are supported in part by the published connectivity data, although several caveats and inconsistencies remain. Specifically, possible changes in fronto-temporal connectivity are still under debate. Precise hypotheses concerning the directionality of connections deduced from current theoretical approaches should be tested using experimental approaches that allow for discrimination of competing hypotheses.

  8. PARATHYROID HORMONE 2 RECEPTOR AND ITS ENDOGENOUS LIGAND TIP39 ARE CONCENTRATED IN ENDOCRINE, VISCEROSENSORY AND AUDITORY BRAIN REGIONS IN MACAQUE AND HUMAN

    PubMed Central

    Bagó, Attila G.; Dimitrov, Eugene; Saunders, Richard; Seress, László; Palkovits, Miklós; Usdin, Ted B.; Dobolyi, Arpád

    2009-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone receptor 2 (PTH2R) and its ligand, tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) constitute a neuromodulator system implicated in endocrine and nociceptive regulations. We now describe the presence and distribution of the PTH2R and TIP39 in the brain of primates using a range of tissues and ages from macaque and human brain. In situ hybridization histochemistry of TIP39 mRNA, studied in young macaque brain, due to its possible decline beyond late postnatal ages, was present only in the thalamic subparafascicular area and the pontine medial paralemniscal nucleus. In contrast in situ hybridization histochemistry in macaque identified high levels of PTH2R expression in the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area, hypothalamic paraventricular and periventricular nuclei, medial geniculate, and the pontine tegmentum. PTH2R mRNA was also detected in several human brain areas by RT-PCR. The distribution of PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers in human, determined by immunocytochemistry, was similar to that in rodents including dense fiber networks in the medial preoptic area, hypothalamic paraventricular, periventricular and infundibular (arcuate) nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, median eminence, thalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, sensory trigeminal nuclei, medullary dorsal reticular nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Co-localization suggested that PTH2R fibers are glutamatergic, and that TIP39 may directly influence hypophysiotropic somatostatin containing and indirectly influence corticotropin releasing-hormone containing neurons. The results demonstrate that TIP39 and the PTH2R are expressed in the brain of primates in locations that suggest involvement in regulation of fear, anxiety, reproductive behaviors, release of pituitary hormones, and nociception. PMID:19401215

  9. Brain activity during auditory and visual phonological, spatial and simple discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2013-02-16

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity during tasks demanding selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli delivered in concurrent streams. Auditory stimuli were syllables spoken by different voices and occurring in central or peripheral space. Visual stimuli were centrally or more peripherally presented letters in darker or lighter fonts. The participants performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task in either modality. Within each modality, we expected a clear distinction between brain activations related to nonspatial and spatial processing, as reported in previous studies. However, within each modality, different tasks activated largely overlapping areas in modality-specific (auditory and visual) cortices, as well as in the parietal and frontal brain regions. These overlaps may be due to effects of attention common for all three tasks within each modality or interaction of processing task-relevant features and varying task-irrelevant features in the attended-modality stimuli. Nevertheless, brain activations caused by auditory and visual phonological tasks overlapped in the left mid-lateral prefrontal cortex, while those caused by the auditory and visual spatial tasks overlapped in the inferior parietal cortex. These overlapping activations reveal areas of multimodal phonological and spatial processing. There was also some evidence for intermodal attention-related interaction. Most importantly, activity in the superior temporal sulcus elicited by unattended speech sounds was attenuated during the visual phonological task in comparison with the other visual tasks. This effect might be related to suppression of processing irrelevant speech presumably distracting the phonological task involving the letters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Connections for auditory language in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gierhan, Sarah M E

    2013-11-01

    The white matter bundles that underlie comprehension and production of language have been investigated for a number of years. Several studies have examined which fiber bundles (or tracts) are involved in auditory language processing, and which kind of language information is transmitted by which fiber tract. However, there is much debate about exactly which fiber tracts are involved, their precise course in the brain, how they should be named, and which functions they fulfill. Therefore, the present article reviews the available language-related literature, and educes a neurocognitive model of the pathways for auditory language processing. Besides providing an overview of the current methods used for relating fiber anatomy to function, this article details the precise anatomy of the fiber tracts and their roles in phonological, semantic and syntactic processing, articulation, and repetition.

  11. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Imagawa, Takuya; Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  12. Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

  13. Tactual and auditory vigilance in split-brain man.

    PubMed Central

    Dimond, S J

    1979-01-01

    Two studies are reported of tactual and auditory vigilance performance in patients with a split-brain or partial commissurotomy to examine the attentional behaviour of the right and left hemisphere, and to identify defects in attention which may be related to the division of the cerebral commissures. The performance of the right hemisphere on all tasks of sustained attention so far studied was substantially better than that of the left. Considerable depletion of concentration was observed for the total split-brain group but not in patients with partial commissurotomy. One of the more unusual phenomena of the split-brain condition is that gaps of attention, often lasting many seconds, occur predominantly on the left hemisphere. The switch to a different type of signal on the same hemisphere does not stop them but the switching of signals from one hemisphere to another does. The defect is interpreted as a failure of attention peculiar to the individual hemisphere under test. PMID:762586

  14. Auditory Brain Stem Responses Recorded With Uncushioned Earphones.

    PubMed

    Marsh, R R; Knightly, C A

    1992-11-01

    Although the cushion is essential to accurate pure-tone audiometry with conventional earphones, it may interfere with the auditory brain stem response (ABR) testing of small infants because of its size and the risk of ear canal collapse. To determine the consequences of ABR testing with an uncushioned earphone, adults were tested with and without the cushion, and probe-tube sound measurements were made. Although removing the cushion results in substantial signal attenuation below 1 kHz, there is little effect on the click-elicited ABR.

  15. The brain's voices: comparing nonclinical auditory hallucinations and imagery.

    PubMed

    Linden, David E J; Thornton, Katy; Kuswanto, Carissa N; Johnston, Stephen J; van de Ven, Vincent; Jackson, Michael C

    2011-02-01

    Although auditory verbal hallucinations are often thought to denote mental illness, the majority of voice hearers do not satisfy the criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Here, we report the first functional imaging study of such nonclinical hallucinations in 7 healthy voice hearers comparing them with auditory imagery. The human voice area in the superior temporal sulcus was activated during both hallucinations and imagery. Other brain areas supporting both hallucinations and imagery included fronto temporal language areas in the left hemisphere and their contralateral homologues and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Hallucinations are critically distinguished from imagery by lack of voluntary control. We expected this difference to be reflected in the relative timing of prefrontal and sensory areas. Activity of the SMA indeed preceded that of auditory areas during imagery, whereas during hallucinations, the 2 processes occurred instantaneously. Voluntary control was thus represented in the relative timing of prefrontal and sensory activation, whereas the sense of reality of the sensory experience may be a product of the voice area activation. Our results reveal mechanisms of the generation of sensory experience in the absence of external stimulation and suggest new approaches to the investigation of the neurobiology of psychopathology.

  16. Early auditory processing in area V5/MT+ of the congenitally blind brain.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kate E; Shakespeare, Timothy J; O'Donoghue, M Clare; Alexander, Iona; Ragge, Nicola; Cowey, Alan; Bridge, Holly

    2013-11-13

    Previous imaging studies of congenital blindness have studied individuals with heterogeneous causes of blindness, which may influence the nature and extent of cross-modal plasticity. Here, we scanned a homogeneous group of blind people with bilateral congenital anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop, and, as a result, the visual pathway is not stimulated by either light or retinal waves. This model of congenital blindness presents an opportunity to investigate the effects of very early visual deafferentation on the functional organization of the brain. In anophthalmic animals, the occipital cortex receives direct subcortical auditory input. We hypothesized that this pattern of subcortical reorganization ought to result in a topographic mapping of auditory frequency information in the occipital cortex of anophthalmic people. Using functional MRI, we examined auditory-evoked activity to pure tones of high, medium, and low frequencies. Activity in the superior temporal cortex was significantly reduced in anophthalmic compared with sighted participants. In the occipital cortex, a region corresponding to the cytoarchitectural area V5/MT+ was activated in the anophthalmic participants but not in sighted controls. Whereas previous studies in the blind indicate that this cortical area is activated to auditory motion, our data show it is also active for trains of pure tone stimuli and in some anophthalmic participants shows a topographic mapping (tonotopy). Therefore, this region appears to be performing early sensory processing, possibly served by direct subcortical input from the pulvinar to V5/MT+.

  17. Concurrent brain responses to separate auditory and visual targets.

    PubMed

    Finoia, Paola; Mitchell, Daniel J; Hauk, Olaf; Beste, Christian; Pizzella, Vittorio; Duncan, John

    2015-08-01

    In the attentional blink, a target event (T1) strongly interferes with perception of a second target (T2) presented within a few hundred milliseconds. Concurrently, the brain's electromagnetic response to the second target is suppressed, especially a late negative-positive EEG complex including the traditional P3 wave. An influential theory proposes that conscious perception requires access to a distributed, frontoparietal global workspace, explaining the attentional blink by strong mutual inhibition between concurrent workspace representations. Often, however, the attentional blink is reduced or eliminated for targets in different sensory modalities, suggesting a limit to such global inhibition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we confirm that visual and auditory targets produce similar, distributed patterns of frontoparietal activity. In an attentional blink EEG/MEG design, however, an auditory T1 and visual T2 are identified without mutual interference, with largely preserved electromagnetic responses to T2. The results suggest parallel brain responses to target events in different sensory modalities. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Development of auditory-specific brain rhythm in infants.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takako; Mourad, Nasser; Trainor, Laurel J

    2011-02-01

    Human infants rapidly develop their auditory perceptual abilities and acquire culture-specific knowledge in speech and music in the second 6 months of life. In the adult brain, neural rhythm around 10 Hz in the temporal lobes is thought to reflect sound analysis and subsequent cognitive processes such as memory and attention. To study when and how such rhythm emerges in infancy, we examined electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in infants 4 and 12 months of age during sound stimulation and silence. In the 4-month-olds, the amplitudes of narrowly tuned 4-Hz brain rhythm, recorded from bilateral temporal electrodes, were modulated by sound stimuli. In the 12-month-olds, the sound-induced modulation occurred at faster 6-Hz rhythm at temporofrontal locations. The brain rhythms in the older infants consisted of more complex components, as even evident in individual data. These findings suggest that auditory-specific rhythmic neural activity, which is already established before 6 months of age, involves more speed-efficient long-range neural networks by the age of 12 months when long-term memory for native phoneme representation and for musical rhythmic features is formed. We suggest that maturation of distinct rhythmic components occurs in parallel, and that sensory-specific functions bound to particular thalamo-cortical networks are transferred to newly developed higher-order networks step by step until adult hierarchical neural oscillatory mechanisms are achieved across the whole brain. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Behavioral and electrophysiological auditory processing measures in traumatic brain injury after acoustically controlled auditory training: a long-term study

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carolina Calsolari; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; Marangoni-Castan, Andréa Tortosa; Gil, Daniela; Suriano, Italo Capraro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the long-term efficacy of acoustically controlled auditory training in adults after tarumatic brain injury. Methods A total of six audioogically normal individuals aged between 20 and 37 years were studied. They suffered severe traumatic brain injury with diffuse axional lesion and underwent an acoustically controlled auditory training program approximately one year before. The results obtained in the behavioral and electrophysiological evaluation of auditory processing immediately after acoustically controlled auditory training were compared to reassessment findings, one year later. Results Quantitative analysis of auditory brainsteim response showed increased absolute latency of all waves and interpeak intervals, bilaterraly, when comparing both evaluations. Moreover, increased amplitude of all waves, and the wave V amplitude was statistically significant for the right ear, and wave III for the left ear. As to P3, decreased latency and increased amplitude were found for both ears in reassessment. The previous and current behavioral assessment showed similar results, except for the staggered spondaic words in the left ear and the amount of errors on the dichotic consonant-vowel test. Conclusion The acoustically controlled auditory training was effective in the long run, since better latency and amplitude results were observed in the electrophysiological evaluation, in addition to stability of behavioral measures after one-year training. PMID:26676270

  20. Brain Network Interactions in Auditory, Visual and Linguistic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Barry; Braun, Allen R.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss the importance of network interactions between brain regions in mediating performance of sensorimotor and cognitive tasks, including those associated with language processing. Functional neuroimaging, especially PET and fMRI, provide data that are obtained essentially simultaneously from much of the brain, and thus are…

  1. Widespread Brain Areas Engaged during a Classical Auditory Streaming Task Revealed by Intracranial EEG

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Andrew R.; Halgren, Eric; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad E.; Doyle, Werner; Madsen, Joseph R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system must constantly decompose the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ear into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sources in the acoustic environment. How the brain accomplishes this task is not well understood. The present study combined a classic behavioral paradigm with direct cortical recordings from neurosurgical patients with epilepsy in order to further describe the neural correlates of auditory streaming. Participants listened to sequences of pure tones alternating in frequency and indicated whether they heard one or two “streams.” The intracranial EEG was simultaneously recorded from sub-dural electrodes placed over temporal, frontal, and parietal cortex. Like healthy subjects, patients heard one stream when the frequency separation between tones was small and two when it was large. Robust evoked-potential correlates of frequency separation were observed over widespread brain areas. Waveform morphology was highly variable across individual electrode sites both within and across gross brain regions. Surprisingly, few evoked-potential correlates of perceptual organization were observed after controlling for physical stimulus differences. The results indicate that the cortical areas engaged during the streaming task are more complex and widespread than has been demonstrated by previous work, and that, by-and-large, correlates of bistability during streaming are probably located on a spatial scale not assessed – or in a brain area not examined – by the present study. PMID:21886615

  2. Connectivity in the human brain dissociates entropy and complexity of auditory inputs.

    PubMed

    Nastase, Samuel A; Iacovella, Vittorio; Davis, Ben; Hasson, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Complex systems are described according to two central dimensions: (a) the randomness of their output, quantified via entropy; and (b) their complexity, which reflects the organization of a system's generators. Whereas some approaches hold that complexity can be reduced to uncertainty or entropy, an axiom of complexity science is that signals with very high or very low entropy are generated by relatively non-complex systems, while complex systems typically generate outputs with entropy peaking between these two extremes. In understanding their environment, individuals would benefit from coding for both input entropy and complexity; entropy indexes uncertainty and can inform probabilistic coding strategies, whereas complexity reflects a concise and abstract representation of the underlying environmental configuration, which can serve independent purposes, e.g., as a template for generalization and rapid comparisons between environments. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that, in response to passively processed auditory inputs, functional integration patterns in the human brain track both the entropy and complexity of the auditory signal. Connectivity between several brain regions scaled monotonically with input entropy, suggesting sensitivity to uncertainty, whereas connectivity between other regions tracked entropy in a convex manner consistent with sensitivity to input complexity. These findings suggest that the human brain simultaneously tracks the uncertainty of sensory data and effectively models their environmental generators. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Connectivity in the human brain dissociates entropy and complexity of auditory inputs☆

    PubMed Central

    Nastase, Samuel A.; Iacovella, Vittorio; Davis, Ben; Hasson, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems are described according to two central dimensions: (a) the randomness of their output, quantified via entropy; and (b) their complexity, which reflects the organization of a system's generators. Whereas some approaches hold that complexity can be reduced to uncertainty or entropy, an axiom of complexity science is that signals with very high or very low entropy are generated by relatively non-complex systems, while complex systems typically generate outputs with entropy peaking between these two extremes. In understanding their environment, individuals would benefit from coding for both input entropy and complexity; entropy indexes uncertainty and can inform probabilistic coding strategies, whereas complexity reflects a concise and abstract representation of the underlying environmental configuration, which can serve independent purposes, e.g., as a template for generalization and rapid comparisons between environments. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that, in response to passively processed auditory inputs, functional integration patterns in the human brain track both the entropy and complexity of the auditory signal. Connectivity between several brain regions scaled monotonically with input entropy, suggesting sensitivity to uncertainty, whereas connectivity between other regions tracked entropy in a convex manner consistent with sensitivity to input complexity. These findings suggest that the human brain simultaneously tracks the uncertainty of sensory data and effectively models their environmental generators. PMID:25536493

  4. Proteome rearrangements after auditory learning: high-resolution profiling of synapse-enriched protein fractions from mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kähne, Thilo; Richter, Sandra; Kolodziej, Angela; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Pielot, Rainer; Engler, Alexander; Ohl, Frank W; Dieterich, Daniela C; Seidenbecher, Constanze; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael; Gundelfinger, Eckart D

    2016-07-01

    Learning and memory processes are accompanied by rearrangements of synaptic protein networks. While various studies have demonstrated the regulation of individual synaptic proteins during these processes, much less is known about the complex regulation of synaptic proteomes. Recently, we reported that auditory discrimination learning in mice is associated with a relative down-regulation of proteins involved in the structural organization of synapses in various brain regions. Aiming at the identification of biological processes and signaling pathways involved in auditory memory formation, here, a label-free quantification approach was utilized to identify regulated synaptic junctional proteins and phosphoproteins in the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of mice 24 h after the learning experiment. Twenty proteins, including postsynaptic scaffolds, actin-remodeling proteins, and RNA-binding proteins, were regulated in at least three brain regions pointing to common, cross-regional mechanisms. Most of the detected synaptic proteome changes were, however, restricted to individual brain regions. For example, several members of the Septin family of cytoskeletal proteins were up-regulated only in the hippocampus, while Septin-9 was down-regulated in the hippocampus, the frontal cortex, and the striatum. Meta analyses utilizing several databases were employed to identify underlying cellular functions and biological pathways. Data are available via ProteomeExchange with identifier PXD003089. How does the protein composition of synapses change in different brain areas upon auditory learning? We unravel discrete proteome changes in mouse auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum functionally implicated in the learning process. We identify not only common but also area-specific biological pathways and cellular processes modulated 24 h after training, indicating individual contributions of the regions to memory processing.

  5. Bigger Brains or Bigger Nuclei? Regulating the Size of Auditory Structures in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Kubke, M. Fabiana; Massoglia, Dino P.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in the size of the neuronal structures that mediate specific behaviors are believed to be related to enhanced computational performance. It is not clear, however, what developmental and evolutionary mechanisms mediate these changes, nor whether an increase in the size of a given neuronal population is a general mechanism to achieve enhanced computational ability. We addressed the issue of size by analyzing the variation in the relative number of cells of auditory structures in auditory specialists and generalists. We show that bird species with different auditory specializations exhibit variation in the relative size of their hindbrain auditory nuclei. In the barn owl, an auditory specialist, the hind-brain auditory nuclei involved in the computation of sound location show hyperplasia. This hyperplasia was also found in songbirds, but not in non-auditory specialists. The hyperplasia of auditory nuclei was also not seen in birds with large body weight suggesting that the total number of cells is selected for in auditory specialists. In barn owls, differences observed in the relative size of the auditory nuclei might be attributed to modifications in neurogenesis and cell death. Thus, hyperplasia of circuits used for auditory computation accompanies auditory specialization in different orders of birds. PMID:14726625

  6. Conductive Hearing Loss during Infancy: Effects on Later Auditory Brain Stem Electrophysiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; Finitzo, Terese

    1991-01-01

    Long-term effects on auditory electrophysiology from early fluctuating hearing loss were studied in 27 children, aged 5 to 7 years, who had been evaluated originally in infancy. Findings suggested that early fluctuating hearing loss disrupts later auditory brain stem electrophysiology. (Author/DB)

  7. Coding of Visual, Auditory, Rule, and Response Information in the Brain: 10 Years of Multivoxel Pattern Analysis.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Jackson, Jade; Duncan, John

    2016-10-01

    How is the processing of task information organized in the brain? Many views of brain function emphasize modularity, with different regions specialized for processing different types of information. However, recent accounts also highlight flexibility, pointing especially to the highly consistent pattern of frontoparietal activation across many tasks. Although early insights from functional imaging were based on overall activation levels during different cognitive operations, in the last decade many researchers have used multivoxel pattern analyses to interrogate the representational content of activations, mapping out the brain regions that make particular stimulus, rule, or response distinctions. Here, we drew on 100 searchlight decoding analyses from 57 published papers to characterize the information coded in different brain networks. The outcome was highly structured. Visual, auditory, and motor networks predominantly (but not exclusively) coded visual, auditory, and motor information, respectively. By contrast, the frontoparietal multiple-demand network was characterized by domain generality, coding visual, auditory, motor, and rule information. The contribution of the default mode network and voxels elsewhere was minor. The data suggest a balanced picture of brain organization in which sensory and motor networks are relatively specialized for information in their own domain, whereas a specific frontoparietal network acts as a domain-general "core" with the capacity to code many different aspects of a task.

  8. Selective attention in an overcrowded auditory scene: implications for auditory-based brain-computer interface design.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Ross K; Cheung, Willy; Lee, Adrian K C

    2012-11-01

    Listeners are good at attending to one auditory stream in a crowded environment. However, is there an upper limit of streams present in an auditory scene at which this selective attention breaks down? Here, participants were asked to attend one stream of spoken letters amidst other letter streams. In half of the trials, an initial primer was played, cueing subjects to the sound configuration. Results indicate that performance increases with token repetitions. Priming provided a performance benefit, suggesting that stream selection, not formation, is the bottleneck associated with attention in an overcrowded scene. Results' implications for brain-computer interfaces are discussed.

  9. Characteristics of auditory agnosia in a child with severe traumatic brain injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K; Speedie, Lynn J

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory processing in the absence of significant deficits in the comprehension of written language, expressive language production, or peripheral auditory function. Furthermore, the patient demonstrates relatively preserved function in other aspects of audition such as sound localization, voice recognition, and perception of animal noises and environmental sounds. This case study demonstrates that auditory agnosia is possible following traumatic brain injury in a child, and illustrates the necessity of assessment with a wide variety of auditory stimuli to fully characterize auditory agnosia in a single individual.

  10. Resolving the neural dynamics of visual and auditory scene processing in the human brain: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Santani

    2017-01-01

    In natural environments, visual and auditory stimulation elicit responses across a large set of brain regions in a fraction of a second, yielding representations of the multimodal scene and its properties. The rapid and complex neural dynamics underlying visual and auditory information processing pose major challenges to human cognitive neuroscience. Brain signals measured non-invasively are inherently noisy, the format of neural representations is unknown, and transformations between representations are complex and often nonlinear. Further, no single non-invasive brain measurement technique provides a spatio-temporally integrated view. In this opinion piece, we argue that progress can be made by a concerted effort based on three pillars of recent methodological development: (i) sensitive analysis techniques such as decoding and cross-classification, (ii) complex computational modelling using models such as deep neural networks, and (iii) integration across imaging methods (magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) and models, e.g. using representational similarity analysis. We showcase two recent efforts that have been undertaken in this spirit and provide novel results about visual and auditory scene analysis. Finally, we discuss the limits of this perspective and sketch a concrete roadmap for future research. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044019

  11. Resolving the neural dynamics of visual and auditory scene processing in the human brain: a methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Teng, Santani

    2017-02-19

    In natural environments, visual and auditory stimulation elicit responses across a large set of brain regions in a fraction of a second, yielding representations of the multimodal scene and its properties. The rapid and complex neural dynamics underlying visual and auditory information processing pose major challenges to human cognitive neuroscience. Brain signals measured non-invasively are inherently noisy, the format of neural representations is unknown, and transformations between representations are complex and often nonlinear. Further, no single non-invasive brain measurement technique provides a spatio-temporally integrated view. In this opinion piece, we argue that progress can be made by a concerted effort based on three pillars of recent methodological development: (i) sensitive analysis techniques such as decoding and cross-classification, (ii) complex computational modelling using models such as deep neural networks, and (iii) integration across imaging methods (magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) and models, e.g. using representational similarity analysis. We showcase two recent efforts that have been undertaken in this spirit and provide novel results about visual and auditory scene analysis. Finally, we discuss the limits of this perspective and sketch a concrete roadmap for future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  12. Brain hyper-reactivity to auditory novel targets in children with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Gomot, Marie; Belmonte, Matthew K; Bullmore, Edward T; Bernard, Frédéric A; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2008-09-01

    Although communication and social difficulties in autism have received a great deal of research attention, the other key diagnostic feature, extreme repetitive behaviour and unusual narrow interests, has been addressed less often. Also known as 'resistance to change' this may be related to atypical processing of infrequent, novel stimuli. This can be tested at sensory and neural levels. Our aims were to (i) examine auditory novelty detection and its neural basis in children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and (ii) test for brain activation patterns that correlate quantitatively with number of autistic traits as a test of the dimensional nature of ASC. The present study employed event-related fMRI during a novel auditory detection paradigm. Participants were twelve 10- to 15-year-old children with ASC and a group of 12 age-, IQ- and sex-matched typical controls. The ASC group responded faster to novel target stimuli. Group differences in brain activity mainly involved the right prefrontal-premotor and the left inferior parietal regions, which were more activated in the ASC group than in controls. In both groups, activation of prefrontal regions during target detection was positively correlated with Autism Spectrum Quotient scores measuring the number of autistic traits. These findings suggest that target detection in autism is associated not only with superior behavioural performance (shorter reaction time) but also with activation of a more widespread network of brain regions. This pattern also shows quantitative variation with number of autistic traits, in a continuum that extends to the normal population. This finding may shed light on the neurophysiological process underlying narrow interests and what clinically is called 'need for sameness'.

  13. An auditory brain-computer interface evoked by natural speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Fernandez, E.; Romero, S.; Pelayo, F.; Prieto, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are mainly intended for people unable to perform any muscular movement, such as patients in a complete locked-in state. The majority of BCIs interact visually with the user, either in the form of stimulation or biofeedback. However, visual BCIs challenge their ultimate use because they require the subjects to gaze, explore and shift eye-gaze using their muscles, thus excluding patients in a complete locked-in state or under the condition of the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. In this study, we present a novel fully auditory EEG-BCI based on a dichotic listening paradigm using human voice for stimulation. This interface has been evaluated with healthy volunteers, achieving an average information transmission rate of 1.5 bits min-1 in full-length trials and 2.7 bits min-1 using the optimal length of trials, recorded with only one channel and without formal training. This novel technique opens the door to a more natural communication with users unable to use visual BCIs, with promising results in terms of performance, usability, training and cognitive effort.

  14. Abnormal Effective Connectivity in the Brain is Involved in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Baojuan; Cui, Long-Biao; Xi, Yi-Bin; Friston, Karl J; Guo, Fan; Wang, Hua-Ning; Zhang, Lin-Chuan; Bai, Yuan-Han; Tan, Qing-Rong; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing

    2017-02-21

    Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and correlation analysis between image measures and symptoms. sDCM revealed an increased sensitivity of auditory cortex to its thalamic afferents and a decrease in hippocampal sensitivity to auditory inputs in SZ patients with AVHs. The area under the ROC curve showed the diagnostic value of these two connections to distinguish SZ patients with AVHs from those without AVHs. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the strength of the connectivity from Broca's area to the auditory cortex and the severity of AVHs. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, augmented AVH-specific excitatory afferents from the thalamus to the auditory cortex in SZ patients, resulting in auditory perception without external auditory stimuli. Our results provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying AVHs in SZ. This thalamic-auditory cortical-hippocampal dysconnectivity may also serve as a diagnostic biomarker of AVHs in SZ and a therapeutic target based on direct in vivo evidence.

  15. Neuroanatomy of "hearing voices": a frontotemporal brain structural abnormality associated with auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gaser, Christian; Nenadic, Igor; Volz, Hans-Peter; Büchel, Christian; Sauer, Heinrich

    2004-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations are a frequent symptom in schizophrenia. While functional imaging studies have suggested the association of certain patterns of brain activity with sub-syndromes or single symptoms (e.g. positive symptoms such as hallucinations), there has been only limited evidence from structural imaging or post-mortem studies. In this study, we investigated the relation of local brain structural deficits to severity of auditory hallucinations, particularly in perisylvian areas previously reported to be involved in auditory hallucinations. In order to overcome certain limitations of conventional volumetric methods, we used deformation-based morphometry (DBM), a novel automated whole-brain morphometric technique, to assess local gray and white matter deficits in structural magnetic resonance images of 85 schizophrenia patients. We found severity of auditory hallucinations to be significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with volume loss in the left transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl (primary auditory cortex) and left (inferior) supramarginal gyrus, as well as middle/inferior right prefrontal gyri. This demonstrates a pattern of distributed structural abnormalities specific for auditory hallucinations and suggests hallucination-specific alterations in areas of a frontotemporal network for processing auditory information and language.

  16. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations.

  17. Auditory and vestibular dysfunction associated with blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fausti, Stephen A; Wilmington, Debra J; Gallun, Frederick J; Myers, Paula J; Henry, James A

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic escalation of blast exposure in military deployments has created an unprecedented amount of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated auditory impairment. Auditory dysfunction has become the most prevalent individual service-connected disability, with compensation totaling more than 1 billion dollars annually. Impairment due to blast can include peripheral hearing loss, central auditory processing deficits, vestibular impairment, and tinnitus. These deficits are particularly challenging in the TBI population, as symptoms can be mistaken for posttraumatic stress disorder, mental-health issues, and cognitive deficits. In addition, comorbid factors such as attention, cognition, neuronal loss, noise toxicity, etc., can confound assessment, causing misdiagnosis. Furthermore, some auditory impairments, such as sensorineural hearing loss, will continue to progress with age, unlike many other injuries. In the TBI population, significant clinical challenges are the accurate differentiation of auditory and vestibular impairments from multiple, many times overlapping, symptoms and the development of multidisciplinary rehabilitation strategies to improve treatment outcomes and quality of life for these patients.

  18. Lateralized auditory brain function in children with normal reading ability and in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blake W; McArthur, Genevieve; Hautus, Michael; Reid, Melanie; Brock, Jon; Castles, Anne; Crain, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    We examined central auditory processing in typically- and atypically-developing readers. Concurrent EEG and MEG brain measurements were obtained from a group of 16 children with dyslexia aged 8-12 years, and a group of 16 age-matched children with normal reading ability. Auditory responses were elicited using 500ms duration broadband noise. These responses were strongly lateralized in control children. Children with dyslexia showed significantly less lateralisation of auditory cortical functioning, and a different pattern of development of auditory lateralization with age. These results provide further evidence that the core neurophysiological deficit of dyslexia is a problem in the balance of auditory function between the two hemispheres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

  20. The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

  1. Attention to human speakers in a virtual auditory environment: brain potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Nager, Wido; Dethlefsen, Christina; Münte, Thomas F

    2008-07-18

    Listening to a speech message requires the accurate selection of the relevant auditory input especially when distracting background noise or other speech messages are present. To investigate such auditory selection processes we presented three different speech messages simultaneously spoken by different actors at separate spatial locations (-70, 0, 70/ azimuth). Stimuli were recorded using an artificial head with microphones embedded in the "auditory canals" to capture the interaural time and level differences as well as some of the filter properties of the outer ear structures as auditory spatial cues, thus creating a realistic virtual auditory space. In a given experimental run young healthy participants listened via headphones and either attended to the rightmost or the leftmost message in order to comprehend the story. Superimposed on the speech messages task irrelevant probe stimuli (syllables sharing spatial and spectral characteristics, 4 probes/s) were presented that were used for the generation of event-related brain potentials computed from 29 channels of EEG. ERPs to probe stimuli were characterized by a negativity starting at 250 ms with a contralateral frontal maximum for the probes sharing spatial/spectral features of the attended story relative to those for the unattended message. The relatively late onset of this attention effect was interpreted to reflect the task demands in this complex auditory environment. This study demonstrates the feasibility to use virtual auditory environments in conjunction with the probe technique to study auditory selection under realistic conditions.

  2. Cognitive factors shape brain networks for auditory skills: spotlight on auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra

    2012-04-01

    Musicians benefit from real-life advantages, such as a greater ability to hear speech in noise and to remember sounds, although the biological mechanisms driving such advantages remain undetermined. Furthermore, the extent to which these advantages are a consequence of musical training or innate characteristics that predispose a given individual to pursue music training is often debated. Here, we examine biological underpinnings of musicians' auditory advantages and the mediating role of auditory working memory. Results from our laboratory are presented within a framework that emphasizes auditory working memory as a major factor in the neural processing of sound. Within this framework, we provide evidence for music training as a contributing source of these abilities. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Cognitive factors shape brain networks for auditory skills: spotlight on auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Musicians benefit from real-life advantages such as a greater ability to hear speech in noise and to remember sounds, although the biological mechanisms driving such advantages remain undetermined. Furthermore, the extent to which these advantages are a consequence of musical training or innate characteristics that predispose a given individual to pursue music training is often debated. Here, we examine biological underpinnings of musicians’ auditory advantages and the mediating role of auditory working memory. Results from our laboratory are presented within a framework that emphasizes auditory working memory as a major factor in the neural processing of sound. Within this framework, we provide evidence for music training as a contributing source of these abilities. PMID:22524346

  4. Combining functional and anatomical connectivity reveals brain networks for auditory language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Schelter, Björn; Schnell, Susanne; Kratochvil, David; Küpper, Hanna; Kellmeyer, Philipp; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Klöppel, Stefan; Glauche, Volkmar; Lange, Rüdiger; Mader, Wolfgang; Feess, David; Timmer, Jens; Weiller, Cornelius

    2010-02-15

    Cognitive functions are organized in distributed, overlapping, and interacting brain networks. Investigation of those large-scale brain networks is a major task in neuroimaging research. Here, we introduce a novel combination of functional and anatomical connectivity to study the network topology subserving a cognitive function of interest. (i) In a given network, direct interactions between network nodes are identified by analyzing functional MRI time series with the multivariate method of directed partial correlation (dPC). This method provides important improvements over shortcomings that are typical for ordinary (partial) correlation techniques. (ii) For directly interacting pairs of nodes, a region-to-region probabilistic fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging data is performed to identify the most probable anatomical white matter fiber tracts mediating the functional interactions. This combined approach is applied to the language domain to investigate the network topology of two levels of auditory comprehension: lower-level speech perception (i.e., phonological processing) and higher-level speech recognition (i.e., semantic processing). For both processing levels, dPC analyses revealed the functional network topology and identified central network nodes by the number of direct interactions with other nodes. Tractography showed that these interactions are mediated by distinct ventral (via the extreme capsule) and dorsal (via the arcuate/superior longitudinal fascicle fiber system) long- and short-distance association tracts as well as commissural fibers. Our findings demonstrate how both processing routines are segregated in the brain on a large-scale network level. Combining dPC with probabilistic tractography is a promising approach to unveil how cognitive functions emerge through interaction of functionally interacting and anatomically interconnected brain regions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Forensic application of brainstem auditory evoked potential in patients with brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-Bin; Li, Sheng-Yan; Huang, Si-Xing; Ma, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in patients with brain concussion. Nineteen patients with brain concussion were studied with BAEP examination. The data was compared to the healthy persons reported in literatures. The abnormal rate of BAEP for patients with brain concussion was 89.5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the abnormal rate of patients and that of healthy persons (P<0.05). The abnormal rate of BAEP in the brainstem pathway for patients with brain concussion was 73.7%, indicating dysfunction of the brainstem in those patients. BAEP might be helpful in forensic diagnosis of brain concussion.

  6. Prediction of auditory and visual p300 brain-computer interface aptitude.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Kleih, Sonja Claudia; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Birbaumer, Niels; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a non-muscular communication channel for patients with late-stage motoneuron disease (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)) or otherwise motor impaired people and are also used for motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Differences in the ability to use a BCI vary from person to person and from session to session. A reliable predictor of aptitude would allow for the selection of suitable BCI paradigms. For this reason, we investigated whether P300 BCI aptitude could be predicted from a short experiment with a standard auditory oddball. Forty healthy participants performed an electroencephalography (EEG) based visual and auditory P300-BCI spelling task in a single session. In addition, prior to each session an auditory oddball was presented. Features extracted from the auditory oddball were analyzed with respect to predictive power for BCI aptitude. Correlation between auditory oddball response and P300 BCI accuracy revealed a strong relationship between accuracy and N2 amplitude and the amplitude of a late ERP component between 400 and 600 ms. Interestingly, the P3 amplitude of the auditory oddball response was not correlated with accuracy. Event-related potentials recorded during a standard auditory oddball session moderately predict aptitude in an audiory and highly in a visual P300 BCI. The predictor will allow for faster paradigm selection. Our method will reduce strain on patients because unsuccessful training may be avoided, provided the results can be generalized to the patient population.

  7. Prediction of Auditory and Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface Aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Kleih, Sonja Claudia; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Birbaumer, Niels; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a non-muscular communication channel for patients with late-stage motoneuron disease (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)) or otherwise motor impaired people and are also used for motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Differences in the ability to use a BCI vary from person to person and from session to session. A reliable predictor of aptitude would allow for the selection of suitable BCI paradigms. For this reason, we investigated whether P300 BCI aptitude could be predicted from a short experiment with a standard auditory oddball. Methods Forty healthy participants performed an electroencephalography (EEG) based visual and auditory P300-BCI spelling task in a single session. In addition, prior to each session an auditory oddball was presented. Features extracted from the auditory oddball were analyzed with respect to predictive power for BCI aptitude. Results Correlation between auditory oddball response and P300 BCI accuracy revealed a strong relationship between accuracy and N2 amplitude and the amplitude of a late ERP component between 400 and 600 ms. Interestingly, the P3 amplitude of the auditory oddball response was not correlated with accuracy. Conclusions Event-related potentials recorded during a standard auditory oddball session moderately predict aptitude in an audiory and highly in a visual P300 BCI. The predictor will allow for faster paradigm selection. Significance Our method will reduce strain on patients because unsuccessful training may be avoided, provided the results can be generalized to the patient population. PMID:23457444

  8. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks.

    PubMed

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnöve; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking) did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention.

  9. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R.; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  10. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  11. Are you listening? Brain activation associated with sustained nonspatial auditory attention in the presence and absence of stimulation.

    PubMed

    Seydell-Greenwald, Anna; Greenberg, Adam S; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2014-05-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating the voluntary (top-down) control of attention largely agree that this process recruits several frontal and parietal brain regions. Since most studies used attention tasks requiring several higher-order cognitive functions (e.g. working memory, semantic processing, temporal integration, spatial orienting) as well as different attentional mechanisms (attention shifting, distractor filtering), it is unclear what exactly the observed frontoparietal activations reflect. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated, within the same participants, signal changes in (1) a "Simple Attention" task in which participants attended to a single melody, (2) a "Selective Attention" task in which they simultaneously ignored another melody, and (3) a "Beep Monitoring" task in which participants listened in silence for a faint beep. Compared to resting conditions with identical stimulation, all tasks produced robust activation increases in auditory cortex, cross-modal inhibition in visual and somatosensory cortex, and decreases in the default mode network, indicating that participants were indeed focusing their attention on the auditory domain. However, signal increases in frontal and parietal brain areas were only observed for tasks 1 and 2, but completely absent for task 3. These results lead to the following conclusions: under most conditions, frontoparietal activations are crucial for attention since they subserve higher-order cognitive functions inherently related to attention. However, under circumstances that minimize other demands, nonspatial auditory attention in the absence of stimulation can be maintained without concurrent frontal or parietal activations.

  12. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials as a method to assist the diagnosis of brain death].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Mônica; Person, Osmar Clayton; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar

    2008-01-01

    brainstem auditory evoked potentials in brain death. to verify the agreement between the response in the auditory brainstem audiometry and the clinical outcome, analyzing the pattern of responses to electric stimulation. a cross-sectional study performed in 30 patients with Glasgow coma score of 3, submitted to the auditory brainstem audiometry and followed up until their clinical outcome: recovery or death. The test was considered positive to brain death when there was no registry of waves or when there was only the registry of wave I; and negative when there were two or more waves, independently of their latencies. Among the patients who presented positive results for brain death (86.66%), all died; the only patient who recovered presented a negative result, indicating a specificity of 100%. Internal consistency of data was also observed, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.562, obtained using the Cronbach s test; and a significant agreement between the test and the clinical outcome using the Kappa s test, with a confidence interval of 95% (K = 0.545; p = 0.015). in the present study, the brainstem auditory evoked potential demonstrated to be highly specific in death prediction of patients in Glasgow coma score of 3, and was useful in assisting the diagnosis of brain death.

  13. Usefulness of piezoelectric earphones in recording the brain stem auditory evoked potentials: a new early deflection.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J

    1980-03-01

    Piezoelectric and electromagnetic earphones are compared in the recording of brain stem auditory evoked responses in man. With the piezoelectric phones the stimulus artifact can be essentially eliminated, permitting an early peak I' to appear at 1.1 msec. Also, other peaks, especially later ones, including one called VIII at 11.0 msec, appeared more consistently with smaller standard deviations of latency.

  14. Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Witold; Bolanowski, Marek; Szawrowicz-Pelka, Teresa; Kalka, Dariusz; Janocha, Anna; Salomon, Ewa; Rusiecki, Leslaw; Czerchawski, Leszek; Sobieszczanska, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    In the course of anorexia nervosa (AN), the central nervous system (CNS) undergoes both anatomic and functional changes that may cause disturbances of stimulation transmission in the sensory areas of CNS. Method of brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) was used in the children with AN to test the auditory pathway transmission. The study included 37 children and adolescents, aged 10-18 years, with clinically diagnosed AN. BAEPs were recorded after a click stimulation of 75 dB intensity. Then, wave I latency (response from the auditory nerve) and inter-peak latency I-V (IPL I-V; response from the brain-stem) were analyzed. Abnormalities of the BAEPs recordings were noted total in 32.4% of the study patients. Predominantly (in 24.3%), a decreased transmission within the brain-stem, expressed as the IPL I-V prolongation, was observed. It was also found that the percentage of the abnormal BAEPs results and the degree of IPL I-V prolongation were increasing together with enhancing AN severity. IPL I-V prolongation observed in the AN children reflects a disturbed neural transmission in the brain-stem section of the auditory pathway and can be ascribed to impairments in the nerves myelin sheath.

  15. Closed eyes condition increases auditory brain responses in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Dapsys, Kastytis; Maciulis, Valentinas; Arnfred, Sidse M

    2013-02-28

    The 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) of 14 medicated schizophrenic patients were recorded in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions as previously done in healthy volunteers. Patients show significantly increased precision of the evoked response with eyes closed, and a significant increase of broad-band noise activity when eyes are open. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (de Geer): auditory responses and impact on walking.

    PubMed

    Zorović, Maja; Hedwig, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    The activity of four types of sound-sensitive descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was recorded intracellularly while animals were standing or walking on an open-loop trackball system. In a neuron with a contralaterally descending axon, the male calling song elicited responses that copied the pulse pattern of the song during standing and walking. The accuracy of pulse copying increased during walking. Neurons with ipsilaterally descending axons responded weakly to sound only during standing. The responses were mainly to the first pulse of each chirp, whereas the complete pulse pattern of a chirp was not copied. During walking the auditory responses were suppressed in these neurons. The spiking activity of all four neuron types was significantly correlated to forward walking velocity, indicating their relevance for walking. Additionally, injection of depolarizing current elicited walking and/or steering in three of four neuron types described. In none of the neurons was the spiking activity both sufficient and necessary to elicit and maintain walking behaviour. Some neurons showed arborisations in the lateral accessory lobes, pointing to the relevance of this brain region for cricket audition and descending motor control.

  17. Turning down the noise: the benefit of musical training on the aging auditory brain.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Age-related decline in hearing abilities is a ubiquitous part of aging, and commonly impacts speech understanding, especially when there are competing sound sources. While such age effects are partially due to changes within the cochlea, difficulties typically exist beyond measurable hearing loss, suggesting that central brain processes, as opposed to simple peripheral mechanisms (e.g., hearing sensitivity), play a critical role in governing hearing abilities late into life. Current training regimens aimed to improve central auditory processing abilities have experienced limited success in promoting listening benefits. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that in young adults, musical training positively modifies neural mechanisms, providing robust, long-lasting improvements to hearing abilities as well as to non-auditory tasks that engage cognitive control. These results offer the encouraging possibility that musical training might be used to counteract age-related changes in auditory cognition commonly observed in older adults. Here, we reviewed studies that have examined the effects of age and musical experience on auditory cognition with an emphasis on auditory scene analysis. We infer that musical training may offer potential benefits to complex listening and might be utilized as a means to delay or even attenuate declines in auditory perception and cognition that often emerge later in life.

  18. A blueprint for vocal learning: auditory predispositions from brains to genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Memorizing and producing complex strings of sound are requirements for spoken human language. We share these behaviours with likely more than 4000 species of songbirds, making birds our primary model for studying the cognitive basis of vocal learning and, more generally, an important model for how memories are encoded in the brain. In songbirds, as in humans, the sounds that a juvenile learns later in life depend on auditory memories formed early in development. Experiments on a wide variety of songbird species suggest that the formation and lability of these auditory memories, in turn, depend on auditory predispositions that stimulate learning when a juvenile hears relevant, species-typical sounds. We review evidence that variation in key features of these auditory predispositions are determined by variation in genes underlying the development of the auditory system. We argue that increased investigation of the neuronal basis of auditory predispositions expressed early in life in combination with modern comparative genomic approaches may provide insights into the evolution of vocal learning. PMID:26246333

  19. Auditory-musical processing in autism spectrum disorders: a review of behavioral and brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Tia; Foster, Nicholas E V; Tryfon, Ana; Hyde, Krista L

    2012-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition characterized by atypical social and communication skills, repetitive behaviors, and atypical visual and auditory perception. Studies in vision have reported enhanced detailed ("local") processing but diminished holistic ("global") processing of visual features in ASD. Individuals with ASD also show enhanced processing of simple visual stimuli but diminished processing of complex visual stimuli. Relative to the visual domain, auditory global-local distinctions, and the effects of stimulus complexity on auditory processing in ASD, are less clear. However, one remarkable finding is that many individuals with ASD have enhanced musical abilities, such as superior pitch processing. This review provides a critical evaluation of behavioral and brain imaging studies of auditory processing with respect to current theories in ASD. We have focused on auditory-musical processing in terms of global versus local processing and simple versus complex sound processing. This review contributes to a better understanding of auditory processing differences in ASD. A deeper comprehension of sensory perception in ASD is key to better defining ASD phenotypes and, in turn, may lead to better interventions.

  20. Human auditory evoked potentials in the assessment of brain function during major cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A

    2004-06-01

    Focal neurologic and intellectual deficits or memory problems are relatively frequent after cardiac surgery. These complications have been associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, embolization, and inflammation that occur during or after surgery. Auditory evoked potentials, a neurophysiologic technique that evaluates the function of neural structures from the auditory nerve to the cortex, provide useful information about the functional status of the brain during major cardiovascular procedures. Skepticism regarding the presence of artifacts or difficulty in their interpretation has outweighed considerations of its potential utility and noninvasiveness. This paper reviews the evidence of their potential applications in several aspects of the management of cardiac surgery patients. The sensitivity of auditory evoked potentials to the effects of changes in brain temperature makes them useful for monitoring cerebral hypothermia and rewarming during cardiopulmonary bypass. The close relationship between evoked potential waveforms and specific anatomic structures facilitates the assessment of the functional integrity of the central nervous system in cardiac surgery patients. This feature may also be relevant in the management of critical patients under sedation and coma or in the evaluation of their prognosis during critical care. Their objectivity, reproducibility, and relative insensitivity to learning effects make auditory evoked potentials attractive for the cognitive assessment of cardiac surgery patients. From a clinical perspective, auditory evoked potentials represent an additional window for the study of underlying cerebral processes in healthy and diseased patients. From a research standpoint, this technology offers opportunities for a better understanding of the particular cerebral deficits associated with patients who are undergoing major cardiovascular procedures.

  1. Connecting the ear to the brain: molecular mechanisms of auditory circuit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Appler, Jessica M.; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2011-01-01

    Our sense of hearing depends on precisely organized circuits that allow us to sense, perceive, and respond to complex sounds in our environment, from music and language to simple warning signals. Auditory processing begins in the cochlea of the inner ear, where sounds are detected by sensory hair cells and then transmitted to the central nervous system by spiral ganglion neurons, which faithfully preserve the frequency, intensity, and timing of each stimulus. During the assembly of auditory circuits, spiral ganglion neurons establish precise connections that link hair cells in the cochlea to target neurons in the auditory brainstem, develop specific firing properties, and elaborate unusual synapses both in the periphery and in the CNS. Understanding how spiral ganglion neurons acquire these unique properties is a key goal in auditory neuroscience, as these neurons represent the sole input of auditory information to the brain. In addition, the best currently available treatment for many forms of deafness is the cochlear implant, which compensates for lost hair cell function by directly stimulating the auditory nerve. Historically, studies of the auditory system have lagged behind other sensory systems due to the small size and inaccessibility of the inner ear. With the advent of new molecular genetic tools, this gap is narrowing. Here, we summarize recent insights into the cellular and molecular cues that guide the development of spiral ganglion neurons, from their origin in the proneurosensory domain of the otic vesicle to the formation of specialized synapses that ensure rapid and reliable transmission of sound information from the ear to the brain. PMID:21232575

  2. The effects of neck flexion on cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in related sensory cortices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A flexed neck posture leads to non-specific activation of the brain. Sensory evoked cerebral potentials and focal brain blood flow have been used to evaluate the activation of the sensory cortex. We investigated the effects of a flexed neck posture on the cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in the related sensory cortices. Methods Twelve healthy young adults received right visual hemi-field, binaural auditory and left median nerve stimuli while sitting with the neck in a resting and flexed (20° flexion) position. Sensory evoked potentials were recorded from the right occipital region, Cz in accordance with the international 10–20 system, and 2 cm posterior from C4, during visual, auditory and somatosensory stimulations. The oxidative-hemoglobin concentration was measured in the respective sensory cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Latencies of the late component of all sensory evoked potentials significantly shortened, and the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials increased when the neck was in a flexed position. Oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the left and right visual cortices were higher during visual stimulation in the flexed neck position. The left visual cortex is responsible for receiving the visual information. In addition, oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the bilateral auditory cortex during auditory stimulation, and in the right somatosensory cortex during somatosensory stimulation, were higher in the flexed neck position. Conclusions Visual, auditory and somatosensory pathways were activated by neck flexion. The sensory cortices were selectively activated, reflecting the modalities in sensory projection to the cerebral cortex and inter-hemispheric connections. PMID:23199306

  3. Atypical Bilateral Brain Synchronization in the Early Stage of Human Voice Auditory Processing in Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Furutani, Naoki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Mutou, Kouhei; Asada, Minoru; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been postulated to involve impaired neuronal cooperation in large-scale neural networks, including cortico-cortical interhemispheric circuitry. In the context of ASD, alterations in both peripheral and central auditory processes have also attracted a great deal of interest because these changes appear to represent pathophysiological processes; therefore, many prior studies have focused on atypical auditory responses in ASD. The auditory evoked field (AEF), recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the synchronization of these processes between right and left hemispheres was recently suggested to reflect various cognitive abilities in children. However, to date, no previous study has focused on AEF synchronization in ASD subjects. To assess global coordination across spatially distributed brain regions, the analysis of Omega complexity from multichannel neurophysiological data was proposed. Using Omega complexity analysis, we investigated the global coordination of AEFs in 3–8-year-old typically developing (TD) children (n = 50) and children with ASD (n = 50) in 50-ms time-windows. Children with ASD displayed significantly higher Omega complexities compared with TD children in the time-window of 0–50 ms, suggesting lower whole brain synchronization in the early stage of the P1m component. When we analyzed the left and right hemispheres separately, no significant differences in any time-windows were observed. These results suggest lower right-left hemispheric synchronization in children with ASD compared with TD children. Our study provides new evidence of aberrant neural synchronization in young children with ASD by investigating auditory evoked neural responses to the human voice. PMID:27074011

  4. Atypical Bilateral Brain Synchronization in the Early Stage of Human Voice Auditory Processing in Young Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Furutani, Naoki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Mutou, Kouhei; Asada, Minoru; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been postulated to involve impaired neuronal cooperation in large-scale neural networks, including cortico-cortical interhemispheric circuitry. In the context of ASD, alterations in both peripheral and central auditory processes have also attracted a great deal of interest because these changes appear to represent pathophysiological processes; therefore, many prior studies have focused on atypical auditory responses in ASD. The auditory evoked field (AEF), recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the synchronization of these processes between right and left hemispheres was recently suggested to reflect various cognitive abilities in children. However, to date, no previous study has focused on AEF synchronization in ASD subjects. To assess global coordination across spatially distributed brain regions, the analysis of Omega complexity from multichannel neurophysiological data was proposed. Using Omega complexity analysis, we investigated the global coordination of AEFs in 3-8-year-old typically developing (TD) children (n = 50) and children with ASD (n = 50) in 50-ms time-windows. Children with ASD displayed significantly higher Omega complexities compared with TD children in the time-window of 0-50 ms, suggesting lower whole brain synchronization in the early stage of the P1m component. When we analyzed the left and right hemispheres separately, no significant differences in any time-windows were observed. These results suggest lower right-left hemispheric synchronization in children with ASD compared with TD children. Our study provides new evidence of aberrant neural synchronization in young children with ASD by investigating auditory evoked neural responses to the human voice.

  5. You can't stop the music: reduced auditory alpha power and coupling between auditory and memory regions facilitate the illusory perception of music during noise.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nadia; Keil, Julian; Obleser, Jonas; Schulz, Hannah; Grunwald, Thomas; Bernays, René-Ludwig; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    Our brain has the capacity of providing an experience of hearing even in the absence of auditory stimulation. This can be seen as illusory conscious perception. While increasing evidence postulates that conscious perception requires specific brain states that systematically relate to specific patterns of oscillatory activity, the relationship between auditory illusions and oscillatory activity remains mostly unexplained. To investigate this we recorded brain activity with magnetoencephalography and collected intracranial data from epilepsy patients while participants listened to familiar as well as unknown music that was partly replaced by sections of pink noise. We hypothesized that participants have a stronger experience of hearing music throughout noise when the noise sections are embedded in familiar compared to unfamiliar music. This was supported by the behavioral results showing that participants rated the perception of music during noise as stronger when noise was presented in a familiar context. Time-frequency data show that the illusory perception of music is associated with a decrease in auditory alpha power pointing to increased auditory cortex excitability. Furthermore, the right auditory cortex is concurrently synchronized with the medial temporal lobe, putatively mediating memory aspects associated with the music illusion. We thus assume that neuronal activity in the highly excitable auditory cortex is shaped through extensive communication between the auditory cortex and the medial temporal lobe, thereby generating the illusion of hearing music during noise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Auditory Temporal Processing Deficits in Chronic Stroke: A Comparison of Brain Damage Lateralization Effect.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Esmaili, Mahdiye; Delbari, Ahmad; Mehrpour, Masoud; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2016-06-01

    There have been a few reports about the effects of chronic stroke on auditory temporal processing abilities and no reports regarding the effects of brain damage lateralization on these abilities. Our study was performed on 2 groups of chronic stroke patients to compare the effects of hemispheric lateralization of brain damage and of age on auditory temporal processing. Seventy persons with normal hearing, including 25 normal controls, 25 stroke patients with damage to the right brain, and 20 stroke patients with damage to the left brain, without aphasia and with an age range of 31-71 years were studied. A gap-in-noise (GIN) test and a duration pattern test (DPT) were conducted for each participant. Significant differences were found between the 3 groups for GIN threshold, overall GIN percent score, and DPT percent score in both ears (P ≤ .001). For all stroke patients, performance in both GIN and DPT was poorer in the ear contralateral to the damaged hemisphere, which was significant in DPT and in 2 measures of GIN (P ≤ .046). Advanced age had a negative relationship with temporal processing abilities for all 3 groups. In cases of confirmed left- or right-side stroke involving auditory cerebrum damage, poorer auditory temporal processing is associated with the ear contralateral to the damaged cerebral hemisphere. Replication of our results and the use of GIN and DPT tests for the early diagnosis of auditory processing deficits and for monitoring the effects of aural rehabilitation interventions are recommended. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of stimulus intensity level on auditory middle latency response brain maps in human adults.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Dietrich, S; McPherson, D L; Salamat, M T

    2001-05-01

    Auditory middle latency response (AMLR) brain maps were obtained in 11 young adults with normal hearing. AMLR waveforms were elicited with monaural clicks presented at three stimulus intensity levels (50, 70, and 90 dB nHL). Recordings were made for right and left ear stimulus presentations. All recordings were obtained in an eyes open/awake status for each subject. Peak-to-peak amplitudes and absolute latencies of the AMLR Pa and Pb waveforms were measured at the Cz electrode site. Pa and Pb waveforms were present 100 percent of the time in response to the 90 dB nHL presentation. The prevalence of Pa and Pb to the 70 dB nHL presentation varied from 86 to 95 percent. The prevalence of Pa and Pb to the 50 dB nHL stimulus never reached 100 percent, ranging in prevalence from 77 to 68 percent. No significant ear effect was seen for amplitude or latency measures of Pa or Pb. AMLR brain maps of the voltage field distributions of Pa and Pb waveforms showed different topographic features. Scalp topography of the Pa waveform was altered by a reduction in stimulus intensity level. At 90 dB nHL, the Pa brain map showed a large positivity midline over the frontal and central scalp areas. At lower stimulus intensity levels, frontal positivity was reduced, and scalp negativity over occipital regions was increased. Pb scalp topography was also altered by a reduction in stimulus intensity level. Varying the stimulus intensity significantly altered Pa and Pb distributions of amplitude and latency measures. Pa and Pb distributions were skewed regardless of stimulus intensity.

  8. Neurogenesis in the brain auditory pathway of a marsupial, the northern native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Aitkin, L.; Nelson, J.; Farrington, M.; Swann, S. )

    1991-07-08

    Neurogenesis in the auditory pathway of the marsupial Dasyurus hallucatus was studied. Intraperitoneal injections of tritiated thymidine (20-40 microCi) were made into pouch-young varying from 1 to 56 days pouch-life. Animals were killed as adults and brain sections were prepared for autoradiography and counterstained with a Nissl stain. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus were generated prior to 3 days pouch-life, in the superior olive at 5-7 days, and in the dorsal cochlear nucleus over a prolonged period. Inferior collicular neurogenesis lagged behind that in the medial geniculate, the latter taking place between days 3 and 9 and the former between days 7 and 22. Neurogenesis began in the auditory cortex on day 9 and was completed by about day 42. Thus neurogenesis was complete in the medullary auditory nuclei before that in the midbrain commenced, and in the medial geniculate before that in the auditory cortex commenced. The time course of neurogenesis in the auditory pathway of the native cat was very similar to that in another marsupial, the brushtail possum. For both, neurogenesis occurred earlier than in eutherian mammals of a similar size but was more protracted.

  9. Auditory perception and syntactic cognition: brain activity-based decoding within and across subjects.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Kalberlah, Christian; Haynes, John-Dylan; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-05-01

    The present magnetoencephalography study investigated whether the brain states of early syntactic and auditory-perceptual processes can be decoded from single-trial recordings with a multivariate pattern classification approach. In particular, it was investigated whether the early neural activation patterns in response to rule violations in basic auditory perception and in high cognitive processes (syntax) reflect a functional organization that largely generalizes across individuals or is subject-specific. On this account, subjects were auditorily presented with correct sentences, syntactically incorrect sentences, correct sentences including an interaural time difference change, and sentences containing both violations. For the analysis, brain state decoding was carried out within and across subjects with three pairwise classifications. Neural patterns elicited by each of the violation sentences were separately classified with the patterns elicited by the correct sentences. The results revealed the highest decoding accuracies over temporal cortex areas for all three classification types. Importantly, both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of decoding accuracies for the early neural patterns were very similar for within-subject and across-subject decoding. At the same time, across-subject decoding suggested a hemispheric bias, with the most consistent patterns in the left hemisphere. Thus, the present data show that not only auditory-perceptual processing brain states but also cognitive brain states of syntactic rule processing can be decoded from single-trial brain activations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the neural patterns in response to syntactic cognition and auditory perception reflect a functional organization that is highly consistent across individuals. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effects of training and motivation on auditory P300 brain-computer interface performance.

    PubMed

    Baykara, E; Ruf, C A; Fioravanti, C; Käthner, I; Simon, N; Kleih, S C; Kübler, A; Halder, S

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims at helping end-users with severe motor paralysis to communicate with their environment without using the natural output pathways of the brain. For end-users in complete paralysis, loss of gaze control may necessitate non-visual BCI systems. The present study investigated the effect of training on performance with an auditory P300 multi-class speller paradigm. For half of the participants, spatial cues were added to the auditory stimuli to see whether performance can be further optimized. The influence of motivation, mood and workload on performance and P300 component was also examined. In five sessions, 16 healthy participants were instructed to spell several words by attending to animal sounds representing the rows and columns of a 5 × 5 letter matrix. 81% of the participants achieved an average online accuracy of ⩾ 70%. From the first to the fifth session information transfer rates increased from 3.72 bits/min to 5.63 bits/min. Motivation significantly influenced P300 amplitude and online ITR. No significant facilitative effect of spatial cues on performance was observed. Training improves performance in an auditory BCI paradigm. Motivation influences performance and P300 amplitude. The described auditory BCI system may help end-users to communicate independently of gaze control with their environment. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and modulation of intrinsic membrane properties control the temporal precision of auditory brain stem neurons.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Delwen L; Gleiss, Sarah A; Berger, Christina; Kümpfbeck, Franziska S; Ammer, Julian J; Felmy, Felix

    2015-01-15

    Passive and active membrane properties determine the voltage responses of neurons. Within the auditory brain stem, refinements in these intrinsic properties during late postnatal development usually generate short integration times and precise action-potential generation. This developmentally acquired temporal precision is crucial for auditory signal processing. How the interactions of these intrinsic properties develop in concert to enable auditory neurons to transfer information with high temporal precision has not yet been elucidated in detail. Here, we show how the developmental interaction of intrinsic membrane parameters generates high firing precision. We performed in vitro recordings from neurons of postnatal days 9-28 in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of Mongolian gerbils, an auditory brain stem structure that converts excitatory to inhibitory information with high temporal precision. During this developmental period, the input resistance and capacitance decrease, and action potentials acquire faster kinetics and enhanced precision. Depending on the stimulation time course, the input resistance and capacitance contribute differentially to action-potential thresholds. The decrease in input resistance, however, is sufficient to explain the enhanced action-potential precision. Alterations in passive membrane properties also interact with a developmental change in potassium currents to generate the emergence of the mature firing pattern, characteristic of coincidence-detector neurons. Cholinergic receptor-mediated depolarizations further modulate this intrinsic excitability profile by eliciting changes in the threshold and firing pattern, irrespective of the developmental stage. Thus our findings reveal how intrinsic membrane properties interact developmentally to promote temporally precise information processing.

  12. Event-related brain potentials to irrelevant auditory stimuli during selective listening: effects of channel probability.

    PubMed

    Akai, Toshiyuki

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the cognitive process reflected by a positive deflection to irrelevant auditory stimuli (Pdi) during selective listening. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 9 participants in a two-channel (left/right ears) selective listening task. Relative event probabilities of the relevant/irrelevant channels were 25%/75%, 50%/50%, and 75%/25%. With increasing probability of the relevant channel, behavioral performances (the reaction time and hit rate) for the targets within the relevant channel improved, reflecting development of a more robust attentional trace. At the same time, the amplitude of the early Pdi (200-300 ms after stimulus onset) elicited by the stimuli in the irrelevant channel with a decreased probability was enhanced in the central region. This positive relation between the strength of the attentional trace and the amplitude of the early Pdi suggests that the early Pdi is elicited by a mismatching between an incoming irrelevant stimulus and an attentional trace.

  13. Estimating the Intended Sound Direction of the User: Toward an Auditory Brain-Computer Interface Using Out-of-Head Sound Localization

    PubMed Central

    Nambu, Isao; Ebisawa, Masashi; Kogure, Masumi; Yano, Shohei; Hokari, Haruhide; Wada, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The auditory Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) using electroencephalograms (EEG) is a subject of intensive study. As a cue, auditory BCIs can deal with many of the characteristics of stimuli such as tone, pitch, and voices. Spatial information on auditory stimuli also provides useful information for a BCI. However, in a portable system, virtual auditory stimuli have to be presented spatially through earphones or headphones, instead of loudspeakers. We investigated the possibility of an auditory BCI using the out-of-head sound localization technique, which enables us to present virtual auditory stimuli to users from any direction, through earphones. The feasibility of a BCI using this technique was evaluated in an EEG oddball experiment and offline analysis. A virtual auditory stimulus was presented to the subject from one of six directions. Using a support vector machine, we were able to classify whether the subject attended the direction of a presented stimulus from EEG signals. The mean accuracy across subjects was 70.0% in the single-trial classification. When we used trial-averaged EEG signals as inputs to the classifier, the mean accuracy across seven subjects reached 89.5% (for 10-trial averaging). Further analysis showed that the P300 event-related potential responses from 200 to 500 ms in central and posterior regions of the brain contributed to the classification. In comparison with the results obtained from a loudspeaker experiment, we confirmed that stimulus presentation by out-of-head sound localization achieved similar event-related potential responses and classification performances. These results suggest that out-of-head sound localization enables us to provide a high-performance and loudspeaker-less portable BCI system. PMID:23437338

  14. Auditory middle latency responses differ in right- and left-handed subjects: an evaluation through topographic brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Mehrnaz; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Alborzi, Marzieh Sharifian; Najafi-Koopaie, Mojtaba; Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association of handedness with auditory middle latency responses (AMLRs) using topographic brain mapping by comparing amplitudes and latencies in frontocentral and hemispheric regions of interest (ROIs). The study included 44 healthy subjects with normal hearing (22 left handed and 22 right handed). AMLRs were recorded from 29 scalp electrodes in response to binaural 4-kHz tone bursts. Frontocentral ROI comparisons revealed that Pa and Pb amplitudes were significantly larger in the left-handed than the right-handed group. Topographic brain maps showed different distributions in AMLR components between the two groups. In hemispheric comparisons, Pa amplitude differed significantly across groups. A left-hemisphere emphasis of Pa was found in the right-handed group but not in the left-handed group. This study provides evidence that handedness is associated with AMLR components in frontocentral and hemispheric ROI. Handedness should be considered an essential factor in the clinical or experimental use of AMLRs.

  15. Comparison of cerebral regional glucose metabolic relationships in resting and auditory stimulated states

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    FDG positron computed tomography has demonstrated strong correlations between high frontal and occipital glucose metabolism in normal resting subjects, which varied by age and were lost in Huntington's and Parkinson's Diseases. The studies raised the question whether the findings may be explained by anatomic and not metabolic factors. An approach to the issue was to examine subjects scanned under two states, where functional and not anatomic features would account for relationship differences. Seventeen subjects were identified who had scans under resting and auditory stimulated states. Measurements were taken from 12 brain regions and were expressed as percentage of mean metabolism. A principal components analysis of the resting state demonstrated 3 components (73% of variance), while the stimulated states showed 4 (79% of variance). The first resting factor related frontal, right posterior inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, while in the stimulated, the frontal associated with the occipital. The second resting factor related both angular gyri and posterior temporal, while the third related left posterior inferior frontal, superior temporal and right occipital. With stimulation both factors were replaced by three others. The change in the first factor and its presence in other subject groups points to a functional relationship between the regions. Comparison to previous studies suggest the frontal-occipital association may involve aspects of attention. The variability in other factors was similar to loose correlations noted in normal studies and may reflect the differential response to several tasks.

  16. Characteristics of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in children with hearing impairment due to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Ječmenica, Jovana Radovan; Opančina, Aleksandra Aleksandar Bajec

    2015-05-01

    Among objective audiologic tests, the most important were tests of brain stem auditory evoked potentials. The objective of the study was to test the configuration, degree of hearing loss, and response characteristics of auditory brain stem evoked potentials in children with hearing loss occurred due to infectious disease. A case control study design was used. The study group consisted of 54 patients referred for a hearing test because of infectious diseases caused by other agents or that occurred as congenital infection. Infectious agents have led to the emergence of various forms of sensorineural hearing loss. We have found deviations from the normal values of absolute and interwave latencies in some children in our group. We found that in the group of children who had the diseases such as purulent meningitis, or were born with rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infection, a retrocochlear damage was present in children with and without cochlear damage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  18. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  19. Auditory and Cognitive Factors Associated with Speech-in-Noise Complaints following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Eric C; Souza, Pamela E; Gallun, Frederick J

    2017-04-01

    Auditory complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are common, but few studies have addressed the role of auditory temporal processing in speech recognition complaints. In this study, deficits understanding speech in a background of speech noise following MTBI were evaluated with the goal of comparing the relative contributions of auditory and nonauditory factors. A matched-groups design was used in which a group of listeners with a history of MTBI were compared to a group matched in age and pure-tone thresholds, as well as a control group of young listeners with normal hearing (YNH). Of the 33 listeners who participated in the study, 13 were included in the MTBI group (mean age = 46.7 yr), 11 in the Matched group (mean age = 49 yr), and 9 in the YNH group (mean age = 20.8 yr). Speech-in-noise deficits were evaluated using subjective measures as well as monaural word (Words-in-Noise test) and sentence (Quick Speech-in-Noise test) tasks, and a binaural spatial release task. Performance on these measures was compared to psychophysical tasks that evaluate monaural and binaural temporal fine-structure tasks and spectral resolution. Cognitive measures of attention, processing speed, and working memory were evaluated as possible causes of differences between MTBI and Matched groups that might contribute to speech-in-noise perception deficits. A high proportion of listeners in the MTBI group reported difficulty understanding speech in noise (84%) compared to the Matched group (9.1%), and listeners who reported difficulty were more likely to have abnormal results on objective measures of speech in noise. No significant group differences were found between the MTBI and Matched listeners on any of the measures reported, but the number of abnormal tests differed across groups. Regression analysis revealed that a combination of auditory and auditory processing factors contributed to monaural speech-in-noise scores, but the benefit of spatial separation was

  20. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference < 0.1cm-1). Image analysis was performed on the attenuation coefficient images to derive quantitative endpoints. We observed a statistically significant difference among the median attenuation coefficients of these five regions (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  1. “Where Do Auditory Hallucinations Come From?”—A Brain Morphometry Study of Schizophrenia Patients With Inner or Outer Space Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N = 12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N = 15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects, opposite deviations in white matter volumes and sulcus displacements were found in patients with inner space hallucination and patients with outer space hallucination. The current results indicate that spatial location of auditory hallucinations is associated with the rTPJ anatomy, a key region of the “where” auditory pathway. The detected tilt in the sulcal junction suggests deviations during early brain maturation, when the superior temporal sulcus and its anterior terminal branch appear and merge. PMID:19666833

  2. Fast reconfiguration of high-frequency brain networks in response to surprising changes in auditory input.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Ruth M; Chapman, Sandra C; Vértes, Petra E; Nathan, Pradeep J; Smith, Marie L; Shtyrov, Yury; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-03-01

    How do human brain networks react to dynamic changes in the sensory environment? We measured rapid changes in brain network organization in response to brief, discrete, salient auditory stimuli. We estimated network topology and distance parameters in the immediate central response period, <1 s following auditory presentation of standard tones interspersed with occasional deviant tones in a mismatch-negativity (MMN) paradigm, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure synchronization of high-frequency (gamma band; 33-64 Hz) oscillations in healthy volunteers. We found that global small-world parameters of the networks were conserved between the standard and deviant stimuli. However, surprising or unexpected auditory changes were associated with local changes in clustering of connections between temporal and frontal cortical areas and with increased interlobar, long-distance synchronization during the 120- to 250-ms epoch (coinciding with the MMN-evoked response). Network analysis of human MEG data can resolve fast local topological reconfiguration and more long-range synchronization of high-frequency networks as a systems-level representation of the brain's immediate response to salient stimuli in the dynamically changing sensory environment.

  3. Brain maturity in regard to the auditory brainstem response in small-for-date neonates.

    PubMed

    Saintonge, J; Lavoie, A; Lachapelle, J; Côté, R

    1986-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response has been used in neonates at risk of hearing impairment or as a functional measurement of brain maturity. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the auditory brainstem response in small-for-date newborns, in relation to changes observed with fetal maturity in a control group. Compared to controls with similar maturity, a significant delay for the appearance of waves III and V, and between waves I-V was observed in the small-for-date newborns, suggesting an alteration of the auditory pathway within the brainstem rather than an impairment of the peripheral auditive apparatus. Indeed, small-for-date newborns reacted to the test in a similar manner as premature babies in whom such a delay was also observed. Our data would suggest a functional brain immaturity in small-for-date newborns, during the first days of life, in regard to the auditive evoked potential, which may be related to some alterations in brain development reported with fetal malnutrition.

  4. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  5. Discrimination of Timbre in Early Auditory Responses of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Jaeho; Oh, MiAe; Kim, June Sic; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Sun Il; Chung, Chun Kee

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of how differences in timbre are represented in the neural response still has not been well addressed, particularly with regard to the relevant brain mechanisms. Here we employ phasing and clipping of tones to produce auditory stimuli differing to describe the multidimensional nature of timbre. We investigated the auditory response and sensory gating as well, using by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-five healthy subjects without hearing deficit participated in the experiments. Two different or same tones in timbre were presented through conditioning (S1) – testing (S2) paradigm as a pair with an interval of 500 ms. As a result, the magnitudes of auditory M50 and M100 responses were different with timbre in both hemispheres. This result might support that timbre, at least by phasing and clipping, is discriminated in the auditory early processing. The second response in a pair affected by S1 in the consecutive stimuli occurred in M100 of the left hemisphere, whereas both M50 and M100 responses to S2 only in the right hemisphere reflected whether two stimuli in a pair were the same or not. Both M50 and M100 magnitudes were different with the presenting order (S1 vs. S2) for both same and different conditions in the both hemispheres. Conclusions/Significances Our results demonstrate that the auditory response depends on timbre characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that the auditory sensory gating is determined not by the stimulus that directly evokes the response, but rather by whether or not the two stimuli are identical in timbre. PMID:21949807

  6. Discrimination of timbre in early auditory responses of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Seol, Jaeho; Oh, MiAe; Kim, June Sic; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Sun Il; Chung, Chun Kee

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how differences in timbre are represented in the neural response still has not been well addressed, particularly with regard to the relevant brain mechanisms. Here we employ phasing and clipping of tones to produce auditory stimuli differing to describe the multidimensional nature of timbre. We investigated the auditory response and sensory gating as well, using by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Thirty-five healthy subjects without hearing deficit participated in the experiments. Two different or same tones in timbre were presented through conditioning (S1)-testing (S2) paradigm as a pair with an interval of 500 ms. As a result, the magnitudes of auditory M50 and M100 responses were different with timbre in both hemispheres. This result might support that timbre, at least by phasing and clipping, is discriminated in the auditory early processing. The second response in a pair affected by S1 in the consecutive stimuli occurred in M100 of the left hemisphere, whereas both M50 and M100 responses to S2 only in the right hemisphere reflected whether two stimuli in a pair were the same or not. Both M50 and M100 magnitudes were different with the presenting order (S1 vs. S2) for both same and different conditions in the both hemispheres. Our results demonstrate that the auditory response depends on timbre characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that the auditory sensory gating is determined not by the stimulus that directly evokes the response, but rather by whether or not the two stimuli are identical in timbre.

  7. Brain stem responses evoked by stimulation of the mature cochlear nucleus with an auditory brain stem implant.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Martin; El-Deredy, Wael; Ramsden, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    The Nucleus auditory brain stem implant (ABI) has been used in the hearing rehabilitation of totally deaf individuals for whom a cochlear implant is not an option such as in the case of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Intraoperative electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) are recorded to assist in the placement of the electrode array over the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei in the lateral recess of the IVth ventricle of the brain stem. This study had four objectives: (1) to characterize EABRs evoked by stimulation with an ABI in adolescents and adults with NF2, (2) to evaluate how the EABR morphology relates to auditory sensations elicited from stimulation by an ABI, (3) to establish whether there is evidence of morphology changes in the EABR with site of stimulation by the ABI, and (4) to investigate how the threshold of the EABR relates to behavioral threshold and comfortably loud sensations measured at initial device activation. Intraoperative EABRs were recorded from 34 subjects with ABIs: 19 male and 15 female, mean age 27 yrs (range 12 to 52 yrs). ABI stimulation was applied at seven different sites using either wide bipolar stimulation across the array or in subsections of the array from medial to lateral and inferior to superior. The EABRs were analyzed with respect to morphology, peak latency, and changes in these characteristics with the site of stimulation. In a subset of eight subjects, additional narrow bipolar sites were stimulated to compare the intraoperative EABR threshold levels with the behavioral threshold (T) and comfortably loud (C) levels of stimulation required at initial device activation. EABRs were elicited from 91% of subjects. Morphology varied from one to four vertex-positive peaks with mean latencies of 0.76, 1.53, 2.51, and 3.64 msecs, respectively. The presence of an EABR from stimulation by electrodes across the whole array had a high predictive value for the presence of auditory electrodes at initial device

  8. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials: effects of ovarian steroids correlated with increased incidence of Bell's palsy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ben David, Y; Tal, J; Podoshin, L; Fradis, M; Sharf, M; Pratt, H; Faraggi, D

    1995-07-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian steroids on the brain stem during changes of estrogen and progesterone blood levels, we recorded brain stem auditory evoked potentials with increased stimulus rates from 26 women treated for sterility by menotropins (Pergonal and Metrodin). These women were divided into three groups according to their estrogen and progesterone blood levels. The brain stem auditory evoked potential results revealed a significant delay of peak III only, with an increased stimulus rate in the group with the highest estrogen level. Estrogen may cause a brain stem synaptic impairment, presumably because of ischemic changes, and thus also may be responsible for a higher incidence of Bell's palsy during pregnancy.

  9. Effect of acupuncture on the auditory evoked brain stem potential in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; He, Chong; Liu, Yueguang; Zhu, Lili

    2002-03-01

    Under the auditory evoked brain stem potential (ABP) examination, the latent period of V wave and the intermittent periods of III-V peak and I-V peak were significantly shortened in Parkinson's disease patients of the treatment group (N = 29) after acupuncture treatment. The difference of cumulative scores in Webster's scale was also decreased in correlation analysis. The increase of dopamine in the brain and the excitability of the dopamine neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects, in TCM terms, of subduing the pathogenic wind and tranquilizing the mind.

  10. Brain activity in predominantly-inattentive subtype attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during an auditory oddball attention task

    PubMed Central

    Orinstein, Alyssa J.; Stevens, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have found brain activity abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on numerous cognitive tasks. However, little is known about brain dysfunction unique to the predominantly-inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-I), despite debate as to whether DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes differ in etiology. This study compared brain activity of 18 ADHD-I adolescents (ages 12–18) and 20 non-psychiatric age-matched control participants on a functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) auditory oddball attention task. ADHD-I participants had significant activation deficits to infrequent target stimuli in bilateral superior temporal gyri, bilateral insula, several midline cingulate/medial frontal gyrus regions, right posterior parietal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. To novel stimuli, ADHD-I participants had reduced activation in bilateral lateral temporal lobe structures. There were no brain regions where ADHD-I participants had greater hemodynamic activity to targets or novels than controls. Brain activity deficits in ADHD-I participants were found in several regions important to attentional orienting and working memory-related cognitive processes involved in target identification. These results differ from those in previously studied adolescents with combined-subtype ADHD, who had a lesser magnitude of activation abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and relatively more discrete regional deficits to novel stimuli. The divergent findings suggest different etiological factors might underlie attention deficits in different DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes, and they have important implications for the DSM-V reconceptualization of subtypes as varying clinical presentations of the same core disorder. PMID:24953999

  11. Brain activity in predominantly-inattentive subtype attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during an auditory oddball attention task.

    PubMed

    Orinstein, Alyssa J; Stevens, Michael C

    2014-08-30

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have found brain activity abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on numerous cognitive tasks. However, little is known about brain dysfunction unique to the predominantly-inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-I), despite debate as to whether DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes differ in etiology. This study compared brain activity of 18 ADHD-I adolescents (ages 12-18) and 20 non-psychiatric age-matched control participants on a functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) auditory oddball attention task. ADHD-I participants had significant activation deficits to infrequent target stimuli in bilateral superior temporal gyri, bilateral insula, several midline cingulate/medial frontal gyrus regions, right posterior parietal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. To novel stimuli, ADHD-I participants had reduced activation in bilateral lateral temporal lobe structures. There were no brain regions where ADHD-I participants had greater hemodynamic activity to targets or novels than controls. Brain activity deficits in ADHD-I participants were found in several regions important to attentional orienting and working memory-related cognitive processes involved in target identification. These results differ from those in previously studied adolescents with combined-subtype ADHD, who had a lesser magnitude of activation abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and relatively more discrete regional deficits to novel stimuli. The divergent findings suggest different etiological factors might underlie attention deficits in different DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes, and they have important implications for the DSM-V reconceptualization of subtypes as varying clinical presentations of the same core disorder.

  12. Auditory-evoked potentials as indicator of brain serotonergic activity--first evidence in behaving cats.

    PubMed

    Juckel, G; Molnár, M; Hegerl, U; Csépe, V; Karmos, G

    1997-06-15

    Due to the increasing importance of the central serotonergic neurotransmission for pathogenetic concepts and as a target of pharmacotherapeutic interventions in psychiatry, reliable indicators of this system are needed. Several findings from basic and clinical research suggest that the stimulus intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) may be such an indicator of behaviorally relevant aspects of serotonergic activity (Hegerl and Juckel 1993, Biol Psychiatry 33:173-187). In order to study this relationship more directly, epidural recordings over the primary and secondary auditory cortex were conducted in chronically implanted cats under intravenous (i.v.) administration of drugs influencing the serotonergic and other modulatory systems (8-OH-DPAT, m-CPP, ketanserin, DOI, apomorphine, atropine, clonidine). The intensity dependence of the cat AEP component with the highest functional similarity to this of the N1/P2-component in humans was significantly changed by influencing 5-HT1a and 5-HT2 receptors, but not 5-HT1c receptors. This serotonergic modulation of the intensity dependence was only found for the primary auditory cortex which corresponds to the known different innervation of the primary and secondary auditory cortex by serotonergic fibers. Our study supports the idea that the intensity dependence of AEP could be a valuable indicator of brain serotonergic activity; however, this indicator seems to be of relative specificity because at least cholinergic effects on the intensity dependence were also observed.

  13. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  14. A vision-free brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm based on auditory selective attention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Won; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Majority of the recently developed brain computer interface (BCI) systems have been using visual stimuli or visual feedbacks. However, the BCI paradigms based on visual perception might not be applicable to severe locked-in patients who have lost their ability to control their eye movement or even their vision. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of a vision-free BCI paradigm based on auditory selective attention. We used the power difference of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) when the participant modulates his/her attention to the target auditory stimulus. The auditory stimuli were constructed as two pure-tone burst trains with different beat frequencies (37 and 43 Hz) which were generated simultaneously from two speakers located at different positions (left and right). Our experimental results showed high classification accuracies (64.67%, 30 commands/min, information transfer rate (ITR) = 1.89 bits/min; 74.00%, 12 commands/min, ITR = 2.08 bits/min; 82.00%, 6 commands/min, ITR = 1.92 bits/min; 84.33%, 3 commands/min, ITR = 1.12 bits/min; without any artifact rejection, inter-trial interval = 6 sec), enough to be used for a binary decision. Based on the suggested paradigm, we implemented a first online ASSR-based BCI system that demonstrated the possibility of materializing a totally vision-free BCI system.

  15. Intrinsic Connections of the Core Auditory Cortical Regions and Rostral Supratemporal Plane in the Macaque Monkey.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Leccese, Paul A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Fukushima, Makoto; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    In the ventral stream of the primate auditory cortex, cortico-cortical projections emanate from the primary auditory cortex (AI) along 2 principal axes: one mediolateral, the other caudorostral. Connections in the mediolateral direction from core, to belt, to parabelt, have been well described, but less is known about the flow of information along the supratemporal plane (STP) in the caudorostral dimension. Neuroanatomical tracers were injected throughout the caudorostral extent of the auditory core and rostral STP by direct visualization of the cortical surface. Auditory cortical areas were distinguished by SMI-32 immunostaining for neurofilament, in addition to established cytoarchitectonic criteria. The results describe a pathway comprising step-wise projections from AI through the rostral and rostrotemporal fields of the core (R and RT), continuing to the recently identified rostrotemporal polar field (RTp) and the dorsal temporal pole. Each area was strongly and reciprocally connected with the areas immediately caudal and rostral to it, though deviations from strictly serial connectivity were observed. In RTp, inputs converged from core, belt, parabelt, and the auditory thalamus, as well as higher order cortical regions. The results support a rostrally directed flow of auditory information with complex and recurrent connections, similar to the ventral stream of macaque visual cortex.

  16. Speech acquisition predicts regions of enhanced cortical response to auditory stimulation in autism spectrum individuals.

    PubMed

    Samson, F; Zeffiro, T A; Doyon, J; Benali, H; Mottron, L

    2015-09-01

    A continuum of phenotypes makes up the autism spectrum (AS). In particular, individuals show large differences in language acquisition, ranging from precocious speech to severe speech onset delay. However, the neurological origin of this heterogeneity remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether AS individuals differing in speech acquisition show different cortical responses to auditory stimulation and morphometric brain differences. Whole-brain activity following exposure to non-social sounds was investigated. Individuals in the AS were classified according to the presence or absence of Speech Onset Delay (AS-SOD and AS-NoSOD, respectively) and were compared with IQ-matched typically developing individuals (TYP). AS-NoSOD participants displayed greater task-related activity than TYP in the inferior frontal gyrus and peri-auditory middle and superior temporal gyri, which are associated with language processing. Conversely, the AS-SOD group only showed enhanced activity in the vicinity of the auditory cortex. We detected no differences in brain structure between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate the existence of differences in functional brain activity between AS individuals divided according to their pattern of speech development. These findings support the Trigger-threshold-target model and indicate that the occurrence of speech onset delay in AS individuals depends on the location of cortical functional reallocation, which favors perception in AS-SOD and language in AS-NoSOD.

  17. Electrical Brain Responses to an Auditory Illusion and the Impact of Musical Expertise.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Christos I; Pereda, Ernesto; Lindsen, Job P; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two sinusoidal tones, one to each ear, with a slight frequency mismatch yields an auditory illusion of a beating frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones; this is known as binaural beat (BB). The effect of brief BB stimulation on scalp EEG is not conclusively demonstrated. Further, no studies have examined the impact of musical training associated with BB stimulation, yet musicians' brains are often associated with enhanced auditory processing. In this study, we analysed EEG brain responses from two groups, musicians and non-musicians, when stimulated by short presentation (1 min) of binaural beats with beat frequency varying from 1 Hz to 48 Hz. We focused our analysis on alpha and gamma band EEG signals, and they were analysed in terms of spectral power, and functional connectivity as measured by two phase synchrony based measures, phase locking value and phase lag index. Finally, these measures were used to characterize the degree of centrality, segregation and integration of the functional brain network. We found that beat frequencies belonging to alpha band produced the most significant steady-state responses across groups. Further, processing of low frequency (delta, theta, alpha) binaural beats had significant impact on cortical network patterns in the alpha band oscillations. Altogether these results provide a neurophysiological account of cortical responses to BB stimulation at varying frequencies, and demonstrate a modulation of cortico-cortical connectivity in musicians' brains, and further suggest a kind of neuronal entrainment of a linear and nonlinear relationship to the beating frequencies.

  18. Toward A High-Throughput Auditory P300-based Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Klobassa, D. S.; Vaughan, T. M.; Brunner, P.; Schwartz, N. E.; Wolpaw, J. R.; Neuper, C.; Sellers, E. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology can provide severely disabled people with non-muscular communication. For those most severely disabled, limitations in eye mobility or visual acuity may necessitate auditory BCI systems. The present study investigates the efficacy of the use of six environmental sounds to operate a 6×6 P300 Speller. Methods A two-group design was used to ascertain whether participants benefited from visual cues early in training. Group A (N=5) received only auditory stimuli during all 11 sessions, whereas Group AV (N=5) received simultaneous auditory and visual stimuli in initial sessions after which the visual stimuli were systematically removed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis determined the matrix item that elicited the largest P300 response and thereby identified the desired choice. Results Online results and offline analyses showed that the two groups achieved equivalent accuracy. In the last session, eight of ten participants achieved 50% or more, and four of these achieved 75% or more, online accuracy (2.8% accuracy expected by chance). Mean bit rates averaged about 2 bits/min, and maximum bit rates reached 5.6 bits/min. Conclusions This study indicates that an auditory P300 BCI is feasible, that reasonable classification accuracy and rate of communication are achievable, and that the paradigm should be further evaluated with a group of severely disabled participants who have limited visual mobility. Significance With further development, this auditory P300 BCI could be of substantial value to severely disabled people who cannot use a visual BCI. PMID:19574091

  19. The WIN-speller: a new intuitive auditory brain-computer interface spelling application

    PubMed Central

    Kleih, Sonja C.; Herweg, Andreas; Kaufmann, Tobias; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Gerstner, Natascha; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the usability of a new auditory Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) application for communication. We introduce a word based, intuitive auditory spelling paradigm the WIN-speller. In the WIN-speller letters are grouped by words, such as the word KLANG representing the letters A, G, K, L, and N. Thereby, the decoding step between perceiving a code and translating it to the stimuli it represents becomes superfluous. We tested 11 healthy volunteers and four end-users with motor impairment in the copy spelling mode. Spelling was successful with an average accuracy of 84% in the healthy sample. Three of the end-users communicated with average accuracies of 80% or higher while one user was not able to communicate reliably. Even though further evaluation is required, the WIN-speller represents a potential alternative for BCI based communication in end-users. PMID:26500476

  20. The WIN-speller: a new intuitive auditory brain-computer interface spelling application.

    PubMed

    Kleih, Sonja C; Herweg, Andreas; Kaufmann, Tobias; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Gerstner, Natascha; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the usability of a new auditory Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) application for communication. We introduce a word based, intuitive auditory spelling paradigm the WIN-speller. In the WIN-speller letters are grouped by words, such as the word KLANG representing the letters A, G, K, L, and N. Thereby, the decoding step between perceiving a code and translating it to the stimuli it represents becomes superfluous. We tested 11 healthy volunteers and four end-users with motor impairment in the copy spelling mode. Spelling was successful with an average accuracy of 84% in the healthy sample. Three of the end-users communicated with average accuracies of 80% or higher while one user was not able to communicate reliably. Even though further evaluation is required, the WIN-speller represents a potential alternative for BCI based communication in end-users.

  1. Role of auditory brain function assessment by SPECT in cochlear implant side selection.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, W; Giannantonio, S; Di Giuda, D; De Corso, E; Schinaia, L; Paludetti, G

    2013-02-01

    Pre-surgery evaluation, indications for cochlear implantation and expectations in terms of post-operative functional results remain challenging topics in pre-lingually deaf adults. Our study has the purpose of determining the benefits of Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) assessment in pre-surgical evaluation of pre-lingually deaf adults who are candidates for cochlear implantation. In 7 pre-lingually profoundly deaf patients, brain SPECT was performed at baseline conditions and in bilateral simultaneous multi-frequency acoustic stimulation. Six sagittal tomograms of both temporal cortices were used for semi-quantitative analysis in each patient. Percentage increases in cortical perfusion resulting from auditory stimulation were calculated. The results showed an inter-hemispherical asymmetry of the activation extension and intensity in the stimulated temporal areas. Consistent with the obtained brain activation data, patients were implanted preferring the side that showed higher activation after acoustic stimulus. Considering the increment in auditory perception performances, it was possible to point out a relationship between cortical brain activity shown by SPECT and hearing performances, and, even more significant, a correlation between post-operative functional performances and the activation of the most medial part of the sagittal temporal tomograms, corresponding to medium-high frequencies. In light of these findings, we believe that brain SPECT could be considered in the evaluation of deaf patients candidate for cochlear implantation, and that it plays a major role in functional assessment of the auditory cortex of pre-lingually deaf subjects, even if further studies are necessary to conclusively establish its utility. Further developments of this technique are possible by using trans-tympanic electrical stimulation of the cochlear promontory, which could give the opportunity to study completely deaf patients, whose evaluation is objectively difficult

  2. Describing functional diversity of brain regions and brain networks.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael L; Kinnison, Josh; Pessoa, Luiz

    2013-06-01

    Despite the general acceptance that functional specialization plays an important role in brain function, there is little consensus about its extent in the brain. We sought to advance the understanding of this question by employing a data-driven approach that capitalizes on the existence of large databases of neuroimaging data. We quantified the diversity of activation in brain regions as a way to characterize the degree of functional specialization. To do so, brain activations were classified in terms of task domains, such as vision, attention, and language, which determined a region's functional fingerprint. We found that the degree of diversity varied considerably across the brain. We also quantified novel properties of regions and of networks that inform our understanding of several task-positive and task-negative networks described in the literature, including defining functional fingerprints for entire networks and measuring their functional assortativity, namely the degree to which they are composed of regions with similar functional fingerprints. Our results demonstrate that some brain networks exhibit strong assortativity, whereas other networks consist of relatively heterogeneous parts. In sum, rather than characterizing the contributions of individual brain regions using task-based functional attributions, we instead quantified their dispositional tendencies, and related those to each region's affiliative properties in both task-positive and task-negative contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  4. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in patients with multiple system atrophy with progressive autonomic failure (Shy-Drager syndrome).

    PubMed Central

    Prasher, D; Bannister, R

    1986-01-01

    Brain stem potentials from three groups of patients, namely those with pure progressive autonomic failure, Parkinson's disease and multisystem atrophy with progressive autonomic failure (Shy-Drager syndrome) were compared with each other and a group of normal subjects. In virtually all the patients with multisystem atrophy with progressive autonomic failure the brain stem potentials were abnormal in contrast to normal findings with Parkinson's disease. The closely associated group of patients with progressive autonomic failure alone also revealed no abnormalities of the BAEP. This separation of the two groups, Parkinson's disease and progressive autonomic failure from multisystem atrophy with progressive autonomic failure is important clinically as multiple system atrophy of the Shy-Drager type has extra-pyramidal features closely resembling Parkinsonism or a late onset cerebellar degeneration. From the abnormalities of the brain stem response in multisystem atrophy with progressive autonomic failure, it is clear that some disruption of the auditory pathway occurs in the ponto-medullary region as in nearly all patients there is a significant delay or reduction in the amplitude of components of the response generated beyond this region. The most likely area involved is the superior olivary complex. Images PMID:3958741

  5. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder: Auditory-evoked response in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G) subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD.

  6. Experience-based Auditory Predictions Modulate Brain Activity to Silence as do Real Sounds.

    PubMed

    Chouiter, Leila; Tzovara, Athina; Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Magezi, David; De Lucia, Marzia; Spierer, Lucas

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between stimuli's acoustic features and experience-based internal models of the environment enable listeners to compensate for the disruptions in auditory streams that are regularly encountered in noisy environments. However, whether auditory gaps are filled in predictively or restored a posteriori remains unclear. The current lack of positive statistical evidence that internal models can actually shape brain activity as would real sounds precludes accepting predictive accounts of filling-in phenomenon. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of internal models by testing whether single-trial electrophysiological responses to omitted sounds in a rule-based sequence of tones with varying pitch could be decoded from the responses to real sounds and by analyzing the ERPs to the omissions with data-driven electrical neuroimaging methods. The decoding of the brain responses to different expected, but omitted, tones in both passive and active listening conditions was above chance based on the responses to the real sound in active listening conditions. Topographic ERP analyses and electrical source estimations revealed that, in the absence of any stimulation, experience-based internal models elicit an electrophysiological activity different from noise and that the temporal dynamics of this activity depend on attention. We further found that the expected change in pitch direction of omitted tones modulated the activity of left posterior temporal areas 140-200 msec after the onset of omissions. Collectively, our results indicate that, even in the absence of any stimulation, internal models modulate brain activity as do real sounds, indicating that auditory filling in can be accounted for by predictive activity.

  7. Thalamic label patterns suggest primary and ventral auditory fields are distinct core regions.

    PubMed

    Storace, Douglas A; Higgins, Nathan C; Read, Heather L

    2010-05-15

    A hierarchical scheme proposed by Kaas and colleagues suggests that primate auditory cortex can be divided into core and belt regions based on anatomic connections with thalamus and distinctions among response properties. According to their model, core auditory cortex receives predominantly unimodal sensory input from the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body (MGBv); whereas belt cortex receives predominantly cross-modal sensory input from nuclei outside the MGBv. We previously characterized distinct response properties in rat primary (A1) versus ventral auditory field (VAF) cortex; however, it has been unclear whether VAF should be categorized as a core or belt auditory cortex. The current study employed high-resolution functional imaging to map intrinsic metabolic responses to tones and to guide retrograde tracer injections into A1 and VAF. The size and density of retrogradely labeled somas in the medial geniculate body (MGB) were examined as a function of their position along the caudal-to-rostral axis, subdivision of origin, and cortical projection target. A1 and VAF projecting neurons were found in the same subdivisions of the MGB but in rostral and caudal parts, respectively. Less than 3% of the cells projected to both regions. VAF projecting neurons were smaller than A1 projecting neurons located in dorsal (MGBd) and suprageniculate (SG) nuclei. Thus, soma size varied with both caudal-rostral position and cortical target. Finally, the majority (>70%) of A1 and VAF projecting neurons were located in MGBv. These MGB connection profiles suggest that rat auditory cortex, like primate auditory cortex, is made up of multiple distinct core regions. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Auditory pathways: are 'what' and 'where' appropriate?

    PubMed

    Hall, Deborah A

    2003-05-13

    New evidence confirms that the auditory system encompasses temporal, parietal and frontal brain regions, some of which partly overlap with the visual system. But common assumptions about the functional homologies between sensory systems may be misleading.

  9. [Effect of sleep deprivation on visual evoked potentials and brain stem auditory evoked potentials in epileptics].

    PubMed

    Urumova, L T; Kovalenko, G A; Tsunikov, A I; Sumskiĭ, L I

    1984-01-01

    The article reports on the first study of the evoked activity of the brain in epileptic patients (n = 20) following sleep deprivation. An analysis of the data obtained has revealed a tendency to the shortening of the peak latent intervals of visual evoked potentials in the range of 100-200 mu sec and the V component and the interpeak interval III-V of evoked auditory trunk potentials in patients with temporal epilepsy. The phenomenon may indicate the elimination of stabilizing control involving the specific conductive pathways and, possibly, an accelerated conduction of a specific sensor signal.

  10. Auditory brain stem responses from graduates of an intensive care nursery using an insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Gorga, M P; Kaminski, J R; Beauchaine, K A

    1988-06-01

    Auditory brain stem responses (ABR) were measured from graduates of an intensive care nursery using an insert earphone. Approximately 95% of all ears had click-evoked ABR thresholds of 30 dB nHL or less. Absolute latencies of waves I and V were within the range observed for a circumaural earphone, once the delay introduced by the insert earphone's sound delivery tube was taken into account. Finally, interpeak latency differences and interaural symmetry were comparable to values observed when a similar group of patients were tested with a circumaural earphone.

  11. Brain stem responses evoked by stimulation with an auditory brain stem implant in children with cochlear nerve aplasia or hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Martin; El-Deredy, Wael; Atas, Ahmet; Sennaroglu, Gonca; Sennaroglu, Levent; Ramsden, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion criteria for an auditory brain stem implant (ABI) have been extended beyond the traditional, postlingually deafened adult with Neurofibromatosis type 2, to include children who are born deaf due to cochlear nerve aplasia or hypoplasia and for whom a cochlear implant is not an option. Fitting the ABI for these new candidates presents a challenge, and intraoperative electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) may assist in the surgical placement of the electrode array over the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus in the brain stem and in the postoperative programming of the device. This study had four objectives: (1) to characterize the EABR by stimulation of the cochlear nucleus in children, (2) to establish whether there are any changes between the EABR recorded intraoperatively and again just before initial behavioral testing with the device, (3) to establish whether there is evidence of morphology changes in the EABR depending on the site of stimulation with the ABI, and (4) to investigate how the EABR relates to behavioral measurements and the presence of auditory and nonauditory sensations perceived with the ABI at initial device activation. Intra- and postoperative EABRs were recorded from six congenitally deaf children with ABIs, four boys and two girls, mean age 4.2 yrs (range 3.2 to 5.0 yrs). The ABI was stimulated at nine different bipolar sites on the array, and the EABRs recorded were analyzed with respect to the morphology and peak latency with site of stimulation for each recording session. The relationship between the EABR waveforms and the presence or absence of auditory electrodes at initial device activation was investigated. The EABR threshold levels were compared with the behavioral threshold (T) and comfortably loud (C) levels of stimulation required at initial device activation. EABRs were elicited from all children on both test occasions. Responses contained a possible combination of one to three peaks from a total

  12. HVC lesions modify immediate early gene expression in auditory forebrain regions of female songbirds.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Kleitz-Nelson, Hayley K; Ball, Gregory F

    2013-04-01

    It is well established that auditory forebrain regions of oscine birds are essential for the encoding of species-typical songs and are, therefore, vital for recognition of song during sociosexual interactions. Regions such as the caudal medial nidopallium (NCM) and the caudal medial mesopallium (CMM) are involved in perceptual processing of song and the formation of auditory memories. There is an additional telencephalic nucleus, however, that has also been implicated in species recognition. This nucleus is HVC, a prominent nucleus that sits at the apex of the song system, and is well known for its critical role in song learning and song production in male songbirds. Here, we explore the functional relationship between auditory forebrain regions (i.e., NCM and CMM) and HVC in female canaries (Serinus canaria). We lesion HVC and examine immediate early gene responses to conspecific song presentation within CMM and NCM to explore whether HVC can modulate auditory responses within these forebrain regions. Our results reveal robust deficits in ZENK-ir in CMM and NCM of HVC-lesioned females when compared with control- and sham-lesioned females, indicating that functional connections exists between HVC and NCM/CMM. Although these connected regions have been implicated in song learning and production in males, they likely serve distinct functions in female songbirds that face the task of song recognition rather than song production. Identifying functional connections between HVC and auditory regions involved in song perception is an essential step toward developing a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of song recognition.

  13. Effects of Visual and Auditory Background on Reading Achievement Test Performance of Brain-Injured and Non Brain-Injured Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.

    Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…

  14. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  15. An Auditory-Tactile Visual Saccade-Independent P300 Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Yin, Erwei; Zeyl, Timothy; Saab, Rami; Hu, Dewen; Zhou, Zongtan; Chau, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Most P300 event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) studies focus on gaze shift-dependent BCIs, which cannot be used by people who have lost voluntary eye movement. However, the performance of visual saccade-independent P300 BCIs is generally poor. To improve saccade-independent BCI performance, we propose a bimodal P300 BCI approach that simultaneously employs auditory and tactile stimuli. The proposed P300 BCI is a vision-independent system because no visual interaction is required of the user. Specifically, we designed a direction-congruent bimodal paradigm by randomly and simultaneously presenting auditory and tactile stimuli from the same direction. Furthermore, the channels and number of trials were tailored to each user to improve online performance. With 12 participants, the average online information transfer rate (ITR) of the bimodal approach improved by 45.43% and 51.05% over that attained, respectively, with the auditory and tactile approaches individually. Importantly, the average online ITR of the bimodal approach, including the break time between selections, reached 10.77 bits/min. These findings suggest that the proposed bimodal system holds promise as a practical visual saccade-independent P300 BCI.

  16. Auditory brain development in premature infants: the importance of early experience.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Erin; Wintermark, Pia; Lahav, Amir

    2012-04-01

    Preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often close their eyes in response to bright lights, but they cannot close their ears in response to loud sounds. The sudden transition from the womb to the overly noisy world of the NICU increases the vulnerability of these high-risk newborns. There is a growing concern that the excess noise typically experienced by NICU infants disrupts their growth and development, putting them at risk for hearing, language, and cognitive disabilities. Preterm neonates are especially sensitive to noise because their auditory system is at a critical period of neurodevelopment, and they are no longer shielded by maternal tissue. This paper discusses the developmental milestones of the auditory system and suggests ways to enhance the quality control and type of sounds delivered to NICU infants. We argue that positive auditory experience is essential for early brain maturation and may be a contributing factor for healthy neurodevelopment. Further research is needed to optimize the hospital environment for preterm newborns and to increase their potential to develop into healthy children. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Auditory evoked responses in tropical men during sojourn over the arctic region.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Selvamurthy, W; Ray, U S

    1995-01-01

    The influence of an arctic environment on auditory evoked responses, both brainstem and cognitive, were evaluated in 10 Indian soldiers. They were first tested in Delhi and then flown to an arctic region where they were tested in the first week and again in the eighth week of their stay. Two migrants from Moscow, their usual place of residence, and six natives, born and brought up in the arctic, were also tested for comparison. The Indians, on their return to India, were tested again. The auditory evoked responses were recorded using the Nicolet (USA) Compact 4 Instrument. The Indians showed a delay in all the waves of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during their induction in the arctic and these persisted even on their return to India whereas the migrants and the natives had relatively higher ABR latency values.

  18. Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis of the effects of auditory stimulation on the distribution of /sup 11/C-N-methylchlorphentermine in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, C.B.

    1986-06-01

    This experimental work was launched to study how auditory stimulation effects blood flow in the brain. The technique used was Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with /sup 11/C-N-methylchlorphentermine (/sup 11/C-NMCP) as the tracer. /sup 11/C-NMCP acts as a molecular microsphere and thus measures blood flow. The objectives of this work were: to develop, test, and refine an experimental procedure, to design and construct a universally applicable positioning device, and to develop and test a synthesis for a radiopure solution of /sup 11/C-NMCP; all were accomplished. PET was used to observe the brain distribution of /sup 11/C-NMCP during binaural and monaural stimulation states. The data was analyzed by finding the signal intensity in regions of the image that represented the left and right interior colliculi (IC's), brain structures dedicated to the processing of auditory signals. The binaural tests indicated a statistically significant tendency for slightly higher concentration of the tracer in the left IC than in the right IC. The monaural tests combined with those of the binaural state were not solidly conclusive, however, three of the four cases showed a decrease in tracer uptake in the IC opposite the zero-stimulus ear, as expected. There is some indication that the anesthesia used in the majority of this work may have interferred with blood flow response to auditory stimulation. 39 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Brain Region Mapping using Global Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Epstein, Adrian; Kurczy, Michael E.; Benton, H. Paul; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Fox, Howard S.; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Historically, studies of brain metabolism have been based on targeted analyses of a limited number of metabolites. Here we present a novel untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach that has successfully uncovered differences in broad array of metabolites across anatomical regions of the mouse brain. The NSG immunodeficient mouse model was chosen because of its ability to undergo humanization leading to numerous applications in oncology and infectious disease research. Metabolic phenotyping by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry revealed unique water-soluble and lipid metabolite patterns between brain regions. Neurochemical differences in metabolic phenotypes were mainly defined by various phospholipids and several intriguing metabolites including carnosine, cholesterol sulfate, lipoamino acids, uric and sialic acid whose physiological roles in brain metabolism are poorly understood. This study lays important groundwork by defining regional homeostasis for the normal mouse brain to give context to the reaction to pathological events. PMID:25457182

  20. Brain region mapping using global metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Epstein, Adrian A; Kurczy, Michael E; Benton, Paul H; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Fox, Howard S; Boska, Michael D; Gendelman, Howard E; Siuzdak, Gary

    2014-11-20

    Historically, studies of brain metabolism have been based on targeted analyses of a limited number of metabolites. Here we present an untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategy that has successfully uncovered differences in a broad array of metabolites across anatomical regions of the mouse brain. The NSG immunodeficient mouse model was chosen because of its ability to undergo humanization leading to numerous applications in oncology and infectious disease research. Metabolic phenotyping by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry revealed both water-soluble and lipid metabolite patterns across brain regions. Neurochemical differences in metabolic phenotypes were mainly defined by various phospholipids and several intriguing metabolites including carnosine, cholesterol sulfate, lipoamino acids, uric acid, and sialic acid, whose physiological roles in brain metabolism are poorly understood. This study helps define regional homeostasis for the normal mouse brain to give context to the reaction to pathological events.

  1. GABA Immunoreactivity in Auditory and Song Control Brain Areas of Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Pinaud, Raphael; Mello, Claudio V.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory transmission is critical to sensory and motor processing and is believed to play a role in experience-dependent plasticity. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in vertebrates, GABA, has been implicated in both sensory and motor aspects of vocalization in songbirds. To understand the role of GABAergic mechanisms in vocal communication, GABAergic elements must be characterized fully. Hence, we investigated GABA immunohistochemistry in the zebra finch brain, emphasizing auditory areas and song control nuclei. Several nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway showed a moderate to high density of GABAergic neurons including the cochlear nuclei, nucleus laminaris, superior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus lateralis pars dorsalis, and nucleus ovoidalis. Telencephalic auditory areas, including field L subfields L1, L2a and L3, as well as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and mesopallium (CMM), contained GABAergic cells at particularly high densities. Considerable GABA labeling was also seen in the shelf area of caudodorsal nidopallium, and the cup area in the arcopallium, as well as in area X, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium and nidopallial nucleus HVC. GABAergic cells were typically small, most likely local inhibitory interneurons, although large GABA-positive cells that were sparsely distributed were also identified. GABA-positive neurites and puncta were identified in most nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway and in song control nuclei. Our data are in accordance with a prominent role of GABAergic mechanisms in regulating the neural circuits involved in song perceptual processing, motor production, and vocal learning in songbirds. PMID:17466487

  2. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experience-dependent modulation of right anterior insula and sensorimotor regions as a function of noise-masked auditory feedback in singers and nonsingers.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Boris; Friberg, Anders; Zeitouni, Anthony; Zatorre, Robert

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies on vocal motor production in singing suggest that the right anterior insula (AI) plays a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration. Specifically, when somatosensory input was reduced via anesthesia of the vocal fold mucosa, right AI activity was down regulated in trained singers. In the current fMRI study, we examined how masking of auditory feedback affects pitch-matching accuracy and corresponding brain activity in the same participants. We found that pitch-matching accuracy was unaffected by masking in trained singers yet declined in nonsingers. The corresponding brain region with the most differential and interesting activation pattern was the right AI, which was up regulated during masking in singers but down regulated in nonsingers. Likewise, its functional connectivity with inferior parietal, frontal, and voice-relevant sensorimotor areas was increased in singers yet decreased in nonsingers. These results indicate that singers relied more on somatosensory feedback, whereas nonsingers depended more critically on auditory feedback. When comparing auditory vs somatosensory feedback involvement, the right anterior insula emerged as the only region for correcting intended vocal output by modulating what is heard or felt as a function of singing experience. We propose the right anterior insula as a key node in the brain's singing network for the integration of signals of salience across multiple sensory and cognitive domains to guide vocal behavior.

  4. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed.

  5. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Huang, Jie; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-08-18

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA), as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  6. Case study: auditory brain responses in a minimally verbal child with autism and cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Shu H.; McArthur, Genevieve; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Brock, Jon

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain minimally verbal into late childhood, but research on cognition and brain function in ASD focuses almost exclusively on those with good or only moderately impaired language. Here we present a case study investigating auditory processing of GM, a nonverbal child with ASD and cerebral palsy. At the age of 8 years, GM was tested using magnetoencephalography (MEG) whilst passively listening to speech sounds and complex tones. Where typically developing children and verbal autistic children all demonstrated similar brain responses to speech and nonspeech sounds, GM produced much stronger responses to nonspeech than speech, particularly in the 65–165 ms (M50/M100) time window post-stimulus onset. GM was retested aged 10 years using electroencephalography (EEG) whilst passively listening to pure tone stimuli. Consistent with her MEG response to complex tones, GM showed an unusually early and strong response to pure tones in her EEG responses. The consistency of the MEG and EEG data in this single case study demonstrate both the potential and the feasibility of these methods in the study of minimally verbal children with ASD. Further research is required to determine whether GM's atypical auditory responses are characteristic of other minimally verbal children with ASD or of other individuals with cerebral palsy. PMID:26150768

  7. Three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of human auditory brain-stem evoked potentials. I. Normative measures.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H; Bleich, N; Martin, W H

    1985-12-01

    Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories (3-CLTs) of auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs) were obtained from 14 humans (28 ears) in response to 75 dB nHL, 10/sec alternating polarity clicks. A normative set of 3-CLT quantitative measures was calculated and compared with amplitudes and latencies of the simultaneously recorded, single-channel, vertex-mastoid ABEP. The comparison included average values as well as intersubject variability. The 3-CLT measures included: apex latencies; planar segment durations, orientation, size and shape; trajectory-amplitude peaks and their latencies. Apex latencies of 3-CLT were comparable to peak latencies of the vertex-mastoid records, both in absolute values and in intersubject variability. Durations of planar segments were approximately 0.7 msec and their standard deviations were about a half of their average. Individual planar segment orientations were typically within 50 degrees of the normative average. Trajectory amplitudes were, in general, somewhat larger than peak amplitudes of the vertex-mastoid records, while their intersubject variabilities were comparable. Size and shape measures of planar segments were variable across subjects, making their clinical use, in their present form, questionable. The quantitative study of the 3-CLT of auditory brain-stem evoked potentials will enable evaluation of normal, as well as pathological, evoked potentials, to further the understanding and utility of this comprehensive representation of brain-stem function.

  8. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  9. Electrical Brain Responses to an Auditory Illusion and the Impact of Musical Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Christos I.; Pereda, Ernesto; Lindsen, Job P.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of two sinusoidal tones, one to each ear, with a slight frequency mismatch yields an auditory illusion of a beating frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones; this is known as binaural beat (BB). The effect of brief BB stimulation on scalp EEG is not conclusively demonstrated. Further, no studies have examined the impact of musical training associated with BB stimulation, yet musicians' brains are often associated with enhanced auditory processing. In this study, we analysed EEG brain responses from two groups, musicians and non-musicians, when stimulated by short presentation (1 min) of binaural beats with beat frequency varying from 1 Hz to 48 Hz. We focused our analysis on alpha and gamma band EEG signals, and they were analysed in terms of spectral power, and functional connectivity as measured by two phase synchrony based measures, phase locking value and phase lag index. Finally, these measures were used to characterize the degree of centrality, segregation and integration of the functional brain network. We found that beat frequencies belonging to alpha band produced the most significant steady-state responses across groups. Further, processing of low frequency (delta, theta, alpha) binaural beats had significant impact on cortical network patterns in the alpha band oscillations. Altogether these results provide a neurophysiological account of cortical responses to BB stimulation at varying frequencies, and demonstrate a modulation of cortico-cortical connectivity in musicians' brains, and further suggest a kind of neuronal entrainment of a linear and nonlinear relationship to the beating frequencies. PMID:26065708

  10. Differences in neurogenesis differentiate between core and shell regions of auditory nuclei in the turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis): evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shao-Ju; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Xin-Wen; Zuo, Ming-Xue

    2007-01-01

    There is a clear core-versus-shell distinction in cytoarchitecture, electrophysiological properties and neural connections in the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of amniotes. Determining whether the embryogenesis of auditory nuclei shows a similar organization is helpful for further understanding the constituent organization and evolution of auditory nuclei. Therefore in the present study, we injected [(3)H]-thymidine into turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) at various stages of development. Upon hatching, [(3)H]-thymidine labeling was examined in both the core and shell auditory regions in the midbrain, diencephalon and dorsal ventricular ridge. Met-enkephalin and substance P immunohistochemistry was used to distinguish the core and shell regions. In the mesencephalic auditory nucleus, the occurrence of heavily labeled neurons in the nucleus centralis of the torus semicircularis reached its peak at embryonic day 9, one day later than the surrounding shell. In the diencephalic auditory nucleus, the production of heavily labeled neurons in the central region of the reuniens (Re) was highest at embryonic day (E) 8, one day later than that in the shell region of reuniens. In the region of the dorsal ventricular ridge that received inputs from the central region of Re, the appearance of heavily labeled neurons also reached a peak one day later than that in the area receiving inputs from the shell region of reuniens. Thus, there is a core-versus-shell organization of neuronal generation in reptilian auditory areas. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance.

  12. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition.

  13. Auditory-evoked cortical activity: contribution of brain noise, phase locking, and spectral power.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kelly C; Vaden, Kenneth I; Dubno, Judy R

    2014-09-01

    The N1-P2 is an obligatory cortical response that can reflect the representation of spectral and temporal characteristics of an auditory stimulus. Traditionally,mean amplitudes and latencies of the prominent peaks in the averaged response are compared across experimental conditions. Analyses of the peaks in the averaged response only reflect a subset of the data contained within the electroencephalogram(EEG) signal. We used single-trial analyses techniques to identify the contribution of brain noise,neural synchrony, and spectral power to the generation of P2 amplitude and how these variables may change across age group. This information is important for appropriate interpretation of event-related potentials (ERPs) results and in understanding of age-related neural pathologies. EEG was measured from 25 younger and 25 older normal hearing adults. Age-related and individual differences in P2 response amplitudes, and variability in brain noise, phase locking value (PLV), and spectral power (4-8 Hz) were assessed from electrode FCz. Model testing and linear regression were used to determine the extent to which brain noise, PLV, and spectral power uniquely predicted P2 amplitudes and varied by age group. Younger adults had significantly larger P2 amplitudes, PLV, and power compared to older adults. Brain noise did not differ between age groups. The results of regression testing revealed that brain noise and PLV, but not spectral power were unique predictors of P2 amplitudes. Model fit was significantly better in younger than in older adults. ERP analyses are intended to provide a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms that contribute to individual and group differences in behavior. The current results support that age-related declines in neural synchrony contribute to smaller P2 amplitudes in older normal hearing adults. Based on our results, we discuss potential models in which differences in neural synchrony and brain noise can account for

  14. Brain connectivity and auditory hallucinations: In search of novel noninvasive brain stimulation therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, F; Moulier, V; Valéro-Cabré, A; Januel, D

    2016-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia. Notwithstanding, the clinical benefit of these approaches remains weak and variable. Further studies in the field should foster a better understanding concerning the status of networks subtending AVH and the neural impact of rTMS in relation with symptom improvement. Additionally, the identification and characterization of clinical biomarkers able to predict response to treatment would be a critical asset allowing better care for patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of Sound Localization in Two Functionally Distinct Regions of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Yarrow, Stuart; Brewton, Dustin

    2015-12-09

    The auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. The mechanisms that shape bicoordinate spatial representation in the auditory cortex remain unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by quantifying spatial receptive fields (SRFs) in two functionally distinct cortical regions in the pallid bat. The pallid bat uses echolocation for obstacle avoidance and listens to prey-generated noise to localize prey. Its cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve echolocation and localization of prey-generated noise. The main aim of this study was to compare 2D SRFs between neurons in the noise-selective region (NSR) and the echolocation region [frequency-modulated sweep-selective region (FMSR)]. The data reveal the following major differences between these two regions: (1) compared with NSR neurons, SRF properties of FMSR neurons were more strongly dependent on sound level; (2) as a population, NSR neurons represent a broad region of contralateral space, while FMSR selectivity was focused near the midline at sound levels near threshold and expanded considerably with increasing sound levels; and (3) the SRF size and centroid elevation were correlated with the characteristic frequency in the NSR, but not the FMSR. These data suggest different mechanisms of sound localization for two different behaviors. Previously, we reported that azimuth is represented by predictable changes in the extent of activated cortex. The present data indicate how elevation constrains this activity pattern. These data suggest a novel model for bicoordinate spatial representation that is based on the extent of activated cortex resulting from the overlap of binaural and tonotopic maps. Unlike the visual and somatosensory systems, spatial information is not directly represented at the sensory receptor epithelium in the auditory system. Spatial locations are computed by integrating neural binaural properties and frequency-dependent pinna filtering, providing a useful model

  16. Auditory brain stem response and cortical evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Heba Mohammed; El-Gharib, Amani Mohamed; Erfan, Adel Ali; Emara, Afaf Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Delay in ABR and CAEPs wave latencies in children with type 1DM indicates that there is abnormality in the neural conduction in DM patients. The duration of DM has greater effect on auditory function than the control of DM. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder. Evoked potentials offer the possibility to perform a functional evaluation of neural pathways in the central nervous system. To investigate the effect of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on auditory brain stem response (ABR) and cortical evoked potentials (CAEPs). This study included two groups: a control group (GI), which consisted of 20 healthy children with normal peripheral hearing, and a study group (GII), which consisted of 30 children with type I DM. Basic audiological evaluation, ABR, and CAEPs were done in both groups. Delayed absolute latencies of ABR and CAEPs waves were found. Amplitudes showed no significant difference between both groups. Positive correlation was found between ABR wave latencies and duration of DM. No correlation was found between ABR, CAEPs, and glycated hemoglobin.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation affects distractor interference in auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Camalier, Corrie R; Wang, Alice Y; McIntosh, Lindsey G; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S

    2017-03-01

    Computational and theoretical accounts hypothesize the basal ganglia play a supramodal "gating" role in the maintenance of working memory representations, especially in preservation from distractor interference. There are currently two major limitations to this account. The first is that supporting experiments have focused exclusively on the visuospatial domain, leaving questions as to whether such "gating" is domain-specific. The second is that current evidence relies on correlational measures, as it is extremely difficult to causally and reversibly manipulate subcortical structures in humans. To address these shortcomings, we examined non-spatial, auditory working memory performance during reversible modulation of the basal ganglia, an approach afforded by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We found that subthalamic nucleus stimulation impaired auditory working memory performance, specifically in the group tested in the presence of distractors, even though the distractors were predictable and completely irrelevant to the encoding of the task stimuli. This study provides key causal evidence that the basal ganglia act as a supramodal filter in working memory processes, further adding to our growing understanding of their role in cognition.

  18. Learning to modulate sensorimotor rhythms with stereo auditory feedback for a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    McCreadie, Karl A; Coyle, Damien H; Prasad, Girijesh

    2012-01-01

    Motor imagery can be used to modulate sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) enabling detection of voltage fluctuations on the surface of the scalp using electroencephalographic (EEG) electrodes. Feedback is essential in learning how to intentionally modulate SMR in non-muscular communication using a brain-computer interface (BCI). A BCI that is not reliant upon the visual modality for feedback is an attractive means of communication for the blind and the vision impaired and to release the visual channel for other purposes during BCI usage. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the traditional visual feedback modality with stereo auditory feedback. Twenty participants split into equal groups took part in ten BCI sessions involving motor imagery. The visual feedback group performed best using two performance measures but did not show improvement over time whilst the auditory group improved as the study progressed. Multiple loudspeaker presentation of audio allows the listener to intuitively assign each of two classes to the corresponding lateral position in a free-field listening environment.

  19. Sources of variability in auditory brain stem evoked potential measures over time.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R M; Buchwald, J S; Tanguay, P E; Schwafel, J A

    1982-02-01

    Auditory brain stem EPs elicited in 10 normal adults by monaural clicks delivered at 72 dB HL, 20/sec showed no significant change in wave latencies or in the ratio of wave I to wave Y amplitude across 250 trial subsets, across 250 trial subsets, across 1500 trial blocks within a test session, or across two test sessions separated by several months. Sources of maximum variability were determined by using mean squared differences with all but one condition constant. 'Subjects' was shown to contribute the most variability followed by 'ears', 'sessions' and 'runs'; collapsing across conditions, wave III latencies were found to be the least variable, while wave II showed the most variability. Some EP morphologies showed extra peaks between waves II and IV, missing wave IV or wave IV fused with wave V. Such variations in wave form morphology were independent of EMG amplitude and were characteristic of certain individuals.

  20. Geometrical analysis of human three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of auditory brain-stem evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H; Har'el, Z; Golos, E

    1984-07-01

    Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories (3CLTs) of auditory brain-stem evoked potentials (ABEPs) were obtained for a group of 15 normal humans. 3CLTs were studied using geometric spatial descriptors of rate of bending (curvature), local planarity (torsion), as well as the parameters of best fit planes along the trajectory. Point-by-point analysis enabled objective determination of apices (curvature maxima) which divided the trajectory to curvilinear segments. Consecutive apices defined planar segments (each consisting of two curvilinear segments) along the trajectory. Of the two possibilities of arranging apices in the middle of planar segments only one yielded consistently planar segments. The alternative set of apex triads represented transitions between truly planar segments. The variability of position and orientation measures of planar segments was greater than that of apex latencies and plane limits. The significance of planes, as well as their generation, in 3CLT of ABEP, remains to be studied.

  1. Comparison of Beyer DT48 and etymotic insert earphones: auditory brain stem response measurements.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, K A; Kaminski, J R; Gorga, M P

    1987-10-01

    Click-evoked auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) were measured using a Beyer DT48 circumaural earphone and an Etymotic ER-3A insert earphone in a group of normal-hearing subjects. Comparisons were made between time waveforms and amplitude spectra for the two transducers. ABR waveforms, latencies, and thresholds were compared for the two transducers. Click-evoked ABR and behavioral thresholds were comparable for the two earphones. In addition, absolute response-component latencies differed by an amount that was equivalent to the travel time introduced by the insert earphone's sound-delivery tube. Inter-peak latency differences were virtually identical. These findings suggest that the insert earphone is a viable transducer for clinical ABR evaluations. Further, a temporal correction may be all that is necessary to account for the difference between the insert earphone and the circumaural earphone if other characteristics of the transducers are similar.

  2. Interaural attenuation using etymotic ER-3A insert earphones in auditory brain stem response testing.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, L E; Sammeth, C A; Peek, B F

    1990-02-01

    Click interaural attenuation (IA) was measured behaviorally and with the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in two unilaterally deaf adults with Etymotic ER-3A insert earphones, and TDH-39P and TDH-49P supraaural earphones. Stimulus crossover for each set of earphones was also determined with pure-tone audiometry. Pure-tone results agreed with previous research, showing that the ER-3A provided substantially greater IA than the supraaural earphones, particularly for low frequencies. For click stimuli, behavioral and ABR results revealed only modest, if any, improvement in IA with the ER-3A relative to the supraaural earphones. The results of this study suggest that while the ER-3A earphones provide a clear IA advantage for behavioral pure-tone audiometry, they do not eliminate the need for contralateral masking of click stimuli in ABR testing.

  3. Brain dynamics in the auditory Go/NoGo task as a function of EEG frequency.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Clarke, Adam R

    2010-11-01

    We examined relationships between the phase of narrow-band electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at stimulus onset and the resultant event-related potentials (ERPs) in an equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo task with a fixed SOA, in the context of a novel conceptualisation of orthogonal phase effects (cortical negativity vs. positivity, negative driving vs. positive driving, waxing vs. waning). ERP responses to each stimulus type were analysed. Prestimulus narrow-band EEG activity (in 1Hz bands from 1 to 13Hz) at Cz was assessed for each trial using FFT decomposition of the EEG data. For each frequency, the cycle at stimulus onset was used to sort trials into four phases, for which ERPs were derived from the raw EEG activity at 9 central sites. The occurrence of preferred phase-defined brain states was confirmed at a number of frequencies, crossing the traditional frequency bands. As expected, these did not differ between Go and NoGo stimuli. These preferred states were associated with more efficient processing of the stimulus, as reflected in differences in latency and amplitude of the N1 and P3 ERP components. The present results, although derived in a different paradigm by EEG decomposition methods different from those used previously, confirm the existence of preferred brain states and their impact on the efficiency of brain dynamics involved in perceptual and cognitive processing.

  4. Frequency tuning of the dolphin's hearing as revealed by auditory brain-stem response with notch-noise masking.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y; Klishin, V O

    1997-12-01

    Notch-noise masking was used to measure frequency tuning in a dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in a simultaneous-masking paradigm in conjunction with auditory brain-stem evoked potential recording. Measurements were made at probe frequencies of 64, 76, 90, and 108 kHz. The data were analyzed by fitting the rounded-exponent model of the auditory filters to the experimental data. The fitting parameter values corresponded to the filter tuning as follows: QER (center frequency divided by equivalent rectangular bandwidths) of 35 to 36.5 and Q10 dB of 18 to 19 at all tested frequencies.

  5. Regional aerobic glycolysis in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Vaishnavi, S. Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Rundle, Melissa M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Mintun, Mark A.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is defined as glucose utilization in excess of that used for oxidative phosphorylation despite sufficient oxygen to completely metabolize glucose to carbon dioxide and water. Aerobic glycolysis is present in the normal human brain at rest and increases locally during increased neuronal activity; yet its many biological functions have received scant attention because of a prevailing energy-centric focus on the role of glucose as substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. As an initial step in redressing this neglect, we measured the regional distribution of aerobic glycolysis with positron emission tomography in 33 neurologically normal young adults at rest. We show that the distribution of aerobic glycolysis in the brain is differentially present in previously well-described functional areas. In particular, aerobic glycolysis is significantly elevated in medial and lateral parietal and prefrontal cortices. In contrast, the cerebellum and medial temporal lobes have levels of aerobic glycolysis significantly below the brain mean. The levels of aerobic glycolysis are not strictly related to the levels of brain energy metabolism. For example, sensory cortices exhibit high metabolic rates for glucose and oxygen consumption but low rates of aerobic glycolysis. These striking regional variations in aerobic glycolysis in the normal human brain provide an opportunity to explore how brain systems differentially use the diverse cell biology of glucose in support of their functional specializations in health and disease. PMID:20837536

  6. The musical centers of the brain: Vladimir E. Larionov (1857-1929) and the functional neuroanatomy of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; Verina, Tatyana

    2016-11-01

    In 1899 a landmark paper entitled "On the musical centers of the brain" was published in Pflügers Archiv, based on work carried out in the Anatomo-Physiological Laboratory of the Neuropsychiatric Clinic of Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927) in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia. The author of that paper was Vladimir E. Larionov (1857-1929), a military doctor and devoted brain scientist, who pursued the problem of the localization of function in the canine and human auditory cortex. His data detailed the existence of tonotopy in the temporal lobe and further demonstrated centrifugal auditory pathways emanating from the auditory cortex and directed to the opposite hemisphere and lower brain centers. Larionov's discoveries have been largely considered as findings of the Bekhterev school. Perhaps this is why there are limited resources on Larionov, especially keeping in mind his military medical career and the fact that after 1917 he just seems to have practiced otorhinolaryngology in Odessa. Larionov died two years after Bekhterev's mysterious death of 1927. The present study highlights the pioneering contributions of Larionov to auditory neuroscience, trusting that the life and work of Vladimir Efimovich will finally, and deservedly, emerge from the shadow of his celebrated master, Vladimir Mikhailovich.

  7. Training leads to increased auditory brain-computer interface performance of end-users with motor impairments.

    PubMed

    Halder, S; Käthner, I; Kübler, A

    2016-02-01

    Auditory brain-computer interfaces are an assistive technology that can restore communication for motor impaired end-users. Such non-visual brain-computer interface paradigms are of particular importance for end-users that may lose or have lost gaze control. We attempted to show that motor impaired end-users can learn to control an auditory speller on the basis of event-related potentials. Five end-users with motor impairments, two of whom with additional visual impairments, participated in five sessions. We applied a newly developed auditory brain-computer interface paradigm with natural sounds and directional cues. Three of five end-users learned to select symbols using this method. Averaged over all five end-users the information transfer rate increased by more than 1800% from the first session (0.17 bits/min) to the last session (3.08 bits/min). The two best end-users achieved information transfer rates of 5.78 bits/min and accuracies of 92%. Our results show that an auditory BCI with a combination of natural sounds and directional cues, can be controlled by end-users with motor impairment. Training improves the performance of end-users to the level of healthy controls. To our knowledge, this is the first time end-users with motor impairments controlled an auditory brain-computer interface speller with such high accuracy and information transfer rates. Further, our results demonstrate that operating a BCI with event-related potentials benefits from training and specifically end-users may require more than one session to develop their full potential. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bigger brains or bigger nuclei? Regulating the size of auditory structures in birds.

    PubMed

    Kubke, M Fabiana; Massoglia, Dino P; Carr, Catherine E

    2004-01-01

    Increases in the size of the neuronal structures that mediate specific behaviors are believed to be related to enhanced computational performance. It is not clear, however, what developmental and evolutionary mechanisms mediate these changes, nor whether an increase in the size of a given neuronal population is a general mechanism to achieve enhanced computational ability. We addressed the issue of size by analyzing the variation in the relative number of cells of auditory structures in auditory specialists and generalists. We show that bird species with different auditory specializations exhibit variation in the relative size of their hindbrain auditory nuclei. In the barn owl, an auditory specialist, the hindbrain auditory nuclei involved in the computation of sound location show hyperplasia. This hyperplasia was also found in songbirds, but not in non-auditory specialists. The hyperplasia of auditory nuclei was also not seen in birds with large body weight suggesting that the total number of cells is selected for in auditory specialists. In barn owls, differences observed in the relative size of the auditory nuclei might be attributed to modifications in neurogenesis and cell death. Thus, hyperplasia of circuits used for auditory computation accompanies auditory specialization in different orders of birds.

  9. Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Okhravi, Tooba; Tarvij Eslami, Saeedeh; Hushyar Ahmadi, Ali; Nassirian, Hossain; Najibpour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children. Objectives: We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia with serum bilirubin values of ≥ 7 mg/dL, ≥ 10 mg/dL and ≥14 mg/dL at the first, second and third-day of life, respectively, and with bilirubin concentration ≥ 18 mg/dL at over 72 hours of life. The exclusion criteria included family history and diseases causing sensorineural hearing loss, use of auto-toxic medications within the preceding five days, convulsion, congenital craniofacial anomalies, birth trauma, preterm newborns < 35 weeks old, birth weight < 1500 g, asphyxia, and mechanical ventilations for five days or more. A total of 48 newborns with hyperbilirubinemia met the enrolment criteria as the case group and 49 healthy newborns as the control group, who were hospitalized in a university educational hospital (22 Bahaman), in a north-eastern city of Iran, Mashhad. ABR was performed on both groups. The evaluated variable factors were latency time, inter peak intervals time, and loss of waves. Results: The mean latencies of waves I, III and V of ABR were significantly higher in the pathologic hyperbilirubinemia group compared with the controls (P < 0.001). In addition, the mean interpeak intervals (IPI) of waves I-III, I-V and III-V of ABR were significantly higher in the pathologic hyperbilirubinemia group compared with the controls (P < 0.001). For example, the mean latencies time of wave I was significantly higher in right ear of the case group than in controls (2.16 ± 0.26 vs. 1.77 ± 0.15 milliseconds, respectively) (P

  10. Physiological modulators of Kv3.1 channels adjust firing patterns of auditory brain stem neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maile R; El-Hassar, Lynda; Zhang, Yalan; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Large, Charles H; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2016-07-01

    Many rapidly firing neurons, including those in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brain stem, express "high threshold" voltage-gated Kv3.1 potassium channels that activate only at positive potentials and are required for stimuli to generate rapid trains of actions potentials. We now describe the actions of two imidazolidinedione derivatives, AUT1 and AUT2, which modulate Kv3.1 channels. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing rat Kv3.1 channels, we found that lower concentrations of these compounds shift the voltage of activation of Kv3.1 currents toward negative potentials, increasing currents evoked by depolarization from typical neuronal resting potentials. Single-channel recordings also showed that AUT1 shifted the open probability of Kv3.1 to more negative potentials. Higher concentrations of AUT2 also shifted inactivation to negative potentials. The effects of lower and higher concentrations could be mimicked in numerical simulations by increasing rates of activation and inactivation respectively, with no change in intrinsic voltage dependence. In brain slice recordings of mouse MNTB neurons, both AUT1 and AUT2 modulated firing rate at high rates of stimulation, a result predicted by numerical simulations. Our results suggest that pharmaceutical modulation of Kv3.1 currents represents a novel avenue for manipulation of neuronal excitability and has the potential for therapeutic benefit in the treatment of hearing disorders.

  11. Noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: methods, effects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kubera, Katharina M.; Barth, Anja; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A.; Wolf, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on noninvasive brain stimulation techniques as an augmentation method for the treatment of persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. Paradigmatically, we place emphasis on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We specifically discuss rationales of stimulation and consider methodological questions together with issues of phenotypic diversity in individuals with drug-refractory and persistent AVH. Eventually, we provide a brief outlook for future investigations and treatment directions. Taken together, current evidence suggests TMS as a promising method in the treatment of AVH. Low-frequency stimulation of the superior temporal cortex (STC) may reduce symptom severity and frequency. Yet clinical effects are of relatively short duration and effect sizes appear to decrease over time along with publication of larger trials. Apart from considering other innovative stimulation techniques, such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), and optimizing stimulation protocols, treatment of AVH using noninvasive brain stimulation will essentially rely on accurate identification of potential responders and non-responders for these treatment modalities. In this regard, future studies will need to consider distinct phenotypic presentations of AVH in patients with schizophrenia, together with the putative functional neurocircuitry underlying these phenotypes. PMID:26528145

  12. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri; Ohmori, Harunori

    2015-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices.

  13. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  14. [Pathologic findings in auditory brain stem evoked potentials in 10 children with brain stem tumors].

    PubMed

    Kraus, J; Lehovský, M; Procházková, M

    1990-11-01

    The authors examined brain stem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEP) in 10 children aged 2-14 years with tumours in the posterior cranial fossa infiltrating the cerebellum and brain stem. The tumours were diagnosed by computed tomography and in eight patients confirmed on operation. For stimulation a monaural click was used. The authors assessed the latency of waves, intervals between and investigated the presence of waves and evaluated their amplitudes. They compared the results with normal values. In abnormal findings the latency of components was delayed, the components were generated in a rostral manner from the site of the lesion in all children. In four patients with severe affections of the brain stem the investigated components were lacking. In nine patients the BAEP evoked by monaural stimulation helped to asses the lateralization of the lesion. In eight patients a bilateral abnormality of the V wave was recorded. The most sensitive indicator for assessment of the site of the lesion was assessment of the interval between two consecutive waves.

  15. Placebo-Controlled Trial of Familiar Auditory Sensory Training for Acute Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender; Rosenow, Joshua M; Steiner, Monica; Parrish, Todd; Guernon, Ann; Harton, Brett; Patil, Vijaya; Bhaumik, Dulal K; McNamee, Shane; Walker, Matthew; Froehlich, Kathleen; Burress, Catherine; Odle, Cheryl; Wang, Xue; Herrold, Amy A; Zhao, Weihan; Reda, Domenic; Mallinson, Trudy; Conneely, Mark; Nemeth, Alexander J

    2015-07-01

    Sensory stimulation is often provided to persons incurring severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but therapeutic effects are unclear. This preliminary study investigated neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects related to sensory stimulation on global neurobehavioral functioning, arousal, and awareness. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial where 15 participants in states of disordered consciousness (DOC), an average of 70 days after TBI, were provided either the Familiar Auditory Sensory Training (FAST) or Placebo of silence. Global neurobehavioral functioning was measured with the Disorders of Consciousness Scale (DOCS). Arousal and awareness were measured with the Coma-Near-Coma (CNC) scale. Neurophysiological effect was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FAST (n = 8) and Placebo (n = 7) groups each showed neurobehavioral improvement. Mean DOCS change (FAST = 13.5, SD = 8.2; Placebo = 18.9, SD = 15.6) was not different, but FAST patients had significantly (P = .049; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.51, -.005) more CNC gains (FAST = 1.01, SD = 0.60; Placebo = 0.25, SD = 0.70). Mixed-effects models confirm CNC findings (P = .002). Treatment effect, based on CNC, is large (d = 1.88, 95% CI = 0.77, 3.00). Number needed to treat is 2. FAST patients had more fMRI activation in language regions and whole brain (P values <.05) resembling healthy controls' activation. For persons with DOC 29 to 170 days after TBI, FAST resulted in CNC gains and increased neural responsivity to vocal stimuli in language regions. Clinicians should consider providing the FAST to support patient engagement in neurorehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Musical brains: a study of spontaneous and evoked musical sensations without external auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Goycoolea, Marcos V; Mena, Ismael; Neubauer, Sonia G; Levy, Raquel G; Grez, Margarita Fernández; Berger, Claudia G

    2007-07-01

    Our observations confirm that musical sensations with no external stimuli, either spontaneous or evoked, occur in normal individuals and that a biological substrate can be demonstrated by brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There are individuals, usually musicians, who are seemingly able to evoke and/or have spontaneous musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. However, to date there is no available evidence to determine if it is feasible to have musical sensations without using external sensory receptors, or if there is a biological substrate for these sensations. A group of 100 musicians and another of 150 otolaryngologists were asked if they had spontaneous musical auditory sensations and/or were capable of evoking them. SPECT evaluations with Tc(99m)-HMPAO were conducted in six female musicians while they were evoking these sensations or, in one case, while she was having them spontaneously. In three of them an additional SPECT was conducted in basal conditions (having been asked to avoid evoking music). In all, 97 of 100 musicians had spontaneous musical sensations; all 100 could evoke and modify them. Of the 150 otolaryngologists, 18 (12%) were musicians. Of the 132 nonmusicians, spontaneous musical sensations occurred in 52 (39.4%), 72 (54.5%) could evoke and 23 (17.4%) were able to modify them, 58 (43.9%) did not have spontaneous musical sensations nor could they evoke them. The musical sensations of the 72 otolaryngologists that could evoke were less elaborated than those of musicians. NeuroSPECT during voluntary musical autoevocation demonstrated significant (>2 SD) increased activation of executive frontal cortex in Brodmann areas 9 and 10, secondary visual cortex (area 17), and paracingulate (areas 31 and 32). There was also activation in the para-executive frontal cortex (areas 45 and 46). In the basal ganglia there was activation in thalamus and lentiform nucleus. Deactivation below 2 SD was demonstrated by mean

  17. An online brain-computer interface based on shifting attention to concurrent streams of auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N. J.; Schölkopf, B.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the development and online testing of an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that aims to be usable by completely paralysed users—for whom visual or motor-system-based BCIs may not be suitable, and among whom reports of successful BCI use have so far been very rare. The current approach exploits covert shifts of attention to auditory stimuli in a dichotic-listening stimulus design. To compare the efficacy of event-related potentials (ERPs) and steady-state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs), the stimuli were designed such that they elicited both ERPs and SSAEPs simultaneously. Trial-by-trial feedback was provided online, based on subjects' modulation of N1 and P3 ERP components measured during single 5 s stimulation intervals. All 13 healthy subjects were able to use the BCI, with performance in a binary left/right choice task ranging from 75% to 96% correct across subjects (mean 85%). BCI classification was based on the contrast between stimuli in the attended stream and stimuli in the unattended stream, making use of every stimulus, rather than contrasting frequent standard and rare ‘oddball’ stimuli. SSAEPs were assessed offline: for all subjects, spectral components at the two exactly known modulation frequencies allowed discrimination of pre-stimulus from stimulus intervals, and of left-only stimuli from right-only stimuli when one side of the dichotic stimulus pair was muted. However, attention modulation of SSAEPs was not sufficient for single-trial BCI communication, even when the subject's attention was clearly focused well enough to allow classification of the same trials via ERPs. ERPs clearly provided a superior basis for BCI. The ERP results are a promising step towards the development of a simple-to-use, reliable yes/no communication system for users in the most severely paralysed states, as well as potential attention-monitoring and -training applications outside the context of assistive technology.

  18. Hippocampal volume and auditory attention on a verbal memory task with adult survivors of pediatric brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Reema; King, Tricia Z; Morris, Robin; Na, Sabrina

    2015-03-01

    We examined the nature of verbal memory deficits and the possible hippocampal underpinnings in long-term adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. 35 survivors (M = 24.10 ± 4.93 years at testing; 54% female), on average 15 years post-diagnosis, and 59 typically developing adults (M = 22.40 ± 4.35 years, 54% female) participated. Automated FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools were used to measure hippocampal, putamen, and whole brain volumes. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) was used to assess verbal memory. Hippocampal, F(1, 91) = 4.06, ηp² = .04; putamen, F(1, 91) = 11.18, ηp² = .11; and whole brain, F(1, 92) = 18.51, ηp² = .17, volumes were significantly lower for survivors than controls (p < .05). Hippocampus and putamen volumes were significantly correlated (r = .62, p < .001) with each other, but not with total brain volume (r = .09; r = .08), for survivors and controls. Verbal memory indices of auditory attention list span (Trial 1: F(1, 92) = 12.70, η² = .12) and final list learning (Trial 5: F(1, 92) = 6.01, η² = .06) were significantly lower for survivors (p < .05). Total hippocampal volume in survivors was significantly correlated (r = .43, p = .01) with auditory attention, but none of the other CVLT-II indices. Secondary analyses for the effect of treatment factors are presented. Volumetric differences between survivors and controls exist for the whole brain and for subcortical structures on average 15 years post-diagnosis. Treatment factors seem to have a unique effect on subcortical structures. Memory differences between survivors and controls are largely contingent upon auditory attention list span. Only hippocampal volume is associated with the auditory attention list span component of verbal memory. These findings are particularly robust for survivors treated with radiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A Case of Generalized Auditory Agnosia with Unilateral Subcortical Brain Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyee; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia. PMID:23342322

  20. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  1. Cortical connections of auditory cortex in marmoset monkeys: lateral belt and parabelt regions

    PubMed Central

    de la Mothe, Lisa A.; Blumell, Suzanne; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Hackett, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    The current working model of primate auditory cortex is constructed from a number of studies of both New and Old World monkeys. It includes three levels of processing. A primary level, the core region, is surrounded both medially and laterally by a secondary belt region. A third level of processing, the parabelt region, is located lateral to the belt. The marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) has become an important model system to study auditory processing, but its anatomical organization has not been fully established. In previous studies, we focused on the architecture and connections of the core and medial belt areas (de la Mothe et al., 2006a,b). In the current study the corticocortical connections of the lateral belt and parabelt were examined in the marmoset. Tracers were injected into both rostral and caudal portions of the lateral belt and parabelt. Both regions revealed topographic connections along the rostrocaudal axis, where caudal areas of injection had stronger connections with caudal areas, and rostral areas of injection with rostral areas. The lateral belt had strong connections with the core, belt and parabelt, whereas the parabelt had strong connections with the belt but not the core. Label in the core from injections in the parabelt was significantly reduced or absent, consistent with the idea that the parabelt relies mainly on the belt for its cortical input. In addition, the present and previous studies indicate hierarchical principles of anatomical organization in the marmoset that are consistent with those observed in other primates. PMID:22461313

  2. Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in the brain of Gekko gecko: implications for understanding the role of androgens in controlling auditory and vocal processes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y Z; Piao, Y S; Zhuang, L Z; Wang, Z W

    2001-09-17

    The neuroanatomical distribution of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA-containing cells in the brain of a vocal lizard, Gekko gecko, was mapped using in situ hybridization. Particular attention was given to auditory and vocal nuclei. Within the auditory system, the cochlear nuclei, the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis, the nucleus medialis, and the medial region of the dorsal ventricular ridge contained moderate numbers of labeled neurons. Neurons labeled with the AR probe were located in many nuclei related to vocalization. Within the hindbrain, the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the vagal part of the nucleus ambiguus, and the dosal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve contained many neurons that exhibited strong expression of AR mRNA. Neurons located in the peripheral nucleus of the torus in the mesencephalon exhibited moderate levels of hybridization. Intense AR mRNA expression was also observed in neurons within two other areas that may be involved in vocalization, the medial preoptic area and the hypoglossal nucleus. The strongest mRNA signals identified in this study were found in cells of the pallium, hypothalamus, and inferior nucleus of the raphe. The expression patterns of AR mRNA in the auditory and vocal control nuclei of G. gecko suggest that neurons involved in acoustic communication in this species, and perhaps related species, are susceptible to regulation by androgens during the breeding season. The significance of these results for understanding the evolution of reptilian vocal communication is discussed.

  3. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Yong, Keir X X; Downey, Laura E; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer's disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer's disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer's disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer's disease

  4. Auditory brain response modified by temporal deviation of language rhythm: an auditory event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jomori, Izumi; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2009-10-01

    The effects of the temporal disruption of language rhythm in Japanese on auditory evoked potentials were investigated in normal subjects. Auditory event-related evoked potentials (AERP) were recorded following syllables using a natural and deviated language rhythm by inserting various (0-400 ms) silent intervals between syllables. The language speed was changed to assess the effect of a deviant rhythm relative to the language speed on AERP in another experiment. The prolonging of intervals did not affect the N100-P150 components until the inserted interval became 400 ms, while the negative component (early negativity, EN), peaking at 250-300 ms, was enhanced when the interval was 100 ms or more. The N100-P150 components following deviated language rhythms did not change during the fast speed but did in the standard and slow speed. We considered that the N100-P150 components were changed by the mixed effects of adaptation and prediction related to the reading speed, and that EN was evoked by deviated language rhythm in a different way from that caused N100-P150 changes, possibly via mismatch detection process between deviant rhythm and intrinsic rehearsed rhythm.

  5. Auditory Selective Attention Reveals Preparatory Activity in Different Cortical Regions for Selection Based on Source Location and Source Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Adrian K. C.; Rajaram, Siddharth; Xia, Jing; Bharadwaj, Hari; Larson, Eric; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to extract information in a rich environment, we focus on different features that allow us to direct attention to whatever source is of interest. The cortical network deployed during spatial attention, especially in vision, is well characterized. For example, visuospatial attention engages a frontoparietal network including the frontal eye fields (FEFs), which modulate activity in visual sensory areas to enhance the representation of an attended visual object. However, relatively little is known about the neural circuitry controlling attention directed to non-spatial features, or to auditory objects or features (either spatial or non-spatial). Here, using combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and anatomical information obtained from MRI, we contrasted cortical activity when observers attended to different auditory features given the same acoustic mixture of two simultaneous spoken digits. Leveraging the fine temporal resolution of MEG, we establish that activity in left FEF is enhanced both prior to and throughout the auditory stimulus when listeners direct auditory attention to target location compared to when they focus on target pitch. In contrast, activity in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region previously associated with auditory pitch categorization, is greater when listeners direct attention to target pitch rather than target location. This differential enhancement is only significant after observers are instructed which cue to attend, but before the acoustic stimuli begin. We therefore argue that left FEF participates more strongly in directing auditory spatial attention, while the left STS aids auditory object selection based on the non-spatial acoustic feature of pitch. PMID:23335874

  6. Diagnostic System Based on the Human AUDITORY-BRAIN Model for Measuring Environmental NOISE—AN Application to Railway Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAKAI, H.; HOTEHAMA, T.; ANDO, Y.; PRODI, N.; POMPOLI, R.

    2002-02-01

    Measurements of railway noise were conducted by use of a diagnostic system of regional environmental noise. The system is based on the model of the human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the interplay of autocorrelators and an interaural crosscorrelator acting on the pressure signals arriving at the ear entrances, and takes into account the specialization of left and right human cerebral hemispheres. Different kinds of railway noise were measured through binaural microphones of a dummy head. To characterize the railway noise, physical factors, extracted from the autocorrelation functions (ACF) and interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) of binaural signals, were used. The factors extracted from ACF were (1) energy represented at the origin of the delay, Φ (0), (2) effective duration of the envelope of the normalized ACF, τe, (3) the delay time of the first peak, τ1, and (4) its amplitude,ø1 . The factors extracted from IACF were (5) IACC, (6) interaural delay time at which the IACC is defined, τIACC, and (7) width of the IACF at the τIACC,WIACC . The factor Φ (0) can be represented as a geometrical mean of energies at both ears as listening level, LL.

  7. Brain stem auditory nuclei and their connections in a carnivorous marsupial, the northern native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus).

    PubMed

    Aitkin, L M; Byers, M; Nelson, J E

    1986-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture and connections of the brain stem auditory nuclei in the marsupial native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus) were studied using Nissl material in conjunction with the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into the inferior colliculus. Some features different from those of Eutheria include the disposition of the cochlear nuclear complex medial to the restiform body, a lack of large spherical cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, a small medial superior olive, and a large superior paraolivary nucleus.

  8. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-10-06

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use micro-CT to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger vs. smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of hearing aids on auditory function in infants with perinatal brain injury and severe hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 2-4% of newborns with perinatal risk factors present with hearing loss. Our aim was to analyze the effect of hearing aid use on auditory function evaluated based on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), auditory brain responses (ABRs) and auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in infants with perinatal brain injury and profound hearing loss. A prospective, longitudinal study of auditory function in infants with profound hearing loss. Right side hearing before and after hearing aid use was compared with left side hearing (not stimulated and used as control). All infants were subjected to OAE, ABR and ASSR evaluations before and after hearing aid use. The average ABR threshold decreased from 90.0 to 80.0 dB (p = 0.003) after six months of hearing aid use. In the left ear, which was used as a control, the ABR threshold decreased from 94.6 to 87.6 dB, which was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, the ASSR threshold in the 4000-Hz frequency decreased from 89 dB to 72 dB (p = 0.013) after six months of right ear hearing aid use; the other frequencies in the right ear and all frequencies in the left ear did not show significant differences in any of the measured parameters (p>0.05). OAEs were absent in the baseline test and showed no changes after hearing aid use in the right ear (p>0.05). This study provides evidence that early hearing aid use decreases the hearing threshold in ABR and ASSR assessments with no functional modifications in the auditory receptor, as evaluated by OAEs.

  10. Effect of Hearing Aids on Auditory Function in Infants with Perinatal Brain Injury and Severe Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 2–4% of newborns with perinatal risk factors present with hearing loss. Our aim was to analyze the effect of hearing aid use on auditory function evaluated based on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), auditory brain responses (ABRs) and auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in infants with perinatal brain injury and profound hearing loss. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective, longitudinal study of auditory function in infants with profound hearing loss. Right side hearing before and after hearing aid use was compared with left side hearing (not stimulated and used as control). All infants were subjected to OAE, ABR and ASSR evaluations before and after hearing aid use. The average ABR threshold decreased from 90.0 to 80.0 dB (p = 0.003) after six months of hearing aid use. In the left ear, which was used as a control, the ABR threshold decreased from 94.6 to 87.6 dB, which was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, the ASSR threshold in the 4000-Hz frequency decreased from 89 dB to 72 dB (p = 0.013) after six months of right ear hearing aid use; the other frequencies in the right ear and all frequencies in the left ear did not show significant differences in any of the measured parameters (p>0.05). OAEs were absent in the baseline test and showed no changes after hearing aid use in the right ear (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that early hearing aid use decreases the hearing threshold in ABR and ASSR assessments with no functional modifications in the auditory receptor, as evaluated by OAEs. PMID:22808289

  11. Communication and control by listening: toward optimal design of a two-class auditory streaming brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Hill, N Jeremy; Moinuddin, Aisha; Häuser, Ann-Katrin; Kienzle, Stephan; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Most brain-computer interface (BCI) systems require users to modulate brain signals in response to visual stimuli. Thus, they may not be useful to people with limited vision, such as those with severe paralysis. One important approach for overcoming this issue is auditory streaming, an approach whereby a BCI system is driven by shifts of attention between two simultaneously presented auditory stimulus streams. Motivated by the long-term goal of translating such a system into a reliable, simple yes-no interface for clinical usage, we aim to answer two main questions. First, we asked which of two previously published variants provides superior performance: a fixed-phase (FP) design in which the streams have equal period and opposite phase, or a drifting-phase (DP) design where the periods are unequal. We found FP to be superior to DP (p = 0.002): average performance levels were 80 and 72% correct, respectively. We were also able to show, in a pilot with one subject, that auditory streaming can support continuous control and neurofeedback applications: by shifting attention between ongoing left and right auditory streams, the subject was able to control the position of a paddle in a computer game. Second, we examined whether the system is dependent on eye movements, since it is known that eye movements and auditory attention may influence each other, and any dependence on the ability to move one's eyes would be a barrier to translation to paralyzed users. We discovered that, despite instructions, some subjects did make eye movements that were indicative of the direction of attention. However, there was no correlation, across subjects, between the reliability of the eye movement signal and the reliability of the BCI system, indicating that our system was configured to work independently of eye movement. Together, these findings are an encouraging step forward toward BCIs that provide practical communication and control options for the most severely paralyzed users.

  12. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  13. Auditory properties in the parabelt regions of the superior temporal gyrus in the awake macaque monkey: an initial survey.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-03-11

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior-lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the "parabelt," which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas.

  14. Auditory Properties in the Parabelt Regions of the Superior Temporal Gyrus in the Awake Macaque Monkey: An Initial Survey

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A.; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior–lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the “parabelt,” which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas. PMID:25762661

  15. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  16. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    were Bonferroni corrected for 404 tests. Regions showing significant hypometabolism with increasing cortex-wide amyloid burden were classic Alzheimer's disease-related regions: the medial and lateral parietal cortices. The associations between regional amyloid burden and regional metabolism were more heterogeneous: there were significant hypometabolic effects in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and parietal regions but also significant positive associations in bilateral hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. However, after correcting for global amyloid burden, few of the negative associations remained and the number of positive associations increased. Given the wide-spread distribution of amyloid plaques, if the canonical cascade hypothesis were true, we would expect wide-spread, cortical hypometabolism. Instead, cortical hypometabolism appears to be linked to global amyloid burden. Thus we conclude that regional fibrillar amyloid deposition has little to no association with regional hypometabolism. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Risk of depression enhances auditory Pitch discrimination in the brain as indexed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, L; Haumann, N T; Vuust, P; Kliuchko, M; Brattico, E

    2017-10-01

    Depression is a state of aversion to activity and low mood that affects behaviour, thoughts, feelings and sense of well-being. Moreover, the individual depression trait is associated with altered auditory cortex activation and appraisal of the affective content of sounds. Mismatch negativity responses (MMNs) to acoustic feature changes (pitch, timbre, location, intensity, slide and rhythm) inserted in a musical sequence played in major or minor mode were recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 88 subclinical participants with depression risk. We found correlations between MMNs to slide and pitch and the level of depression risk reported by participants, indicating that higher MMNs correspond to higher risk of depression. Furthermore we found significantly higher MMN amplitudes to mistuned pitches within a major context compared to MMNs to pitch changes in a minor context. The brains of individuals with depression risk are more responsive to mistuned and fast pitch stimulus changes, even at a pre-attentive level. Considering the altered appraisal of affective contents of sounds in depression and the relevance of spectral pitch features for those contents in music and speech, we propose that individuals with subclinical depression risk are more tuned to tracking sudden pitch changes. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovery function of the human brain stem auditory-evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Kevanishvili, Z; Lagidze, Z

    1979-01-01

    Amplitude reduction and peak latency prolongation were observed in the human brain stem auditory-evoked potential (BEP) with preceding (conditioning) stimulation. At a conditioning interval (CI) of 5 ms the alteration of BEP was greater than at a CI of 10 ms. At a CI of 10 ms the amplitudes of some BEP components (e.g. waves I and II) were more decreased than those of others (e.g. wave V), while the peak latency prolongation did not show any obvious component selectivity. At a CI of 5 ms, the extent of the amplitude decrement of individual BEP components differed less, while the increase in the peak latencies of the later components was greater than that of the earlier components. The alterations of the parameters of the test BEPs at both CIs are ascribed to the desynchronization of intrinsic neural events. The differential amplitude reduction at a CI of 10 ms is explained by the different durations of neural firings determining various effects of desynchronization upon the amplitudes of individual BEP components. The decrease in the extent of the component selectivity and the preferential increase in the peak latencies of the later BEP components observed at a CI of 5 ms are explained by the intensification of the mechanism of the relative refractory period.

  19. Localization of brain activity during auditory verbal short-term memory derived from magnetic recordings.

    PubMed

    Starr, A; Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1991-09-06

    We have studied magnetic and electrical fields of the brain in normal subjects during the performance of an auditory verbal short-term memory task. On each trial 3 digits, selected from the numbers 'one' through 'nine', were presented for memorization followed by a probe number which could or could not be a member of the preceding memory set. The subject pressed an appropriate response button and accuracy and reaction time were measured. Magnetic fields recorded from up to 63 sites over both hemispheres revealed a transient field at 110 ms to both the memory item and the probe consistent with a dipole source in Heschl's gyrus; a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the memory items localized to the temporal lobe slightly deeper and posterior to Heschl's gyri; and a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the probes localized bilaterally to the medio-basal temporal lobes. These results are related to clinical disorders of short-term memory in man.

  20. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: New Techniques and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Alderson-Day, Ben; Ellison, Amanda; Jardri, Renaud; Fernyhough, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing a voice in the absence of any speaker. Results from recent attempts to treat AVHs with neurostimulation (rTMS or tDCS) to the left temporoparietal junction have not been conclusive, but suggest that it may be a promising treatment option for some individuals. Some evidence suggests that the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation on AVHs may result from modulation of cortical areas involved in the ability to monitor the source of self-generated information. Here, we provide a brief overview of cognitive models and neurostimulation paradigms associated with treatment of AVHs, and discuss techniques that could be explored in the future to improve the efficacy of treatment, including alternating current and random noise stimulation. Technical issues surrounding the use of neurostimulation as a treatment option are discussed (including methods to localize the targeted cortical area, and the state-dependent effects of brain stimulation), as are issues surrounding the acceptability of neurostimulation for adolescent populations and individuals who experience qualitatively different types of AVH. PMID:26834541

  1. Frontal brain activation in premature infants' response to auditory stimuli in neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuri; Fukuhara, Rie; Aoyama, Shiori; Toshima, Tamotsu

    2009-07-01

    The present study was focusing on the very few contacts with the mother's voice that NICU infants have in the womb as well as after birth, we examined whether they can discriminate between their mothers' utterances and those of female nurses in terms of the emotional bonding that is facilitated by prosodic utterances. Twenty-six premature infants were included in this study, and their cerebral blood flows were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. They were exposed to auditory stimuli in the form of utterances made by their mothers and female nurses. A two (stimulus: mother and nurse) x two (recording site: right frontal area and left frontal area) analysis of variance (ANOVA) for these relative oxy-Hb values was conducted. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction between stimulus and recording site. The mother's and the nurse's voices were activated in the same way in the left frontal area, but showed different reactions in the right frontal area. We presume that the nurse's voice might become associated with pain and stress for premature infants. Our results showed that the premature infants reacted differently to the different voice stimuli. Therefore, we presume that both mothers' and nurses' voices represent positive stimuli for premature infants because both activate the frontal brain. Accordingly, we cannot explain our results only in terms of the state-dependent marker for infantile individual differences, but must also address the stressful trigger of nurses' voices for NICU infants.

  2. Hyperpolarization-independent maturation and refinement of GABA/glycinergic connections in the auditory brain stem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanmi; Bach, Eva; Noh, Jihyun; Delpire, Eric

    2015-01-01

    During development GABA and glycine synapses are initially excitatory before they gradually become inhibitory. This transition is due to a developmental increase in the activity of neuronal potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which shifts the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) to values more negative than the resting membrane potential. While the role of early GABA and glycine depolarizations in neuronal development has become increasingly clear, the role of the transition to hyperpolarization in synapse maturation and circuit refinement has remained an open question. Here we investigated this question by examining the maturation and developmental refinement of GABA/glycinergic and glutamatergic synapses in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a binaural auditory brain stem nucleus, in KCC2-knockdown mice, in which GABA and glycine remain depolarizing. We found that many key events in the development of synaptic inputs to the LSO, such as changes in neurotransmitter phenotype, strengthening and elimination of GABA/glycinergic connection, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses, occur undisturbed in KCC2-knockdown mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that maturation of inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the LSO is independent of the GABA and glycine depolarization-to-hyperpolarization transition. PMID:26655825

  3. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  4. Task-dependent modulation of regions in the left temporal cortex during auditory sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjun; Yue, Qiuhai; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the essential role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension along with evidence of the functional specialization of the anterior and posterior temporal sub-areas. However, it is unclear whether task demands (e.g., active vs. passive listening) modulate the functional specificity of these sub-areas. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we addressed this issue by applying both independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) methods. Consistent with previous studies, intelligible sentences elicited greater activity in the left lateral temporal cortex relative to unintelligible sentences. Moreover, responses to intelligibility in the sub-regions were differentially modulated by task demands. While the overall activation patterns of the anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG) were equivalent during both passive and active tasks, a middle portion of the STS/MTG was found to be selectively activated only during the active task under a refined analysis of sub-regional contributions. Our results not only confirm the critical role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension but further demonstrate that task demands modulate functional specialization of the anterior-middle-posterior temporal sub-areas.

  5. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  6. Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials in different strains of rodents.

    PubMed

    Chen, T J; Chen, S S

    1990-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate variations in brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEPs) among different strains of rodents. BAEPs were recorded by routine procedures from rodents of different strains or species. These included 22 Long-Evans, 28 Wistar and 28 Sprague-Dawley rats, and six hamsters. Within the first 10 ms, there were five consistent and reproducible positive waves of BAEPs in each rodent, named I, II, III, IV and V in correspondence with the nomenclature of waves I-VII in human BAEPs. These BAEPs were also similar to those observed in other vertebrates and in human controls. However, there were variations in waveforms and peak latencies among rodents, even in the rats of the same strain that came from different laboratory centres. At optimal stimulation intensity, usually around 90 dB, the mean latencies of the waves varied as follows: I, 1.23-1.53 ms; II, 1.88-2.28 ms; III, 2.62-2.94 ms; IV, 3.49-3.97 ms; and V, 4.47-5.14 ms. They were significantly different between species, but not in different strains of rats if they came from the same animal centre. The conduction time in the central portion illustrated by interpeak latencies between I and III, III and V, and I and V was dependent on the species (P less than 0.05). When recorded in a soundproof incubator, the minimal hearing threshold showed a significant species difference. The animal BAEP model can be employed for evaluating the physiological function or the pathological conditions of the brain stem. The confirmation of BAEP variations among different species or strains will be helpful in deciding which kind of rodents will be appropriate to serve as animal models for the various purposes of BAEP studies.

  7. Auditory neglect.

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, E; Gentilini, M; Barbieri, C

    1989-01-01

    Auditory neglect was investigated in normal controls and in patients with a recent unilateral hemispheric lesion, by requiring them to detect the interruptions that occurred in one ear in a sound delivered through earphones either mono-aurally or binaurally. Control patients accurately detected interruptions. One left brain damaged (LBD) patient missed only once in the ipsilateral ear while seven of the 30 right brain damaged (RBD) patients missed more than one signal in the monoaural test and nine patients did the same in the binaural test. Omissions were always more marked in the left ear and in the binaural test with a significant ear by test interaction. The lesion of these patients was in the parietal lobe (five patients) and the thalamus (four patients). The relation of auditory neglect to auditory extinction was investigated and found to be equivocal, in that there were seven RBD patients who showed extinction, but not neglect and, more importantly, two patients who exhibited the opposite pattern, thus challenging the view that extinction is a minor form of neglect. Also visual and auditory neglect were not consistently correlated, the former being present in nine RBD patients without auditory neglect and the latter in two RBD patients without visual neglect. The finding that in some RBD patients with auditory neglect omissions also occurred, though with less frequency, in the right ear, points to a right hemisphere participation in the deployment of attention not only to the contralateral, but also to the ipsilateral space. PMID:2732732

  8. fMRI reveals lateralized pattern of brain activity modulated by the metrics of stimuli during auditory rhyme processing.

    PubMed

    Hurschler, Martina A; Liem, Franziskus; Oechslin, Mathias; Stämpfli, Philipp; Meyer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Our fMRI study investigates auditory rhyme processing in spoken language to further elucidate the topic of functional lateralization of language processing. During scanning, 14 subjects listened to four different types of versed word strings and subsequently performed either a rhyme or a meter detection task. Our results show lateralization to auditory-related temporal regions in the right hemisphere irrespective of task. As for the left hemisphere we report responses in the supramarginal gyrus as well as in the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus modulated by the presence of regular meter and rhyme. The interaction of rhyme and meter was associated with increased involvement of the superior temporal sulcus and the putamen of the right hemisphere. Overall, these findings support the notion of right-hemispheric specialization for suprasegmental analyses during processing of spoken sentences and provide neuroimaging evidence for the influence of metrics on auditory rhyme processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Auditory Brain-Stem Response to Complex Sounds: A Potential Biomarker for Guiding Treatment of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Melissa A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Makeig, Scott; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits limit psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. For many patients, cognitive remediation approaches have yielded encouraging results. Nevertheless, therapeutic response is variable, and outcome studies consistently identify individuals who respond minimally to these interventions. Biomarkers that can assist in identifying patients likely to benefit from particular forms of cognitive remediation are needed. Here, we describe an event-related potential (ERP) biomarker – the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) to complex sounds (cABR) – that appears to be particularly well-suited for predicting response to at least one form of cognitive remediation that targets auditory information processing. Uniquely, the cABR quantifies the fidelity of sound encoded at the level of the brainstem and midbrain. This ERP biomarker has revealed auditory processing abnormalities in various neurodevelopmental disorders, correlates with functioning across several cognitive domains, and appears to be responsive to targeted auditory training. We present preliminary cABR data from 18 schizophrenia patients and propose further investigation of this biomarker for predicting and tracking response to cognitive interventions. PMID:25352811

  10. The influence of an auditory distraction on rapid naming after a mild traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Irene M; Collins, Jay N; Britt, L D

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine speeded performance over time and the impact of a common auditory distraction on performance after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Fourteen adults (ages 18-53) treated for a MTBI and 14 age and education-matched controls were asked to perform two speeded naming tasks. Both tasks were presented with or without the presence a common auditory distraction. The MTBI group was tested within 5 days, 30 days, 60 days, and 6 months postinjury. Latency (ms) and accuracy of response were recorded. Initially, the MTBI group demonstrated significantly longer response latencies and lower accuracy levels for both tasks. Similar results were found at 30 days postinjury. At 60 days postinjury, no significant difference was found for task 1 accuracy. Significant differences remained for task 1 latency, task 2 latency, and task 2 accuracy. At 6 months postinjury, no significant differences were found. The presence of an auditory distraction differentially affected the MTBI group for task 2 accuracy upon initial testing and at 30 days postinjury only. The MTBI group performed both tasks significantly slower and less accurately than the control group upon initial testing and at 30 days postinjury. The presence of pop music further influenced accuracy of complex processing. At 60 days postinjury, accuracy of simple processing returned to preinjury levels and the auditory distraction no longer differentially influenced the MTBI group. All performance differences were resolved at 6 months postinjury.

  11. An Evaluation of Training with an Auditory P300 Brain-Computer Interface for the Japanese Hiragana Syllabary

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sebastian; Takano, Kouji; Ora, Hiroki; Onishi, Akinari; Utsumi, Kota; Kansaku, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a possible communication channel for persons with paralysis. We investigated if it is possible to use auditory stimuli to create a BCI for the Japanese Hiragana syllabary, which has 46 Hiragana characters. Additionally, we investigated if training has an effect on accuracy despite the high amount of different stimuli involved. Able-bodied participants (N = 6) were asked to select 25 syllables (out of fifty possible choices) using a two step procedure: First the consonant (ten choices) and then the vowel (five choices). This was repeated on 3 separate days. Additionally, a person with spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the experiment. Four out of six healthy participants reached Hiragana syllable accuracies above 70% and the information transfer rate increased from 1.7 bits/min in the first session to 3.2 bits/min in the third session. The accuracy of the participant with SCI increased from 12% (0.2 bits/min) to 56% (2 bits/min) in session three. Reliable selections from a 10 × 5 matrix using auditory stimuli were possible and performance is increased by training. We were able to show that auditory P300 BCIs can be used for communication with up to fifty symbols. This enables the use of the technology of auditory P300 BCIs with a variety of applications. PMID:27746716

  12. An Evaluation of Training with an Auditory P300 Brain-Computer Interface for the Japanese Hiragana Syllabary.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sebastian; Takano, Kouji; Ora, Hiroki; Onishi, Akinari; Utsumi, Kota; Kansaku, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a possible communication channel for persons with paralysis. We investigated if it is possible to use auditory stimuli to create a BCI for the Japanese Hiragana syllabary, which has 46 Hiragana characters. Additionally, we investigated if training has an effect on accuracy despite the high amount of different stimuli involved. Able-bodied participants (N = 6) were asked to select 25 syllables (out of fifty possible choices) using a two step procedure: First the consonant (ten choices) and then the vowel (five choices). This was repeated on 3 separate days. Additionally, a person with spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the experiment. Four out of six healthy participants reached Hiragana syllable accuracies above 70% and the information transfer rate increased from 1.7 bits/min in the first session to 3.2 bits/min in the third session. The accuracy of the participant with SCI increased from 12% (0.2 bits/min) to 56% (2 bits/min) in session three. Reliable selections from a 10 × 5 matrix using auditory stimuli were possible and performance is increased by training. We were able to show that auditory P300 BCIs can be used for communication with up to fifty symbols. This enables the use of the technology of auditory P300 BCIs with a variety of applications.

  13. Top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered orienting of auditory attention to pitch activate overlapping brain networks.

    PubMed

    Alho, Kimmo; Salmi, Juha; Koistinen, Sonja; Salonen, Oili; Rinne, Teemu

    2015-11-11

    A number of previous studies have suggested segregated networks of brain areas for top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered orienting of visual attention. However, the corresponding networks involved in auditory attention remain less studied. Our participants attended selectively to a tone stream with either a lower pitch or higher pitch in order to respond to infrequent changes in duration of attended tones. The participants were also required to shift their attention from one stream to the other when guided by a visual arrow cue. In addition to these top-down controlled cued attention shifts, infrequent task-irrelevant louder tones occurred in both streams to trigger attention in a bottom-up manner. Both cued shifts and louder tones were associated with enhanced activity in the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, superior parietal lobule, inferior and middle frontal gyri, frontal eye field, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate gyrus. Thus, the present findings suggest that in the auditory modality, unlike in vision, top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered attention activate largely the same cortical networks. Comparison of the present results with our previous results from a similar experiment on spatial auditory attention suggests that fronto-parietal networks of attention to location or pitch overlap substantially. However, the auditory areas in the anterior superior temporal cortex might have a more important role in attention to the pitch than location of sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  14. An online brain-computer interface based on shifting attention to concurrent streams of auditory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hill, N J; Schölkopf, B

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development and online testing of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that aims to be usable by completely paralysed users—for whom visual or motor-system-based BCIs may not be suitable, and among whom reports of successful BCI use have so far been very rare. The current approach exploits covert shifts of attention to auditory stimuli in a dichotic-listening stimulus design. To compare the efficacy of event-related potentials (ERPs) and steady-state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs), the stimuli were designed such that they elicited both ERPs and SSAEPs simultaneously. Trial-by-trial feedback was provided online, based on subjects’ modulation of N1 and P3 ERP components measured during single 5-second stimulation intervals. All 13 healthy subjects were able to use the BCI, with performance in a binary left/right choice task ranging from 75% to 96% correct across subjects (mean 85%). BCI classification was based on the contrast between stimuli in the attended stream and stimuli in the unattended stream, making use of every stimulus, rather than contrasting frequent standard and rare “oddball” stimuli. SSAEPs were assessed offline: for all subjects, spectral components at the two exactly-known modulation frequencies allowed discrimination of pre-stimulus from stimulus intervals, and of left-only stimuli from right-only stimuli when one side of the dichotic stimulus pair was muted. However, attention-modulation of SSAEPs was not sufficient for single-trial BCI communication, even when the subject’s attention was clearly focused well enough to allow classification of the same trials via ERPs. ERPs clearly provided a superior basis for BCI. The ERP results are a promising step towards the development of a simple-to-use, reliable yes/no communication system for users in the most severely paralysed states, as well as potential attention-monitoring and -training applications outside the context of assistive technology. PMID:22333135

  15. Brain-computer interfaces using capacitive measurement of visual or auditory steady-state responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Hyun Seok; Heo, Jeong; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies have been intensely studied to provide alternative communication tools entirely independent of neuromuscular activities. Current BCI technologies use electroencephalogram (EEG) acquisition methods that require unpleasant gel injections, impractical preparations and clean-up procedures. The next generation of BCI technologies requires practical, user-friendly, nonintrusive EEG platforms in order to facilitate the application of laboratory work in real-world settings. Approach. A capacitive electrode that does not require an electrolytic gel or direct electrode-scalp contact is a potential alternative to the conventional wet electrode in future BCI systems. We have proposed a new capacitive EEG electrode that contains a conductive polymer-sensing surface, which enhances electrode performance. This paper presents results from five subjects who exhibited visual or auditory steady-state responses according to BCI using these new capacitive electrodes. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) spelling system and the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) binary decision system were employed. Main results. Offline tests demonstrated BCI performance high enough to be used in a BCI system (accuracy: 95.2%, ITR: 19.91 bpm for SSVEP BCI (6 s), accuracy: 82.6%, ITR: 1.48 bpm for ASSR BCI (14 s)) with the analysis time being slightly longer than that when wet electrodes were employed with the same BCI system (accuracy: 91.2%, ITR: 25.79 bpm for SSVEP BCI (4 s), accuracy: 81.3%, ITR: 1.57 bpm for ASSR BCI (12 s)). Subjects performed online BCI under the SSVEP paradigm in copy spelling mode and under the ASSR paradigm in selective attention mode with a mean information transfer rate (ITR) of 17.78 ± 2.08 and 0.7 ± 0.24 bpm, respectively. Significance. The results of these experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using our capacitive EEG electrode in BCI systems. This capacitive electrode may become a flexible and

  16. Mother’s voice and heartbeat sounds elicit auditory plasticity in the human brain before full gestation

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Alexandra R.; Heller, Howard T.; Benson, Carol B.; Lahav, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Brain development is largely shaped by early sensory experience. However, it is currently unknown whether, how early, and to what extent the newborn’s brain is shaped by exposure to maternal sounds when the brain is most sensitive to early life programming. The present study examined this question in 40 infants born extremely prematurely (between 25- and 32-wk gestation) in the first month of life. Newborns were randomized to receive auditory enrichment in the form of audio recordings of maternal sounds (including their mother’s voice and heartbeat) or routine exposure to hospital environmental noise. The groups were otherwise medically and demographically comparable. Cranial ultrasonography measurements were obtained at 30 ± 3 d of life. Results show that newborns exposed to maternal sounds had a significantly larger auditory cortex (AC) bilaterally compared with control newborns receiving standard care. The magnitude of the right and left AC thickness was significantly correlated with gestational age but not with the duration of sound exposure. Measurements of head circumference and the widths of the frontal horn (FH) and the corpus callosum (CC) were not significantly different between the two groups. This study provides evidence for experience-dependent plasticity in the primary AC before the brain has reached full-term maturation. Our results demonstrate that despite the immaturity of the auditory pathways, the AC is more adaptive to maternal sounds than environmental noise. Further studies are needed to better understand the neural processes underlying this early brain plasticity and its functional implications for future hearing and language development. PMID:25713382

  17. Cortical connections of auditory cortex in marmoset monkeys: lateral belt and parabelt regions.

    PubMed

    de la Mothe, Lisa A; Blumell, Suzanne; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Hackett, Troy A

    2012-05-01

    The current working model of primate auditory cortex is constructed from a number of studies of both new and old world monkeys. It includes three levels of processing. A primary level, the core region, is surrounded both medially and laterally by a secondary belt region. A third level of processing, the parabelt region, is located lateral to the belt. The marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) has become an important model system to study auditory processing, but its anatomical organization has not been fully established. In previous studies, we focused on the architecture and connections of the core and medial belt areas (de la Mothe et al., 2006a, J Comp Neurol 496:27-71; de la Mothe et al., 2006b, J Comp Neurol 496:72-96). In this study, the corticocortical connections of the lateral belt and parabelt were examined in the marmoset. Tracers were injected into both rostral and caudal portions of the lateral belt and parabelt. Both regions revealed topographic connections along the rostrocaudal axis, where caudal areas of injection had stronger connections with caudal areas, and rostral areas of injection with rostral areas. The lateral belt had strong connections with the core, belt, and parabelt, whereas the parabelt had strong connections with the belt but not the core. Label in the core from injections in the parabelt was significantly reduced or absent, consistent with the idea that the parabelt relies mainly on the belt for its cortical input. In addition, the present and previous studies indicate hierarchical principles of anatomical organization in the marmoset that are consistent with those observed in other primates.

  18. Auditory perception in the aging brain: the role of inhibition and facilitation in early processing.

    PubMed

    Stothart, George; Kazanina, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Aging affects the interplay between peripheral and cortical auditory processing. Previous studies have demonstrated that older adults are less able to regulate afferent sensory information and are more sensitive to distracting information. Using auditory event-related potentials we investigated the role of cortical inhibition on auditory and audiovisual processing in younger and older adults. Across puretone, auditory and audiovisual speech paradigms older adults showed a consistent pattern of inhibitory deficits, manifested as increased P50 and/or N1 amplitudes and an absent or significantly reduced N2. Older adults were still able to use congruent visual articulatory information to aid auditory processing but appeared to require greater neural effort to resolve conflicts generated by incongruent visual information. In combination, the results provide support for the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis of aging. They extend previous findings into the audiovisual domain and highlight older adults' ability to benefit from congruent visual information during speech processing.

  19. Delineation of a frequency-organized region isolated from the mouse primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Bo, Takeshi; Uchimura, Arikuni; Hishida, Ryuichi; Kudoh, Masaharu; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2015-04-01

    The primary auditory cortex (AI) is the representative recipient of information from the ears in the mammalian cortex. However, the delineation of the AI is still controversial in a mouse. Recently, it was reported, using optical imaging, that two distinct areas of the AI, located ventrally and dorsally, are activated by high-frequency tones, whereas only one area is activated by low-frequency tones. Here, we show that the dorsal high-frequency area is an independent region that is separated from the rest of the AI. We could visualize the two distinct high-frequency areas using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, as reported previously. SMI-32 immunolabeling revealed that the dorsal region had a different cytoarchitectural pattern from the rest of the AI. Specifically, the ratio of SMI-32-positive pyramidal neurons to nonpyramidal neurons was larger in the dorsal high-frequency area than the rest of the AI. We named this new region the dorsomedial field (DM). Retrograde tracing showed that neurons projecting to the DM were localized in the rostral part of the ventral division of the medial geniculate body with a distinct frequency organization, where few neurons projected to the AI. Furthermore, the responses of the DM to ultrasonic courtship songs presented by males were significantly greater in females than in males; in contrast, there was no sex difference in response to artificial pure tones. Our findings offer a basic outline on the processing of ultrasonic vocal information on the basis of the precisely subdivided, multiple frequency-organized auditory cortex map in mice.

  20. Delineation of a frequency-organized region isolated from the mouse primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masao; Bo, Takeshi; Uchimura, Arikuni; Hishida, Ryuichi; Kudoh, Masaharu; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2015-01-01

    The primary auditory cortex (AI) is the representative recipient of information from the ears in the mammalian cortex. However, the delineation of the AI is still controversial in a mouse. Recently, it was reported, using optical imaging, that two distinct areas of the AI, located ventrally and dorsally, are activated by high-frequency tones, whereas only one area is activated by low-frequency tones. Here, we show that the dorsal high-frequency area is an independent region that is separated from the rest of the AI. We could visualize the two distinct high-frequency areas using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, as reported previously. SMI-32 immunolabeling revealed that the dorsal region had a different cytoarchitectural pattern from the rest of the AI. Specifically, the ratio of SMI-32-positive pyramidal neurons to nonpyramidal neurons was larger in the dorsal high-frequency area than the rest of the AI. We named this new region the dorsomedial field (DM). Retrograde tracing showed that neurons projecting to the DM were localized in the rostral part of the ventral division of the medial geniculate body with a distinct frequency organization, where few neurons projected to the AI. Furthermore, the responses of the DM to ultrasonic courtship songs presented by males were significantly greater in females than in males; in contrast, there was no sex difference in response to artificial pure tones. Our findings offer a basic outline on the processing of ultrasonic vocal information on the basis of the precisely subdivided, multiple frequency-organized auditory cortex map in mice. PMID:25695649

  1. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  2. Repetition suppression and repetition enhancement underlie auditory memory-trace formation in the human brain: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Recasens, Marc; Leung, Sumie; Grimm, Sabine; Nowak, Rafal; Escera, Carles

    2015-03-01

    The formation of echoic memory traces has traditionally been inferred from the enhanced responses to its deviations. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential (ERP) elicited between 100 and 250ms after sound deviation is an indirect index of regularity encoding that reflects a memory-based comparison process. Recently, repetition positivity (RP) has been described as a candidate ERP correlate of direct memory trace formation. RP consists of repetition suppression and enhancement effects occurring in different auditory components between 50 and 250ms after sound onset. However, the neuronal generators engaged in the encoding of repeated stimulus features have received little interest. This study intends to investigate the neuronal sources underlying the formation and strengthening of new memory traces by employing a roving-standard paradigm, where trains of different frequencies and different lengths are presented randomly. Source generators of repetition enhanced (RE) and suppressed (RS) activity were modeled using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy subjects. Our results show that, in line with RP findings, N1m (~95-150ms) activity is suppressed with stimulus repetition. In addition, we observed the emergence of a sustained field (~230-270ms) that showed RE. Source analysis revealed neuronal generators of RS and RE located in both auditory and non-auditory areas, like the medial parietal cortex and frontal areas. The different timing and location of neural generators involved in RS and RE points to the existence of functionally separated mechanisms devoted to acoustic memory-trace formation in different auditory processing stages of the human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Formulae Describing Subjective Attributes for Sound Fields Based on a Model of the Auditory-Brain System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ANDO, Y.; SAKAI, H.; SATO, S.

    2000-04-01

    This article reviews the background of a workable model of the auditory-brain system, and formulae of calculating fundamental subjective attributes derived from the model. The model consists of the autocorrelation mechanisms, the interaural cross-correlation mechanism between the two auditory pathways, and the specialization of the human cerebral hemispheres for temporal and spatial factors of the sound field. Typical fundamental attributes, the apparent source width, the missing fundamental, and the speech intelligibility of sound fields, for example, in opera houses, are described in terms of the orthogonal spatial factors extracted from the interaural cross-correlation function, and the orthogonal temporal factors extracted from the autocorrelation function, respectively. Also, other important subjective attributes of the sound fields, the subjective diffuseness, and subjective preferences of both listeners and performers for single reflection are demonstrated here.

  4. On the temporal window of auditory-brain system in connection with subjective responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Kiminori

    2003-08-01

    The human auditory-brain system processes information extracted from autocorrelation function (ACF) of the source signal and interaural cross correlation function (IACF) of binaural sound signals which are associated with the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the desirable temporal window (2T: integration interval) for ACF and IACF mechanisms. For the ACF mechanism, the visual change of Φ(0), i.e., the power of ACF, was associated with the change of loudness, and it is shown that the recommended temporal window is given as about 30(τe)min [s]. The value of (τe)min is the minimum value of effective duration of the running ACF of the source signal. It is worth noticing from the experiment of EEG that the most preferred delay time of the first reflection sound is determined by the piece indicating (τe)min in the source signal. For the IACF mechanism, the temporal window is determined as below: The measured range of τIACC corresponding to subjective angle for the moving image sound depends on the temporal window. Here, the moving image was simulated by the use of two loudspeakers located at +/-20° in the horizontal plane, reproducing amplitude modulated band-limited noise alternatively. It is found that the temporal window has a wide range of values from 0.03 to 1 [s] for the modulation frequency below 0.2 Hz. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Kiminori Mouri, 5-3-3-1110 Harayama-dai, Sakai city, Osaka 590-0132, Japan. E-mail address: km529756@aol.com

  5. Thermal Imaging of the Periorbital Regions during the Presentation of an Auditory Startle Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Gane, Luke; Power, Sarah; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging of the inner canthi of the periorbital regions of the face can potentially serve as an input signal modality for an alternative access system for individuals with conditions that preclude speech or voluntary movement, such as total locked-in syndrome. However, it is unknown if the temperature of these regions is affected by the human startle response, as changes in the facial temperature of the periorbital regions manifested during the startle response could generate false positives in a thermography-based access system. This study presents an examination of the temperature characteristics of the periorbital regions of 11 able-bodied adult participants before and after a 102 dB auditory startle stimulus. The results indicate that the startle response has no substantial effect on the mean temperature of the periorbital regions. This indicates that thermography-based access solutions would be insensitive to startle reactions in their user, an important advantage over other modalities being considered in the context of access solutions for individuals with a severe motor disability. PMID:22073302

  6. Immuno-modulator inter-alpha inhibitor proteins ameliorate complex auditory processing deficits in rats with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Threlkeld, Steven W; Lim, Yow-Pin; La Rue, Molly; Gaudet, Cynthia; Stonestreet, Barbara S

    2017-03-10

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is recognized as a significant problem in the perinatal period, contributing to life-long language-learning and other cognitive impairments. Central auditory processing deficits are common in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and have been shown to predict language learning deficits in other at risk infant populations. Inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) are a family of structurally related plasma proteins that modulate the systemic inflammatory response to infection and have been shown to attenuate cell death and improve learning outcomes after neonatal brain injury in rats. Here, we show that systemic administration of IAIPs during the early HI injury cascade ameliorates complex auditory discrimination deficits as compared to untreated HI injured subjects, despite reductions in brain weight. These findings have significant clinical implications for improving central auditory processing deficits linked to language learning in neonates with HI related brain injury.

  7. Cortical pitch regions in humans respond primarily to resolved harmonics and are located in specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy; McDermott, Josh H

    2013-12-11

    Pitch is a defining perceptual property of many real-world sounds, including music and speech. Classically, theories of pitch perception have differentiated between temporal and spectral cues. These cues are rendered distinct by the frequency resolution of the ear, such that some frequencies produce "resolved" peaks of excitation in the cochlea, whereas others are "unresolved," providing a pitch cue only via their temporal fluctuations. Despite longstanding interest, the neural structures that process pitch, and their relationship to these cues, have remained controversial. Here, using fMRI in humans, we report the following: (1) consistent with previous reports, all subjects exhibited pitch-sensitive cortical regions that responded substantially more to harmonic tones than frequency-matched noise; (2) the response of these regions was mainly driven by spectrally resolved harmonics, although they also exhibited a weak but consistent response to unresolved harmonics relative to noise; (3) the response of pitch-sensitive regions to a parametric manipulation of resolvability tracked psychophysical discrimination thresholds for the same stimuli; and (4) pitch-sensitive regions were localized to specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex, extending from a low-frequency region of primary auditory cortex into a more anterior and less frequency-selective region of nonprimary auditory cortex. These results demonstrate that cortical pitch responses are located in a stereotyped region of anterior auditory cortex and are predominantly driven by resolved frequency components in a way that mirrors behavior.

  8. Cortical Pitch Regions in Humans Respond Primarily to Resolved Harmonics and Are Located in Specific Tonotopic Regions of Anterior Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kanwisher, Nancy; McDermott, Josh H.

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is a defining perceptual property of many real-world sounds, including music and speech. Classically, theories of pitch perception have differentiated between temporal and spectral cues. These cues are rendered distinct by the frequency resolution of the ear, such that some frequencies produce “resolved” peaks of excitation in the cochlea, whereas others are “unresolved,” providing a pitch cue only via their temporal fluctuations. Despite longstanding interest, the neural structures that process pitch, and their relationship to these cues, have remained controversial. Here, using fMRI in humans, we report the following: (1) consistent with previous reports, all subjects exhibited pitch-sensitive cortical regions that responded substantially more to harmonic tones than frequency-matched noise; (2) the response of these regions was mainly driven by spectrally resolved harmonics, although they also exhibited a weak but consistent response to unresolved harmonics relative to noise; (3) the response of pitch-sensitive regions to a parametric manipulation of resolvability tracked psychophysical discrimination thresholds for the same stimuli; and (4) pitch-sensitive regions were localized to specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex, extending from a low-frequency region of primary auditory cortex into a more anterior and less frequency-selective region of nonprimary auditory cortex. These results demonstrate that cortical pitch responses are located in a stereotyped region of anterior auditory cortex and are predominantly driven by resolved frequency components in a way that mirrors behavior. PMID:24336712

  9. Auditory exostoses as an aquatic activity marker: a comparison of coastal and inland skeletal remains from tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Maria Mercedes M; Boyadjian, Célia H C; Eggers, Sabine

    2007-04-01

    Auditory exostoses are bone masses located in the external auditory canal. Currently, most researchers agree that the environment (especially water temperature, but also atmospheric temperature and wind action) plays a pivotal role in the development of this trait. This article discusses whether the presence of auditory exostoses can be used as an aquatic activity marker in bioarchaeological studies, especially in groups that inhabited tropical and subtropical regions. We analyzed 676 skeletons (5,000 years BP to historical times) from 27 coastal and inland native Brazilian groups. Very low frequencies of auditory exostoses were found in the inland groups (0.00-0.03), but the expected high frequency of auditory exostoses in the coastal groups was not always observed (0.00-0.56). These differences might be explained by the combination of water and atmospheric temperatures in conjunction with wind effects. In areas with mild atmospheric temperatures and wind chill factors, the coastal populations analyzed do not show high frequencies of auditory exostoses. However, high frequencies of auditory exostoses develop where cold atmospheric temperatures are further lowered by strong wind chill. Therefore, the association between aquatic activities, low atmospheric temperature, and wind chill is strongly correlated with the presence of auditory exostoses, but where these environmental factors are mild, the frequencies of auditory exostoses are not necessarily high. Concluding, auditory exostoses should be cautiously used as a marker of aquatic activity in bioarchaeological studies in tropical and subtropical regions, since these activities do not always result in the presence of this trait.

  10. Asymmetries of the human social brain in the visual, auditory and chemical modalities

    PubMed Central

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lucci, Giuliana; Mazzatenta, Andrea; Tommasi, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Structural and functional asymmetries are present in many regions of the human brain responsible for motor control, sensory and cognitive functions and communication. Here, we focus on hemispheric asymmetries underlying the domain of social perception, broadly conceived as the analysis of information about other individuals based on acoustic, visual and chemical signals. By means of these cues the brain establishes the border between ‘self’ and ‘other’, and interprets the surrounding social world in terms of the physical and behavioural characteristics of conspecifics essential for impression formation and for creating bonds and relationships. We show that, considered from the standpoint of single- and multi-modal sensory analysis, the neural substrates of the perception of voices, faces, gestures, smells and pheromones, as evidenced by modern neuroimaging techniques, are characterized by a general pattern of right-hemispheric functional asymmetry that might benefit from other aspects of hemispheric lateralization rather than constituting a true specialization for social information. PMID:19064350

  11. Asymmetries of the human social brain in the visual, auditory and chemical modalities.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lucci, Giuliana; Mazzatenta, Andrea; Tommasi, Luca

    2009-04-12

    Structural and functional asymmetries are present in many regions of the human brain responsible for motor control, sensory and cognitive functions and communication. Here, we focus on hemispheric asymmetries underlying the domain of social perception, broadly conceived as the analysis of information about other individuals based on acoustic, visual and chemical signals. By means of these cues the brain establishes the border between 'self' and 'other', and interprets the surrounding social world in terms of the physical and behavioural characteristics of conspecifics essential for impression formation and for creating bonds and relationships. We show that, considered from the standpoint of single- and multi-modal sensory analysis, the neural substrates of the perception of voices, faces, gestures, smells and pheromones, as evidenced by modern neuroimaging techniques, are characterized by a general pattern of right-hemispheric functional asymmetry that might benefit from other aspects of hemispheric lateralization rather than constituting a true specialization for social information.

  12. Evaluation of region selective bilirubin-induced brain damage as a basis for a pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dal Ben, Matteo; Bottin, Cristina; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Tiribelli, Claudio; Gazzin, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The neurologic manifestations of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit high variations in the severity and appearance of motor, auditory and cognitive symptoms, which is suggestive of a still unexplained selective topography of bilirubin-induced damage. By applying the organotypic brain culture (OBC: preserving in vitro the cellular complexity, connection and architecture of the in vivo brain) technique to study hyperbilirubinemia, we mapped the regional target of bilirubin-induced damage, demonstrated a multifactorial toxic action of bilirubin, and used this information to evaluate the efficacy of drugs applicable to newborns to protect the brain. OBCs from 8-day-old rat pups showed a 2–13 fold higher sensitivity to bilirubin damage than 2-day-old preparations. The hippocampus, inferior colliculus and cerebral cortex were the only brain regions affected, presenting a mixed inflammatory-oxidative mechanism. Glutamate excitotoxicity was appreciable in only the hippocampus and inferior colliculus. Single drug treatment (indomethacin, curcumin, MgCl2) significantly improved cell viability in all regions, while the combined (cocktail) administration of the three drugs almost completely prevented damage in the most affected area (hippocampus). Our data may supports an innovative (complementary to phototherapy) approach for directly protecting the newborn brain from bilirubin neurotoxicity. PMID:28102362

  13. Variable effects of click polarity on auditory brain-stem response latencies: analyses of narrow-band ABRs suggest possible explanations.

    PubMed

    Don, M; Vermiglio, A J; Ponton, C W; Eggermont, J J; Masuda, A

    1996-07-01

    The auditory brain-stem responses (ABRs) to rarefaction and condensation clicks were obtained for 12 normal-hearing subjects in quiet, and high-pass masking at 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 kHz. Derived narrow-band wave V latency differences were analyzed with respect to (1) stimulus polarity, (2) absolute differences irrespective of polarity. The analyses revealed no significant stimulus polarity effects on latency for the derived bands. Absolute latency differences regardless of polarity tended to be greater for those derived bands having lower characteristic frequencies (CFs). However, these differences were smaller than the expected half-period of the theoretical CF. Further analyses in three additional subjects using repeated runs of the same polarity indicate that this increase in absolute latency difference with lower derived band CF does not reflect a simple half-period change owing to polarity, but rather to the increase variability in measuring the peak latency of the lower CF derived bands. The variability is consistent with variability of eighth nerve PST histograms behavior observed in animal work [Kiang et al., "Discharge patterns of single fibers in the cat's auditory nerve," Research Monograph No. 35 (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1965)]. Thus claimed polarity effects observed in other ABR work using absolute values may have been affected by this variability. It appears from these current data that half-period latency shifts of wave V owing to stimulus polarity differences are not observed in derived bands responses initiated from frequency specific regions of the cochlea.

  14. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    PubMed

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates.

  15. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    PubMed Central

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  16. Zenk expression in auditory regions changes with breeding condition in male Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

    PubMed

    Phillmore, Leslie S; Veysey, Andrew S; Roach, Sean P

    2011-12-01

    Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) produce different vocalizations at different times of year: the fee-bee song is produced by males primarily in spring, whereas the chick-a-dee call is produced year-round but most frequently in the fall and winter. We wanted to determine if neural response to playback in auditory regions of the songbird brain varied with season in parallel to production. We captured adult male black-capped chickadees from the wild in either breeding condition or non-breeding condition and within 24-48 h of bringing them into the laboratory setting, played them recordings of either conspecific vocalizations (fee-bee songs or chick-a-dee calls), heterospecific vocalizations (Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia, song), or silence. We then measured ZENK protein immunoreactivity (Zenk-ir) in caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), two regions important for perception of conspecific vocalizations. We found that, overall, non-breeding birds had greater Zenk-ir than breeding birds. In addition, we found that birds in non-breeding condition had significantly greater Zenk-ir to heterospecific song than birds in breeding condition, but this difference was not seen in birds that heard conspecific songs or calls. Finally, in NCMd chickadees had greater response to playback of conspecific vocalizations (when combining song and call groups) than playback of heterospecific vocalizations but only while in breeding condition. Our results qualify the claim that Zenk-ir is biased toward conspecific vocalizations, and indicate that specificity of neural response varies with season. Variation could be a result of increased production and perceptual demand in spring, or hormonal changes in breeding birds, possibly because chickadees display vocal plasticity in chick-a-dee calls in the fall, requiring a degree of neural plasticity across seasons.

  17. Music and natural sounds in an auditory steady-state response based brain-computer interface to increase user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jeong; Baek, Hyun Jae; Hong, Seunghyeok; Chang, Min Hye; Lee, Jeong Su; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-05-01

    Patients with total locked-in syndrome are conscious; however, they cannot express themselves because most of their voluntary muscles are paralyzed, and many of these patients have lost their eyesight. To improve the quality of life of these patients, there is an increasing need for communication-supporting technologies that leverage the remaining senses of the patient along with physiological signals. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an electro-physiologic response to auditory stimulation that is amplitude-modulated by a specific frequency. By leveraging the phenomenon whereby ASSR is modulated by mind concentration, a brain-computer interface paradigm was proposed to classify the selective attention of the patient. In this paper, we propose an auditory stimulation method to minimize auditory stress by replacing the monotone carrier with familiar music and natural sounds for an ergonomic system. Piano and violin instrumentals were employed in the music sessions; the sounds of water streaming and cicadas singing were used in the natural sound sessions. Six healthy subjects participated in the experiment. Electroencephalograms were recorded using four electrodes (Cz, Oz, T7 and T8). Seven sessions were performed using different stimuli. The spectral power at 38 and 42Hz and their ratio for each electrode were extracted as features. Linear discriminant analysis was utilized to classify the selections for each subject. In offline analysis, the average classification accuracies with a modulation index of 1.0 were 89.67% and 87.67% using music and natural sounds, respectively. In online experiments, the average classification accuracies were 88.3% and 80.0% using music and natural sounds, respectively. Using the proposed method, we obtained significantly higher user-acceptance scores, while maintaining a high average classification accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain bases for auditory stimulus-driven figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Teki, Sundeep; Chait, Maria; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2011-01-05

    Auditory figure-ground segregation, listeners' ability to selectively hear out a sound of interest from a background of competing sounds, is a fundamental aspect of scene analysis. In contrast to the disordered acoustic environment we experience during everyday listening, most studies of auditory segregation have used relatively simple, temporally regular signals. We developed a new figure-ground stimulus that incorporates stochastic variation of the figure and background that captures the rich spectrotemporal complexity of natural acoustic scenes. Figure and background signals overlap in spectrotemporal space, but vary in the statistics of fluctuation, such that the only way to extract the figure is by integrating the patterns over time and frequency. Our behavioral results demonstrate that human listeners are remarkably sensitive to the appearance of such figures. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, aimed at investigating preattentive, stimulus-driven, auditory segregation mechanisms, naive subjects listened to these stimuli while performing an irrelevant task. Results demonstrate significant activations in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior temporal sulcus related to bottom-up, stimulus-driven figure-ground decomposition. We did not observe any significant activation in the primary auditory cortex. Our results support a role for automatic, bottom-up mechanisms in the IPS in mediating stimulus-driven, auditory figure-ground segregation, which is consistent with accumulating evidence implicating the IPS in structuring sensory input and perceptual organization.

  19. Song and speech: brain regions involved with perception and covert production.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Hanakawa, Takashi; Callan, Akiko M; Katsuhara, Maya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Turner, Robert

    2006-07-01

    This 3-T fMRI study investigates brain regions similarly and differentially involved with listening and covert production of singing relative to speech. Given the greater use of auditory-motor self-monitoring and imagery with respect to consonance in singing, brain regions involved with these processes are predicted to be differentially active for singing more than for speech. The stimuli consisted of six Japanese songs. A block design was employed in which the tasks for the subject were to listen passively to singing of the song lyrics, passively listen to speaking of the song lyrics, covertly sing the song lyrics visually presented, covertly speak the song lyrics visually presented, and to rest. The conjunction of passive listening and covert production tasks used in this study allow for general neural processes underlying both perception and production to be discerned that are not exclusively a result of stimulus induced auditory processing nor to low level articulatory motor control. Brain regions involved with both perception and production for singing as well as speech were found to include the left planum temporale/superior temporal parietal region, as well as left and right premotor cortex, lateral aspect of the VI lobule of posterior cerebellum, anterior superior temporal gyrus, and planum polare. Greater activity for the singing over the speech condition for both the listening and covert production tasks was found in the right planum temporale. Greater activity in brain regions involved with consonance, orbitofrontal cortex (listening task), subcallosal cingulate (covert production task) were also present for singing over speech. The results are consistent with the PT mediating representational transformation across auditory and motor domains in response to consonance for singing over that of speech. Hemispheric laterality was assessed by paired t tests between active voxels in the contrast of interest relative to the left-right flipped contrast of

  20. Evidence for distinct human auditory cortex regions for sound location versus identity processing

    PubMed Central

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Huang, Samantha; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Belliveau, John W.; Hung, An-Yi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Rauschecker, Josef P.; Rossi, Stephanie; Tiitinen, Hannu; Raij, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiological animal models suggest that anterior auditory cortex (AC) areas process sound-identity information, whereas posterior ACs specialize in sound location processing. In humans, inconsistent neuroimaging results and insufficient causal evidence have challenged the existence of such parallel AC organization. Here we transiently inhibit bilateral anterior or posterior AC areas using MRI-guided paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects listen to Reference/Probe sound pairs and perform either sound location or identity discrimination tasks. The targeting of TMS pulses, delivered 55–145 ms after Probes, is confirmed with individual-level cortical electric-field estimates. Our data show that TMS to posterior AC regions delays reaction times (RT) significantly more during sound location than identity discrimination, whereas TMS to anterior AC regions delays RTs significantly more during sound identity than location discrimination. This double dissociation provides direct causal support for parallel processing of sound identity features in anterior AC and sound location in posterior AC. PMID:24121634

  1. Evidence for distinct human auditory cortex regions for sound location versus identity processing.

    PubMed

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Huang, Samantha; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Belliveau, John W; Hung, An-Yi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Rauschecker, Josef P; Rossi, Stephanie; Tiitinen, Hannu; Raij, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological animal models suggest that anterior auditory cortex (AC) areas process sound identity information, whereas posterior ACs specialize in sound location processing. In humans, inconsistent neuroimaging results and insufficient causal evidence have challenged the existence of such parallel AC organization. Here we transiently inhibit bilateral anterior or posterior AC areas using MRI-guided paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects listen to Reference/Probe sound pairs and perform either sound location or identity discrimination tasks. The targeting of TMS pulses, delivered 55-145 ms after Probes, is confirmed with individual-level cortical electric-field estimates. Our data show that TMS to posterior AC regions delays reaction times (RT) significantly more during sound location than identity discrimination, whereas TMS to anterior AC regions delays RTs significantly more during sound identity than location discrimination. This double dissociation provides direct causal support for parallel processing of sound identity features in anterior AC and sound location in posterior AC.

  2. Reduced auditory M100 asymmetry in schizophrenia and dyslexia: applying a developmental instability approach to assess atypical brain asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J Christopher; Yeo, Ron A; Gangestad, Steven W; Blake, Melissa B; Davis, John T; Lewine, Jeffrey D; Cañive, José M

    2006-01-01

    Although atypical structural and functional superior temporal gyrus (STG) asymmetries are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with dyslexia, their significance is unclear. One possibility is that atypical asymmetries reflect a general risk factor that can be seen across multiple neurodevelopmental conditions--a risk factor whose origins are best understood in the context of Developmental Instability (DI) theory. DI measures (minor physical anomalies (MPAs) and fluctuating asymmetries (FAs)) reflect perturbation of the genetic plan. The present study sought to assess whether the presence of peripheral indices of DI predicts anomalous functional auditory cortex asymmetry in schizophrenia patients and dyslexia subjects. The location of the auditory M100 response was used as a measure of functional STG asymmetry, as it has been reported that in controls (but not in subjects with schizophrenia or dyslexia) the M100 source location in the right hemisphere is shifted anterior to that seen for the left hemisphere. Whole-brain auditory evoked magnetic field data were successfully recorded from 14 male schizophrenia patients, 21 male subjects with dyslexia, and 16 normal male control subjects. MPA and FA measures were also obtained. Replicating previous studies, both schizophrenia and dyslexia groups showed less M100 asymmetry than did controls. Schizophrenia and dyslexia subjects also had higher MPA scores than normal controls. Although neither total MPA nor FA measures predicted M100 asymmetry, analyses on individual MPA items revealed a relationship between high palate and M100 asymmetry. Findings suggest that M100 positional asymmetry is not a diagnostically specific feature in several neurodevelopmental conditions. Continued research examining DI and brain asymmetry relationships is warranted.

  3. Towards User-Friendly Spelling with an Auditory Brain-Computer Interface: The CharStreamer Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Johannes; Tangermann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the decoding of brain signals into control commands, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) aim to establish an alternative communication pathway for locked-in patients. In contrast to most visual BCI approaches which use event-related potentials (ERP) of the electroencephalogram, auditory BCI systems are challenged with ERP responses, which are less class-discriminant between attended and unattended stimuli. Furthermore, these auditory approaches have more complex interfaces which imposes a substantial workload on their users. Aiming for a maximally user-friendly spelling interface, this study introduces a novel auditory paradigm: “CharStreamer”. The speller can be used with an instruction as simple as “please attend to what you want to spell”. The stimuli of CharStreamer comprise 30 spoken sounds of letters and actions. As each of them is represented by the sound of itself and not by an artificial substitute, it can be selected in a one-step procedure. The mental mapping effort (sound stimuli to actions) is thus minimized. Usability is further accounted for by an alphabetical stimulus presentation: contrary to random presentation orders, the user can foresee the presentation time of the target letter sound. Healthy, normal hearing users (n = 10) of the CharStreamer paradigm displayed ERP responses that systematically differed between target and non-target sounds. Class-discriminant features, however, varied individually from the typical N1-P2 complex and P3 ERP components found in control conditions with random sequences. To fully exploit the sequential presentation structure of CharStreamer, novel data analysis approaches and classification methods were introduced. The results of online spelling tests showed that a competitive spelling speed can be achieved with CharStreamer. With respect to user rating, it clearly outperforms a control setup with random presentation sequences. PMID:24886978

  4. Plasticity in the neural coding of auditory space in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Parsons, Carl H.; Moore, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Sound localization relies on the neural processing of monaural and binaural spatial cues that arise from the way sounds interact with the head and external ears. Neurophysiological studies of animals raised with abnormal sensory inputs show that the map of auditory space in the superior colliculus is shaped during development by both auditory and visual experience. An example of this plasticity is provided by monaural occlusion during infancy, which leads to compensatory changes in auditory spatial tuning that tend to preserve the alignment between the neural representations of visual and auditory space. Adaptive changes also take place in sound localization behavior, as demonstrated by the fact that ferrets raised and tested with one ear plugged learn to localize as accurately as control animals. In both cases, these adjustments may involve greater use of monaural spectral cues provided by the other ear. Although plasticity in the auditory space map seems to be restricted to development, adult ferrets show some recovery of sound localization behavior after long-term monaural occlusion. The capacity for behavioral adaptation is, however, task dependent, because auditory spatial acuity and binaural unmasking (a measure of the spatial contribution to the “cocktail party effect”) are permanently impaired by chronically plugging one ear, both in infancy but especially in adulthood. Experience-induced plasticity allows the neural circuitry underlying sound localization to be customized to individual characteristics, such as the size and shape of the head and ears, and to compensate for natural conductive hearing losses, including those associated with middle ear disease in infancy. PMID:11050215

  5. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV, a Z-linked gene, is higher in females than in males in visual and auditory regions of developing zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Dzubur, Eldin

    2013-07-03

    One of the most important decisions in a monogamous animal's life is the choice of a partner (partner preference), but the process by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that hormones and genes play a role in sexual differentiation of partner preferences, as in the song system. We focused on a Z-linked gene, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV (HSD17B4), coding for a steroidogenic enzyme that converts estradiol (E2) into an inactive metabolite. HSD17B4 mRNA is expressed more in the song regions of males compared to females throughout development, suggesting that regulation of E2 is important for male-typical song development. Here, we focused on four regions associated with sexual partner preferences. Females had significantly higher levels of HSD17B4 mRNA in auditory (caudomedial nidopallium) and visual (hyperpallium apicale) regions than did males at day 25. HSD17B4 was expressed in the hippocampus and caudolateral nidopallium, but there were no sex differences. In a second experiment, animals of both sexes were treated with E2 and HSD17B4 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA were measured, since masculinization of the song system is, in part, accomplished by AR. AR was low across the four regions and was not sexually differentiated. E2 treatments increased HSD17B4 mRNA in the auditory region of males, which is contrary to findings in the song system. Our research suggests that different behaviors may be guided by the same genes and hormones, but that the exact nature of the gene-hormone relationships may differ according to brain region and behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain regions responsible for tinnitus distress and loudness: a resting-state FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Takashi; Donishi, Tomohiro; Ukai, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yorihiko; Hotomi, Muneki; Yamanaka, Noboru; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro; Terada, Masaki; Kaneoke, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is characterized by the perception of phantom sound without an external auditory stimulus. We hypothesized that abnormal functionally connected regions in the central nervous system might underlie the pathophysiology of chronic subjective tinnitus. Statistical significance of functional connectivity (FC) strength is affected by the regional autocorrelation coefficient (AC). In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and measured regional mean FC strength (mean cross-correlation coefficient between a region and all other regions without taking into account the effect of AC (rGC) and with taking into account the effect of AC (rGCa) to elucidate brain regions related to tinnitus symptoms such as distress, depression and loudness. Consistent with previous studies, tinnitus loudness was not related to tinnitus-related distress and depressive state. Although both rGC and rGCa revealed similar brain regions where the values showed a statistically significant relationship with tinnitus-related symptoms, the regions for rGCa were more localized and more clearly delineated the regions related specifically to each symptom. The rGCa values in the bilateral rectus gyri were positively correlated and those in the bilateral anterior and middle cingulate gyri were negatively correlated with distress and depressive state. The rGCa values in the bilateral thalamus, the bilateral hippocampus, and the left caudate were positively correlated and those in the left medial superior frontal gyrus and the left posterior cingulate gyrus were negatively correlated with tinnitus loudness. These results suggest that distinct brain regions are responsible for tinnitus symptoms. The regions for distress and depressive state are known to be related to depression, while the regions for tinnitus loudness are known to be related to the default mode network and integration of multi-sensory information.

  7. Auditory skills and brain morphology predict individual differences in adaptation to degraded speech.

    PubMed

    Erb, Julia; Henry, Molly J; Eisner, Frank; Obleser, Jonas

    2012-07-01

    Noise-vocoded speech is a spectrally highly degraded signal, but it preserves the temporal envelope of speech. Listeners vary considerably in their ability to adapt to this degraded speech signal. Here, we hypothesised that individual differences in adaptation to vocoded speech should be predictable by non-speech auditory, cognitive, and neuroanatomical factors. We tested 18 normal-hearing participants in a short-term vocoded speech-learning paradigm (listening to 100 4-band-vocoded sentences). Non-speech auditory skills were assessed using amplitude modulation (AM) rate discrimination, where modulation rates were centred on the speech-relevant rate of 4 Hz. Working memory capacities were evaluated (digit span and nonword repetition), and structural MRI scans were examined for anatomical predictors of vocoded speech learning using voxel-based morphometry. Listeners who learned faster to understand degraded speech also showed smaller thresholds in the AM discrimination task. This ability to adjust to degraded speech is furthermore reflected anatomically in increased grey matter volume in an area of the left thalamus (pulvinar) that is strongly connected to the auditory and prefrontal cortices. Thus, individual non-speech auditory skills and left thalamus grey matter volume can predict how quickly a listener adapts to degraded speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of Auditory Agnosia in a Child with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P.; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K.; Speedie, Lynn J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory…

  9. Characteristics of Auditory Agnosia in a Child with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P.; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K.; Speedie, Lynn J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory…

  10. Testing domain-general theories of perceptual awareness with auditory brain responses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Joel S; Yerkes, Breanne D; Pitts, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Past research has identified several candidate neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) during visual perception. Recent research on auditory perception shows promise for establishing the generality of various NCCs across sensory modalities, as well as for revealing differences in how conscious processing unfolds in different sensory systems.

  11. Investigating Connectivity of Orbitomedial Prefrontal Region in a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hepdurgun, Cenan; Özalay, Özgün; Eroğlu, Seda; Polat Nazlı, Irmak; Kitiş, Ömer; Gönül, Ali Saffet

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the research studying the prefrontal region has focused on gray matter injury. However, recent studies show that damage to white matter also contributes to the development of cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Through the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), it is now possible to assess the white matter fiber pathways between brain regions. With Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT), fibers of interest can be three dimensionally reconstructed and associated measurements can be performed. In this paper, we present the case of an individual that suffered from panic attacks, behavioral changes, auditory hallucinations and disturbing bodily sensations after traumatic brain injury. The patient was evaluated with a detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessment, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. MRI revealed cystic encephalomalasia with a diameter of 3.4 cm in the left orbitomedial frontal region. With DTT, major white matter tracts of the traumatized area were compared with symmetrical tracts in the contralateral side. Streamline count for the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (iFOF) was 54 while no streamlines could be found for the left iFOF. For the left uncinate fasciculus and the left cingulum, streamline counts were significantly lower compared with the right side (62% and 34% lower; respectively). White matter damage in TBI can cause dysfunction of different brain regions through disruption of connections with the traumatized area. In this case report, we emphasized that symptoms were not limited with dysfunction of the traumatized region and the regular functions of other brain regions were also affected via the disturbance of connection pathways.

  12. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Hannah L.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Yong, Keir X. X.; Downey, Laura E.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer’s disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer’s disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer’s disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer’s disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer

  13. Far-field brainstem responses evoked by vestibular and auditory stimuli exhibit increases in interpeak latency as brain temperature is decreased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, L. F.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of decreasing of brain temperature on the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) in rats was investigated. Voltage pulses, applied to a piezoelectric crystal attached to the skull, were used to evoke stimuli in the auditory system by means of bone-conducted vibrations. The responses were recorded at 37 C and 34 C brain temperatures. The peaks of the BAER recorded at 34 C were delayed in comparison with the peaks from the 37 C wave, and the later peaks were more delayed than the earlier peaks. These results indicate that an increase in the interpeak latency occurs as the brain temperature is decreased. Preliminary experiments, in which responses to brief angular acceleration were used to measure the brainstem vestibular evoked response (BVER), have also indicated increases in the interpeak latency in response to the lowering of brain temperature.

  14. Far-field brainstem responses evoked by vestibular and auditory stimuli exhibit increases in interpeak latency as brain temperature is decreased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, L. F.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of decreasing of brain temperature on the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) in rats was investigated. Voltage pulses, applied to a piezoelectric crystal attached to the skull, were used to evoke stimuli in the auditory system by means of bone-conducted vibrations. The responses were recorded at 37 C and 34 C brain temperatures. The peaks of the BAER recorded at 34 C were delayed in comparison with the peaks from the 37 C wave, and the later peaks were more delayed than the earlier peaks. These results indicate that an increase in the interpeak latency occurs as the brain temperature is decreased. Preliminary experiments, in which responses to brief angular acceleration were used to measure the brainstem vestibular evoked response (BVER), have also indicated increases in the interpeak latency in response to the lowering of brain temperature.

  15. Brain networks of novelty-driven involuntary and cued voluntary auditory attention shifting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Samantha; Belliveau, John W; Tengshe, Chinmayi; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, we need a capacity to flexibly shift attention between alternative sound sources. However, relatively little work has been done to elucidate the mechanisms of attention shifting in the auditory domain. Here, we used a mixed event-related/sparse-sampling fMRI approach to investigate this essential cognitive function. In each 10-sec trial, subjects were instructed to wait for an auditory "cue" signaling the location where a subsequent "target" sound was likely to be presented. The target was occasionally replaced by an unexpected "novel" sound in the uncued ear, to trigger involuntary attention shifting. To maximize the attention effects, cues, targets, and novels were embedded within dichotic 800-Hz vs. 1500-Hz pure-tone "standard" trains. The sound of clustered fMRI acquisition (starting at t = 7.82 sec) served as a controlled trial-end signal. Our approach revealed notable activation differences between the conditions. Cued voluntary attention shifting activated the superior intra--parietal sulcus (IPS), whereas novelty-triggered involuntary orienting activated the inferior IPS and certain subareas of the precuneus. Clearly more widespread activations were observed during voluntary than involuntary orienting in the premotor cortex, including the frontal eye fields. Moreover, we found -evidence for a frontoinsular-cingular attentional control network, consisting of the anterior insula, inferior frontal cortex, and medial frontal cortices, which were activated during both target discrimination and voluntary attention shifting. Finally, novels and targets activated much wider areas of superior temporal auditory cortices than shifting cues.

  16. Suppression and facilitation of auditory neurons through coordinated acoustic and midbrain stimulation: investigating a deep brain stimulator for tinnitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offutt, Sarah J.; Ryan, Kellie J.; Konop, Alexander E.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. The inferior colliculus (IC) is the primary processing center of auditory information in the midbrain and is one site of tinnitus-related activity. One potential option for suppressing the tinnitus percept is through deep brain stimulation via the auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed for hearing restoration and is already being implanted in deaf patients who also have tinnitus. However, to assess the feasibility of AMI stimulation for tinnitus treatment we first need to characterize the functional connectivity within the IC. Previous studies have suggested modulatory projections from the dorsal cortex of the IC (ICD) to the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), though the functional properties of these projections need to be determined. Approach. In this study, we investigated the effects of electrical stimulation of the ICD on acoustic-driven activity within the ICC in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. Main Results. We observed ICD stimulation induces both suppressive and facilitatory changes across ICC that can occur immediately during stimulation and remain after stimulation. Additionally, ICD stimulation paired with broadband noise stimulation at a specific delay can induce greater suppressive than facilitatory effects, especially when stimulating in more rostral and medial ICD locations. Significance. These findings demonstrate that ICD stimulation can induce specific types of plastic changes in ICC activity, which may be relevant for treating tinnitus. By using the AMI with electrode sites positioned with the ICD and the ICC, the modulatory effects of ICD stimulation can be tested directly in tinnitus patients.

  17. Three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of human auditory brain-stem evoked potentials. III. Effects of click rate.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H; Bleich, N; Martin, W H

    1986-05-01

    Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories (3-CLT) of the human auditory brain-stem evoked potentials (ABEPs) were recorded from 14 adult subjects using click rates of 10, 55 and 80/sec. The 3-CLTs were analysed and described in terms of their constituent planar segments and their trajectory amplitudes at each stimulus rate. Increasing stimulus rate resulted in an increase of planar segment duration which was more pronounced for segments 'a' and 'e', an increase in apex latency which was more pronounced the later the component and a decrease in planar segment size and peak trajectory amplitude which was more pronounced the earlier the component. These findings support the involvement of synaptic efficacy changes in the effects of stimulus rate on ABEP. The results are explained by overlapping convergence and divergence in the ascending auditory pathway. These results support the notion that the principal generator of each component is activated by the principal generator of the previous component, with some temporal overlap of their activities. Such temporal overlap may be minimized by using low intensity high rate stimuli.

  18. Prestimulus Network Integration of Auditory Cortex Predisposes Near-Threshold Perception Independently of Local Excitability.

    PubMed

    Leske, Sabine; Ruhnau, Philipp; Frey, Julia; Lithari, Chrysa; Müller, Nadia; Hartmann, Thomas; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    An ever-increasing number of studies are pointing to the importance of network properties of the brain for understanding behavior such as conscious perception. However, with regards to the influence of prestimulus brain states on perception, this network perspective has rarely been taken. Our recent framework predicts that brain regions crucial for a conscious percept are coupled prior to stimulus arrival, forming pre-established pathways of information flow and influencing perceptual awareness. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and graph theoretical measures, we investigated auditory conscious perception in a near-threshold (NT) task and found strong support for this framework. Relevant auditory regions showed an increased prestimulus interhemispheric connectivity. The left auditory cortex was characterized by a hub-like behavior and an enhanced integration into the brain functional network prior to perceptual awareness. Right auditory regions were decoupled from non-auditory regions, presumably forming an integrated information processing unit with the left auditory cortex. In addition, we show for the first time for the auditory modality that local excitability, measured by decreased alpha power in the auditory cortex, increases prior to conscious percepts. Importantly, we were able to show that connectivity states seem to be largely independent from local excitability states in the context of a NT paradigm.

  19. Prestimulus Network Integration of Auditory Cortex Predisposes Near-Threshold Perception Independently of Local Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Leske, Sabine; Ruhnau, Philipp; Frey, Julia; Lithari, Chrysa; Müller, Nadia; Hartmann, Thomas; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    An ever-increasing number of studies are pointing to the importance of network properties of the brain for understanding behavior such as conscious perception. However, with regards to the influence of prestimulus brain states on perception, this network perspective has rarely been taken. Our recent framework predicts that brain regions crucial for a conscious percept are coupled prior to stimulus arrival, forming pre-established pathways of information flow and influencing perceptual awareness. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and graph theoretical measures, we investigated auditory conscious perception in a near-threshold (NT) task and found strong support for this framework. Relevant auditory regions showed an increased prestimulus interhemispheric connectivity. The left auditory cortex was characterized by a hub-like behavior and an enhanced integration into the brain functional network prior to perceptual awareness. Right auditory regions were decoupled from non-auditory regions, presumably forming an integrated information processing unit with the left auditory cortex. In addition, we show for the first time for the auditory modality that local excitability, measured by decreased alpha power in the auditory cortex, increases prior to conscious percepts. Importantly, we were able to show that connectivity states seem to be largely independent from local excitability states in the context of a NT paradigm. PMID:26408799

  20. GABA estimation in the brains of children on the autism spectrum: measurement precision and regional cortical variation.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, W; Bloy, L; Wang, D J; Port, R G; Blaskey, L; Levy, S E; Roberts, T P L

    2014-02-01

    (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) and spectral editing methods, such as MEGA-PRESS, allow researchers to investigate metabolite and neurotransmitter concentrations in-vivo. Here we address the utilization of (1)H MRS for the investigation of GABA concentrations in the ASD brain, in three locations; motor, visual and auditory areas. An initial repeatability study (5 subjects, 5 repeated measures separated by ~5days on average) indicated no significant effect of reference metabolite choice on GABA quantitation (p>0.6). Coefficients of variation for GABA+/NAA, GABA+/Cr and GABA+/Glx were all of the order of 9-11%. Based on these findings, we investigated creatine-normalized GABA+ ratios (GABA+/Cr) in a group of (N=17) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (N=17) typically developing children (TD) for Motor, Auditory and Visual regions of interest (ROIs). Linear regression analysis of gray matter (GM) volume changes (known to occur with development) revealed a significant decrease of GM volume with Age for Motor (F(1,30)=17.92; p<0.001) and Visual F(1,16)=14.41; p<0.005 but not the Auditory ROI (p=0.55). Inspection of GABA+/Cr changes with Age revealed a marginally significant change for the Motor ROI only (F(1,30)=4.11; p=0.054). Subsequent analyses were thus conducted for each ROI separately using Age and GM volume as covariates. No group differences in GABA+/Cr were observed for the Visual ROI between TD vs. ASD children. However, the Motor and Auditory ROI showed significantly reduced GABA+/Cr in ASD (Motor p<0.05; Auditory p<0.01). The mean deficiency in GABA+/Cr from the Motor ROI was approximately 11% and Auditory ROI was approximately 22%. Our novel findings support the model of regional differences in GABA+/Cr in the ASD brain, primarily in Auditory and to a lesser extent Motor but not Visual areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of brain impairment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: a comparison with other neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Powell, J B; Cripe, L I; Dodrill, C B

    1991-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) at assessing patients with mixed brain impairment was compared with that of a number of other commonly used neuropsychological measures. Subjects were 50 patients with a mixture of medically confirmed neuropathologies, and 50 controls with no evidence of neurological history. Groups were equated for age, education, and sex. The AVLT was administered as pan of a full neuropsychological battery. Results indicated that all seven AVLT recall trials and the total of Trials I-V could significantly differentiate between the two groups (p <.001). The AVLT trial V score performed best (U = 457.5, p <.0001), correctly predicting group membership for 74% of the subjects. This hit-rate was better than any other single test on the Halstead-Reitan or Dodrill batteries, and was surpassed only by the Dodrill Discrimination Index. The potential usefulness of this test as part of a neuropsychological battery is discussed.

  2. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  3. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  4. Potassium conductance dynamics confer robust spike-time precision in a neuromorphic model of the auditory brain stem

    PubMed Central

    Boahen, Kwabena

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in neuroscience is how neurons perform precise operations despite inherent variability. This question also applies to neuromorphic engineering, where low-power microchips emulate the brain using large populations of diverse silicon neurons. Biological neurons in the auditory pathway display precise spike timing, critical for sound localization and interpretation of complex waveforms such as speech, even though they are a heterogeneous population. Silicon neurons are also heterogeneous, due to a key design constraint in neuromorphic engineering: smaller transistors offer lower power consumption and more neurons per unit area of silicon, but also more variability between transistors and thus between silicon neurons. Utilizing this variability in a neuromorphic model of the auditory brain stem with 1,080 silicon neurons, we found that a low-voltage-activated potassium conductance (gKL) enables precise spike timing via two mechanisms: statically reducing the resting membrane time constant and dynamically suppressing late synaptic inputs. The relative contribution of these two mechanisms is unknown because blocking gKL in vitro eliminates dynamic adaptation but also lengthens the membrane time constant. We replaced gKL with a static leak in silico to recover the short membrane time constant and found that silicon neurons could mimic the spike-time precision of their biological counterparts, but only over a narrow range of stimulus intensities and biophysical parameters. The dynamics of gKL were required for precise spike timing robust to stimulus variation across a heterogeneous population of silicon neurons, thus explaining how neural and neuromorphic systems may perform precise operations despite inherent variability. PMID:23554436

  5. Fused cerebral organoids model interactions between brain regions.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Joshua A; Reumann, Daniel; Bian, Shan; Lévi-Strauss, Julie; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2017-07-01

    Human brain development involves complex interactions between different regions, including long-distance neuronal migration or formation of major axonal tracts. Different brain regions can be cultured in vitro within 3D cerebral organoids, but the random arrangement of regional identities limits the reliable analysis of complex phenotypes. Here, we describe a coculture method combining brain regions of choice within one organoid tissue. By fusing organoids of dorsal and ventral forebrain identities, we generate a dorsal-ventral axis. Using fluorescent reporters, we demonstrate CXCR4-dependent GABAergic interneuron migration from ventral to dorsal forebrain and describe methodology for time-lapse imaging of human interneuron migration. Our results demonstrate that cerebral organoid fusion cultures can model complex interactions between different brain regions. Combined with reprogramming technology, fusions should offer researchers the possibility to analyze complex neurodevelopmental defects using cells from neurological disease patients and to test potential therapeutic compounds.

  6. Regional brain monitoring in the neurocritical care unit.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer; Ziai, Wendy; O'Phelan, Kristine; Leroux, Peter D; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Diringer, Michael N; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Regional multimodality monitoring has evolved over the last several years as a tool to understand the mechanisms of brain injury and brain function at the cellular level. Multimodality monitoring offers an important augmentation to the clinical exam and is especially useful in comatose neurocritical care patients. Cerebral microdialysis, brain tissue oxygen monitoring, and cerebral blood flow monitoring all offer insight into permutations in brain chemistry and function that occur in the context of brain injury. These tools may allow for development of individual therapeutic strategies that are mechanistically driven and goal-directed. We present a summary of the discussions that took place during the Second Neurocritical Care Research Conference regarding regional brain monitoring.

  7. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    PubMed Central

    Moran, James K.; Weierstall, Roland; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated “appetitive” aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N = 50) presented with an imaginative listening task involving a murderer describing a kill. We manipulated motivational context in a between-subjects design to evoke appetitive or reactive aggression, against a neutral control, measuring activity with Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Results show differences in left frontal regions in delta (2–5 Hz) and alpha band (8–12 Hz) for aggressive conditions and right parietal delta activity differentiating appetitive and reactive aggression. These results validate the distinction of reward-driven appetitive aggression from reactive aggression in ordinary populations at the level of functional neural brain circuitry. PMID:25538590

  8. Brain Networks of Novelty-Driven Involuntary and Cued Voluntary Auditory Attention Shifting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Samantha; Belliveau, John W.; Tengshe, Chinmayi; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, we need a capacity to flexibly shift attention between alternative sound sources. However, relatively little work has been done to elucidate the mechanisms of attention shifting in the auditory domain. Here, we used a mixed event-related/sparse-sampling fMRI approach to investigate this essential cognitive function. In each 10-sec trial, subjects were instructed to wait for an auditory “cue” signaling the location where a subsequent “target” sound was likely to be presented. The target was occasionally replaced by an unexpected “novel” sound in the uncued ear, to trigger involuntary attention shifting. To maximize the attention effects, cues, targets, and novels were embedded within dichotic 800-Hz vs. 1500-Hz pure-tone “standard” trains. The sound of clustered fMRI acquisition (starting at t = 7.82 sec) served as a controlled trial-end signal. Our approach revealed notable activation differences between the conditions. Cued voluntary attention shifting activated the superior intra­­parietal sulcus (IPS), whereas novelty-triggered involuntary orienting activated the inferior IPS and certain subareas of the precuneus. Clearly more widespread activations were observed during voluntary than involuntary orienting in the premotor cortex, including the frontal eye fields. Moreover, we found ­evidence for a frontoinsular-cingular attentional control network, consisting of the anterior insula, inferior frontal cortex, and medial frontal cortices, which were activated during both target discrimination and voluntary attention shifting. Finally, novels and targets activated much wider areas of superior temporal auditory cortices than shifting cues. PMID:22937153

  9. When the brain plays music: auditory-motor interactions in music perception and production.

    PubMed

    Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Joyce L; Penhune, Virginia B

    2007-07-01

    Music performance is both a natural human activity, present in all societies, and one of the most complex and demanding cognitive challenges that the human mind can undertake. Unlike most other sensory-motor activities, music performance requires precise timing of several hierarchically organized actions, as well as precise control over pitch interval production, implemented through diverse effectors according to the instrument involved. We review the cognitive neuroscience literature of both motor and auditory domains, highlighting the value of studying interactions between these systems in a musical context, and propose some ideas concerning the role of the premotor cortex in integration of higher order features of music with appropriately timed and organized actions.

  10. Portacaval shunting causes differential mitochondrial superoxide production in brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kosenko, Elena A; Tikhonova, Lyudmila A; Alilova, Gubidat A; Montoliu, Carmina; Barreto, George E; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Kaminsky, Yury G

    2017-09-27

    The portacaval shunting (PCS) prevents portal hypertension and recurrent bleeding of esophageal varices. On the other hand, it can induce chronic hyperammonemia and is considered to be the best model of mild hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Pathogenic mechanisms of HE and dysfunction of the brain in hyperammonemia are not fully elucidated, but it was originally suggested that the pathogenetic defect causes destruction of antioxidant defense which leads to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the occurrence of oxidative stress. In order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of HE in the brain tissue, we investigated the effects of PCS in rats on free radicals production and activity levels of antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes in mitochondria isolated from different brain areas. We found that O2(·-) production, activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and levels of carbonylated proteins differed between the four brain regions both in the amount and response to PCS. In PCS rats, Mn-SOD activity in the cerebellum was significantly decreased, and remained unchanged in the neocortex, hippocampus and striatum compared with that in sham-operated animals. Among the four brain regions in control rats, the levels of the carbonyl groups in mitochondrial proteins were maximal in the cerebellum. 4 weeks after PCS, the content of carbonylated proteins were higher only in mitochondria of this brain region. Under control conditions, O2(·-) production by submitochondrial particles in the cerebellum was significantly higher than in other brain regions, but was significantly increased in each brain region from PCS animals. Indeed, the production of O2(·-) by submitochondrial particles correlated with mitochondrial ammonia levels in the four brain regions of control and PCS-animals. These findings are the first to suggest

  11. Focused ultrasound modulates region-specific brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Bystritsky, Alexander; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Fischer, Krisztina; Min, Byoung-Kyong; McDannold, Nathan J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by anatomical and functional information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The temporary alterations in the brain function affected by the sonication were characterized by both electrophysiological recordings and functional brain mapping achieved through the use of functional MRI (fMRI). The modulatory effects were bimodal, whereby the brain activity could either be stimulated or selectively suppressed. Histological analysis of the excised brain tissue after the sonication demonstrated that the FUS did not elicit any tissue damages. Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation, FUS can be applied to deep structures in the brain with greater spatial precision. Transient modulation of brain function using image-guided and anatomically-targeted FUS would enable the investigation of functional connectivity between brain regions and will eventually lead to a better understanding of localized brain functions. It is anticipated that the use of this technology will have an impact on brain research and may offer novel therapeutic interventions in various neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21354315

  12. Brain Region and Cell Type Transcripts for Informative Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    cerebral cortex (CTX) region that is a sheet of neural tissue that is outermost to the cerebrum of the mammalian brain and takes a key role in...the cerebrum of the mammalian brain and plays a role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. The MDRN

  13. Brain dynamics that correlate with effects of learning on auditory distance perception.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A; Gramann, Klaus; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in auditory distance perception can improve with practice and varies for sounds differing in familiarity. Here, listeners were trained to judge the distances of English, Bengali, and backwards speech sources pre-recorded at near (2-m) and far (30-m) distances. Listeners' accuracy was tested before and after training. Improvements from pre-test to post-test were greater for forward speech, demonstrating a learning advantage for forward speech sounds. Independent component (IC) processes identified in electroencephalographic (EEG) data collected during pre- and post-testing revealed three clusters of ICs across subjects with stimulus-locked spectral perturbations related to learning and accuracy. One cluster exhibited a transient stimulus-locked increase in 4-8 Hz power (theta event-related synchronization; ERS) that was smaller after training and largest for backwards speech. For a left temporal cluster, 8-12 Hz decreases in power (alpha event-related desynchronization; ERD) were greatest for English speech and less prominent after training. In contrast, a cluster of IC processes centered at or near anterior portions of the medial frontal cortex showed learning-related enhancement of sustained increases in 10-16 Hz power (upper-alpha/low-beta ERS). The degree of this enhancement was positively correlated with the degree of behavioral improvements. Results suggest that neural dynamics in non-auditory cortical areas support distance judgments. Further, frontal cortical networks associated with attentional and/or working memory processes appear to play a role in perceptual learning for source distance.

  14. Alterations in brain-stem auditory evoked potentials among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sonia; Sharma, Rajeev; Mittal, Shilekh; Thapar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the absolute latencies, the interpeak latencies, and amplitudes of different waveforms of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in different drug abusers and controls, and to identify early neurological damage in persons who abuse different drugs so that proper counseling and timely intervention can be undertaken. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, BAEP’s were assessed by a data acquisition and analysis system in 58 male drug abusers in the age group of 15-45 years as well as in 30 age matched healthy controls. The absolute peak latencies and the interpeak latencies of BAEP were analyzed by applying one way ANOVA and student t-test. The study was carried out at the GGS Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab, India between July 2012 and May 2013. Results: The difference in the absolute peak latencies and interpeak latencies of BAEP in the 2 groups was found to be statistically significant in both the ears (p<0.05). However, the difference in the amplitude ratio in both the ears was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Chronic intoxication by different drugs has been extensively associated with prolonged absolute peak latencies and interpeak latencies of BAEP in drug abusers reflecting an adverse effect of drug dependence on neural transmission in central auditory nerve pathways. PMID:26166594

  15. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP)] of four diverse age groups [1 Month (young), 4 Month (adult), 12 Month (middle-aged), 24 Month (old age)] to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters and enzyme activity were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State 111 respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12 and 24 Month age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age- and brain-region specific. In general changes associated with age were more pronounced, with

  16. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP)] of four diverse age groups [1 Month (young), 4 Month (adult), 12 Month (middle-aged), 24 Month (old age)] to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters and enzyme activity were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State 111 respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12 and 24 Month age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age- and brain-region specific. In general changes associated with age were more pronounced, with

  17. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  18. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions. PMID:27564987

  19. Effects of Location, Frequency Region, and Time Course of Selective Attention on Auditory Scene Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Rhodri; Decks, John; Aikman, Genevieve; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Often, the sound arriving at the ears is a mixture from many different sources, but only 1 is of interest. To assist with selection, the auditory system structures the incoming input into streams, each of which ideally corresponds to a single source. Some authors have argued that this process of streaming is automatic and invariant, but recent…

  20. Effects of Location, Frequency Region, and Time Course of Selective Attention on Auditory Scene Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Rhodri; Decks, John; Aikman, Genevieve; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Often, the sound arriving at the ears is a mixture from many different sources, but only 1 is of interest. To assist with selection, the auditory system structures the incoming input into streams, each of which ideally corresponds to a single source. Some authors have argued that this process of streaming is automatic and invariant, but recent…

  1. Indices of Regional Brain Atrophy: Formulae and Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of brain atrophy helps to discriminate normal age-related changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Albeit indices of regional brain atrophy have proven to be a parameter useful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of some neurodegenerative diseases, indices of absolute regional atrophy still have some important limitations. We propose using indices of relative atrophy for representing how the volume of a given region of interest (ROI) changes over time in comparison to changes in global brain measures over the same time. A second problem in morphometric studies is terminology. There is a lack of systematization naming indices and the same measure can be named with different terms by different research groups or imaging softwares. This limits the understanding and discussion of studies. In this technological report, we provide a general description on how to compute indices of absolute and relative regional brain atrophy and propose a standardized nomenclature. PMID:26261753

  2. Maturation of preterm newborn brains: a fMRI-DTI study of auditory processing of linguistic stimuli and white matter development.

    PubMed

    Baldoli, Cristina; Scola, Elisa; Della Rosa, Pasquale Antony; Pontesilli, Silvia; Longaretti, Roberta; Poloniato, Antonella; Scotti, Roberta; Blasi, Valeria; Cirillo, Sara; Iadanza, Antonella; Rovelli, Rosanna; Barera, Graziano; Scifo, Paola

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate brain development longitudinally in premature infants without abnormalities as compared to healthy full-term newborns, we assessed fMRI brain activity patterns in response to linguistic stimuli and white matter structural development focusing on language-related fibres. A total sample of 29 preterm newborns and 26 at term control newborns underwent both fMRI and DTI. Griffiths test was performed at 6 months of corrected age to assess development. Auditory fMRI data were analysed in 17 preterm newborns at three time points [34, 41 and 44 weeks of post menstrual age (wPMA)] and in 15 controls, at term. Analysis showed a distinctive pattern of cortical activation in preterm newborns up to 29 wPMA moving from early prevalent left temporal and supramarginal area activation in the preterm period, to a bilateral temporal and frontoopercular activation in the at term equivalent period and to a more fine-grained left pattern of activity at 44 wPMA. At term controls showed instead greater bilateral posterior thalamic activation. The different pattern of brain activity associated to preterm newborns mirrors their white matter maturation delay in peripheral regions of the fibres and thalamo-cortical radiations in subcortical areas of both hemispheres, pointing to different transient thalamo-cortical development due to prematurity. Evidence for functional thalamic activation and more mature subcortical tracts, including thalamic radiations, may represent the substantial gap between preterm and at term infants. The transition between bilateral temporal activations at term age and leftward activations at 44 weeks of PMA is correlated to better neuropsychological results in Griffiths test.

  3. Brain-Computer Interface application: auditory serial interface to control a two-class motor-imagery-based wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Velasco-Álvarez, Francisco; Fernández-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio; Blanca-Mena, María José; Vizcaíno-Martín, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-30

    Certain diseases affect brain areas that control the movements of the patients' body, thereby limiting their autonomy and communication capacity. Research in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces aims to provide patients with an alternative communication channel not based on muscular activity, but on the processing of brain signals. Through these systems, subjects can control external devices such as spellers to communicate, robotic prostheses to restore limb movements, or domotic systems. The present work focus on the non-muscular control of a robotic wheelchair. A proposal to control a wheelchair through a Brain-Computer Interface based on the discrimination of only two mental tasks is presented in this study. The wheelchair displacement is performed with discrete movements. The control signals used are sensorimotor rhythms modulated through a right-hand motor imagery task or mental idle state. The peculiarity of the control system is that it is based on a serial auditory interface that provides the user with four navigation commands. The use of two mental tasks to select commands may facilitate control and reduce error rates compared to other endogenous control systems for wheelchairs. Seventeen subjects initially participated in the study; nine of them completed the three sessions of the proposed protocol. After the first calibration session, seven subjects were discarded due to a low control of their electroencephalographic signals; nine out of ten subjects controlled a virtual wheelchair during the second session; these same nine subjects achieved a medium accuracy level above 0.83 on the real wheelchair control session. The results suggest that more extensive training with the proposed control system can be an effective and safe option that will allow the displacement of a wheelchair in a controlled environment for potential users suffering from some types of motor neuron diseases.

  4. Morphogenesis and regionalization of the medaka embryonic brain.

    PubMed

    Kage, Takahiro; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Takako; Maruyama, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yoshimoto, Masami; Araki, Kazuo; Inohaya, Keiji; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Watanabe, Kaori; Ito, Hironobu; Ishikawa, Yuji

    2004-08-23

    We examined the morphogenesis and regionalization of the embryonic brain of an acanthopterygian teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes), by in situ hybridization using 14 gene probes. We compared our results with previous studies in other vertebrates, particularly zebrafish, an ostariophysan teleost. During the early development of the medaka neural rod, three initial brain vesicles arose: the anterior brain vesicle, which later developed into the telencephalon and rostral diencephalon; the intermediate brain vesicle, which later developed into the caudal diencephalon, mesencephalon, and metencephalon; and the posterior brain vesicle, which later developed into the myelencephalon. In the late neural rod, the rostral brain bent ventrally and the axis of the brain had a marked curvature at the diencephalon. In the final stage of the neural rod, ventricles began to develop, transforming the neural rod into the neural tube. In situ hybridization revealed that the brain can be divided into three longitudinal zones (dorsal, intermediate, and ventral) and many transverse subdivisions, on the basis of molecular expression patterns. The telencephalon was subdivided into two transverse domains. Our results support the basic concept of neuromeric models, including the prosomeric model, which suggests the existence of a conserved organization of all vertebrate neural tubes. Our results also show that brain development in medaka differs from that reported in other vertebrates, including zebrafish, in gene-expression patterns in the telencephalon, in brain vesicle formation, and in developmental speed. Developmental and genetic programs for brain development may be somewhat different even among teleosts.

  5. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Our results indicate "cross-modal" plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

  6. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maïza, Olivier; Hervé, Pierre-Yve; Etard, Olivier; Razafimandimby, Annick; Montagne-Larmurier, Aurélie; Dollfus, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS) and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI). After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities. PMID:24961421

  7. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  8. Attention effects on auditory scene analysis: insights from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Mona Isabel; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Sounds emitted by different sources arrive at our ears as a mixture that must be disentangled before meaningful information can be retrieved. It is still a matter of debate whether this decomposition happens automatically or requires the listener's attention. These opposite positions partly stem from different methodological approaches to the problem. We propose an integrative approach that combines the logic of previous measurements targeting either auditory stream segregation (interpreting a mixture as coming from two separate sources) or integration (interpreting a mixture as originating from only one source). By means of combined behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures, our paradigm has the potential to measure stream segregation and integration at the same time, providing the opportunity to obtain positive evidence of either one. This reduces the reliance on zero findings (i.e., the occurrence of stream integration in a given condition can be demonstrated directly, rather than indirectly based on the absence of empirical evidence for stream segregation, and vice versa). With this two-way approach, we systematically manipulate attention devoted to the auditory stimuli (by varying their task relevance) and to their underlying structure (by delivering perceptual tasks that require segregated or integrated percepts). ERP results based on the mismatch negativity (MMN) show no evidence for a modulation of stream integration by attention, while stream segregation results were less clear due to overlapping attention-related components in the MMN latency range. We suggest future studies combining the proposed two-way approach with some improvements in the ERP measurement of sequential stream segregation.

  9. Brain dynamics that correlate with effects of learning on auditory distance perception

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Matthew G.; Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A.; Gramann, Klaus; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in auditory distance perception can improve with practice and varies for sounds differing in familiarity. Here, listeners were trained to judge the distances of English, Bengali, and backwards speech sources pre-recorded at near (2-m) and far (30-m) distances. Listeners' accuracy was tested before and after training. Improvements from pre-test to post-test were greater for forward speech, demonstrating a learning advantage for forward speech sounds. Independent component (IC) processes identified in electroencephalographic (EEG) data collected during pre- and post-testing revealed three clusters of ICs across subjects with stimulus-locked spectral perturbations related to learning and accuracy. One cluster exhibited a transient stimulus-locked increase in 4–8 Hz power (theta event-related synchronization; ERS) that was smaller after training and largest for backwards speech. For a left temporal cluster, 8–12 Hz decreases in power (alpha event-related desynchronization; ERD) were greatest for English speech and less prominent after training. In contrast, a cluster of IC processes centered at or near anterior portions of the medial frontal cortex showed learning-related enhancement of sustained increases in 10–16 Hz power (upper-alpha/low-beta ERS). The degree of this enhancement was positively correlated with the degree of behavioral improvements. Results suggest that neural dynamics in non-auditory cortical areas support distance judgments. Further, frontal cortical networks associated with attentional and/or working memory processes appear to play a role in perceptual learning for source distance. PMID:25538550

  10. Injured brain regions associated with anxiety in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Kristine M; Rakowsky, Shana T; Solomon, Jeffrey; Krueger, Frank; Raymont, Vanessa; Tierney, Michael C; Wassermann, Eric M; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-03-01

    Anxiety negatively affects quality of life and psychosocial functioning. Previous research has shown that anxiety symptoms in healthy individuals are associated with variations in the volume of brain regions, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Brain lesion data also suggests the hemisphere damaged may affect levels of anxiety. We studied a sample of 182 male Vietnam War veterans with penetrating brain injuries, using a semi-automated voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) approach. VLSM reveals significant associations between a symptom such as anxiety and the location of brain lesions, and does not require a broad, subjective assignment of patients into categories based on lesion location. We found that lesioned brain regions in cortical and limbic areas of the left hemisphere, including middle, inferior and superior temporal lobe, hippocampus, and fusiform regions, along with smaller areas in the inferior occipital lobe, parahippocampus, amygdala, and insula, were associated with increased anxiety symptoms as measured by the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS). These results were corroborated by similar findings using Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) anxiety scores, which supports these regions' role in regulating anxiety. In summary, using a semi-automated analysis tool, we detected an effect of focal brain damage on the presentation of anxiety. We also separated the effects of brain injury and war experience by including a control group of combat veterans without brain injury. We compared this control group against veterans with brain lesions in areas associated with anxiety, and against veterans with lesions only in other brain areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Edwards, A. David; Counsell, Serena J.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45 weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area. PMID:26499811

  12. The influence of cochlear spectral processing on the timing and amplitude of the speech-evoked auditory brain stem response.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Helen E; Moore, David R; Barry, Johanna G; Krumbholz, Katrin; de Boer, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    The speech-evoked auditory brain stem response (speech ABR) is widely considered to provide an index of the quality of neural temporal encoding in the central auditory pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the speech ABR is shaped by spectral processing in the cochlea. High-pass noise masking was used to record speech ABRs from delimited octave-wide frequency bands between 0.5 and 8 kHz in normal-hearing young adults. The latency of the frequency-delimited responses decreased from the lowest to the highest frequency band by up to 3.6 ms. The observed frequency-latency function was compatible with model predictions based on wave V of the click ABR. The frequency-delimited speech ABR amplitude was largest in the 2- to 4-kHz frequency band and decreased toward both higher and lower frequency bands despite the predominance of low-frequency energy in the speech stimulus. We argue that the frequency dependence of speech ABR latency and amplitude results from the decrease in cochlear filter width with decreasing frequency. The results suggest that the amplitude and latency of the speech ABR may reflect interindividual differences in cochlear, as well as central, processing. The high-pass noise-masking technique provides a useful tool for differentiating between peripheral and central effects on the speech ABR. It can be used for further elucidating the neural basis of the perceptual speech deficits that have been associated with individual differences in speech ABR characteristics. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The influence of cochlear spectral processing on the timing and amplitude of the speech-evoked auditory brain stem response

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Helen E.; Moore, David R.; Barry, Johanna G.; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    The speech-evoked auditory brain stem response (speech ABR) is widely considered to provide an index of the quality of neural temporal encoding in the central auditory pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the speech ABR is shaped by spectral processing in the cochlea. High-pass noise masking was used to record speech ABRs from delimited octave-wide frequency bands between 0.5 and 8 kHz in normal-hearing young adults. The latency of the frequency-delimited responses decreased from the lowest to the highest frequency band by up to 3.6 ms. The observed frequency-latency function was compatible with model predictions based on wave V of the click ABR. The frequency-delimited speech ABR amplitude was largest in the 2- to 4-kHz frequency band and decreased toward both higher and lower frequency bands despite the predominance of low-frequency energy in the speech stimulus. We argue that the frequency dependence of speech ABR latency and amplitude results from the decrease in cochlear filter width with decreasing frequency. The results suggest that the amplitude and latency of the speech ABR may reflect interindividual differences in cochlear, as well as central, processing. The high-pass noise-masking technique provides a useful tool for differentiating between peripheral and central effects on the speech ABR. It can be used for further elucidating the neural basis of the perceptual speech deficits that have been associated with individual differences in speech ABR characteristics. PMID:25787954

  14. Automated Recognition of Brain Region Mentions in Neuroscience Literature

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Lane, Suzanne; Xu, Lydia; Pavlidis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF) with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions, previously unseen words and brain regions of less commonly studied organisms. We found context windows, lemmatization and abbreviation expansion to be the most informative techniques. The corpus is freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/. PMID:19750194

  15. Imaging structural co-variance between human brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Giedd, Jay N.; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Brain structure varies between people in a markedly organized fashion. Communities of brain regions co-vary in their morphological properties. For example, cortical thickness in one region influences the thickness of structurally and functionally connected regions. Such networks of structural co-variance partially recapitulate the functional networks of healthy individuals and the foci of grey matter loss in neurodegenerative disease. This architecture is genetically heritable, is associated with behavioural and cognitive abilities and is changed systematically across the lifespan. The biological meaning of this structural co-variance remains controversial, but it appears to reflect developmental coordination or synchronized maturation between areas of the brain. This Review discusses the state of current research into brain structural co-variance, its underlying mechanisms and its potential value in the understanding of various neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:23531697

  16. Regional development of glutamate dehydrogenase in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Leong, S F; Clark, J B

    1984-07-01

    The development of glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in rat brain regions has been followed from the late foetal stage to the adult and through to the aged (greater than 2 years) adult. In the adult brain the enzyme activity was greatest in the medulla oblongata and pons greater than midbrain = hypothalamus greater than cerebellum = striatum = cortex. In the aged adult brain, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in the medulla oblongata and pons when compared to the 90-day-old adult value, but not in other regions. The enzyme-specific activity of nonsynaptic (free) mitochondria purified from the medulla oblongata and pons of 90-day-old animals was about twice that of mitochondria purified from the striatum and the cortex. The specific activity of the enzyme in synaptic mitochondria purified from the above three brain regions, however, remained almost constant.

  17. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  18. Monitoring therapeutic efficacy of decompressive craniotomy in space occupying cerebellar infarcts using brain-stem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Krieger, D; Adams, H P; Rieke, K; Hacke, W

    1993-01-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) have been used to gauge effects of brain-stem dysfunction in humans and animal models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAEP in monitoring patients undergoing decompressive surgery of the posterior fossa for space occupying cerebellar infarcts. We report on serial BAEP recordings in 11 comatose patients with space occupying cerebellar infarcts undergoing decompressive craniotomy. BAEP studies were performed within 12 h after admission, 24 h following surgery and prior to extubation. BAEP signals were analyzed using latency determination and cross-correlation. Following surgery, 9 patients regained consciousness; 2 patients persisted in a comatose state and died subsequently. BAEP interpeak latency (IPL) I-V assessed prior to surgery exceeded normal values in all patients in whom it could be reliably measured (N = 9). Following decompressive surgery BAEP wave I-V IPL normalized in 5 patients, but remained prolonged despite dramatic clinical improvement in 4 patients. We prospectively computed the coefficient of cross-correlation (MCC) of combined ipsilateral BAEP trials after right and left ear stimulation. In all patients increasing MCC was associated with clinical improvement. Unchanging or decreasing MCC indicated poor outcome. We conclude that serial BAEP studies are an appropriate perioperative monitoring modality in patients with space occupying cerebellar infarcts undergoing decompressive surgery of the posterior fossa. Our study suggests advantages of cross-correlation analysis as an objective signal processing strategy; relevant information can be extracted even if BAEP wave discrimination is impossible due to severe brain-stem dysfunction.

  19. Injured Brain Regions Associated with Anxiety in Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristine M.; Rakowsky, Shana T.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Krueger, Frank; Raymont, Vanessa; Tierney, Michael C.; Wassermann, Eric M.; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety negatively affects quality of life and psychosocial functioning. Previous research has shown that anxiety symptoms in healthy individuals are associated with variations in the volume of brain regions, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Brain lesion data also suggests the hemisphere damaged may affect levels of anxiety. We studied a sample of 182 male Vietnam War veterans with penetrating brain injuries, using a semi-automated voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) approach. VLSM reveals significant associations between a symptom such as anxiety and the location of brain lesions, and does not require a broad, subjective assignment of patients into categories based on lesion location. We found that lesioned brain regions in cortical and limbic areas of the left hemisphere, including middle, inferior and superior temporal lobe, hippocampus, and fusiform regions, along with smaller areas in the inferior occipital lobe, parahippocampus, amygdala, and insula, were associated with increased anxiety symptoms as measured by the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS). These results were corroborated by similar findings using Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) anxiety scores, which supports these regions’ role in regulating anxiety. In summary, using a semi-automated analysis tool, we detected an effect of focal brain damage on the presentation of anxiety. We also separated the effects of brain injury and war experience by including a control group of combat veterans without brain injury. We compared this control group against veterans with brain lesions in areas associated with anxiety, and against veterans with lesions only in other brain areas. PMID:23328629

  20. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Grevesse, Thomas; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Campbell, Patrick H; Maoz, Ben M; Berretta, Sabina; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, extracellular matrix (ECM) components form networks that contribute to structural and functional diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of ECM networks has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the brain microenvironment is a dynamic structure. A lack of quantitative information about ECM distribution in the brain hinders an understanding of region-specific ECM functions and the role of ECM in health and disease. We hypothesized that each ECM protein as well as specific ECM structures, such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) and interstitial matrix, are differentially distributed throughout the brain, contributing to the unique structure and function in the various regions of the brain. To test our hypothesis, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution, colocalization, and protein expression of aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R throughout the rat brain utilizing immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis and assessed the effect of aggrecan, brevican, and/or tenascin-R on neurite outgrowth in vitro. We focused on aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R as they are especially expressed in the mature brain, and have established roles in brain development, plasticity, and neurite outgrowth. The results revealed a differentiated distribution of all three proteins throughout the brain and indicated that their presence significantly reduces neurite outgrowth in a 3D in vitro environment. These results underline the importance of a unique and complex ECM distribution for brain physiology and suggest that encoding the distribution of distinct ECM proteins throughout the brain will aid in understanding their function in physiology and in turn assist in identifying their role in disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1309-1336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Ghosts of Brain States Past: Remembering Reactivates the Brain Regions Engaged during Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danker, Jared F.; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the brain regions involved in encoding an episode are partially reactivated when that episode is later remembered. That is, the process of remembering an episode involves literally returning to the brain state that was present during that episode. This article reviews studies of episodic and associative memory that…

  2. To Study Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus- A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Muneshwar, J.N.; Afroz, Sayeeda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neuropathy is one of the commonest complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Apart from having peripheral and autonomic neuropathy patients with type 2 DM may also suffer from sensory neural hearing loss, which is more severe at higher frequencies. However, few studies have done detailed evaluation of sensory pathway in these patients. In this study brain stem auditory evoked potential is used to detect the acoustic and central neuropathy in a group of patients with type 2 DM with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar. Aim To study brain stem auditory evoked potential in patients of type 2 DM with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar and to correlate the various parameters e.g., age (years), weight (kilograms), height (meters), BMI (kg/m2), HbA1c (%) in patients with type 2 DM with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional comparative study conducted from January 2014 to January 2015. Total 60 patients with type 2 DM of either sex, between age groups of 35-50 years were enrolled from the Diabetic Clinic of Medicine department, of a tertiary care hospital. Based on the value of HbA1c, patients were divided in two groups with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar and with each group comprising of 30 patients. BERA (Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry) was done in both the groups on RMS ALERON 201/401. Recordings were taken at 70dB, 80dB and 90dB at 2KHz frequency. Absolute latency of wave I, III, V and interpeak latencies I–III, III-V and I-V were recorded. Results Mean±SD of the absolute latency of BERA waves I, III, V and interpeak latencies I–III, III-V and I-V at 2 KHz and at varying intensity of 70dB, 80dB and 90dB in uncontrolled group of DM were delayed and were significant as compared to controlled group of DM. Conclusion If BERA is done in diabetic patients, central neuropathy can be detected earlier in uncontrolled groups of diabetic patients. PMID:28050358

  3. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic.

  4. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  5. Age-Related Changes in Transient and Oscillatory Brain Responses to Auditory Stimulation during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Catherine; Picton, Terence W.; Paus, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize…

  6. Age-Related Changes in Transient and Oscillatory Brain Responses to Auditory Stimulation during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Catherine; Picton, Terence W.; Paus, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize…

  7. The dorsal auditory pathway is involved in performance of both visual and auditory rhythms.

    PubMed

    Karabanov, Anke; Blom, Orjan; Forsman, Lea; Ullén, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effect of two factors on the neural control of temporal sequence performance: the modality in which the rhythms had been trained, and the modality of the pacing stimuli preceding performance. The rhythms were trained 1-2 days before scanning. Each participant learned two rhythms: one was presented visually, the other auditorily. During fMRI, the rhythms were performed in blocks. In each block, four beats of a visual or auditory pacing metronome were followed by repetitive self-paced rhythm performance from memory. Data from the self-paced performance phase was analysed in a 2x2 factorial design, with the two factors Training Modality (auditory or visual) and Metronome Modality (auditory or visual), as well as with a conjunction analysis across all active conditions, to identify activations that were independent of both Training Modality and Metronome Modality. We found a significant main effect only for visual versus auditory Metronome Modality, in the left angular gyrus, due to a deactivation of this region after auditory pacing. The conjunction analysis revealed a set of brain areas that included dorsal auditory pathway areas (left temporo-parietal junction area and ventral premotor cortex), dorsal premotor cortex, the supplementary and presupplementary premotor areas, the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. We conclude that these regions are involved in controlling performance of well-learned rhythms, regardless of the modality in which the rhythms are trained and paced. This suggests that after extensive short-term training, all rhythms, even those that were both trained and paced in visual modality, had been transformed into auditory-motor representations. The deactivation of the angular cortex following auditory pacing may represent cross-modal auditory-visual inhibition.

  8. Regional manifold learning for deformable registration of brain MR images.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong Hye; Hamm, Jihun; Kwon, Dongjin; Davatzikos, Christos; Pohl, Kilian M

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for deformable registration based on learning the manifolds of individual brain regions. Recent publications on registration of medical images advocate the use of manifold learning in order to confine the search space to anatomically plausible deformations. Existing methods construct manifolds based on a single metric over the entire image domain thus frequently miss regional brain variations. We address this issue by first learning manifolds for specific regions and then computing region-specific deformations from these manifolds. We then determine deformations for the entire image domain by learning the global manifold in such a way that it preserves the region-specific deformations. We evaluate the accuracy of our method by applying it to the LPBA40 dataset and measuring the overlap of the deformed segmentations. The result shows significant improvement in registration accuracy on cortex regions compared to other state of the art methods.

  9. Brain activity is related to individual differences in the number of items stored in auditory short-term memory for pitch: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Grimault, Stephan; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Hyde, Krista; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine brain activity related to the maintenance of non-verbal pitch information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM). We focused on brain activity that increased with the number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the retention interval of an auditory memory task. We used very simple acoustic materials (i.e., pure tones that varied in pitch) that minimized activation from non-ASTM related systems. MEG revealed neural activity in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that increased with a greater number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the maintenance of pitch representations in ASTM. The present results reinforce the functional role of frontal and temporal cortices in the retention of pitch information in ASTM. This is the first MEG study to provide both fine spatial localization and temporal resolution on the neural mechanisms of non-verbal ASTM for pitch in relation to individual differences in the capacity of ASTM. This research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediating the representation and maintenance of basic non-verbal auditory features in the human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI). When these regions were defined as seeds, we demonstrated widespread modification of interaction between the auditory and non-auditory networks. The auditory network was positively connected with the cognitive control network (CCN), which may associate with tinnitus related distress. Both altered regional activity and changed FC were found in the visual network. The modification of interactions of higher order networks were mainly found in the DMN, CCN and limbic networks. Functional connectivity between the left MOG and left parahippocampal gyrus could also be an index to reflect the disease duration. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the characteristics of neural network modifications in patients with pulsatile tinnitus.

  11. Brain regionalization: of signaling centers and boundaries.

    PubMed

    Cavodeassi, Florencia; Houart, Corinne

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of the general mechanisms controlling the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has advanced tremendously in the last decade. Here, we discuss the impact of the combined use of cell manipulation, in vivo imaging and genetics in the zebrafish on recent progress in understanding how signaling processes progressively control regionalization of the central nervous system. We highlight the unresolved issues and speculate upon the fundamental role the zebrafish will continue having in answering them.

  12. Neuronal coupling by endogenous electric fields: cable theory and applications to coincidence detector neurons in the auditory brain stem.

    PubMed

    Goldwyn, Joshua H; Rinzel, John

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing activity of neurons generates a spatially and time-varying field of extracellular voltage (Ve). This Ve field reflects population-level neural activity, but does it modulate neural dynamics and the function of neural circuits? We provide a cable theory framework to study how a bundle of model neurons generates Ve and how this Ve feeds back and influences membrane potential (Vm). We find that these "ephaptic interactions" are small but not negligible. The model neural population can generate Ve with millivolt-scale amplitude, and this Ve perturbs the Vm of "nearby" cables and effectively increases their electrotonic length. After using passive cable theory to systematically study ephaptic coupling, we explore a test case: the medial superior olive (MSO) in the auditory brain stem. The MSO is a possible locus of ephaptic interactions: sounds evoke large (millivolt scale)Vein vivo in this nucleus. The Ve response is thought to be generated by MSO neurons that perform a known neuronal computation with submillisecond temporal precision (coincidence detection to encode sound source location). Using a biophysically based model of MSO neurons, we find millivolt-scale ephaptic interactions consistent with the passive cable theory results. These subtle membrane potential perturbations induce changes in spike initiation threshold, spike time synchrony, and time difference sensitivity. These results suggest that ephaptic coupling may influence MSO function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Neuronal coupling by endogenous electric fields: cable theory and applications to coincidence detector neurons in the auditory brain stem

    PubMed Central

    Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing activity of neurons generates a spatially and time-varying field of extracellular voltage (Ve). This Ve field reflects population-level neural activity, but does it modulate neural dynamics and the function of neural circuits? We provide a cable theory framework to study how a bundle of model neurons generates Ve and how this Ve feeds back and influences membrane potential (Vm). We find that these “ephaptic interactions” are small but not negligible. The model neural population can generate Ve with millivolt-scale amplitude, and this Ve perturbs the Vm of “nearby” cables and effectively increases their electrotonic length. After using passive cable theory to systematically study ephaptic coupling, we explore a test case: the medial superior olive (MSO) in the auditory brain stem. The MSO is a possible locus of ephaptic interactions: sounds evoke large (millivolt scale) Ve in vivo in this nucleus. The Ve response is thought to be generated by MSO neurons that perform a known neuronal computation with submillisecond temporal precision (coincidence detection to encode sound source location). Using a biophysically based model of MSO neurons, we find millivolt-scale ephaptic interactions consistent with the passive cable theory results. These subtle membrane potential perturbations induce changes in spike initiation threshold, spike time synchrony, and time difference sensitivity. These results suggest that ephaptic coupling may influence MSO function. PMID:26823512

  14. The combined monitoring of brain stem auditory evoked potentials and intracranial pressure in coma. A study of 57 patients.

    PubMed Central

    García-Larrea, L; Artru, F; Bertrand, O; Pernier, J; Mauguière, F

    1992-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) was carried out in 57 comatose patients for periods ranging from 5 hours to 13 days. In 53 cases intracranial pressure (ICP) was also simultaneously monitored. The study of relative changes of evoked potentials over time proved more relevant to prognosis than the mere consideration of "statistical normality" of waveforms; thus progressive degradation of the BAEPs was associated with a bad outcome even if the responses remained within normal limits. Contrary to previous reports, a normal BAEP obtained during the second week of coma did not necessarily indicate a good vital outcome; it could, however, do so in cases with a low probability of secondary insults. The simultaneous study of BAEPs and ICP showed that apparently significant (greater than 40 mm Hg) acute rises in ICP were not always followed by BAEP changes. The stability of BAEP's despite "significant" ICP rises was associated in our patients with a high probability of survival, while prolongation of central latency of BAEPs in response to ICP modifications was almost invariably followed by brain death. Continuous monitoring of brainstem responses provided a useful physiological counterpart to physical parameters such as ICP. Serial recording of cortical EPs should be added to BAEP monitoring to permit the early detection of rostrocaudal deterioration. Images PMID:1402970

  15. Effect of middle ear effusion on the brain-stem auditory evoked response of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Brown, Thomas R; Parker, John E; Granger, Nicolas; Jeffery, Nick D

    2011-06-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked responses (BAER) were assessed in 23 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with and without middle ear effusion at sound intensities ranging from 10 to 100 dB nHL. Significant differences were found between the median BAER threshold for ears where effusions were present (60 dB nHL), compared to those without (30 dB nHL) (P=0.001). The slopes of latency-intensity functions from both groups did not differ, but the y-axis intercept when the x value was zero was greater in dogs with effusions (P=0.009), consistent with conductive hearing loss. Analysis of latency-intensity functions suggested the degree of hearing loss due to middle ear effusion was 21 dB (95% confidence between 10 and 33 dB). Waves I-V inter-wave latency at 90 dB nHL was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings demonstrate that middle ear effusion is associated with a conductive hearing loss of 10-33 dB in affected dogs despite the fact that all animals studied were considered to have normal hearing by their owners.

  16. Three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of human auditory brain-stem evoked potentials. II. Effects of click intensity.

    PubMed

    Martin, W H; Pratt, H; Bleich, N

    1986-01-01

    Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories (3-CLT) of the human auditory brain-stem evoked potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 14 adult subjects at 15, 45, and 75 dB (nHL). The 3-CLTs were analysed and described in terms of their constituent planar segments and their trajectory amplitudes at each stimulus level. At 75 dB, 9 planar segments were observed, each having unique apex latency, boundaries, duration, shape, size and orientation in voltage space. As stimulus levels were lowered, changes were noted in apex latency and trajectory amplitude which parallelled changes seen under similar experimental conditions using single-channel ABEP. In addition, changes were seen in planar segment number, boundaries, duration, shape, size and orientation, all of which could be related to decreased generator activity. It is proposed that at high stimulus levels, there is significant temporal overlap of generator activity which results in a larger number of planar segments and single-channel peaks than at low stimulus levels. This may be important to the identification of the specific generators of the ABEP and their appropriate clinical usage.

  17. Three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of auditory brain-stem potentials evoked by specific frequency bands (derived responses).

    PubMed

    Kaminer, M; Pratt, H

    1987-02-01

    Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories (3-CLT) of the auditory brain-stem evoked potentials were recorded from 14 adult subjects in response to different frequency bands as well as to unmasked clicks. The frequency bands (8 kHz and above, 4-8 kHz, 2-4 kHz, 1-2 kHz and 1 kHz and under) were obtained by subtraction of wave forms to clicks with high-pass masking at these frequencies (derived responses). The 3-CLTs were analysed and described in terms of their geometrical measures. All 3-CLTs included 5 planar segments whose latencies progressively increased with decreasing stimulus frequency, and whose durations and orientations did not change across frequencies. Apex trajectory amplitudes as well as planar segment sizes decreased between unmasked clicks and specific frequency bands, and with decreasing frequency. The changes noted for apex latency and trajectory amplitude were paralleled with corresponding changes in amplitude and latency of single-channel records. The changes in 3-CLT measures with changes in stimulus frequency reflect the contribution of different parts of the cochlea. The unchanged measures may be attributed to the unchanged anatomy of the generators under the different stimulus conditions. The results of this study do not support the wide band of stimuli as responsible for the planarity of 3-CLT segments. In addition, these results indicate that different cochlear processes are responsible for the latency changes observed across stimulus intensities and for those associated with stimulus frequency.

  18. Effects of click polarity on auditory brain-stem potentials: a three-channel Lissajous' trajectory study.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H; Bleich, N

    1989-11-01

    Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories (3CLTs) of the auditory brain-stem evoked potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 16 adult subjects (28 ears) in response to rarefaction (R), condensation (C) and alternating polarity (A) clicks. 3CLTs were analysed and described in terms of their geometrical measures. All 3CLTs included 5 planar segments (named 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' and 'e') whose latencies, durations, orientations, sizes and shapes were not affected by click polarity. Occasionally, planar segment 'd' was not defined, and its absence was parallelled by the absence of peak IV in the Vertex-Mastoid records. A small (0.03 microV), but significant increase was found in the trajectory amplitude of planar segment 'e' in C clicks. The effects of click polarity on 3CLT observed in this study suggest that some previously described ABEP changes with click polarity were the result of interactions between electrode positions and relative contributions of overlapping generators. The effects on the fourth and fifth ABEP components may be the results of changes in the temporal overlap of the activity of their generators.

  19. Three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of the binaural interaction components in human auditory brain-stem evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, A; Pratt, H

    1994-09-01

    The 3-channel Lissajous' trajectory (3-CLT) of the binaural interaction components (BI) in auditory brain-stem evoked potentials (ABEPs) was derived from 17 normally hearing adults by subtracting the response to binaural clicks (B) from the algebraic sum of monaural responses (L + R). ABEPs were recorded in response to 65 dB nHL, alternating polarity clicks, presented at a rate of 11/sec. A normative set of BI 3-CLT measures was calculated and compared with the corresponding measures of simultaneously recorded, single-channel vertex-left mastoid and vertex-neck derivations of BI and of ABEP L + R and B. 3-CLT measures included: apex latency, amplitude and orientation, as well as planar segment duration and orientation. The results showed 3 apices and associated planar segments ("BdII," "Be" and "Bf") in the 3-CLT of BI which corresponded in latency to the vertex-mastoid and vertex-neck peaks IIIn, V and VI of ABEP L + R and B. These apices corresponded in latency and orientation to apices of the 3-CLT of ABEP L + R and ABEP B. This correspondence suggests generators of the BI components between the trapezoid body and the inferior colliculus output. Durations of BI planar segments were approximately 1.0 msec. Apex amplitudes of BI 3-CLT were larger than the respective peak amplitudes of the vertex-mastoid and vertex-neck recorded BI, while their intersubject variabilities were comparable.

  20. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Brain Dysconnectivity in the Perisylvian Language Network: A Multimodal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steven; Barsaglini, Alessio; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M.; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that the development of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) is associated with altered structural and functional connectivity within the perisylvian language network. However, these studies focussed mainly on either structural or functional alterations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Therefore, they were unable to examine the relationship between the 2 types of measures and could not establish whether the observed alterations would be expressed in the early stage of the illness. We used diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine white matter integrity and functional connectivity within the left perisylvian language network of 46 individuals with an at risk mental state for psychosis or a first episode of the illness, including 28 who had developed AVH group and 18 who had not (nonauditory verbal hallucination [nAVH] group), and 22 healthy controls. Inferences were made at P < .05 (corrected). The nAVH group relative to healthy controls showed a reduction of both white matter integrity and functional connectivity as well as a disruption of the normal structure−function relationship along the fronto-temporal pathway. For all measures, the AVH group showed intermediate values between healthy controls and the nAVH group. These findings seem to suggest that, in the early stage of the disorder, a significant impairment of fronto-temporal connectivity is evident in patients who do not experience AVHs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that, whilst mild disruption of connectivity might still enable the emergence of AVHs, more severe alterations may prevent the occurrence of the hallucinatory experience. PMID:24361862

  1. Auditory verbal hallucinations and brain dysconnectivity in the perisylvian language network: a multimodal investigation.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Stefania; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steven; Barsaglini, Alessio; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that the development of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) is associated with altered structural and functional connectivity within the perisylvian language network. However, these studies focussed mainly on either structural or functional alterations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Therefore, they were unable to examine the relationship between the 2 types of measures and could not establish whether the observed alterations would be expressed in the early stage of the illness. We used diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine white matter integrity and functional connectivity within the left perisylvian language network of 46 individuals with an at risk mental state for psychosis or a first episode of the illness, including 28 who had developed AVH group and 18 who had not (nonauditory verbal hallucination [nAVH] group), and 22 healthy controls. Inferences were made at P < .05 (corrected). The nAVH group relative to healthy controls showed a reduction of both white matter integrity and functional connectivity as well as a disruption of the normal structure-function relationship along the fronto-temporal pathway. For all measures, the AVH group showed intermediate values between healthy controls and the nAVH group. These findings seem to suggest that, in the early stage of the disorder, a significant impairment of fronto-temporal connectivity is evident in patients who do not experience AVHs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that, whilst mild disruption of connectivity might still enable the emergence of AVHs, more severe alterations may prevent the occurrence of the hallucinatory experience.

  2. Decreases in energy and increases in phase locking of event related oscillations to auditory stimuli occurs over adolescence in human and rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Wills, Derek N.; Desikan, Anita; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2014-01-01

    Synchrony of phase (phase locking) of event-related oscillations (EROs) within and between different brain areas has been suggested to reflect communication exchange between neural networks and as such may be a sensitive and translational measure of changes in brain remodeling that occurs during adolescence. This study sought to investigate developmental changes in EROs using a similar auditory event-related potential (ERP) paradigm in both rats and humans. Energy and phase variability of EROs collected from 38 young adult men (age 18-25 yrs), 33 periadolescent boys (age 10-14 yrs), 15 male periadolescent rats (@ Post Natal Day (PD) 36) and 19 male adult rats (@ PD 103) were investigated. Three channels of ERP data (Frontal Cortex, FZ; Central Cortex, CZ; Parietal Cortex, PZ) were collected from the humans using an oddball plus “noise” paradigm that was presented under passive (no behavioral response required) conditions in the periadolescents and under active conditions (where each subject was instructed to depress a counter each time he detected an infrequent (target) tone) in adults and adolescents. ERPs were recorded in rats using only the passive paradigm. In order to compare the tasks used in rats to those used in humans we first studied whether three ERO measures (energy, phase locking index (within an electrode site, PLI), phase difference locking index (between different electrode sites, PDLI)) differentiated the “active” from “passive” ERP tasks. Secondly we explored our main question of whether the three ERO measures, differentiated adults from periadolescents in a similar manner in both humans and rats. No significant changes were found in measures of ERO energy between the active and passive tasks in the periadolescent human participants. There was a smaller but significant increase in PLI but not PDLI as a function of “active” task requirements. Developmental differences were found in energy, PLI and PDLI values between the

  3. Decreases in energy and increases in phase locking of event-related oscillations to auditory stimuli occur during adolescence in human and rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Desikan, Anita; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2014-01-01

    Synchrony of phase (phase locking) of event-related oscillations (EROs) within and between different brain areas has been suggested to reflect communication exchange between neural networks and as such may be a sensitive and translational measure of changes in brain remodeling that occur during adolescence. This study sought to investigate developmental changes in EROs using a similar auditory event-related potential (ERP) paradigm in both rats and humans. Energy and phase variability of EROs collected from 38 young adult men (aged 18-25 years), 33 periadolescent boys (aged 10-14 years), 15 male periadolescent rats [at postnatal day (PD) 36] and 19 male adult rats (at PD103) were investigated. Three channels of ERP data (frontal cortex, central cortex and parietal cortex) were collected from the humans using an 'oddball plus noise' paradigm that was presented under passive (no behavioral response required) conditions in the periadolescents and under active conditions (where each subject was instructed to depress a counter each time he detected an infrequent target tone) in adults and adolescents. ERPs were recorded in rats using only the passive paradigm. In order to compare the tasks used in rats to those used in humans, we first studied whether three ERO measures [energy, phase locking index (PLI) within an electrode site and phase difference locking index (PDLI) between different electrode sites] differentiated the 'active' from 'passive' ERP tasks. Secondly, we explored our main question of whether the three ERO measures differentiated adults from periadolescents in a similar manner in both humans and rats. No significant changes were found in measures of ERO energy between the active and passive tasks in the periadolescent human participants. There was a smaller but significant increase in PLI but not PDLI as a function of active task requirements. Developmental differences were found in energy, PLI and PDLI values between the periadolescents and adults in

  4. Long-term variability of importance of brain regions in evolving epileptic brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the temporal and spatial variability of the importance of brain regions in evolving epileptic brain networks. We construct these networks from multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic data recorded from 17 epilepsy patients and use centrality indices to assess the importance of brain regions. Time-resolved indications of highest importance fluctuate over time to a greater or lesser extent, however, with some periodic temporal structure that can mostly be attributed to phenomena unrelated to the disease. In contrast, relevant aspects of the epileptic process contribute only marginally. Indications of highest importance also exhibit pronounced alternations between various brain regions that are of relevance for studies aiming at an improved understanding of the epileptic process with graph-theoretical approaches. Nonetheless, these findings may guide new developments for individualized diagnosis, treatment, and control.

  5. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Jack L.; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Martinez, Michael J.; Fox, P. Mickle; Fox, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten “major representative” functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions. PMID:22973224

  6. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten "major representative" functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions.

  7. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinden, Lauren A; Saba, Laura M; Kechris, Katerina; Miles, Michael F; Hoffman, Paula L; Tabakoff, Boris

    2013-01-01

    To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL) with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL). To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories) and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA); prefrontal cortex (PFC); ventral tegmental area (VTA); striatum (ST); hippocampus (HP); cerebellum (CB)) available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA) and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  8. Whole Brain and Brain Regional Coexpression Network Interactions Associated with Predisposition to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlinden, Lauren A.; Saba, Laura M.; Kechris, Katerina; Miles, Michael F.; Hoffman, Paula L.; Tabakoff, Boris

    2013-01-01

    To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL) with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL). To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories) and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA); prefrontal cortex (PFC); ventral tegmental area (VTA); striatum (ST); hippocampus (HP); cerebellum (CB)) available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three “meta-modules”, composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA) and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits. PMID:23894363

  9. Specific regions of the brain are capable of fructose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Sarah A; Zhang, Wanming; Tolan, Dean R

    2017-02-15

    High fructose consumption in the Western diet correlates with disease states such as obesity and metabolic syndrome complications, including type II diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease. Liver and kidneys are responsible for metabolism of 40-60% of ingested fructose, while the physiological fate of the remaining fructose remains poorly understood. The primary metabolic pathway for fructose includes the fructose-transporting solute-like carrier transport proteins 2a (SLC2a or GLUT), including GLUT5 and GLUT9, ketohexokinase (KHK), and aldolase. Bioinformatic analysis of gene expression encoding these proteins (glut5, glut9, khk, and aldoC, respectively) identifies other organs capable of this fructose metabolism. This analysis predicts brain, lymphoreticular tissue, placenta, and reproductive tissues as possible additional organs for fructose metabolism. While expression of these genes is highest in liver, the brain is predicted to have expression levels of these genes similar to kidney. RNA in situ hybridization of coronal slices of adult mouse brains validate the in silico expression of glut5, glut9, khk, and aldoC, and show expression across many regions of the brain, with the most notable expression in the cerebellum, hippocampus, cortex, and olfactory bulb. Dissected samples of these brain regions show KHK and aldolase enzyme activity 5-10 times the concentration of that in liver. Furthermore, rates of fructose oxidation in these brain regions are 15-150 times that of liver slices, confirming the bioinformatics prediction and in situ hybridization data. This suggests that previously unappreciated regions across the brain can use fructose, in addition to glucose, for energy production.

  10. [The Map of Auditory Function].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, So; Komura, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are located in the superior temporal gyrus and regarded as auditory cortices. The fundamental function in audition is frequency analysis; however, the findings on tonotopy maps of the human auditory cortex were not unified until recently when they were compared to the findings on inputs and outputs of the monkey auditory cortex. The auditory cortex shows plasticity after conditioned learning and surgery of cochlear implant. It is also involved in speech perception, music appreciation, and auditory hallucination in schizophrenia through interactions with other brain areas, such as the thalamus, frontal cortex, and limbic systems.

  11. Regional brain glucose metabolism in patients with brain tumors before and after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Lau, Y.H.

    1994-05-01

    This study was performed to measure regional glucose metabolism in nonaffected brain regions of patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Seven female and four male patients (mean age 51.5{plus_minus}14.0 years old) were compared with eleven age and sex matched normal subjects. None of the patients had hydrocephalus and/or increased intracranial pressure. Brain glucose metabolism was measured using FDG-PET scan. Five of the patients were reevaluated one week after receiving radiation treatment (RT) to the brain. Patients were on Decadron and/or Dilantin at the time of both scan. PET images were analyzed with a template of 115 nonoverlapping regions of interest and then grouped into eight gray matter regions on each hemisphere. Brain regions with tumors and edema shown in MR imaging were excluded. Z scores were used to compare individual patients` regional values with those of normal subjects. The number of regional values with Z scores of less than - 3.0 were considered abnormal and were quantified. The mean global glucose metabolic rate (mean of all regions) in nonaffected brain regions of patients was significantly lower than that of normal controls (32.1{plus_minus}9.0 versus 44.8{plus_minus}6.3 {mu}mol/100g/min, p<0.001). Analyses of individual subjects revealed that none of the controls and 8 of the 11 patients had at least one abnormal region. In these 8 patients the regions which were abnormal were most frequently localized in right (n=5) and left occipital (n=6) and right orbital frontal cortex (n=7) whereas the basal ganglia was not affected. Five of the patients who had repeated scans following RT showed decrements in tumor metabolism (41{plus_minus}20.5%) and a significant increase in whole brain metabolism (8.6{plus_minus}5.3%, p<0.001). The improvement in whole brain metabolism after RT suggests that the brain metabolic decrements in the patients were related to the presence of tumoral tissue and not just a medication effect.

  12. Expression of arginine decarboxylase in brain regions and neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyo, Abiye H.; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    After our initial report of a mammalian gene for arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme for the synthesis of agmatine from arginine, we have determined the regional expression of ADC in rat. We have analyzed the expression of ADC in rat brain regions by activity, protein and mRNA levels, and the regulation of expression in neuronal cells by RNA interference. In rat brain, ADC was widely expressed in major brain regions, with a substantial amount in hypothalamus, followed by cortex, and with least amounts in locus coeruleus and medulla. ADC mRNA was detected in primary astrocytes and C6 glioma cells. While no ADC message was detected in fresh neurons (3 days old), significant message appeared in differentiated neurons (3 weeks old). PC12 cells, treated with nerve growth factor, had higher ADC mRNA compared with naive cells. The siRNA mixture directed towards the N-terminal regions of ADC cDNA down-regulated the levels of mRNA and protein in cultured neurons/C6 glioma cells and these cells produced lower agmatine. Thus, this study demonstrates that ADC message is expressed in rat brain regions, that it is regulated in neuronal cells and that the down-regulation of ADC activity by specific siRNA leads to lower agmatine production. PMID:16445852

  13. Reproducibility of regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. |

    1996-10-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism in response to benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men underwent scanning with PET and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: before placebo and before lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 wk later on the men to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained from the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased both whole-brain metabolism and the magnitude. The regional pattern of the changes were comparable for both studies (12.3% {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7% {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were the largest in the thalamus (22.2% {plus_minus} 8.6% and 22.4% {plus_minus} 6.9%) and occipital cortex (19% {plus_minus} 8.9% and 21.8% {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures were highly reproducible both for pharmacolgic and replication condition. This study measured the test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic responses, and although the global and regional metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the response to lorazepam was highly reproducible. 1613 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Regional brain responses in humans during body heating and cooling

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional brain imaging of responses to thermal challenge in humans provides a viable method to implicate widespread neuroanatomical regions in the processes of thermoregulation. Thus far, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used infrequently in humans to investigate thermoregulation, although preliminary outcomes have been informative and certainly encourage further forays into this field of enquiry. At this juncture, sustained regional brain activations in response to prolonged changes in body temperature are yet to be definitively characterized, but it would appear that thermoregulatory regions are widely distributed throughout the hemispheres of the human brain. Of those autonomic responses to thermal challenge investigated so far, the loci of associated brainstem responses in human are homologous with other species. However, human imaging studies have also implicated a wide range of forebrain regions in thermal sensations and autonomic responses that extend beyond outcomes reported in other species. There is considerable impetus to continue human functional neuroimaging of thermoregulatory responses because of the unique opportunities presented by the method to survey regions across the whole brain in compliant, conscious participants. PMID:27857952

  15. Region-specific growth restriction of brain following preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Sachiko; Katayama, Reiji; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Sachio; Abe, Toshi; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    Regional brain sizes of very-preterm infants at term-equivalent age differ from those of term-born peers, which have been linked with later cognitive impairments. However, dependence of regional brain volume loss on gestational age has not been studied in detail. To investigate the spatial pattern of brain growth in neonates without destructive brain lesions, head MRI of 189 neonates with a wide range of gestational age (24–42 weeks gestation) was assessed using simple metrics measurements. Dependence of MRI findings on gestational age at birth (Agebirth) and the corrected age at MRI scan (AgeMRI) were assessed. The head circumference was positively correlated with AgeMRI, but not Agebirth. The bi-parietal width, deep grey matter area and the trans-cerebellar diameter were positively correlated with both Agebirth and AgeMRI. The callosal thickness (positive), atrial width of lateral ventricle (negative) and the inter-hemispheric distance (negative) were exclusively correlated with Agebirth. The callosal thickness and cerebral/cerebellar transverse diameters showed predominant dependence on Agebirth over AgeMRI, suggesting that brain growth after preterm-birth was considerably restricted or even became negligible compared with that in utero. Such growth restriction after preterm birth may extensively affect relatively more matured infants, considering the linear relationships observed between brain sizes and Agebirth. PMID:27658730

  16. Hemodynamic responses in human multisensory and auditory association cortex to purely visual stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Martin; Baumann, Simon; Marchina, Sarah; Jancke, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent findings of a tight coupling between visual and auditory association cortices during multisensory perception in monkeys and humans raise the question whether consistent paired presentation of simple visual and auditory stimuli prompts conditioned responses in unimodal auditory regions or multimodal association cortex once visual stimuli are presented in isolation in a post-conditioning run. To address this issue fifteen healthy participants partook in a "silent" sparse temporal event-related fMRI study. In the first (visual control) habituation phase they were presented with briefly red flashing visual stimuli. In the second (auditory control) habituation phase they heard brief telephone ringing. In the third (conditioning) phase we coincidently presented the visual stimulus (CS) paired with the auditory stimulus (UCS). In the fourth phase participants either viewed flashes paired with the auditory stimulus (maintenance, CS-) or viewed the visual stimulus in isolation (extinction, CS+) according to a 5:10 partial reinforcement schedule. The participants had no other task than attending to the stimuli and indicating the end of each trial by pressing a button. Results During unpaired visual presentations (preceding and following the paired presentation) we observed significant brain responses beyond primary visual cortex in the bilateral posterior auditory association cortex (planum temporale, planum parietale) and in the right superior temporal sulcus whereas the primary auditory regions were not involved. By contrast, the activity in auditory core regions was markedly larger when participants were presented with auditory stimuli. Conclusion These results demonstrate involvement of multisensory and auditory association areas in perception of unimodal visual stimulation which may reflect the instantaneous forming of multisensory associations and cannot be attributed to sensation of an auditory event. More importantly, we are able to show that brain

  17. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes.

    PubMed

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  18. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  19. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  20. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  1. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  2. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  3. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  4. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  5. Auditory Oddball fMRI in Schizophrenia: Association of Negative Symptoms with Regional Hypoactivation to Novel Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Loughead, James; Elliott, Mark A.; Pratiwadi, Ramapriyan; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with abnormal processing of salient stimuli, which may contribute to clinical symptoms. We used fMRI and a standard auditory 3-stimulus task to examine attention processing. Target stimuli and novel distractors were presented to 17 patients and 21 healthy controls and activation was correlated with negative and positive symptoms. To targets, patients overactivated multiple regions including premotor cortex, anterior cingulate, temporal cortex, insula, and hippocampus, and also showed attenuated deactivation within occipital cortex. To distractors, patients overactivated left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. This overactivation may reflect hypersensitivity to salient stimuli in schizophrenia. Patients also exhibited an inverse correlation between negative symptom severity and activation to novel distractors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, premotor area, and ventral striatum. Novelty-induced activity within prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum may represent a useful intermediate phenotype for studies of negative symptoms. PMID:19756228

  6. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with (6-/sup 14/C)glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus.

  7. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Differential susceptibility of brain regions to tributyltin chloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is explicitly used in many industrial applications. Previously we have shown its neurotoxic potential on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. As the effect of TBT on other brain regions is not known, we planned this study to evaluate its effect on four brain regions (cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum). Four-week-old male Wistar rats were gavaged with a single dose of TBT-chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and sacrificed on days 3 and 7, respectively. Effect of TBTC on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and tin (Sn) accumulation were measured. Oxidative stress indexes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were analyzed as they play an imperative role in various neuropathological conditions. Since metal catalyzed reactions are a major source of oxidant generation, levels of essential metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) were estimated. We found that TBTC disrupted BBB and increased Sn accumulation, both of which appear significantly correlated. Altered metal homeostasis and ROS generation accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation indicated oxidative damage which appeared more pronounced in the striatum than in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. This could be associated to the depleted GSH levels in striatum. These results suggest that striatum is more susceptible to TBTC induced oxidative damage as compared with other brain regions under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evoked potentials to auditory movement sensation in duplex perception.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Ilan; Pratt, Hillel

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the processing of auditory movement sensation accompanying duplex perception in binaural hearing. Stimuli were formant transitions (presented to the front, left or right of the subject) and base (presented to the front), that fused to result in vowel-consonant-vowel (V-C-V) sequences /aga/ and /ada/. An illusion of auditory movement (duplex sensation) accompanied the fusion of these V-C-V sequences when the spatial locations of the formant transitions and base were different. Ten right-handed, adult, native Hebrew speakers discriminated each fused stimulus, and the brain potentials associated with performance of the task were recorded from 21 electrodes. The processing of auditory movement was studied by a factorial design (ANOVA) and statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM) of low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) images of the net-fusion response. Brain regions implicated in auditory movement processing were expected to be associated with the lateralized formant location, which gave rise to duplex perception. In addition, the time-course of significant activation in brain areas that differentiated between fusion conditions was determined. The posterior parietal, anterior cingulate and premotor cortices were found to be implicated in duplex processing. Auditory cortex involvement was also evident, and together with the latter two brain regions was affected by right-ear advantage. Duplex perception resulting from fusion of spatially separate sounds forming an auditory object results in activation of a network of brain regions reflecting enhanced allocation of attention and the effect of language processing.

  11. Subthreshold depression and regional brain volumes in young community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vulser, Hélène; Lemaitre, Hervé; Artiges, Eric; Miranda, Ruben; Penttilä, Jani; Struve, Maren; Fadai, Tahmine; Kappel, Viola; Grimmer, Yvonne; Goodman, Robert; Stringaris, Argyris; Poustka, Luise; Conrod, Patricia; Frouin, Vincent; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging findings have been reported in regions of the brain associated with emotion in both adults and adolescents with depression, but few studies have investigated whether such brain alterations can be detected in adolescents with subthreshold depression, a condition at risk for major depressive disorder. In this study, we searched for differences in brain structure at age 14 years in adolescents with subthreshold depression and their relation to depression at age 16 years. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adolescents with self-reported subthreshold depression (n = 119) and healthy control adolescents (n = 461), all recruited from a community-based sample. Regional gray and white matter volumes were compared across groups using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. The relationship between subthreshold depression at baseline and depression outcome was explored using causal mediation analyses to search for mediating effects of regional brain volumes. Adolescents with subthreshold depression had smaller gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal and rostral anterior cingulate cortices and caudates, and smaller white matter volumes in the anterior limb of internal capsules, left forceps minor, and right cingulum. In girls, but not in boys, the relation between subthreshold depression at baseline and high depression score at follow-up was mediated by medial-prefrontal gray matter volume. Subthreshold depression in early adolescence might be associated with smaller gray and white matter volumes in regions of the frontal-striatal-limbic affective circuit, and the occurrence of depression in girls with subthreshold depression might be influenced by medial-prefrontal gray matter volume. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because of the limitations of the clinical assessment methods. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Increased ubiquinone concentration after intracerebroventricularly-administered ubiquinol to selected rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjáková, Anna; Mravec, Boris; Kucharská, Jarmila; Lackovičová, Lubica; Ondičová, Katarína; Tkačov, Martin; Singh, Ram B

    2012-12-01

    Brain coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) concentration can influence the activity of several brain regions, including those which participate in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms, food intake, neuroendocrine stress response, activity and sleep regulation. However, the effect of supplemented ubiquinol (reduced CoQ) into brain regions is not known. This study determined baseline levels of ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ) in various rat brain regions and proved the bioavailability of the liposomal ubiquinol to selected brain regions after its administration into right brain ventricle. Our data indicate that administration of ubiquinol may create the basis for modulation of neuronal activities in specific brain regions.

  13. Central auditory disorders: toward a neuropsychology of auditory objects

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Analysis of the auditory environment, source identification and vocal communication all require efficient brain mechanisms for disambiguating, representing and understanding complex natural sounds as ‘auditory objects’. Failure of these mechanisms leads to a diverse spectrum of clinical deficits. Here we review current evidence concerning the phenomenology, mechanisms and brain substrates of auditory agnosias and related disorders of auditory object processing. Recent findings Analysis of lesions causing auditory object deficits has revealed certain broad anatomical correlations: deficient parsing of the auditory scene is associated with lesions involving the parieto-temporal junction, while selective disorders of sound recognition occur with more anterior temporal lobe or extra-temporal damage. Distributed neural networks have been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of such disorders as developmental dyslexia, congenital amusia and tinnitus. Auditory category deficits may arise from defective interaction of spectrotemporal encoding and executive and mnestic processes. Dedicated brain mechanisms are likely to process specialised sound objects such as voices and melodies. Summary Emerging empirical evidence suggests a clinically relevant, hierarchical and fractionated neuropsychological model of auditory object processing that provides a framework for understanding auditory agnosias and makes specific predictions to direct future work. PMID:20975559

  14. Personality traits and its association with resting regional brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Ashley; Boord, Peter; Connell, Kathy; Cooper, Nicholas; Gordon, Evian

    2006-06-01

    The association between personality and resting brain activity was investigated. Personality was assessed using the NEO-Five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting brain activity was indexed by eyes closed EEG spectral magnitude from four frequency bands over the entire cortex. Results suggest that there are differences between males and females in the NEO-FFI personality traits. The NEO FFI traits were associated with lower frequency brain activity in both males and females. Mild significant and consistent associations were found between delta and theta activity across all cortical regions with Extraversion and Conscientiousness. There were few associations between personality traits and alpha and beta activity, this was shown in males only. Fewer associations between personality and faster frequency bands such as alpha may be due to the methodological problem of using fixed alpha bands. Multiple regression analyses showed that individual alpha frequencies had a greater contribution to personality traits than fixed band alpha waves.

  15. Different Brain Regions are Infected with Fungi in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Diana; Alonso, Ruth; Rábano, Alberto; Rodal, Izaskun; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-10-15

    The possibility that Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a microbial aetiology has been proposed by several researchers. Here, we provide evidence that tissue from the central nervous system (CNS) of AD patients contain fungal cells and hyphae. Fungal material can be detected both intra- and extracellularly using specific antibodies against several fungi. Different brain regions including external frontal cortex, cerebellar hemisphere, entorhinal cortex/hippocampus and choroid plexus contain fungal material, which is absent in brain tissue from control individuals. Analysis of brain sections from ten additional AD patients reveals that all are infected with fungi. Fungal infection is also observed in blood vessels, which may explain the vascular pathology frequently detected in AD patients. Sequencing of fungal DNA extracted from frozen CNS samples identifies several fungal species. Collectively, our findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of fungal infection in the CNS from AD patients, but not in control individuals.

  16. Cortical Brain Regions Associated with Color Processing: An FMRi Study

    PubMed Central

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2010-01-01

    To clarify whether the neural pathways concerning color processing are the same for natural objects, for artifacts objects and for non-objects we examined brain responses measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) during a covert naming task including the factors color (color vs. black&white (B&W)) and stimulus type (natural vs. artifacts vs. non-objects). Our results indicate that the superior parietal lobule and precuneus (BA 7) bilaterally, the right hippocampus and the right fusifom gyrus (V4) make part of a network responsible for color processing both for natural objects and artifacts, but not for non-objects. When color objects (both natural and artifacts) were contrasted with color non-objects we observed activations in the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36), the superior parietal lobule (BA 7) bilaterally, the left inferior middle temporal region (BA 20/21) and the inferior and superior frontal regions (BA 10/11/47). These additional activations suggest that colored objects recruit brain regions that are related to visual semantic information/retrieval and brain regions related to visuo-spatial processing. Overall, the results suggest that color information is an attribute that can improve object recognition (behavioral results) and activate a specific neural network related to visual semantic information that is more extensive than for B&W objects during object recognition. PMID:21270939

  17. Cortical brain regions associated with color processing: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2010-11-05

    To clarify whether the neural pathways concerning color processing are the same for natural objects, for artifacts objects and for non-objects we examined brain responses measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) during a covert naming task including the factors color (color vs. black&white (B&W)) and stimulus type (natural vs. artifacts vs. non-objects). Our results indicate that the superior parietal lobule and precuneus (BA 7) bilaterally, the right hippocampus and the right fusifom gyrus (V4) make part of a network responsible for color processing both for natural objects and artifacts, but not for non-objects. When color objects (both natural and artifacts) were contrasted with color non-objects we observed activations in the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36), the superior parietal lobule (BA 7) bilaterally, the left inferior middle temporal region (BA 20/21) and the inferior and superior frontal regions (BA 10/11/47). These additional activations suggest that colored objects recruit brain regions that are related to visual semantic information/retrieval and brain regions related to visuo-spatial processing. Overall, the results suggest that color information is an attribute that can improve object recognition (behavioral results) and activate a specific neural network related to visual semantic information that is more extensive than for B&W objects during object recognition.

  18. Overdrinking, swallowing inhibition, and regional brain responses prior to swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Saker, Pascal; Egan, Gary F.; McKinley, Michael J.; Denton, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, drinking replenishes fluid loss and satiates the sensation of thirst that accompanies dehydration. Typically, the volume of water drunk in response to thirst matches the deficit. Exactly how this accurate metering is achieved is unknown; recent evidence implicates swallowing inhibition as a potential factor. Using fMRI, this study investigated whether swallowing inhibition is present after more water has been drunk than is necessary to restore fluid balance within the body. This proposal was tested using ratings of swallowing effort and measuring regional brain responses as participants prepared to swallow small volumes of liquid while they were thirsty and after they had overdrunk. Effort ratings provided unequivocal support for swallowing inhibition, with a threefold increase in effort after overdrinking, whereas addition of 8% (wt/vol) sucrose to water had minimal effect on effort before or after overdrinking. Regional brain responses when participants prepared to swallow showed increases in the motor cortex, prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortex, striatum, and thalamus after overdrinking, relative to thirst. Ratings of swallowing effort were correlated with activity in the right prefrontal cortex and pontine regions in the brainstem; no brain regions showed correlated activity with pleasantness ratings. These findings are all consistent with the presence of swallowing inhibition after excess water has been drunk. We conclude that swallowing inhibition is an important mechanism in the overall regulation of fluid intake in humans. PMID:27791015

  19. Differences in Regional Brain Volumes Two Months and One Year after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Meyer, Carsten; Stehle, Thomas; Wenzel, Fabian; Young, Stewart; Peters, Jochen; Weese, Juergen; Paulsen, Keith; Garlinghouse, Matthew; Ford, James; Roth, Robert; Flashman, Laura; McAllister, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional structural imaging is often normal after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). There is a need for structural neuroimaging biomarkers that facilitate detection of milder injuries, allow recovery trajectory monitoring, and identify those at risk for poor functional outcome and disability. We present a novel approach to quantifying volumes of candidate brain regions at risk for injury. Compared to controls, patients with mTBI had significantly smaller volumes in several regions including the caudate, putamen, and thalamus when assessed 2 months after injury. These differences persisted but were reduced in magnitude 1 year after injury, suggesting the possibility of normalization over time in the affected regions. More pronounced differences, however, were found in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting the possibility of regionally specific responses to injury.

  20. Auditory verbal hallucinations: neuroimaging and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, M M; Hugdahl, K; Sommer, I E C

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a frequently occurring phenomenon in the general population and are considered a psychotic symptom when presented in the context of a psychiatric disorder. Neuroimaging literature has shown that AVH are subserved by a variety of alterations in brain structure and function, which primarily concentrate around brain regions associated with the processing of auditory verbal stimuli and with executive control functions. However, the direction of association between AVH and brain function remains equivocal in certain research areas and needs to be carefully reviewed and interpreted. When AVH have significant impact on daily functioning, several efficacious treatments can be attempted such as antipsychotic medication, brain stimulation and cognitive-behavioural therapy. Interestingly, the neural correlates of these treatments largely overlap with brain regions involved in AVH. This suggests that the efficacy of treatment corresponds to a normalization of AVH-related brain activity. In this selected review, we give a compact yet comprehensive overview of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature on AVH, with a special focus on the neural correlates of efficacious treatment.

  1. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Diksic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α-14C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (−32%), but not in the median (−14%) and dorsal (−3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+41%) and ventral (+43%) hippocampus, visual (+38%), auditory (+65%) and parietal (+37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+11%) and lateral (+24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+5%), VTA (+16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors. PMID:22560971

  2. Predicting regional neurodegeneration from the healthy brain functional connectome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Kramer, Joel H; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W

    2012-03-22

    Neurodegenerative diseases target large-scale neural networks. Four competing mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain network-based disease patterning: nodal stress, transneuronal spread, trophic failure, and shared vulnerability. Here, we used task-free fMRI to derive the healthy intrinsic connectivity patterns seeded by brain regions vulnerable to any of five distinct neurodegenerative diseases. These data enabled us to investigate how intrinsic connectivity in health predicts region-by-region vulnerability to disease. For each illness, specific regions emerged as critical network "epicenters" whose normal connectivity profiles most resembled the disease-associated atrophy pattern. Graph theoretical analyses in healthy subjects revealed that regions with higher total connectional flow and, more consistently, shorter functional paths to the epicenters, showed greater disease-related vulnerability. These findings best fit a transneuronal spread model of network-based vulnerability. Molecular pathological approaches may help clarify what makes each epicenter vulnerable to its targeting disease and how toxic protein species travel between networked brain structures.

  3. Regional mechanical properties of human brain tissue for computational models of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finan, John D; Sundaresh, Sowmya N; Elkin, Benjamin S; McKhann, Guy M; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-06-01

    To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors. The presented material properties will help to populate finite element models of the brain as they become more anatomically detailed. We present the first mechanical characterization of fresh, post-operative human brain tissue using an indentation loading mode. Indentation generates highly localized data, allowing structure-specific mechanical properties to be determined from small tissue samples resected during surgery. It also avoids pitfalls of cadaveric tissue and allows data to be collected before degenerative processes alter mechanical properties. To correctly predict traumatic brain injury, finite element models must calculate intracranial deformation during head impact. The functional consequences of injury depend on the anatomical structures injured. Therefore, morbidity depends on the distribution of deformation across structures. Accurate prediction of structure-specific deformation requires structure-specific mechanical properties. This data will facilitate deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that lead to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-Modal Plasticity in Higher-Order Auditory Cortex of Congenitally Deaf Cats Does Not Limit Auditory Responsiveness to Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Baumhoff, Peter; Tillein, Jochen; Lomber, Stephen G.; Hubka, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Congenital sensory deprivation can lead to reorganization of the deprived cortical regions by another sensory system. Such cross-modal reorganization may either compete with or complement the “original“ inputs to the deprived area after sensory restoration and can thus be either adverse or beneficial for sensory restoration. In congenital deafness, a previous inactivation study documented that supranormal visual behavior was mediated by higher-order auditory fields in congenitally deaf cats (CDCs). However, both the auditory responsiveness of “deaf” higher-order fields and interactions between the reorganized and the original sensory input remain unknown. Here, we studied a higher-order auditory field responsible for the supranormal visual function in CDCs, the auditory dorsal zone (DZ). Hearing cats and visual cortical areas served as a control. Using mapping with microelectrode arrays, we demonstrate spatially scattered visual (cross-modal) responsiveness in the DZ, but show that this did not interfere substantially with robust auditory responsiveness elicited through cochlear implants. Visually responsive and auditory-responsive neurons in the deaf auditory cortex formed two distinct populations that did not show bimodal interactions. Therefore, cross-modal plasticity in the deaf higher-order auditory cortex had limited effects on auditory inputs. The moderate number of scattered cross-modally responsive neurons could be the consequence of exuberant connections formed during development that were not pruned postnatally in deaf cats. Although juvenile brain circuits are modified extensively by experience, the main driving input to the cross-modally (visually) reorganized higher-order auditory cortex remained auditory in congenital deafness. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In a common view, the “unused” auditory cortex of deaf individuals is reorganized to a compensatory sensory function during development. According to this view, cross-modal plasticity takes

  5. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    PubMed

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Abnormal regional brain function in Parkinson's disease: truth or fiction?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chengke; Moeller, James R; Eidelberg, David

    2009-04-01

    Normalization of regional measurements by the global mean is commonly employed to minimize inter-subject variability in functional imaging studies. This practice is based on the assumption that global values do not substantially differ between patient and control groups. In this issue of NeuroImage, Borghammer and colleagues challenge the validity of this assumption. They focus on Parkinson's disease (PD) and use computer simulations to show that lower global values can produce spurious increases in subcortical brain regions. The authors speculate that the increased signal observed in these areas in PD is artefactual and unrelated to localized changes in brain function. In this commentary, we summarize what is currently known of the relationship between regional and global metabolic activity in PD and experimental parkinsonism. We found that early stage PD patients exhibit global values that are virtually identical to those of age-matched healthy subjects. SPM analysis revealed increased normalized metabolic activity in a discrete set of biologically relevant subcortical brain regions. Because of their higher variability, the corresponding absolute regional measures did not differ across the two groups. Longitudinal imaging studies in this population showed that the subcortical elevations in normalized metabolism appeared earlier and progressed faster than did focal cortical or global metabolic reductions. The observed increases in subcortical activity, but not the global changes, correlated with independent clinical measures of disease progression. Multivariate analysis with SSM/PCA further confirmed that the abnormal spatial covariance structure of early PD is dominated by these subcortical increases as opposed to network-related reductions in cortical metabolic activity or global changes. Thus, increased subcortical activity in PD cannot be regarded as a simple artefact of global normalization. Moreover, stability of the normalized measurements, particularly at

  7. Relationship of regional brain β-amyloid to gait speed

    PubMed Central

    Payoux, Pierre; Djilali, Adel; Delrieu, Julien; Hoogendijk, Emiel O.; Rolland, Yves; Cesari, Matteo; Weiner, Michael W.; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vivo the relationship of regional brain β-amyloid (Aβ) to gait speed in a group of elderly individuals at high risk for dementia. Methods: Cross-sectional associations between brain Aβ as measured with [18F]florbetapir PET and gait speed were examined in 128 elderly participants. Subjects ranged from healthy to mildly cognitively impaired enrolled in the control arm of the multidomain intervention in the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Nearly all participants presented spontaneous memory complaints. Regional [18F]florbetapir (AV45) standardized uptake volume ratios were obtained via semiautomated quantitative analysis using the cerebellum as reference region. Gait speed was measured by timing participants while they walked 4 meters. Associations were explored with linear regression, correcting for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), and APOE genotype. Results: We found a significant association between Aβ in the posterior and anterior putamen, occipital cortex, precuneus, and anterior cingulate and slow gait speed (all corrected p < 0.05). A multivariate model emphasized the locations of the posterior putamen and the precuneus. Aβ burden explained up to 9% of the variance in gait speed, and significantly improved regression models already containing demographic variables, BMI, and APOE status. Conclusions: The present PET study confirms, in vivo, previous postmortem evidence showing an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and gait speed, and provides additional evidence on potential regional effects of brain Aβ on motor function. More research is needed to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying these regional associations, which may involve motor and sensorimotor circuits hitherto largely neglected in the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:26643548

  8. Enhanced regional brain metabolic responses to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    While dopamine (DA) appears to be crucial for cocaine reinforcement, its involvement in cocaine addiction is much less clear. Using PET we have shown persistent reductions in striatal DA D2 receptors (which arc predominantly located on GABA cells) in cocaine abusers. This finding coupled to GABA`s role as an effector for DA led us to investigate if there were GABAergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission). Methods: The experimental subjects consisted of 12 active cocaine abusers and 32 age matched controls. Each subject underwent two PET FDG scans obtained within 1 week of each other. The first FDG scan was obtained after administration of placebo (3 cc of saline solution) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG; and the second after administration of lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG. The subjects were blind to the drugs received. Results: Lorazepam-induced sleepiness was significantly greater in abusers than in controls (p<0.001). Lorazepam-induced decreases in brain glucose metabolism were significantly larger in cocaine abusers than in controls. Whereas in controls whole brain metabolism decreased 13{+-}7 %, in cocaine abusers it decreased 21{+-}13 % (p < 0.05). Lorazepam-induced decrements in regional metabolism were significantly larger in striatum (p < 0.0 1), thalamus (p < 0.01) and cerebellum (p < 0.005) of cocaine abusers than of controls (ANOVA diagnosis by condition (placebo versus lorazepam) interaction effect). The only brain region for which the absolute metabolic changes-induced by lorazepam in cocaine abusers were equivalent to those in controls was the orbitofrontal cortex. These results document an accentuated sensitivity to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers which is compatible with disrupted GABAergic function in these patients.

  9. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  10. Modulation of Auditory Spatial Attention by Angry Prosody: An fMRI Auditory Dot-Probe Study

    PubMed Central

    Ceravolo, Leonardo; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been shown to modulate attentional orienting through signals sent by subcortical brain regions that modulate visual perception at early stages of processing. Fewer studies, however, have investigated a similar effect of emotional stimuli on attentional orienting in the auditory domain together with an investigation of brain regions underlying such attentional modulation, which is the general aim of the present study. Therefore, we used an original auditory dot-probe paradigm involving simultaneously presented neutral and angry non-speech vocal utterances lateralized to either the left or the right auditory space, immediately followed by a short and lateralized single sine wave tone presented in the same (valid trial) or in the opposite space as the preceding angry voice (invalid trial). Behavioral results showed an expected facilitation effect for target detection during valid trials while functional data showed greater activation in the middle and posterior superior temporal sulci (STS) and in the medial frontal cortex for valid vs. invalid trials. The use of reaction time facilitation [absolute value of the Z-score of valid-(invalid+neutral)] as a group covariate extended enhanced activity in the amygdalae, auditory thalamus, and visual cortex. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of a large and distributed network of regions among which the STS, thalamus, and amygdala are crucial for the decoding of angry prosody, as well as for orienting and maintaining attention within an auditory space that was previously primed by a vocal emotional event. PMID:27242420

  11. Modulation of Auditory Spatial Attention by Angry Prosody: An fMRI Auditory Dot-Probe Study.

    PubMed

    Ceravolo, Leonardo; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been shown to modulate attentional orienting through signals sent by subcortical brain regions that modulate visual perception at early stages of processing. Fewer studies, however, have investigated a similar effect of emotional stimuli on attentional orienting in the auditory domain together with an investigation of brain regions underlying such attentional modulation, which is the general aim of the present study. Therefore, we used an original auditory dot-probe paradigm involving simultaneously presented neutral and angry non-speech vocal utterances lateralized to either the left or the right auditory space, immediately followed by a short and lateralized single sine wave tone presented in the same (valid trial) or in the opposite space as the preceding angry voice (invalid trial). Behavioral results showed an expected facilitation effect for target detection during valid trials while functional data showed greater activation in the middle and posterior superior temporal sulci (STS) and in the medial frontal cortex for valid vs. invalid trials. The use of reaction time facilitation [absolute value of the Z-score of valid-(invalid+neutral)] as a group covariate extended enhanced activity in the amygdalae, auditory thalamus, and visual cortex. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of a large and distributed network of regions among which the STS, thalamus, and amygdala are crucial for the decoding of angry prosody, as well as for orienting and maintaining attention within an auditory space that was previously primed by a vocal emotional event.

  12. Conserved mechanisms of vocalization coding in mammalian and songbird auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Sarah M N; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquity of social vocalizations among animals provides the opportunity to identify conserved mechanisms of auditory processing that subserve communication. Identifying auditory coding properties that are shared across vocal communicators will provide insight into how human auditory processing leads to speech perception. Here, we compare auditory response properties and neural coding of social vocalizations in auditory midbrain neurons of mammalian and avian vocal communicators. The auditory midbrain is a nexus of auditory processing because it receives and integrates information from multiple parallel pathways and provides the ascending auditory input to the thalamus. The auditory midbrain is also the first region in the ascending auditory system where neurons show complex tuning properties that are correlated with the acoustics of social vocalizations. Single unit studies in mice, bats and zebra finches reveal shared principles of auditory coding including tonotopy, excitatory and inhibitory interactions that shape responses to vocal signals, nonlinear response properties that are important for auditory coding of social vocalizations and modulation tuning. Additionally, single neuron responses in the mouse and songbird midbrain are reliable, selective for specific syllables, and rely on spike timing for neural discrimination of distinct vocalizations. We propose that future research on auditory coding of vocalizations in mouse and songbird midbrain neurons adopt similar experimental and analytical approaches so that conserved principles of vocalization coding may be distinguished from those that are specialized for each species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Local awakening: regional reorganizations of brain oscillations after sleep.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Jung; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Hsu, Chun-Yao; Wu, Changwei W; Wu, Yu-Chin; Hung, Ching-Sui; Yang, Albert C; Liu, Po-Yu; Biswal, Bharat; Lin, Ching-Po

    2014-11-15

    Brain functions express rhythmic fluctuations accompanied by sleep and wakefulness each day, but how sleep regulates brain rhythms remains unclear. Following the dose-dependent local sleep concept, two succeeding questions emerge: (1) is the sleep regulation a network-specific process; and (2) is the awakening state dependent on the previous sleep stages? To answer the questions, we conducted simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings over 22 healthy male participants, along pre-sleep, nocturnal sleep and awakening. Using paired comparisons between awakening and pre-sleep conditions, three scenarios of the regional specificity were demonstrated on awakening: (1) the default-mode and hippocampal networks maintained similar connectivity and spectral power; (2) the sensorimotor network presented reduced connectivity and spectral power; and (3) the thalamus demonstrated substantially enhanced connectivity to the neo-cortex with decreased spectral power. With regard to the stage effect, the deep sleep group had significant changes in both functional connectivity and spectral power on awakening, whereas the indices of light sleep group remained relatively quiescent after sleep. The phenomena implied that slow-wave sleep could be key to rebooting the BOLD fluctuations after sleep. In conclusion, the regional specificity and the stage effect were verified in support of the local awakening concept, indicating that sleep regulation leads to the reorganization of brain networks upon awakening.

  14. Comparison of air- and bone-conducted brain stem auditory evoked responses in young dogs and dogs with bilateral ear canal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Wolschrijn, C F; Venker-van Haagen, A J; van den Brom, W E

    1997-11-01

    Brain stem responses to air- and bone-conducted stimuli were analyzed in 11 young dogs, using an in-the-ear transducer and a vibrator designed for human hearing tests, respectively. The mean thresholds were 0 to 10 dB for air-conducted stimuli and 50 to 60 dB for bone-conducted stimuli. The wave forms and inter-peak latencies of the waves of the auditory evoked responses elicited by air-conducted and bone-conducted stimuli were similar. This indicated that the signals had the same origin and thus both the air-conducted and the bone-conducted responses could be considered to be auditory responses. Measurement of air-conducted and bone-conducted brain stem-evoked responses in five dogs with bilateral chronic obstructive ear disease revealed thresholds of 50 to 60 dB for air-conducted stimuli and 60 to 70 dB for bone-conducted stimuli. By comparison of these results with those in the 11 young dogs, it could be concluded that there was hearing loss other than that caused by obstruction of the ear canals.

  15. Automatic versus strategic effects of phonology and orthography on auditory lexical access in brain-damaged patients as a function of inter-stimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Baum, S R; Leonard, C L

    1999-12-01

    The influence of both phonological and orthographic information on auditory lexical access was examined in left- and right-hemisphere-damaged individuals using a lexical decision paradigm. Subjects were presented with prime-target pairs that were either phonologically related (tooth-youth), orthographically related (touch-couch), both phonologically and orthographically related (blood-flood), or unrelated (bill-tent), at two inter-stimulus intervals (ISI)--100 ms and 750 ms--to tap more automatic versus more strategic processing. All groups demonstrated effects of orthography at both ISIs (facilitory at 100 ms ISI and inhibitory at 750 ms ISI), supporting the findings by Leonard and Baum (1997) that effects of orthography emerge independent of site of brain damage and suggesting that orthographic effects in auditory word recognition tend to be largely strategic. A facilitory effect of phonology was also found for all groups at both ISIs. The findings are discussed in relation to theories of lexical activation in brain-damaged individuals.

  16. The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'.

  17. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  18. Copper pathology in vulnerable brain regions in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Davies, Katherine M; Bohic, Sylvain; Carmona, Asunción; Ortega, Richard; Cottam, Veronica; Hare, Dominic J; Finberg, John P M; Reyes, Stefanie; Halliday, Glenda M; Mercer, Julian F B; Double, Kay L

    2014-04-01

    Synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting were used to investigate changes in copper (Cu) and Cu-associated pathways in the vulnerable substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC) and in nondegenerating brain regions in cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) and appropriate healthy and disease controls. In PD and incidental Lewy body disease, levels of Cu and Cu transporter protein 1, were significantly reduced in surviving neurons in the SN and LC. Specific activity of the cuproprotein superoxide dismutase 1 was unchanged in the SN in PD but was enhanced in the parkinsonian anterior cingulate cortex, a region with α-synuclein pathology, normal Cu, and limited cell loss. These data suggest that regions affected by α-synuclein pathology may display enhanced vulnerability and cell loss if Cu-dependent protective mechanisms are compromised. Additional investigation of copper pathology in PD may identify novel targets for the development of protective therapies for this disorder.

  19. Assessment of intermittent UMTS electromagnetic field effects on blood circulation in the human auditory region using a near-infrared system.

    PubMed

    Spichtig, Sonja; Scholkmann, Felix; Chin, Lydia; Lehmann, Hugo; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential effects of intermittent Universal Mobile Telecommunications System electromagnetic fields (UMTS-EMF) on blood circulation in the human head (auditory region) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on two different timescales: short-term (effects occurring within 80 s) and medium-term (effects occurring within 80 s to 30 min). For the first time, we measured potential immediate effects of UMTS-EMF in real-time without any interference during exposure. Three different exposures (sham, 0.18 W/kg, and 1.8 W/kg) were applied in a controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind paradigm on 16 healthy volunteers. In addition to oxy-, deoxy-, and total haemoglobin concentrations ([O(2) Hb], [HHb], and [tHb], respectively), the heart rate (HR), subjective well-being, tiredness, and counting speed were recorded. During exposure to 0.18 W/kg, we found a significant short-term increase in Δ[O(2) Hb] and Δ[tHb], which is small (≈17%) compared to a functional brain activation. A significant decrease in the medium-term response of Δ[HHb] at 0.18 and 1.8 W/kg exposures was detected, which is in the range of physiological fluctuations. The medium-term ΔHR was significantly higher (+1.84 bpm) at 1.8 W/kg than for sham exposure. The other parameters showed no significant effects. Our results suggest that intermittent exposure to UMTS-EMF has small short- and medium-term effects on cerebral blood circulation and HR.

  20. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of auditory steady-state responses to acoustic amplitude modulations: Potential sources beyond the auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-03-01

    Investigating the neural generators of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), i.e., auditory evoked brain responses, with a wide range of screening and diagnostic applications, has been the focus of various studies for many years. Most of these studies employed a priori assumptions regarding the number and location of neural generators. The aim of this study is to reconstruct ASSR sources with minimal assumptions in order to gain in-depth insight into the number and location of brain regions that are activated in response to low- as well as high-frequency acoustically amplitude modulated signals. In order to reconstruct ASSR sources, we applied independent component analysis with subsequent equivalent dipole modeling to single-subject EEG data (young adults, 20-30 years of age). These data were based on white noise stimuli, amplitude modulated at 4, 20, 40, or 80Hz. The independent components that exhibited a significant ASSR were clustered among all participants by means of a probabilistic clustering method based on a Gaussian mixture model. Results suggest that a widely distributed network of sources, located in cortical as well as subcortical regions, is active in response to 4, 20, 40, and 80Hz amplitude modulated noises. Some of these sources are located beyond the central auditory pathway. Comparison of brain sources in response to different modulation frequencies suggested that the identified brain sources in the brainstem, the left and the right auditory cortex show a higher responsiveness to 40Hz than to the other modulation frequencies.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Newborn Brain: Automatic Segmentation of Brain Images into 50 Anatomical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gousias, Ioannis S.; Hammers, Alexander; Counsell, Serena J.; Srinivasan, Latha; Rutherford, Mary A.; Heckemann, Rolf A.; Hajnal, Jo V.; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, A. David

    2013-01-01

    We studied methods for the automatic segmentation of neonatal and developing brain images into 50 anatomical regions, utilizing a new set of manually segmented magnetic resonance (MR) images from 5 term-born and 15 preterm infants imaged at term corrected age called ALBERTs. Two methods were compared: individual registrations with label propagation and fusion; and template based registration with propagation of a maximum probability neonatal ALBERT (MPNA). In both cases we evaluated the performance of different neonatal atlases and MPNA, and the approaches were compared with the manual segmentations by means of the Dice overlap coefficient. Dice values, averaged across regions, were 0.81±0.02 using label propagation and fusion for the preterm population, and 0.81±0.02 using the single registration of a MPNA for the term population. Segmentations of 36 further unsegmented target images of developing brains yielded visibly high-quality results. This registration approach allows the rapid construction of automatically labeled age-specific brain atlases for neonates and the developing brain. PMID:23565180

  2. Evidence from Auditory Nerve and Brainstem Evoked Responses for an Organic Brain Lesion in Children with Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student, M.; Sohmer, H.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve the question as to whether children with autistic traits have an organic nervous system lesion, auditory nerve and brainstem evoked responses were recorded in a group of 15 children (4 to 12 years old) with autistic traits. (Author)

  3. Regional brain metabolism in a murine systemic lupus erythematosus model.

    PubMed

    Vo, An; Volpe, Bruce T; Tang, Chris C; Schiffer, Wynne K; Kowal, Czeslawa; Huerta, Patricio T; Uluğ, Aziz M; Dewey, Stephen L; Eidelberg, David; Diamond, Betty

    2014-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiorgan inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders (NPSLE), and anti-nuclear antibodies. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies (DNRAb) cross-reactive with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, present in 30% to 40% of patients, able to enhance excitatory post-synaptic potentials and trigger neuronal apoptosis. DNRAb+ mice exhibit memory impairment or altered fear response, depending on whether the antibody penetrates the hippocampus or amygdala. Here, we used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) microPET to plot changes in brain metabolism after regional blood-brain barrier (BBB) breach. In DNRAb+ mice, metabolism declined at the site of BBB breach in the first 2 weeks and increased over the next 2 weeks. In contrast, DNRAb- mice exhibited metabolic increases in these regions over the 4 weeks after the insult. Memory impairment was present in DNRAb+ animals with hippocampal BBB breach and altered fear conditioning in DNRAb+ mice with amygdala BBB breach. In DNRAb+ mice, we observed an inverse relationship between neuron number and regional metabolism, while a positive correlation was observed in DNRAb- mice. These findings suggest that local metabolic alterations in this model take place through different mechanisms with distinct time courses, with important implications for the interpretation of imaging data in SLE subjects.

  4. Dynamic pupillary exchange engages brain regions encoding social salience.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2009-01-01

    Covert exchange of autonomic responses may shape social affective behavior, as observed in mirroring of pupillary responses during sadness processing. We examined how, independent of facial emotional expression, dynamic coherence between one's own and another's pupil size modulates regional brain activity. Fourteen subjects viewed pairs of eye stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Using continuous pupillometry biofeedback, the size of the observed pupils was varied, correlating positively or negatively with changes in participants' own pupils. Viewing both static and dynamic stimuli activated right fusiform gyrus. Observing dynamically changing pupils activated STS and amygdala, regions engaged by non-static and salient facial features. Discordance between observed and observer's pupillary changes enhanced activity within bilateral anterior insula, left amygdala and anterior cingulate. In contrast, processing positively correlated pupils enhanced activity within left frontal operculum. Our findings suggest pupillary signals are monitored continuously during social interactions and that incongruent changes activate brain regions involved in tracking motivational salience and attentionally meaningful information. Naturalistically, dynamic coherence in pupillary change follows fluctuations in ambient light. Correspondingly, in social contexts discordant pupil response is likely to reflect divergence of dispositional state. Our data provide empirical evidence for an autonomically mediated extension of forward models of motor control into social interaction.

  5. Regional brain metabolism in a murine systemic lupus erythematosus model

    PubMed Central

    Vo, An; Volpe, Bruce T; Tang, Chris C; Schiffer, Wynne K; Kowal, Czeslawa; Huerta, Patricio T; Uluğ, Aziz M; Dewey, Stephen L; Eidelberg, David; Diamond, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiorgan inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders (NPSLE), and anti-nuclear antibodies. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies (DNRAb) cross-reactive with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, present in 30% to 40% of patients, able to enhance excitatory post-synaptic potentials and trigger neuronal apoptosis. DNRAb+ mice exhibit memory impairment or altered fear response, depending on whether the antibody penetrates the hippocampus or amygdala. Here, we used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) microPET to plot changes in brain metabolism after regional blood–brain barrier (BBB) breach. In DNRAb+ mice, metabolism declined at the site of BBB breach in the first 2 weeks and increased over the next 2 weeks. In contrast, DNRAb− mice exhibited metabolic increases in these regions over the 4 weeks after the insult. Memory impairment was present in DNRAb+ animals with hippocampal BBB breach and altered fear conditioning in DNRAb+ mice with amygdala BBB breach. In DNRAb+ mice, we observed an inverse relationship between neuron number and regional metabolism, while a positive correlation was observed in DNRAb− mice. These findings suggest that local metabolic alterations in this model take place through different mechanisms with distinct time courses, with important implications for the interpretation of imaging data in SLE subjects. PMID:24824914

  6. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex.

  7. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  8. Isatin, regional distribution in rat brain and tissues.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P; Clow, A; Glover, V; Halket, J; Przyborowska, A; Sandler, M

    1990-01-01

    Isatin has recently been identified in rat tissues and normal human urine, where it forms the major proportion of the endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tribulin. In this paper, we show that isatin, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, has a distinct regional distribution in rat tissues, with highest concentrations in seminal vesicles (1.6 ?g/g) and vas deferens (3.4 ?g/g). There was also a discontinuous distribution within rat brain, concentrations being highest in the hippocampus (0.13 ?g/g).

  9. Neurons derived from different brain regions are inherently different in vitro: a novel multiregional brain-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Maoz, Ben M; Sheehy, Sean P; Hemphill, Matthew A; Murty, Tara; Macedonia, Mary Kate; Greer, Angie M; Budnik, Bogdan; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2017-03-01

    Brain in vitro models are critically important to developing our understanding of basic nervous system cellular physiology, potential neurotoxic effects of chemicals, and specific cellular mechanisms of many disease states. In this study, we sought to address key shortcomings of current brain in vitro models: the scarcity of comparative data for cells originating from distinct brain regions and the lack of multiregional brain in vitro models. We demonstrated that rat neurons from different brain regions exhibit unique profiles regarding their cell composition, protein expression, metabolism, and electrical activity in vitro. In vivo, the brain is unique in its structural and functional organization, and the interactions and communication between different brain areas are essential components of proper brain function. This fact and the observation that neurons from different areas of the brain exhibit unique behaviors in vitro underline the importance of establishing multiregional brain in vitro models. Therefore, we here developed a multiregional brain-on-a-chip and observed a reduction of overall firing activity, as well as altered amounts of astrocytes and specific neuronal cell types compared with separately cultured neurons. Furthermore, this multiregional model was used to study the effects of phencyclidine, a drug known to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in vivo, on individual brain areas separately while monitoring downstream effects on interconnected regions. Overall, this work provides a comparison of cells from different brain regions in vitro and introduces a multiregional brain-on-a-chip that enables the development of unique disease models incorporating essential in vivo features.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Due to the scarcity of comparative data for cells from different brain regions in vitro, we demonstrated that neurons isolated from distinct brain areas exhibit unique behaviors in vitro. Moreover, in vivo proper brain function is dependent on the

  10. Oxytocin's fingerprint in personality traits and regional brain volume.

    PubMed

    Andari, Elissar; Schneider, Fabien C; Mottolese, Raphaëlle; Vindras, Philippe; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-02-01

    Oxytocin has a fundamental role in social behavior. In humans, supporting evidence shows that oxytocin enhances people's ability to trust or affiliate with others. A key question is whether differences in plasma oxytocin concentration in humans are related to people's differences in their social traits of personality and if such differences are reflected in the structural organization of brain areas responsive to the action of this hormone. We examined the correlation between oxytocin plasma levels and personality traits in 30 healthy subjects, tested with the Inventory revised neuroticism-extroversion-openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R). By using the voxel-based morphometry technique, we also investigated changes in gray matter volume as a function of the plasma oxytocin level and NEO-PI-R scores. A positive correlation was found between plasma oxytocin and extraversion scores, a dimension that captures social affiliative tendencies. Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between plasma oxytocin and the volume of the right amygdala and the right hippocampus, 2 brain areas implicated in fear and anxiety. Finally, we showed that the amygdala-hippocampal complex correlate negatively with extraversion scores. Our findings provide evidence for a neural mechanism linking physiological oxytocin's variability and structural variation of brain regions relevant for emotion regulation to individual differences in affiliative personality traits.

  11. Connectivity of epileptic brain regions in wake and sleep.

    PubMed

    Klimes, Petr; Duque, Juliano J; Jurak, Pavel; Halamek, Josef; Worrell, Gregory A

    2015-08-01

    Focal epileptic brain is characterized by a region of pathological tissue seizure onset zone (SOZ) - the pathologic tissue generating seizures. During the interictal period (nonseizure) the SOZ is characterized by epileptiform activity - interictal spikes & high-frequency oscillations (HFO). The SOZ also exhibits hyper-synchrony and functional disconnection from the surrounding areas. Recent studies have described the synchrony inside the SOZ and surrounding tissue for just small sets of patients (2-4) and without any distinction in behavioral states. Wake and sleep cycles can, however, have a significant influence on SOZ activity. Here we show the results of connectivity analysis in three fundamental areas of the epileptic brain - inside SOZ, outside SOZ and bridging areas in 7 patients during wake and sleep. We observed increased synchrony inside SOZ and decreased synchrony on its edges (bridging areas) in specific frequency bands. We also detected significant differences of synchrony levels between wake and sleep periods in HFO frequencies. Our results provide additional insight into the properties of SOZ connectivity. Knowledge of these principles may prove useful for SOZ localization and understanding epileptic brain function in general.

  12. Brain Regions Associated With Internalizing and Externalizing Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients With Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Huey, Edward D; Lee, Seonjoo; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Devanand, D P; Brickman, Adam M; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A factor structure underlying DSM-IV diagnoses has been previously reported in neurologically intact patients. The authors determined the brain regions associated with factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses and compared the ability of DSM-IV diagnoses, factor scores, and self-report measures to account for the neuroanatomical findings in patients with penetrating brain injuries. This prospective cohort study included 254 Vietnam War veterans: 199 with penetrating brain injuries and 55 matched control participants. Measures include DSM-IV diagnoses (from a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM), self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and CT scans. Factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses were determined using an exploratory factor analysis and correlated with percent of brain regions affected. The ability of the factor scores, DSM-IV diagnoses, and the self-report psychiatric measures to account for the anatomical variance was compared with multiple regressions. Internalizing and externalizing factors were identified in these brain-injured patients. Damage to the left amygdala and bilateral basal ganglia was associated with lower internalizing factor scores, and damage to the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with higher, and bilateral hippocampi with lower, externalizing factor scores. Factor scores best predicted left amygdala and bilateral hippocampal involvement, whereas DSM-IV diagnoses best predicted bilateral basal ganglia and left OFC involvement. Damage to the limbic areas involved in the processing of emotional and reward information, including structures involved in the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria Negative Valence Domain, influences the development of internalizing and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Self-report measures underperformed DSM-IV and factor scores in predicting neuroanatomical findings.

  13. Severe and extensive neonatal hearing loss in cats results in auditory cortex plasticity that differentiates into two regions.

    PubMed

    Rajan, R; Irvine, D R F

    2010-06-01

    We examined the response characteristics of primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons in adult cats partially but extensively deafened by ototoxic drugs 2-8 days after birth. The damage evoked extensive A1 topographic map reorganization as also found by others, but a novel finding was that in the majority of cats with low-frequency edges to the cochlear lesion, the area of reorganization segregated into two areas expressing the same novel frequency inputs but differentiated by neuronal sensitivity and responsiveness. Immediately adjacent to normal A1 is an approximately 1.2-mm-wide area of reorganization in which sensitivity and responsiveness to sound are similar to that in normal A1 in the same animals and in unlesioned adult animals. Extending further into deprived A1 is a more extensive area of reorganization where neurons have poorer sensitivity and responsiveness to new inputs. These two areas did not differ in response-area bandwidth and response latency. We interpret these novel changes as the cortical consequences of severe receptor organ lesions extending to low-frequency cochlear regions. We speculate that the two areas of A1 reorganization may reflect differences in the transcortical spatial distribution of thalamo-cortical and horizontal intracortical connections. Qualitatively similar changes in response properties have been seen after retinal lesions producing large areas of visual cortical reorganization, suggesting they might be a general consequence of receptor lesions that deprive large regions of cortex of normal input. These effects may have perceptual implications for the use of cochlear implants in patients with residual low-frequency hearing.

  14. Brain size and visual environment predict species differences in paper wasp sensory processing brain regions (hymenoptera: vespidae, polistinae).

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie R; DeLeon, Sara; Papa, Christopher; Zahedi, Nazaneen; Bulova, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The mosaic brain evolution hypothesis predicts that the relative volumes of functionally distinct brain regions will vary independently and correlate with species' ecology. Paper wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) differ in light exposure: they construct open versus enclosed nests and one genus (Apoica) is nocturnal. We asked whether light environments were related to species differences in the size of antennal and optic processing brain tissues. Paper wasp brains have anatomically distinct peripheral and central regions that process antennal and optic sensory inputs. We measured the volumes of 4 sensory processing brain regions in paper wasp species from 13 Neotropical genera including open and enclosed nesters, and diurnal and nocturnal species. Species differed in sensory region volumes, but there was no evidence for trade-offs among sensory modalities. All sensory region volumes correlated with brain size. However, peripheral optic processing investment increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripheral antennal processing investment. Our data suggest that mosaic and concerted (size-constrained) brain evolution are not exclusive alternatives. When brain regions increase with brain size at different rates, these distinct allometries can allow for differential investment among sensory modalities. As predicted by mosaic evolution, species ecology was associated with some aspects of brain region investment. Nest architecture variation was not associated with brain investment differences, but the nocturnal genus Apoica had the largest antennal:optic volume ratio in its peripheral sensory lobes. Investment in central processing tissues was not related to nocturnality, a pattern also noted in mammals. The plasticity of neural connections in central regions may accommodate evolutionary shifts in input from the periphery with relatively minor changes in volume.

  15. Microglial brain region-dependent diversity and selective regional sensitivities to ageing

    PubMed Central

    Grabert, Kathleen; Michoel, Tom; Karavolos, Michail H; Clohisey, Sara; Baillie, J Kenneth; Stevens, Mark P; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; McColl, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play critical roles in neural development, homeostasis and neuroinflammation and are increasingly implicated in age-related neurological dysfunction. Neurodegeneration often occurs in disease-specific spatially-restricted patterns, the origins of which are unknown. We performed the first genome-wide analysis of microglia from discrete brain regions across the adult lifespan of the mouse and reveal that microglia have distinct region-dependent transcriptional identities and age in a regionally variable manner. In the young adult brain, differences in bioenergetic and immunoregulatory pathways were the major sources of heterogeneity and suggested that cerebellar and hippocampal microglia exist in a more immune vigilant state. Immune function correlated with regional transcriptional patterns. Augmentation of the distinct cerebellar immunophenotype and a contrasting loss in distinction of the hippocampal phenotype among forebrain regions were key features during ageing. Microglial diversity may enable regionally localised homeostatic functions but could also underlie region-specific sensitivities to microglial dysregulation and involvement in age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:26780511

  16. Identifying cochlear implant channels with poor electrode-neuron interfaces: electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses measured with the partial tripolar configuration.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Faulkner, Kathleen F; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare cochlear implant behavioral measures and electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) obtained with a spatially focused electrode configuration. It has been shown previously that channels with high thresholds, when measured with the tripolar configuration, exhibit relatively broad psychophysical tuning curves. The elevated threshold and degraded spatial/spectral selectivity of such channels are consistent with a poor electrode-neuron interface, defined as suboptimal electrode placement or reduced nerve survival. However, the psychophysical methods required to obtain these data are time intensive and may not be practical during a clinical mapping session, especially for young children. Here, we have extended the previous investigation to determine whether a physiological approach could provide a similar assessment of channel functionality. We hypothesized that, in accordance with the perceptual measures, higher EABR thresholds would correlate with steeper EABR amplitude growth functions, reflecting a degraded electrode-neuron interface. Data were collected from six cochlear implant listeners implanted with the HiRes 90k cochlear implant (Advanced Bionics). Single-channel thresholds and most comfortable listening levels were obtained for stimuli that varied in presumed electrical field size by using the partial tripolar configuration, for which a fraction of current (σ) from a center active electrode returns through two neighboring electrodes and the remainder through a distant indifferent electrode. EABRs were obtained in each subject for the two channels having the highest and lowest tripolar (σ = 1 or 0.9) behavioral threshold. Evoked potentials were measured with both the monopolar (σ = 0) and a more focused partial tripolar (σ ≥ 0.50) configuration. Consistent with previous studies, EABR thresholds were highly and positively correlated with behavioral thresholds obtained with both the monopolar and partial

  17. Non-auditory Effect of Noise Pollution and Its Risk on Human Brain Activity in Different Audio Frequency Using Electroencephalogram Complexity

    PubMed Central

    ALLAHVERDY, Armin; JAFARI, Amir Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise pollution is one of the most harmful ambiance disturbances. It may cause many deficits in ability and activity of persons in the urban and industrial areas. It also may cause many kinds of psychopathies. Therefore, it is very important to measure the risk of this pollution in different area. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to September of 2015, in which, different frequencies of noise pollution were played for volunteers. 16-channel EEG signal was recorded synchronously, then by using fractal dimension and relative power of Beta sub-band of EEG, the complexity of EEG signals was measured. Results: As the results, it is observed that the average complexity of brain activity is increased in the middle of audio frequency range and the complexity map of brain activity changes in different frequencies, which can show the effects of frequency changes on human brain activity. Conclusion: The complexity of EEG is a good measure for ranking the annoyance and non-auditory risk of noise pollution on human brain activity. PMID:27957440

  18. Non-auditory Effect of Noise Pollution and Its Risk on Human Brain Activity in Different Audio Frequency Using Electroencephalogram Complexity.

    PubMed

    Allahverdy, Armin; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2016-10-01

    Noise pollution is one of the most harmful ambiance disturbances. It may cause many deficits in ability and activity of persons in the urban and industrial areas. It also may cause many kinds of psychopathies. Therefore, it is very important to measure the risk of this pollution in different area. This study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to September of 2015, in which, different frequencies of noise pollution were played for volunteers. 16-channel EEG signal was recorded synchronously, then by using fractal dimension and relative power of Beta sub-band of EEG, the complexity of EEG signals was measured. As the results, it is observed that the average complexity of brain activity is increased in the middle of audio frequency range and the complexity map of brain activity changes in different frequencies, which can show the effects of frequency changes on human brain activity. The complexity of EEG is a good measure for ranking the annoyance and non-auditory risk of noise pollution on human brain activity.

  19. Speech motor brain regions are differentially recruited during perception of native and foreign-accented phonemes for first and second language listeners.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel; Callan, Akiko; Jones, Jeffery A

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging studies indicate that speech motor areas are recruited for auditory speech perception, especially when intelligibility is low due to environmental noise or when speech is accented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of brain regions to the processing of speech containing phonetic categories from one's own language, speech with accented samples of one's native phonetic categories, and speech with unfamiliar phonetic categories. To that end, native English and Japanese speakers identified the speech sounds /r/ and /l/ that were produced by native English speakers (unaccented) and Japanese speakers (foreign-accented) while functional magnetic resonance imaging measured their brain activity. For native English speakers, the Japanese accented speech was more difficult to categorize than the unaccented English speech. In contrast, Japanese speakers have difficulty distinguishing between /r/ and /l/, so both the Japanese accented and English unaccented speech were difficult to categorize. Brain regions involved with listening to foreign-accented productions of a first language included primarily the right cerebellum, left ventral inferior premotor cortex PMvi, and Broca's area. Brain regions most involved with listening to a second-language phonetic contrast (foreign-accented and unaccented productions) also included the left PMvi and the right cerebellum. Additionally, increased activity was observed in the right PMvi, the left and right ventral superior premotor cortex PMvs, and the left cerebellum. These results support a role for speech motor regions during the perception of foreign-accented native speech and for perception of difficult second-language phonetic contrasts.

  20. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-09-22

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  1. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  2. Aging Effects on Regional Brain Structural Changes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nenadić, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Smesny, Stefan; Gaser, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although mostly conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, there is an increasing interest in progressive changes of cognitive deficits and brain structure and function in schizophrenia across the life span. Methods: In this study, we investigated age-related changes in regional gray matter using voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 99 patients (age range 18–65 years) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia and 113 healthy controls (age range 19–59 years) using a cross-sectional design. Results: We found steeper age-related decline in gray matter in patients in a cluster comprising the left superior temporal cortex and adjacent inferior parietal lobule. We then divided the schizophrenia sample in 3 subgroups based on a 3-factor model of psychopathology ratings. Age-related changes were markedly different in each of the 3 subgroups (compared with healthy controls). While patients with predominantly paranoid symptoms showed stronger age-related progression in the left superior temporal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus, those of the disorganized subgroup had stronger gray matter loss in the left lateral cerebellum, while the predominantly negative subgroup showed minor effects in the left superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings show that differences in brain structural changes associated with aging diverge between schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects and that different subgroups within a patient sample might be at higher risk of age-related regional gray matter loss. PMID:21296908

  3. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Jason S.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  4. An auditory multiclass brain-computer interface with natural stimuli: Usability evaluation with healthy participants and a motor impaired end user

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nadine; Käthner, Ivo; Ruf, Carolin A.; Pasqualotto, Emanuele; Kübler, Andrea; Halder, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can serve as muscle independent communication aids. Persons, who are unable to control their eye muscles (e.g., in the completely locked-in state) or have severe visual impairments for other reasons, need BCI systems that do not rely on the visual modality. For this reason, BCIs that employ auditory stimuli were suggested. In this study, a multiclass BCI spelling system was implemented that uses animal voices with directional cues to code rows and columns of a letter matrix. To reveal possible training effects with the system, 11 healthy participants performed spelling tasks on 2 consecutive days. In a second step, the system was tested by a participant with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in two sessions. In the first session, healthy participants spelled with an average accuracy of 76% (3.29 bits/min) that increased to 90% (4.23 bits/min) on the second day. Spelling accuracy by the participant with ALS was 20% in the first and 47% in the second session. The results indicate a strong training effect for both the healthy participants and the participant with ALS. While healthy participants reached high accuracies in the first session and second session, accuracies for the participant with ALS were not sufficient for satisfactory communication in both sessions. More training sessions might be needed to improve spelling accuracies. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the auditory BCI with healthy users and stresses the importance of training with auditory multiclass BCIs, especially for potential end-users of BCI with disease. PMID:25620924

  5. Brain regions underlying word finding difficulties in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance. This evidence has highlighted a role for the anterior part of the dominant temporal lobe in oral word production. These conclusions contrast with findings from activation studies involving healthy speakers or acute ischaemic stroke patients, where the region most directly related to word retrieval appears to be the posterior part of the left temporal lobe. To clarify the neural basis of word retrieval in temporal lobe epilepsy, we tested forty-three drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients (28 left, 15 right). Comprehensive neuropsychological and language assessments were performed. Single spoken word production was elicited with picture or definition stimuli. Detailed analysis allowed the distinction of impaired word retrieval from other possible causes of naming failure. Finally, the neural substrate of the deficit was assessed by correlating word retrieval performance and resting-state brain metabolism in 18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-Positron Emission Tomography. Naming difficulties often resulted from genuine word retrieval failures (anomic states), both in picture and in definition tasks. Left temporal lobe epilepsy patients showed considerably worse performance than right temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Performance was poorer in the definition than in the picture task. Across patients and the left temporal lobe epilepsy subgroup, frequency of anomic state was negatively correlated with resting-state brain metabolism in left posterior and basal temporal regions (Brodmann's area 20-37-39). These results show the involvement of posterior temporal regions, within a larger antero-posterior-basal temporal network, in

  6. Specific Regional Transcription of Apolipoprotein E in Human Brain Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pu-Ting; Gilbert, John R.; Qiu, Hui-Ling; Ervin, John; Rothrock-Christian, Tracie R.; Hulette, Christine; Schmechel, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    In central nervous system injury and disease, apolipoprotein E (APOE, gene; apoE, protein) might be involved in neuronal injury and death indirectly through extracellular effects and/or more directly through intracellular effects on neuronal metabolism. Although intracellular effects could clearly be mediated by neuronal uptake of extracellular apoE, recent experiments in injury models in normal rodents and in mice transgenic for the human APOE gene suggest the additional possibility of intraneuronal synthesis. To examine whether APOE might be synthesized by human neurons, we performed in situ hybridization on paraffin-embedded and frozen brain sections from three nondemented controls and five Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients using digoxigenin-labeled antisense and sense cRNA probes to human APOE. Using the antisense APOE probes, we found the expected strong hybridization signal in glial cells as well as a generally fainter signal in selected neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In hippocampus, many APOE mRNA-containing neurons were observed in sectors CA1 to CA4 and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. In these regions, APOE mRNA containing neurons could be observed adjacent to nonhybridizing neurons of the same cell class. APOE mRNA transcription in neurons is regionally specific. In cerebellar cortex, APOE mRNA was seen only in Bergmann glial cells and scattered astrocytes but not in Purkinje cells or granule cell neurons. ApoE immunocytochemical localization in semi-adjacent sections supported the selectivity of APOE transcription. These results demonstrate the expected result that APOE mRNA is transcribed and expressed in glial cells in human brain. The important new finding is that APOE mRNA is also transcribed and expressed in many neurons in frontal cortex and human hippocampus but not in neurons of cerebellar cortex from the same brains. This regionally specific human APOE gene expression suggests that synthesis of apoE might play a role

  7. Attention to natural auditory signals.

    PubMed

    Caporello Bluvas, Emily; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-11-01

    The challenge of understanding how the brain processes natural signals is compounded by the fact that such signals are often tied closely to specific natural behaviors and natural environments. This added complexity is especially true for auditory communication signals that can carry information at multiple hierarchical levels, and often occur in the context of other competing communication signals. Selective attention provides a mechanism to focus processing resources on specific components of auditory signals, and simultaneously suppress responses to unwanted signals or noise. Although selective auditory attention has been well-studied behaviorally, very little is known about how selective auditory attention shapes the processing on natural auditory signals, and how the mechanisms of auditory attention are implemented in single neurons or neural circuits. Here we review the role of selective attention in modulating auditory responses to complex natural stimuli in humans. We then suggest how the current understanding can be applied to the study of selective auditory attention in the context natural signal processing at the level of single neurons and populations in animal models amenable to invasive neuroscience techniques. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  8. Representations of Pitch and Timbre Variation in Human Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Allen, Emily J; Burton, Philip C; Olman, Cheryl A; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Pitch and timbre are two primary dimensions of auditory perception, but how they are represented in the human brain remains a matter of contention. Some animal studies of auditory cortical processing have suggested modular processing, with different brain regions preferentially coding for pitch or timbre, whereas other studies have suggested a distributed code for different attributes across the same population of neurons. This study tested whether variations in pitch and timbre elicit activity in distinct regions of the human temporal lobes. Listeners were presented with sequences of sounds that varied in either fundamental frequency (eliciting changes in pitch) or spectral centroid (eliciting changes in brightness, an important attribute of timbre), with the degree of pitch or timbre variation in each sequence parametrically manipulated. The BOLD responses from auditory cortex increased with increasing sequence variance along each perceptual dimension. The spatial extent, region, and laterality of the cortical regions most responsive to variations in pitch or timbre at the univariate level of analysis were largely overlapping. However, patterns of activation in response to pitch or timbre variations were discriminable in most subjects at an individual level using multivoxel pattern analysis, suggesting a distributed coding of the two dimensions bilaterally in human auditory cortex.

  9. The effects of mild and severe traumatic brain injury on the auditory and visual versions of the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT).

    PubMed

    Tombaugh, Tom N; Stormer, Peter; Rees, Laura; Irving, Susan; Francis, Margaret

    2006-10-01

    Auditory and visual versions of the Adjusting-PSAT [Tombaugh, T. N. (1999). Administrative manual for the adjusting-paced serial addition test (Adjusting-PSAT). Ottawa, Ontario: Carleton University] were used to examine the effects of mild and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on information processing. The Adjusting-PSAT, a computerized modification of the original PASAT [Gronwall, D., & Sampson, H. (1974). The psychological effects of concussion. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press], systematically varied the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) by making the duration of the ISI contingent on the correctness of the response. This procedure permitted calculation of a temporal threshold measure that represented the fastest speed of digit presentation at which a person was able to process the information and provide the correct answer. Threshold values progressively declined as a function of the severity of TBI with visual thresholds significantly lower than auditory thresholds. The major importance of the current study is that the threshold measure offers a potentially more precise way of evaluating how TBI affects cognitive functioning than is achieved using the traditional PASAT and the number of correct responses. The Adjusting-PSAT offers the additional clinical advantages of eliminating the need to make a priori decisions about what ISI should be used in different clinical applications, and avoiding spuriously high levels of performance that occur when an "alternate answer" or chunking strategy is used. Unfortunately, the Adjusting-PSAT did not reduce the high level of frustration previously associated with the traditional PASAT.

  10. Auditory agnosia and auditory spatial deficits following left hemispheric lesions: evidence for distinct processing pathways.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S; Bellmann, A; Meuli, R A; Assal, G; Steck, A J

    2000-01-01

    Auditory recognition and auditory spatial functions were studied in four patients with circumscribed left hemispheric lesions. Patient FD was severely deficient in recognition of environmental sounds but normal in auditory localisation and auditory motion perception. The lesion included the left superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and lateral auditory areas (as identified in previous anatomical studies), but spared Heschl's gyrus, the acoustic radiation and the thalamus. Patient SD had the same profile as FD, with deficient recognition of environmental sounds but normal auditory localisation and motion perception. The lesion comprised the postero-inferior part of the frontal convexity and the anterior third of the temporal lobe; data from non-human primates indicate that the latter are interconnected with lateral auditory areas. Patient MA was deficient in recognition of environmental sounds, auditory localisation and auditory motion perception, confirming that auditory spatial functions can be disturbed by left unilateral damage; the lesion involved the supratemporal region as well as the temporal, postero-inferior frontal and antero-inferior parietal convexities. Patient CZ was severely deficient in auditory motion perception and partially deficient in auditory localisation, but normal in recognition of environmental sounds; the lesion involved large parts of the parieto-frontal convexity and the supratemporal region. We propose that auditory information is processed in the human auditory cortex along two distinct pathways, one lateral devoted to auditory recognition and one medial and posterior devoted to auditory spatial functions.

  11. Brain Region-Specific Trafficking of the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ethan R.; Nuttle, Jacob; Balcita-Pedicino, Judith Joyce; Caltagarone, John; Watkins, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) controls dopaminergic neurotransmission by removing extracellular DA. Although DA reuptake is proposed to be regulated by DAT traffic to and from the cell surface, the membrane trafficking system involved in the endocytic cycling of DAT in the intact mammalian brain has not been characterized. Hence, we performed immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of the subcellular and regional distribution of DAT using the transgenic knock-in mouse expressing hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged DAT (HA-DAT) and by using a combination of electron microscopy and a novel method for immunofluorescence labeling of HA-DAT in acute sagittal brain slices. Both approaches demonstrated that, in midbrain somatodendritic regions, HA-DAT was present in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex, with a small fraction in early and recycling endosomes and an even smaller fraction in late endosomes and lysosomes. In the striatum and in axonal tracts between the midbrain and striatum, HA-DAT was detected predominantly in the plasma membrane, and quantitative analysis revealed increased DAT density in striatal compared with midbrain plasma membranes. Endosomes were strikingly rare and lysosomes were absent in striatal axons, in which there was little intracellular HA-DAT. Acute administration of amphetamine in vivo (60 min) or to slices ex vivo (10–60 min) did not result in detectable changes in DAT distribution. Altogether, these data provide evidence for regional differences in DAT plasma membrane targeting and retention and suggest a surprisingly low level of endocytic trafficking of DAT in the striatum along with limited DAT endocytic activity in somatodendritic areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the key regulator of the dopamine neurotransmission in the CNS. In the present study, we developed a new approach for studying DAT localization and dynamics in intact neurons in acute sagittal brain slices from

  12. Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions.

    PubMed

    Evero, Nero; Hackett, Laura C; Clark, Robert D; Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd A

    2012-05-01

    Acute exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake, but little is known about the effects of exercise on food reward brain regions. After an overnight fast, 30 (17 men, 13 women), healthy, habitually active (age = 22.2 ± 0.7 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), Vo(2peak) = 44.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) individuals completed 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer or 60 min of rest (no-exercise) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. After each condition, blood oxygen level-dependent responses to high-energy food, low-energy food, and control visual cues, were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Exercise, compared with no-exercise, significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to food (high and low food) cues vs. control cues in the insula (-0.37 ± 0.13 vs. +0.07 ± 0.18%), putamen (-0.39 ± 0.10 vs. -0.10 ± 0.09%), and rolandic operculum (-0.37 ± 0.17 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12%). Exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high food vs. control and low food vs. control cues in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (-0.94 ± 0.33%), insula (-0.37 ± 0.13%), and putamen (-0.41 ± 0.10%). No-exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high vs. control and low vs. control cues in the middle (-0.47 ± 0.15%) and inferior occipital gyrus (-1.00 ± 0.23%). Exercise reduced neuronal responses in brain regions consistent with reduced pleasure of food, reduced incentive motivation to eat, and reduced anticipation and consumption of food. Reduced neuronal response in these food reward brain regions after exercise is in line with the paradigm that acute exercise suppresses subsequent energy intake.

  13. Origins of task-specific sensory-independent organization in the visual and auditory brain: neuroscience evidence, open questions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Striem-Amit, Ella; Amedi, Amir

    2015-12-01

    Evidence of task-specific sensory-independent (TSSI) plasticity from blind and deaf populations has led to a better understanding of brain organization. However, the principles determining the origins of this plasticity remain unclear. We review recent data suggesting that a combination of the connectivity bias and sensitivity to task-distinctive features might account for TSSI plasticity in the sensory cortices as a whole, from the higher-order occipital/temporal cortices to the primary sensory cortices. We discuss current theories and evidence, open questions and related predictions. Finally, given the rapid progress in visual and auditory restoration techniques, we address the crucial need to develop effective rehabilitation approaches for sensory recovery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Geometrical principal component analysis of planar-segments of the three-channel Lissajous' trajectory of human auditory brain stem evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H; Har'el, Z; Golos, E

    1986-05-01

    Three-Channel Lissajous' Trajectories (3CLTs) of Auditory Brain Stem Evoked Potentials (ABEP) were obtained from 15 normal humans. Planar-segments of 3CLT were identified and the orientations of the first two geometrical principal components, which interact to produce the planar-segments, were calculated. Each principal component's orientation in voltage space was quantified by its coefficients (A, B and C). Intersubject variability of these orientations was comparable to the variability of plane orientations. The principal components of planar-segments can indicate the type of generator activity that is involved in the formation of planar-segments. The results of this analysis indicate that planarity of each 3CLT component is produced by the interaction of simultaneous multiple generators, or by a single synchronous generator which changes its orientation. The coefficients of these princ