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Sample records for auditory hallucination symptoms

  1. Auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations constitute a phenomenologically rich group of endogenously mediated percepts which are associated with psychiatric, neurologic, otologic, and other medical conditions, but which are also experienced by 10-15% of all healthy individuals in the general population. The group of phenomena is probably best known for its verbal auditory subtype, but it also includes musical hallucinations, echo of reading, exploding-head syndrome, and many other types. The subgroup of verbal auditory hallucinations has been studied extensively with the aid of neuroimaging techniques, and from those studies emerges an outline of a functional as well as a structural network of widely distributed brain areas involved in their mediation. The present chapter provides an overview of the various types of auditory hallucination described in the literature, summarizes our current knowledge of the auditory networks involved in their mediation, and draws on ideas from the philosophy of science and network science to reconceptualize the auditory hallucinatory experience, and point out directions for future research into its neurobiologic substrates. In addition, it provides an overview of known associations with various clinical conditions and of the existing evidence for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments.

  2. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Nestor, Paul G; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC) and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF) and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by an increased propensity

  3. Transient auditory hallucinations in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Pillay, Devina; Moran, Tom; Kahn, David A

    2010-05-01

    In adolescents, hallucinations can be a transient illness or can be associated with non-psychotic psychopathology, psychosocial adversity, or a physical illness. We present the case of a 15-year-old secondary-school student who presented with a 1-month history of first onset auditory hallucinations, which had been increasing in frequency and severity, and mild paranoid ideation. Over a 10-week period, there was a gradual diminution, followed by a complete resolution, of symptoms. We discuss issues regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of auditory hallucinations in adolescents.

  4. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  5. Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones.

    PubMed

    Feder, R

    1982-09-01

    A young man with chronic auditory hallucinations was treated according to the principle that increasing external auditory stimulation decreases the likelihood of auditory hallucinations. Listening to a radio through stereo headphones in conditions of low auditory stimulation eliminated the patient's hallucinations.

  6. Neurophysiological Studies of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Dierks, Thomas; Fisher, Derek J.; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Koenig, Thomas; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Strik, Werner; van Lutterveld, Remko

    2012-01-01

    We discuss 3 neurophysiological approaches to study auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). First, we describe “state” (or symptom capture) studies where periods with and without hallucinations are compared “within” a patient. These studies take 2 forms: passive studies, where brain activity during these states is compared, and probe studies, where brain responses to sounds during these states are compared. EEG (electroencephalography) and MEG (magnetoencephalography) data point to frontal and temporal lobe activity, the latter resulting in competition with external sounds for auditory resources. Second, we discuss “trait” studies where EEG and MEG responses to sounds are recorded from patients who hallucinate and those who do not. They suggest a tendency to hallucinate is associated with competition for auditory processing resources. Third, we discuss studies addressing possible mechanisms of AVH, including spontaneous neural activity, abnormal self-monitoring, and dysfunctional interregional communication. While most studies show differences in EEG and MEG responses between patients and controls, far fewer show symptom relationships. We conclude that efforts to understand the pathophysiology of AVH using EEG and MEG have been hindered by poor anatomical resolution of the EEG and MEG measures, poor assessment of symptoms, poor understanding of the phenomenon, poor models of the phenomenon, decoupling of the symptoms from the neurophysiology due to medications and comorbidites, and the possibility that the schizophrenia diagnosis breeds truer than the symptoms it comprises. These problems are common to studies of other psychiatric symptoms and should be considered when attempting to understand the basic neural mechanisms responsible for them. PMID:22368236

  7. REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 25 untreated urban living schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feighner et al., having Schneiderian auditory hallucination were studied with the aim of examining the experienced reality of auditory hallucination and the influence on this reality of certain variables. It was found that the hallucinations were more real than unreal. Duration of illness, presence of anxiety prior to hallucination, reality testing ability, duration of each episode of hallucination, and socio-economic status scores influenced the reality negatively. The number of hallucinating days per mouth, position of voice outside sensory range, psychotocism scores, insight scores (higher scores for poorer insight) and duration of hallucination influenced the reality positively. The variables explained 72% of the variations in reality of hallucinations. Findings are discussed and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:21965885

  8. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  9. "Where do auditory hallucinations come from?"--a brain morphometry study of schizophrenia patients with inner or outer space hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Cachia, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N=12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N=15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects, opposite deviations in white matter volumes and sulcus displacements were found in patients with inner space hallucination and patients with outer space hallucination. The current results indicate that spatial location of auditory hallucinations is associated with the rTPJ anatomy, a key region of the "where" auditory pathway. The detected tilt in the sulcal junction suggests deviations during early brain maturation, when the superior temporal sulcus and its anterior terminal branch appear and merge.

  10. The auditory hallucination: a phenomenological survey.

    PubMed

    Nayani, T H; David, A S

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 100 psychotic patients who had experienced auditory hallucinations. The aim was to extend the phenomenology of the hallucination into areas of both form and content and also to guide future theoretical development. All subjects heard 'voices' talking to or about them. The location of the voice, its characteristics and the nature of address were described. Precipitants and alleviating factors plus the effect of the hallucinations on the sufferer were identified. Other hallucinatory experiences, thought insertion and insight were examined for their inter-relationships. A pattern emerged of increasing complexity of the auditory-verbal hallucination over time by a process of accretion, with the addition of more voices and extended dialogues, and more intimacy between subject and voice. Such evolution seemed to relate to the lessening of distress and improved coping. These findings should inform both neurological and cognitive accounts of the pathogenesis of auditory hallucinations in psychotic disorders. PMID:8643757

  11. A verbal behavior analysis of auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Burns, C E; Heiby, E M; Tharp, R G

    1983-01-01

    A review of recent research on the non-medical control of auditory hallucinations is presented. It is suggested that the decreases in hallucinatory behavior obtained in studies using aversive contingencies may be attributable to the disruption of the chains of behavior involved. The results of several additional studies are interpreted as indicating that methods of stimulus control and the use of incompatible behaviors may be effective in reducing the rate of auditory hallucinations. Research relating auditory hallucinations to subvocalizations is presented in support of the view that hallucinatory phenomena are sometimes related to the subject's own vocal productions. Skinner's views (1934, 1936, 1953, 1957, 1980) are then presented as possible explanations of some hallucinatory behavior. It is suggested that some auditory hallucinations consit of the mishearing of environmental and physiological stimuli as voices in a fashion similar to that which Skinner observed in his work with the verbal summator. The maintenance of long chains of such responses may be largely attributable to self-intraverbal influences (such as are present during automatic writing). With some auditory hallucinations, this progression involves first mishearing ambiguous stimuli as voices and then attributing the voices to some cause (e.g., insanity, the television, radio, or God). Later, the frequent and ongoing chains of such behavior may contaminate other verbal responses. Such verbal behavior may be parasitic on "normal verbal behavior" (and hence, not directly dependent on consquences for maintenance), may be cued by various stimuli (including respiration), and may interfere with other covert and overt behavior. Several studies to investigate this view are presented. It is hoped that such research will lead to a better understanding of the major issues involved in the etiology and treatment of auditory hallucinations in particular and perhaps of psychosis in general.

  12. Auditory hallucinations inhibit exogenous activation of auditory association cortex.

    PubMed

    David, A S; Woodruff, P W; Howard, R; Mellers, J D; Brammer, M; Bullmore, E; Wright, I; Andrew, C; Williams, S C

    1996-03-22

    Percepts unaccompanied by a veridical stimulus, such as hallucinations, provide an opportunity for mapping the neural correlates of conscious perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can reveal localized changes in blood oxygenation in response to actual as well as imagined sensory stimulation. The safe repeatability of fMRI enabled us to study a patient with schizophrenia while he was experiencing auditory hallucinations and when hallucination-free (with supporting data from a second case). Cortical activation was measured in response to periodic exogenous auditory and visual stimulations using time series regression analysis. Functional brain images were obtained in each hallucination condition both while the patient was on and off antipsychotic drugs. The response of the temporal cortex to exogenous auditory stimulation (speech) was markedly reduced when the patient was experiencing hallucinating voices addressing him, regardless of medication. Visual cortical activation (to flashing lights) remained normal over four scans. From the results of this study and previous work on visual hallucinations we conclude that hallucinations coincide with maximal activation of the sensory and association cortex, specific to the modality of the experience. PMID:8724677

  13. [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two schizophrenic patients with characteristic hallucinations consisting of auditory hallucinations accompanied by visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The patient sees the face of the hallucinatory speaker in his/her mind and hears the voice talking inwardly. We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations. In this report, we present 10 patients with schizophrenia showing physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations and evaluate the characteristics of these clinical symptoms. Moreover we consider what the symptoms mean for patients and the metabasis from structural aspects. Lastly, we consider how we can treat these patients living autistic lives with the symptoms. During physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations, the realistic face moves its mouth and talks to the patient expressively. In early onset cases, the faces of various real people appear talking about ordinary things while in late onset cases, the faces can be imaginary but are mainly real people talking about ordinary or delusional things. We suppose that these characteristics of the symptoms unify the schizophrenic world overwhelmed by "a force of non-sense" to "the sense field". "The force of non-sense" is a substantial power but cannot be reduced to the real meaning. And we suppose that not visual reality but the intensity of auditory hallucinations of the face brings about the overwhelming intensity of symptoms and the substantiality of this intensity depends on the states of excessive fullness of "the force of non-sense". With these symptoms patients see the narration of auditory hallucinations through the facial image and the content of auditory hallucinations is compressed into the movement of visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The form of symptoms is realistic but the speaker's face and voice are beyond ordinary time and space. The symptoms are essentially different from ordinary perception. The visual

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation for refractory auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2013-11-01

    Some patients with schizophrenia may suffer from continuous or severe auditory hallucinations that are refractory to antipsychotic drugs, including clozapine. Such patients may benefit from a short trial of once- to twice-daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the cathode placed over the left temporoparietal cortex and the anode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; negative, cognitive, and other symptoms, if present, may also improve. At present, the case for tDCS treatment of refractory auditory hallucinations rests on 1 well-conducted randomized, sham tDCS-controlled trial and several carefully documented and instructive case reports. Benefits with up to 3 years of maintenance tDCS have also been described. In patients with refractory auditory hallucinations, tDCS has been delivered at 1- to 3-mA current intensity during 20-30 minutes in once- to twice-daily sessions for up to 3 years with no apparent adverse effects. Transcranial direct current stimulation therefore appears to be a promising noninvasive brain stimulation technique for patients with antipsychotic-refractory auditory hallucinations.

  15. “Where Do Auditory Hallucinations Come From?”—A Brain Morphometry Study of Schizophrenia Patients With Inner or Outer Space Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N = 12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N = 15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects, opposite deviations in white matter volumes and sulcus displacements were found in patients with inner space hallucination and patients with outer space hallucination. The current results indicate that spatial location of auditory hallucinations is associated with the rTPJ anatomy, a key region of the “where” auditory pathway. The detected tilt in the sulcal junction suggests deviations during early brain maturation, when the superior temporal sulcus and its anterior terminal branch appear and merge. PMID:19666833

  16. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  17. Early psychological intervention for auditory hallucinations: an exploratory study of young people's voices groups.

    PubMed

    Newton, Elizabeth; Landau, Sabine; Smith, Patrick; Monks, Paul; Shergill, Sukhi; Wykes, Til

    2005-01-01

    Twenty to fifty percent of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia continue to hear voices despite taking neuroleptic medication. Trials of group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with auditory hallucinations have shown promising results. Auditory hallucinations may be most amenable to psychological intervention during a 3-year critical period after symptom onset. This study evaluates the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for young people with recent-onset auditory hallucinations (N = 22), using a waiting list control. Outcome measures were administered at four separate time points. Significant reductions in auditory hallucinations occurred over the total treatment phase, but not over the waiting period. Further investigations in the form of randomized controlled trials are warranted.

  18. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination.

    PubMed

    Raij, Tuukka T; Riekki, Tapani J J

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  19. Cognitive behavioural therapy for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Maria; De Crescenzo, Franco; Vicari, Stefano; Pucciarini, Maria Laura; Averna, Roberto; Santonastaso, Ornella; Armando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    AIM To provide an updated of recent findings about efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in reduction of command hallucinations. METHODS PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrial.gov searches were performed using the keywords “hallucinations”, “behavioural therapy” and “ cognitive therapy” in order to identify relevant articles published during the years of 2011 to 2016. No language limits were used. Studies conducted within control group, reviews, editorials, were excluded. Data on efficacy, acceptability and tolerability were extracted by three authors independently. Disagreements were resolved in a consensus meeting or by another reviewer. RESULTS A total of eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Two are randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and six are observational studies. The two RCTs included showed a greater efficacy of CBT compared to standard care on auditory hallucinations (AHs). Nevertheless, they considered different CBT models, particularly Treatment of Resistant Command Hallucinations and Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations. As regards non RCT-studies, all papers included showed reduction on frequency and severity of AHs and distress related to them. However, the lack of content details within non-RCTs studies decreased their comparability. In terms of predictive variables, our findings show that negative symptoms at baseline appeared to be the strongest predictor of the treatment efficacy. Indeed, negative symptoms showed a significant negative correlation on outcome. CONCLUSION Although more conclusive studies are still needed, we found some preliminary evidence for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of command hallucinations. PMID:27679778

  20. Cognitive behavioural therapy for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Maria; De Crescenzo, Franco; Vicari, Stefano; Pucciarini, Maria Laura; Averna, Roberto; Santonastaso, Ornella; Armando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    AIM To provide an updated of recent findings about efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in reduction of command hallucinations. METHODS PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrial.gov searches were performed using the keywords “hallucinations”, “behavioural therapy” and “ cognitive therapy” in order to identify relevant articles published during the years of 2011 to 2016. No language limits were used. Studies conducted within control group, reviews, editorials, were excluded. Data on efficacy, acceptability and tolerability were extracted by three authors independently. Disagreements were resolved in a consensus meeting or by another reviewer. RESULTS A total of eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Two are randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and six are observational studies. The two RCTs included showed a greater efficacy of CBT compared to standard care on auditory hallucinations (AHs). Nevertheless, they considered different CBT models, particularly Treatment of Resistant Command Hallucinations and Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations. As regards non RCT-studies, all papers included showed reduction on frequency and severity of AHs and distress related to them. However, the lack of content details within non-RCTs studies decreased their comparability. In terms of predictive variables, our findings show that negative symptoms at baseline appeared to be the strongest predictor of the treatment efficacy. Indeed, negative symptoms showed a significant negative correlation on outcome. CONCLUSION Although more conclusive studies are still needed, we found some preliminary evidence for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of command hallucinations.

  1. A STUDY OF EXPERIENCED REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHERENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 Schizophrenics having verbal auditory hallucinations and satisfying the criteria of Feighner et al. (1972) were examined for the experienced reality of auditory hallucinations and the influence of certain variables on such reality. Number of hallucinating days per month, fast movement of time during hallucination, presence of running commentary voices, interference in self-care and social activities due to the Voices and degree of success in manipulation and avoidance (coping themes) appreciably influenced the experienced reality. The voices were more real than unreal. PMID:21847275

  2. Mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  3. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  4. A Community of One: Social Cognition and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations have attracted a great deal of scientific interest, but despite the fact that they are fundamentally a social experience—in essence, a form of hallucinated communication—current theories remain firmly rooted in an individualistic account and have largely avoided engagement with social cognition. Nevertheless, there is mounting evidence for the role of social cognitive and social neurocognitive processes in auditory verbal hallucinations, and, consequently, it is proposed that problems with the internalisation of social models may be key to the experience. PMID:24311984

  5. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. Methods We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Results Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience

  6. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app.

  7. A STUDY OF BEHAVIOUR DURING AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty untreated urban living Schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feigher et al. (1972) and having Schneiderian hallucinations were studied with the aim of examining the relation of certain variables to their behaviour during auditory hallucinations. For those whose behaviour had no direction, the voices were less real in comparison to those with positive or negative direction. For those with negative direction in behaviour, voice were positioned more outside than within sensory range and the individual episodes of hallucination were of longer duration. The voices were more real for those who had emotional experience without physical activity and those without emotions of physical activity. PMID:21965928

  8. Oscillatory Cortical Network Involved in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Hillebrand, Arjan; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Daalman, Kirstin; Kahn, René S.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), a prominent symptom of schizophrenia, are often highly distressing for patients. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of hallucinations could increase therapeutic options. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides direct measures of neuronal activity and has an excellent temporal resolution, offering a unique opportunity to study AVH pathophysiology. Methods Twelve patients (10 paranoid schizophrenia, 2 psychosis not otherwise specified) indicated the presence of AVH by button-press while lying in a MEG scanner. As a control condition, patients performed a self-paced button-press task. AVH-state and non-AVH state were contrasted in a region-of-interest (ROI) approach. In addition, the two seconds before AVH onset were contrasted with the two seconds after AVH onset to elucidate a possible triggering mechanism. Results AVH correlated with a decrease in beta-band power in the left temporal cortex. A decrease in alpha-band power was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus. AVH onset was related to a decrease in theta-band power in the right hippocampus. Conclusions These results suggest that AVH are triggered by a short aberration in the theta band in a memory-related structure, followed by activity in language areas accompanying the experience of AVH itself. PMID:22844436

  9. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  10. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  11. The role of emotion regulation in auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Johanna C; Paulik, Georgie; Maybery, Murray T

    2011-02-28

    Emotion regulation involves the use of strategies to influence the experience and expression of emotions. Anxiety and depression are strongly associated with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations (AHs). Individuals usually try to down-regulate (decrease) such emotions, consequently abnormal or maladaptive use of one or more of these down-regulatory processes (e.g. increased use of expressive suppression or maladaptive attentional deployment, i.e. rumination/worry) may play an important role in AHs (e.g. increasing AH severity and distress). This study examined the self-reported use of a range of emotion regulation strategies in individuals with schizophrenia and current AHs (SZ AH; N=34) and healthy controls (N=34). Two separable dimensions of hallucinatory experiences (severity and distress) were assessed together with measures of anxiety, depression and happiness. Within the SZ AH group, greater use of expressive suppression was associated with an increase in severity of AHs and greater disruption in daily life. In addition, rumination was significantly positively correlated with the distress (but not with the severity) associated with AHs. Within the control group, expressive suppression, rumination and worry were associated with more anxiety/depression and less happiness, as predicted. The implications of different emotion regulation strategies for the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and AHs are discussed. PMID:20678808

  12. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia.

  13. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia. PMID:27197903

  14. Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Nucleus Accumbens in Auditory and Visual Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Poulet, Emmanuel; Bordet, Régis; Vignaud, Alexandre; Bation, Rémy; Delmaire, Christine; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Jardri, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Both auditory hallucinations (AH) and visual hallucinations may occur in schizophrenia. One of the main hypotheses underlying their occurrence involves the increased activity of the mesolimbic pathway, which links the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the precise contribution of the mesolimbic pathway in hallucinations across various sensory modalities has not yet been explored. We compared the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the NAcc among 16 schizophrenia patients with pure AH, 15 with both visuoauditory hallucinations (VAH), and 14 without hallucinations (NoH). A between-group comparison was performed using random-effects ANCOVA (rs-FC of the bilateral NAcc as the dependent variable, groups as the between-subjects factor, age and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores as covariates; q(false discovery rate [FDR]) < .05). Compared to the NoH group, the AH group exhibited significantly enhanced NAcc rs-FC with the left temporal superior gyrus, the cingulate gyri, and the VTA, whereas the VAH group, compared to the AH group, exhibited significantly enhanced NAcc rs-FC with the bilateral insula, putamen, parahippocampal gyri, and VTA. The strength in rs-FC between the NAcc and the VTA appeared to be positively associated with the presence of hallucinations, but the NAcc FC patterns changed with the complexity of these experiences (ie, 0, 1, or 2 sensory modalities), rather than with severity. This might support the aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, these findings suggest that future clinical and neurobiological studies of hallucinations should evaluate not only the global severity of symptoms but also their sensorial features. PMID:25053649

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Poulet, Emmanuel; Bordet, Régis; Vignaud, Alexandre; Bation, Rémy; Delmaire, Christine; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Jardri, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Both auditory hallucinations (AH) and visual hallucinations may occur in schizophrenia. One of the main hypotheses underlying their occurrence involves the increased activity of the mesolimbic pathway, which links the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the precise contribution of the mesolimbic pathway in hallucinations across various sensory modalities has not yet been explored. We compared the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the NAcc among 16 schizophrenia patients with pure AH, 15 with both visuoauditory hallucinations (VAH), and 14 without hallucinations (NoH). A between-group comparison was performed using random-effects ANCOVA (rs-FC of the bilateral NAcc as the dependent variable, groups as the between-subjects factor, age and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores as covariates; q(false discovery rate [FDR]) < .05). Compared to the NoH group, the AH group exhibited significantly enhanced NAcc rs-FC with the left temporal superior gyrus, the cingulate gyri, and the VTA, whereas the VAH group, compared to the AH group, exhibited significantly enhanced NAcc rs-FC with the bilateral insula, putamen, parahippocampal gyri, and VTA. The strength in rs-FC between the NAcc and the VTA appeared to be positively associated with the presence of hallucinations, but the NAcc FC patterns changed with the complexity of these experiences (ie, 0, 1, or 2 sensory modalities), rather than with severity. This might support the aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, these findings suggest that future clinical and neurobiological studies of hallucinations should evaluate not only the global severity of symptoms but also their sensorial features.

  16. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  17. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital-cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  18. The role of the primary auditory cortex in the neural mechanism of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Falkenberg, Liv E.; Bless, Josef J.; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Kråkvik, Bodil; Larøi, Frank; Løberg, Else-Marie; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar; Westerhausen, René; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a subjective experience of “hearing voices” in the absence of corresponding physical stimulation in the environment. The most remarkable feature of AVHs is their perceptual quality, that is, the experience is subjectively often as vivid as hearing an actual voice, as opposed to mental imagery or auditory memories. This has lead to propositions that dysregulation of the primary auditory cortex (PAC) is a crucial component of the neural mechanism of AVHs. One possible mechanism by which the PAC could give rise to the experience of hallucinations is aberrant patterns of neuronal activity whereby the PAC is overly sensitive to activation arising from internal processing, while being less responsive to external stimulation. In this paper, we review recent research relevant to the role of the PAC in the generation of AVHs. We present new data from a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, examining the responsivity of the left and right PAC to parametrical modulation of the intensity of auditory verbal stimulation, and corresponding attentional top-down control in non-clinical participants with AVHs, and non-clinical participants with no AVHs. Non-clinical hallucinators showed reduced activation to speech sounds but intact attentional modulation in the right PAC. Additionally, we present data from a group of schizophrenia patients with AVHs, who do not show attentional modulation of left or right PAC. The context-appropriate modulation of the PAC may be a protective factor in non-clinical hallucinations. PMID:23630479

  19. Time course of regional brain activation associated with onset of auditory/verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ralph E.; Anderson, Adam W.; Varanko, Maxine; Gore, John C.; Hampson, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The time course of brain activation prior to onset of auditory/verbal hallucinations was characterised using functional magnetic resonance imaging in six dextral patients with schizophrenia. Composite maps of pre-hallucination periods revealed activation in the left anterior insula and in the right middle temporal gyrus, partially replicating two previous case reports, as well as deactivation in the anterior cingulate and parahippocampal gyri. These findings may reflect brain events that trigger or increase vulnerability to auditory/verbal hallucinations. PMID:18978327

  20. The multimodal connectivity of the hippocampal complex in auditory and visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Amad, A; Cachia, A; Gorwood, P; Pins, D; Delmaire, C; Rolland, B; Mondino, M; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

    2014-02-01

    Hallucinations constitute one of the most representative and disabling symptoms of schizophrenia. Several Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings support the hypothesis that distinct patterns of connectivity, particularly within networks involving the hippocampal complex (HC), could be associated with different hallucinatory modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate HC connectivity as a function of the hallucinatory modality, that is, auditory or visual. Two carefully selected subgroups of schizophrenia patients with only auditory hallucinations (AH) or with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH) were compared using the following three complementary multimodal MRI methods: resting state functional MRI, diffusion MRI and structural MRI were used to analyze seed-based Functional Connectivity (sb-FC), Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and shape analysis, respectively. Sb-FC was significantly higher between the HC, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the caudate nuclei in A+VH patients compared with the AH group. Conversely, AH patients exhibited a higher sb-FC between the HC and the thalamus in comparison with the A+VH group. In the A+VH group, TBSS showed specific higher white matter connectivity in the pathways connecting the HC with visual areas, such as the forceps major and the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus than in the AH group. Finally, shape analysis showed localized hippocampal hypertrophy in the A+VH group. Functional results support the fronto-limbic dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia, while specific structural findings indicate that plastic changes are associated with hallucinations. Together, these results suggest that there are distinct connectivity patterns in patients with schizophrenia that depend on the sensory-modality, with specific involvement of the HC in visual hallucinations.

  1. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and the Interhemispheric Auditory Pathway in Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wigand, Marlene; Kubicki, Marek; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Leicht, Gregor; Karch, Susanne; Eckbo, Ryan; Pelavin, Paula E.; Hawley, Kathryn; Rujescu, Dan; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E.; Mulert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The interhemispheric auditory pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in the processing of acoustic stimuli, and alterations of structural and functional connectivity between bilateral auditory areas are likely relevant to the pathogenesis of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). The aim of this study was to examine this pathway in patients with chronic schizophrenia regarding their lifetime history of AVHs. Methods DTI scans were acquired from 33 healthy controls (HC), 24 schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs (LT-AVH) and 9 schizophrenia patients without any lifetime-hallucinations (N-LT-AVH). The interhemispheric auditory fibre bundles were extracted using streamline tractography. Subsequently, diffusivity indices, namely Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Trace, Mode, Axial and Radial Diffusivity, were calculated. Results FA was decreased over the entire pathway in LT-AVH compared with N-LT-AVH. Moreover, LT-AVH displayed decreased FA and Mode as well as increased Radial Diffusivity in the midsagittal section of the fibre tract. Conclusions These findings indicate complex microstructural changes in the interhemispheric auditory pathway of schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs. Alterations appear to be absent in patients who have never hallucinated. PMID:25224883

  2. Time course of regional brain activity accompanying auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ralph E.; Pittman, Brian; Constable, R. Todd; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Hampson, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations remains poorly understood. Aims To characterise the time course of regional brain activity leading to auditory verbal hallucinations. Method During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder signalled auditory verbal hallucination events by pressing a button. To control for effects of motor behaviour, regional activity associated with hallucination events was scaled against corresponding activity arising from random button-presses produced by 10 patients who did not experience hallucinations. Results Immediately prior to the hallucinations, motor-adjusted activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus was significantly greater than corresponding activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast, motor-adjusted activity in a right posterior temporal region overshadowed corresponding activity in the left homologous temporal region. Robustly elevated motor-adjusted activity in the left temporal region associated with auditory verbal hallucinations was also detected, but only subsequent to hallucination events. At the earliest time shift studied, the correlation between left inferior frontal gyrus and right temporal activity was significantly higher for the hallucination group compared with non-hallucinating patients. Conclusions Findings suggest that heightened functional coupling between the left inferior frontal gyrus and right temporal regions leads to coactivation in these speech processing regions that is hallucinogenic. Delayed left temporal activation may reflect impaired corollary discharge contributing to source misattribution of resulting verbal images. PMID:21972276

  3. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination☆

    PubMed Central

    Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  4. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  5. The usefulness of a self-report questionnaire measuring auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyun; Jung, Hee Yeon; Hwang, Samuel S; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Yeni; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2010-08-16

    A self-report measure of psychotic symptoms has been considered to be unsuitable due to the possible denial of symptoms in the patients with schizophrenia. However, a self-report questionnaire would be an efficient tool for the evaluation of subjective aspects of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), which requires further clarification. In this study, a total of 87 patients with schizophrenia took baseline evaluations for Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ), a self-report questionnaire for AVH, and Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales-Auditory Hallucination Subscale (PSYRATS-AH) and an item measuring hallucinations (P3) on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), both interviewer-rated scales for AVH. At 1 week and at 6 months post-baseline, 39 and 68 patients repeated HPSVQ and PSYRATS-AH, respectively. Total scores on HPSVQ showed good agreement with those on PSYRATS-AH and PANSS, Item P3, and HPSVQ showed good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. In addition, the changes in total scores of HPSVQ during 6-month follow-up were also highly correlated to those of PSYRATS-AH. The findings of factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis suggested that the items addressing emotional characteristics of AVH constituted one factor and that the remaining items, primarily concerning the physical characteristics, combined to form another factor. Taken together, the HPSVQ, a self-report questionnaire measuring AVH, was characterized by good psychometric properties, which suggests the appropriateness of a self-report scale for examining the internal structure of AVH in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20472012

  6. Cerebral responses to vocal attractiveness and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Koeda, Michihiko; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Asai, Kunihiko; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Impaired self-monitoring and abnormalities of cognitive bias have been implicated as cognitive mechanisms of hallucination; regions fundamental to these processes including inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) are abnormally activated in individuals that hallucinate. A recent study showed activation in IFG-STG to be modulated by auditory attractiveness, but no study has investigated whether these IFG-STG activations are impaired in schizophrenia. We aimed to clarify the cerebral function underlying the perception of auditory attractiveness in schizophrenia patients. Cerebral activation was examined in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls when performing Favorability Judgment Task (FJT) and Gender Differentiation Task (GDT) for pairs of greetings using event-related functional MRI. A full-factorial analysis revealed that the main effect of task was associated with activation of left IFG and STG. The main effect of Group revealed less activation of left STG in schizophrenia compared with controls, whereas significantly greater activation in schizophrenia than in controls was revealed at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), right occipital lobe, and right amygdala (p < 0.05, FDR-corrected). A significant positive correlation was observed at the right TPJ and right MFG between cerebral activation under FJT minus GDT contrast and the score of hallucinatory behavior on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Findings of hypo-activation in the left STG could designate brain dysfunction in accessing vocal attractiveness in schizophrenia, whereas hyper-activation in the right TPJ and MFG may reflect the process of mentalizing other person's behavior by auditory hallucination by abnormality of cognitive bias. PMID:23745111

  7. Studying auditory verbal hallucinations using the RDoC framework.

    PubMed

    Ford, Judith M

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, I explain why I adopted a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach to study the neurobiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), or voices. I explain that the RDoC construct of "agency" fits well with AVH phenomenology. To the extent that voices sound nonself, voice hearers lack a sense of agency over the voices. Using a vocalization paradigm like those used with nonhuman primates to study mechanisms subserving the sense of agency, we find that the auditory N1 ERP is suppressed during vocalization, that EEG synchrony preceding speech onset is related to N1 suppression, and that both are reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Reduced cortical suppression is also seen across multiple psychotic disorders and in clinically high-risk youth, but it is not related to AVH. The motor activity preceding talking and connectivity between frontal and temporal lobes during talking have both proved sensitive to AVH, suggesting neural activity and connectivity associated with intentions to act may be a better way to study agency and predictions based on agency.

  8. Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Over the last few years, our Tinnitus Research Group has identified an increasing number of patients with tinnitus who also complained of repeated perception of complex sounds, such as music and voices. Such hallucinatory phenomena motivated us to study their possible relation to the patients' psyches. Aims: To assess whether hallucinatory phenomena were related to the patients' psychosis and/or depression, and clarify their content and function in the patients' psyches. Method: Ten subjects (8 women; mean age = 65.7 years) were selected by otolaryngologists and evaluated by the same psychologists through semi-structured interviews, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychoanalysis interviews. Results: We found no association between auditory hallucinations and psychosis; instead, this phenomenon was associated with depressive aspects. The patients' discourse revealed that hallucinatory phenomena played unconscious roles in their emotional life. In all cases, there was a remarkable and strong tendency to recall/repeat unpleasant facts/situations, which tended to exacerbate the distress caused by the tinnitus and hallucinatory phenomena and worsen depressive aspects. Conclusions: There is an important relationship between tinnitus, hallucinatory phenomena, and depression based on persistent recall of facts/situations leading to psychic distress. The knowledge of such findings represents a further step towards the need to adapt the treatment of this particular subgroup of tinnitus patients through interdisciplinary teamwork. Prospective. PMID:25991952

  9. Experiential Response to Auditory and Visual Hallucination Suggestions in Hypnotic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Nicholas P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several attitudinal, cognitive skill, and personality variables in response to auditory and visual hallucination suggestions to hypnotic subjects are assessed. Cooperative attitudes toward hypnosis and involvement in everyday imaginative activities (absorption) correlated with response to auditory and visual hallucination…

  10. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC “VOICE” project

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the “VOICE” ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the “voices” having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app. PMID:26110121

  11. A neurophysiological deficit in early visual processing in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Kroppmann, Christopher J; Alschuler, Daniel M; Fekri, Shiva; Gil, Roberto; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Bruder, Gerard E

    2012-09-01

    Existing 67-channel event-related potentials, obtained during recognition and working memory paradigms with words or faces, were used to examine early visual processing in schizophrenia patients prone to auditory hallucinations (AH, n = 26) or not (NH, n = 49) and healthy controls (HC, n = 46). Current source density (CSD) transforms revealed distinct, strongly left- (words) or right-lateralized (faces; N170) inferior-temporal N1 sinks (150 ms) in each group. N1 was quantified by temporal PCA of peak-adjusted CSDs. For words and faces in both paradigms, N1 was substantially reduced in AH compared with NH and HC, who did not differ from each other. The difference in N1 between AH and NH was not due to overall symptom severity or performance accuracy, with both groups showing comparable memory deficits. Our findings extend prior reports of reduced auditory N1 in AH, suggesting a broader early perceptual integration deficit that is not limited to the auditory modality.

  12. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  13. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    So, Suzanne Ho-wai; Begemann, Marieke J. H.; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual’s responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals’ cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed. PMID:27698407

  14. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  15. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain’s Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations

    PubMed Central

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M.; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S.; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M.; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain’s resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  16. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  17. Alterations of Functional and Structural Networks in Schizophrenia Patients with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been many attempts at explaining the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia on the basis of regional brain changes, with the most consistent findings being that AVH are associated with functional and structural impairments in auditory and speech-related regions. However, the human brain is a complex network and the global topological alterations specific to AVH in schizophrenia remain unclear. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenia patients with AVH, 41 patients without AVH, and 50 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The whole-brain functional and structural networks were constructed and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Inter-group differences in global network metrics (including small-world properties and network efficiency) were investigated. Results: We found that three groups had a typical small-world topology in both functional and structural networks. More importantly, schizophrenia patients with and without AVH exhibited common disruptions of functional networks, characterized by decreased clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency, and increased characteristic path length; structural networks of only schizophrenia patients with AVH showed increased characteristic path length compared with those of healthy controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that less “small-worldization” and lower network efficiency of functional networks may be an independent trait characteristic of schizophrenia, and regularization of structural networks may be the underlying pathological process engaged in schizophrenic AVH symptom expression. PMID:27014042

  18. The effect of auditory verbal imagery on signal detection in hallucination-prone individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Smailes, David; Ellison, Amanda; Fernyhough, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive models have suggested that auditory hallucinations occur when internal mental events, such as inner speech or auditory verbal imagery (AVI), are misattributed to an external source. This has been supported by numerous studies indicating that individuals who experience hallucinations tend to perform in a biased manner on tasks that require them to distinguish self-generated from non-self-generated perceptions. However, these tasks have typically been of limited relevance to inner speech models of hallucinations, because they have not manipulated the AVI that participants used during the task. Here, a new paradigm was employed to investigate the interaction between imagery and perception, in which a healthy, non-clinical sample of participants were instructed to use AVI whilst completing an auditory signal detection task. It was hypothesized that AVI-usage would cause participants to perform in a biased manner, therefore falsely detecting more voices in bursts of noise. In Experiment 1, when cued to generate AVI, highly hallucination-prone participants showed a lower response bias than when performing a standard signal detection task, being more willing to report the presence of a voice in the noise. Participants not prone to hallucinations performed no differently between the two conditions. In Experiment 2, participants were not specifically instructed to use AVI, but retrospectively reported how often they engaged in AVI during the task. Highly hallucination-prone participants who retrospectively reported using imagery showed a lower response bias than did participants with lower proneness who also reported using AVI. Results are discussed in relation to prominent inner speech models of hallucinations. PMID:26435050

  19. Auditory hallucinations in nonpsychotic children with affective syndromes and migraines: report of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Schreier, H A

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the discovery of a possible association between auditory hallucinations, migraine, and affective/anxiety disorders in nonpsychotic children. The cases were culled by a review of all consultations in an outpatient practice in an 8-month period. Thirteen cases of nonpsychotic children who experienced hallucinations (auditory in 12) were found. All but one suffered from a variety of major affective or anxiety/panic disorders and migraine headaches. The family histories were strongly positive for affective/anxiety disorders and migraine, and four of the parents also had a history of hearing voices. The age of onset of the auditory hallucinations, where known (8 cases), was between 4 and 8 years. In only two cases did the voices accompany the migraine attacks, and these two children also heard voices at other times. Although a strong association between migraine and anxiety, panic, and affective syndromes in adults has been repeatedly found in epidemiologic study, no such association has been studied in children, and this is the first known report of a possible association between migraine, affective/anxiety disorders, and auditory hallucinations in nonpsychotic children. It suggests the need for epidemiologic study.

  20. An EMG Study of the Lip Muscles during Covert Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapin, Lucile; Dohen, Marion; Polosan, Mircea; Perrier, Pascal; Loevenbruck, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: "Auditory verbal hallucinations" (AVHs) are speech perceptions in the absence of external stimulation. According to an influential theoretical account of AVHs in schizophrenia, a deficit in inner-speech monitoring may cause the patients' verbal thoughts to be perceived as external voices. The account is based on a…

  1. A synthesis of evidence on inhibitory control and auditory hallucinations based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behavior and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic] box, by studying symptoms, behaviors or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning—namely cognitive [inhibitory] control—and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC “units of analysis,” which span the range from observable behavior to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favors separate developmental trajectories for clinical and non-clinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioral problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment. PMID:24723879

  2. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH, can be accounted for. PMID:25286243

  3. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.

  4. Is chronicity a function of the relationship between the person and the auditory hallucination?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, L S

    1989-01-01

    Thirty psychiatric inpatients each rated their relationship with their auditory hallucination using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior questionnaires which assess partnerships in terms of interpersonal focus, love-hate, and enmeshment-differentiation. Results showed that all subjects had integrated, interpersonally coherent relationships with their voice. Qualitative differences in the nature of the relationships related meaningfully to diagnosis. Selected clinical excerpts suggested that the relationship with the hallucination may serve an adaptive function. Chronicity may be dependent on the nature of that adaptation. PMID:2749190

  5. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN NEUROTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al and were having verbal auditory hallucinations, with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. The relation between neuroticism scale of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and different aspects of the voice was examined. Neuroticism scores were positively related to the level of anxiety prior to the voice, anticipation of the voice, intensity of anger during the voice and interference with occupation and social activities of patients by the voice. PMID:21927144

  6. Is chronicity a function of the relationship between the person and the auditory hallucination?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, L S

    1989-01-01

    Thirty psychiatric inpatients each rated their relationship with their auditory hallucination using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior questionnaires which assess partnerships in terms of interpersonal focus, love-hate, and enmeshment-differentiation. Results showed that all subjects had integrated, interpersonally coherent relationships with their voice. Qualitative differences in the nature of the relationships related meaningfully to diagnosis. Selected clinical excerpts suggested that the relationship with the hallucination may serve an adaptive function. Chronicity may be dependent on the nature of that adaptation.

  7. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals.

    PubMed

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  8. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  9. Noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: methods, effects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kubera, Katharina M.; Barth, Anja; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A.; Wolf, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on noninvasive brain stimulation techniques as an augmentation method for the treatment of persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. Paradigmatically, we place emphasis on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We specifically discuss rationales of stimulation and consider methodological questions together with issues of phenotypic diversity in individuals with drug-refractory and persistent AVH. Eventually, we provide a brief outlook for future investigations and treatment directions. Taken together, current evidence suggests TMS as a promising method in the treatment of AVH. Low-frequency stimulation of the superior temporal cortex (STC) may reduce symptom severity and frequency. Yet clinical effects are of relatively short duration and effect sizes appear to decrease over time along with publication of larger trials. Apart from considering other innovative stimulation techniques, such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), and optimizing stimulation protocols, treatment of AVH using noninvasive brain stimulation will essentially rely on accurate identification of potential responders and non-responders for these treatment modalities. In this regard, future studies will need to consider distinct phenotypic presentations of AVH in patients with schizophrenia, together with the putative functional neurocircuitry underlying these phenotypes. PMID:26528145

  10. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS1

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al. and were having verbal auditory hallucination with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. Psychoticism was measured with the help of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire. The relation of psychoticism scores to different aspects of auditory hallucinations was examined. High psychoticism scores seemed to be associated with a greater number of languages of the voice, known living ‘speakers’ and less fear and passive listening during the voice. PMID:21965978

  11. DISCRIMINATION OF SCHIZOPHRENIA AUDITORY HALLUCINATORS BY MACHINE LEARNING OF RESTING-STATE FUNCTIONAL MRI

    PubMed Central

    CHYZHYK, DARYA; GRAÑA, MANUEL; ÖNGÜR, DÖST; SHINN, ANN K

    2016-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are a symptom that is most often associated with schizophrenia, but patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions, and even a small percentage of healthy individuals, may also experience AH. Elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying AH in schizophrenia may offer insight into the pathophysiology associated with AH more broadly across multiple neuropsychiatric disease conditions. In this paper, we address the problem of classifying schizophrenia patients with and without a history of AH, and healthy control subjects. To this end, we performed feature extraction from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data and applied machine learning classifiers, testing two kinds of neuroimaging features: (a) functional connectivity measures computed by lattice auto-associative memories (LAAM), and (b) local activity measures, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). We show that it is possible to perform classification within each pair of subject groups with high accuracy. Discrimination between patients with and without lifetime AH was highest, while discrimination between schizophrenia patients and healthy control participants was worst, suggesting that classification according to the symptom dimension of AH may be more valid than discrimination on the basis of traditional diagnostic categories. Functional connectivity measures seeded in right Heschl’s gyrus consistently showed stronger discriminative power than those seeded in left Heschl’s gyrus, a finding that appears to support AH models focusing on right hemisphere abnormalities. The cortical brain localizations derived from the features with strong classification performance are consistent with proposed AH models, and include left inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyri, the cingulate cortex, as well as several temporal and prefrontal cortical brain regions. Overall, the observed findings suggest

  12. Distinct inter-hemispheric dysconnectivity in schizophrenia patients with and without auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Xi, Yi-Bin; Cui, Long-Biao; Wang, Hua-Ning; Sun, Jin-Bo; Zhu, Yuan-Qiang; Huang, Peng; Collin, Guusje; Liu, Kang; Xi, Min; Qi, Shun; Tan, Qing-Rong; Miao, Dan-Min; Yin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from behavioral, electrophysiological and diffusion-weighted imaging studies suggest that schizophrenia patients suffer from deficiencies in bilateral brain communication, and this disruption may be related to the occurrence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). To increase our understanding of aberrant inter-hemispheric communication in relation to AVH, we recruited two groups of first-episode schizophrenia patients: one group with AVH (N = 18 AVH patients) and one without hallucinations (N = 18 Non-AVH patients), and 20 healthy controls. All participants received T1 structural imaging and resting-state fMRI scanning. We adopted a newly developed index, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to quantitatively describe bilateral functional connectivity. The whole-brain VMHC measure was compared among the three groups and correlation analyses were conducted between symptomology scores and neurological measures. Our findings suggest all patients shared abnormalities in parahippocampus and striatum. Aberrant bilateral connectivity of default mode network (DMN), inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum only showed in AVH patients, whereas aberrances in superior temporal gyrus and precentral gyrus were specific to Non-AVH patients. Meanwhile, inter-hemispheric connectivity of DMN correlated with patients' symptomatology scores. This study corroborates that schizophrenia is characterized by inter-hemispheric dysconnectivity, and suggests the localization of such abnormalities may be crucial to whether auditory verbal hallucinations develop. PMID:26053998

  13. Semaphorin and plexin gene expression is altered in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients with and without auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Sáez, Ana Rosa; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; González-Martínez, Rocio; Costa, Juan; Haro, Josep María; Callado, Luis F; Meana, J Javier; Nacher, Juán; Sanjuán, Julio; Moltó, María Dolores

    2015-10-30

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are clinical hallmarks of schizophrenia, however little is known about molecular genetics of these symptoms. In this study, gene expression profiling of postmortem brain samples from prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients without AH (SNA), patients with AH (SA) and control subjects were compared. Genome-wide expression analysis was conducted using samples of three individuals of each group and the Affymetrix GeneChip Human-Gene 1.0 ST-Array. This analysis identified the Axon Guidance pathway as one of the most differentially expressed network among SNA, SA and CNT. To confirm the transcriptome results, mRNA level quantification of seventeen genes involved in this pathway was performed in a larger sample. PLXNB1, SEMA3A, SEMA4D and SEM6C were upregulated in SNA or SA patients compared to controls. PLXNA1 and SEMA3D showed down-regulation in their expression in the patient's samples, but differences remained statistically significant between the SNA patients and controls. Differences between SNA and SA were found in PLXNB1 expression which is decreased in SA patients. This study strengthens the contribution of brain plasticity in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and shows that non-hallucinatory patients present more alterations in frontal regions than patients with hallucinations concerning neural plasticity.

  14. Neuroimaging auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: from neuroanatomy to neurochemistry and beyond.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul; Modinos, Gemma; Hubl, Daniela; Shields, Gregory; Cachia, Arnaud; Jardri, Renaud; Thomas, Pierre; Woodward, Todd; Shotbolt, Paul; Plaze, Marion; Hoffman, Ralph

    2012-06-01

    Despite more than 2 decades of neuroimaging investigations, there is currently insufficient evidence to fully understand the neurobiological substrate of auditory hallucinations (AH). However, some progress has been made with imaging studies in patients with AH consistently reporting altered structure and function in speech and language, sensory, and nonsensory regions. This report provides an update of neuroimaging studies of AH with a particular emphasis on more recent anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical imaging studies. Specifically, we provide (1) a review of findings in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia voice hearers, (2) a discussion regarding key issues that have interfered with progress, and (3) practical recommendations for future studies. PMID:22535906

  15. Neuroimaging Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: From Neuroanatomy to Neurochemistry and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Paul; Modinos, Gemma; Hubl, Daniela; Shields, Gregory; Cachia, Arnaud; Jardri, Renaud; Thomas, Pierre; Woodward, Todd; Shotbolt, Paul; Plaze, Marion; Hoffman, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 2 decades of neuroimaging investigations, there is currently insufficient evidence to fully understand the neurobiological substrate of auditory hallucinations (AH). However, some progress has been made with imaging studies in patients with AH consistently reporting altered structure and function in speech and language, sensory, and nonsensory regions. This report provides an update of neuroimaging studies of AH with a particular emphasis on more recent anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical imaging studies. Specifically, we provide (1) a review of findings in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia voice hearers, (2) a discussion regarding key issues that have interfered with progress, and (3) practical recommendations for future studies. PMID:22535906

  16. Interdisciplinarity as cognitive integration: auditory verbal hallucinations as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bernini, Marco; Woods, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we advocate a bottom-up direction for the methodological modeling of interdisciplinary research based on concrete interactions among individuals within interdisciplinary projects. Drawing on our experience in Hearing the Voice (a cross-disciplinary project on auditory verbal hallucinations running at Durham University), we focus on the dynamic if also problematic integration of cognitive science (neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and of mind), phenomenology, and humanistic disciplines (literature, narratology, history, and theology). We propose a new model for disciplinary integration which brings to the fore an under-investigated dynamic of interdisciplinary projects, namely their being processes of distributed cognition and cognitive integration. PMID:26005512

  17. Quantitative Meta-Analysis on State and Trait Aspects of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have a high prevalence in schizophrenic patients. An array of studies have explored the neural correlates of AVHs by means of functional neuroimaging and have associated AVHs with diverse brain regions, some of which have been shown to be involved in speech generation, speech perception, and auditory stimulus processing. We divided these studies into “state” studies comparing periods of presence and absence of AVHs within-subject and “trait” studies comparing patients experiencing AVHs with patients without AVHs or healthy controls during tasks with verbal material. We set out to test the internal consistency and possible dissociations of the neural correlates of AVHs. We used activation likelihood estimation to perform quantitative meta-analyses on brain regions reported in state and trait studies on AVHs to assess significant concordance across studies. State studies were associated with activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Trait studies on the other hand showed convergence of decreases in hallucinating subjects in left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and left premotor cortex activity. Based on the clear dissociation of brain regions that show convergence across state in comparison to trait studies, we conclude that the state of experiencing AVHs is primarily related brain regions that have been implicated in speech production ie, Broca’s area, whereas the general trait that makes humans prone to AVHs seems to be related to brain areas involved in auditory stimuli processing and speech perception, ie, auditory cortex. PMID:21177743

  18. Increased Local Spontaneous Neural Activity in the Left Precuneus Specific to Auditory Verbal Hallucinations of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Wang, Chun-Li; Wang, Li-Na; Li, Jie; Qin, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) of schizophrenia have been associated with structural and functional alterations of some brain regions. However, the brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) alterations specific to AVHs of schizophrenia remain unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate ReHo alterations specific to schizophrenic AVHs. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenic patients with AVH, 41 schizophrenic patients without AVHs, and fifty healthy subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. ReHo differences across the three groups were tested using a voxel-wise analysis. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, the two schizophrenia groups showed significantly increased ReHo in the right caudate and inferior temporal gyrus and decreased ReHo in the bilateral postcentral gyrus and thalamus and the right inferior occipital gyrus (false discovery rate corrected, P < 0.05). More importantly, the AVH group exhibited significantly increased ReHo in the left precuneus compared with the non-AVH group. However, using correlation analysis, we did not find any correlation between the auditory hallucination rating scale score and the ReHo of brain regions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that increased ReHo in the left precuneus may be a pathological feature exclusive to schizophrenic AVHs. PMID:26996476

  19. Musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Evers, Stefan

    2006-06-01

    Musical hallucinations have been described in numerous neurologic and psychiatric patients, but their pathophysiologic background is not understood. Analyzing the published cases, five subgroups can be separated according to their etiology: hypacusis, psychiatric disorders, focal brain lesions, epilepsy, and intoxication. There is a female preponderance of about 70%. Musical hallucinations most often occur in patients over age 60 years, although patients whose hallucinations are caused by focal brain lesions are significantly younger. Hemispheric dominance seems to play no major role in the pathogenesis of musical hallucinations, but hypacusis is present in the majority of all patients. Anticonvulsant and antidepressive agents have been effective in the treatment of some musical hallucinations. The discussion on the pathophysiology of musical hallucinations comprises theories of deafferentation (including auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome), of sensory auditory deprivation, of parasitic memory, and of spontaneous activity in a cognitive network module.

  20. Prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations in a general population: A group comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kråkvik, Bodil; Larøi, Frank; Kalhovde, Anne Martha; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Kompus, Kristiina; Salvesen, Øyvind; Stiles, Tore C; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar

    2015-10-01

    The present study was specifically designed to investigate the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in the general population, and sought to compare similarities and differences regarding socio-demographics, mental health and severe life events between individuals who have never experienced AVH with those who had. The study also aimed to compare those who sought professional help for their experience of AVH with those who had not sought help. Through a postal questionnaire, 2,533 participants ages 18 and over from a national survey completed the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale and other measures examining AVH characteristics and other areas related to AVH. In total, 7.3% of the sample reported a life-time prevalence of AVH. Those with AVH were more likely to be single and unemployed, reported higher levels of depression and anxiety, and experienced a higher number of severe life events compared with those without AVH. Only 16% of those who experienced AVH in the general population sought professional help for these experiences. Compared to those who did not seek professional help, participants that had were more likely to experience AVH with a negative content, experience them on a daily basis, undergo negative reactions when experiencing AVH, and resist AVH. In conclusion, the prevalence of AVH was found to be relatively high. The results also revealed higher levels of reduced mental health for individuals who sought professional help, followed by those who did not, compared with those who had never experienced AVH. PMID:26079977

  1. Voice recognition and altered connectivity in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiaodong; Bai, Feng; Xie, Chunming; Shi, Jiabo; Yao, Zhijian; Hao, Guifeng; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-07-01

    Auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) is a pathological hallmark of schizophrenia; however, their neural basis is unclear. Voice identity is an important phenomenological feature of AVHs. Certain voice identity recognition deficits are specific to schizophrenic patients with AVHs. We tested our hypothesis that among schizophrenia patients with hallucination, dysfunctional voice identity recognition is associated with poor functional integration in the neural networks involved in the evaluation of voice identity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a voice recognition task, we examined the modulation of neural network connectivity in 26 schizophrenic patients with or without AVHs, and 13 healthy controls. Our results showed that the schizophrenic patients with AVHs had altered frontotemporal connectivity compared to the schizophrenic patients without AVHs and healthy controls. The latter two groups did not show any differences in functional connectivity. In addition, the strength of frontotemporal connectivity was correlated with the accuracy of voice recognition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that impaired functional integration may contribute to the faulty appraisal of voice identity in schizophrenic patients with AVHs. PMID:23545112

  2. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Voice-Processing Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Window into Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH. In this review, we consider behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological data to investigate the speech, identity, and affective dimensions of voice processing in schizophrenia, and we discuss how abnormalities in these processes might help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying specific phenomenological features of AVH. Schizophrenia patients exhibit behavioral and neural disturbances in the three dimensions of voice processing. Evidence suggesting a role of dysfunctional voice processing in AVH seems to be stronger for the identity and speech dimensions than for the affective domain. PMID:26954598

  3. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: evolving directions and top-10 "hot spots" in hallucination research.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Woods, Angela; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  4. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert. J.; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D.; Clark, Vincent P.; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH (“AVH-on” versus “AVH-off”), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital–temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  5. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Robert J; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M; Turner, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital-temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  6. Schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder: similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Kingdon, David G; Ashcroft, Katie; Bhandari, Bharathi; Gleeson, Stefan; Warikoo, Nishchint; Symons, Matthew; Taylor, Lisa; Lucas, Eleanor; Mahendra, Ravi; Ghosh, Soumya; Mason, Anthony; Badrakalimuthu, Raja; Hepworth, Claire; Read, John; Mehta, Raj

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients with clinical diagnoses of schizophrenia or BPD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Axes 1 and 2 and auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma were assessed. A total of 111 patients participated; 59 met criteria for schizophrenia, 33 for BPD, and 19 for both. The groups were similar in their experiences of voices, including the perceived location of them, but they differed in frequency of paranoid delusions. Those with a diagnosis of BPD, including those with schizophrenia comorbidity, reported more childhood trauma, especially emotional abuse. BPD and schizophrenia frequently coexist, and this comorbidity has implications for diagnostic classification and treatment. Levels of reported childhood trauma are especially high in those with a BPD diagnosis, whether they have schizophrenia or not, and this requires assessment and appropriate management.

  7. Recovering from hallucinations: a qualitative study of coping with voices hearing of people with schizophrenia in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Petrus; Chun, Ricky W K; Tsun, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hallucination is a positive symptom of schizophrenia and has significant impacts on the lives of individuals. People with auditory hallucination require considerable assistance from mental health professionals. Apart from medications, they may apply different lay methods to cope with their voice hearing. Results from qualitative interviews showed that people with schizophrenia in the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong were coping with auditory hallucination in different ways, including (a) changing social contacts, (b) manipulating the voices, and (c) changing perception and meaning towards the voices. Implications for recovery from psychiatric illness of individuals with auditory hallucinations are discussed.

  8. Ketamine-Induced Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Powers, A.R.; Gancsos, M.G.; Finn, E.S.; Morgan, P.T.; Corlett, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine, the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist drug, is increasingly employed as an experimental model of psychosis in healthy volunteers. At sub-anesthetic doses, it safely and reversibly causes delusion-like ideas, amotivation, and perceptual disruptions reminiscent of the aberrant salience experiences that characterize first-episode psychosis. However, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, have not been reported consistently in healthy volunteers even at high doses of ketamine. Methods Here we present data from a set of healthy participants who received moderately dosed, placebo controlled ketamine infusions in the reduced stimulation environment of the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We highlight the phenomenological experiences of three participants who experienced particularly vivid hallucinations. Results Participants in this series reported auditory verbal and musical hallucinations at a ketamine dose that does not induce auditory hallucination outside of the scanner. Discussion We interpret the observation of ketamine-induced AVHs in the context of the reduced perceptual environment of the magnetic resonance scanner, and offer an explanation grounded in predictive coding models of perception and psychosis: the brain fills in expected perceptual inputs and it does so more in situations of reduced perceptual input. The reduced perceptual input of the MRI scanner creates a mismatch between top-down perceptual expectations and the heightened bottom-up signals induced by ketamine; such circumstances induce aberrant percepts including musical and auditory verbal hallucinations. We suggest that these circumstances might represent a useful experimental model of AVHs and highlight the impact of ambient sensory stimuli on psychopathology. PMID:26361209

  9. Targeting Treatment-Resistant Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia with fMRI-Based Neurofeedback – Exploring Different Cases of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dyck, Miriam S.; Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Bergert, Susanne; Sarkheil, Pegah; Koush, Yury; Alawi, Eliza M.; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gaebler, Arnim J.; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Mathiak, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region – even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations’ severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS) and on the affective state – with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). All patients yielded significant upregulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS) such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS) improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged three-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients’ symptomatology and disease history. NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous

  10. A rating scale for psychotic symptoms (RSPS) part I: theoretical principles and subscale 1: perception symptoms (illusions and hallucinations).

    PubMed

    Chouinard, G; Miller, R

    1999-08-17

    The authors present a new rating scale for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychoses. The scale links specific symptoms of psychopathology to dysfunction and overactivity of dopaminergic mechanisms underlying the processes of reward and selective attention. The Rating Scale for Psychotic Symptoms (RSPS) is a 44-item rating instrument with a seven-point severity scale for each item. Psychotic symptoms are classified into three groups: Pathological amplification of mental images (perception symptoms) (subscale 1), Distraction symptoms (including catatonia and passivity experiences) (subscale 2), and Delusions (subscale 3). A dimensional, rather than a categorical, conceptualization of psychosis is assumed. Rating is accomplished through a manual and a semi-structured interview (SSCI-RSPS). In this first of two papers, general issues about the construction of the scale and the derivation of symptom groups are discussed. Dopamine-mediated modification of cortico-striatal synapses is seen as being of critical importance in all three groups of symptoms. In this first paper, we present subscale I (perception symptoms), which includes both amplified perceptual images (illusions) and hallucinations. A total of seven illusions and 11 hallucinations are rated as individual items.

  11. How do auditory verbal hallucinations in patients differ from those in non-patients?

    PubMed

    Larøi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are experienced by individuals with various clinical diagnoses, such as psychosis, but also a significant minority of healthy individuals from the general population may experience them. Although much research has been carried out the past few decades, the mechanisms and factors underlying the emergence of AVHs is still poorly understood. One way of clarifying this issue involves comparing AVHs in patient and non-patient populations. In particular, differences between these groups will provide important information concerning the emergence of AVHs. After a general presentation and discussion of the notion of a continuum hypothesis, studies comparing patients with non-patients experiencing AVHs will be reviewed. This will comprise studies examining the phenomenological characteristics of AVHs in addition to neuroimaging and cognitive studies. Although we are beginning to elucidate important differences on a phenomenological level between these two types of AVHs, far too few studies have directly compared patient and non-patient AVHs in terms of underlying cerebral correlates and cognitive mechanisms. Nevertheless, and based on recent research on phenomenological differences, two issues stand out that need to be addressed, namely, the highly negative emotional content of AVHs in patients and the early onset of AVHs in non-patients populations. Suggestions for future research will be discussed.

  12. Auditory verbal hallucinations in first-episode psychosis: a phenomenological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jonathan; Broome, Matthew R.; Caldwell, Kimberly; Wood, Stephen J.; Oyebode, Femi

    2016-01-01

    Background In dimensional understanding of psychosis, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are unitary phenomena present on a continuum from non-clinical voice hearing to severe mental illness. There is mixed evidence for this approach and a relative absence of research into subjective experience of AVH in early psychosis. Aims To conduct primary research into the nature of subjective experience of AVH in first-episode psychosis. Method A phenomenological study using diary and photo-elicitation qualitative techniques investigating the subjective experience of AVH in 25 young people with first-episode psychosis. Results AVH are characterised by: (a) entity, as though from a living being with complex social interchange; and (b) control, exerting authority with ability to influence. AVH are also received with passivity, often accompanied by sensation in other modalities. Conclusions A modern detailed phenomenological investigation, without presupposition, gives results that echo known descriptive psychopathology. However, novel findings also emerge that may be features of AVH in psychosis not currently captured with standardised measures. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703759

  13. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: New Techniques and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Alderson-Day, Ben; Ellison, Amanda; Jardri, Renaud; Fernyhough, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing a voice in the absence of any speaker. Results from recent attempts to treat AVHs with neurostimulation (rTMS or tDCS) to the left temporoparietal junction have not been conclusive, but suggest that it may be a promising treatment option for some individuals. Some evidence suggests that the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation on AVHs may result from modulation of cortical areas involved in the ability to monitor the source of self-generated information. Here, we provide a brief overview of cognitive models and neurostimulation paradigms associated with treatment of AVHs, and discuss techniques that could be explored in the future to improve the efficacy of treatment, including alternating current and random noise stimulation. Technical issues surrounding the use of neurostimulation as a treatment option are discussed (including methods to localize the targeted cortical area, and the state-dependent effects of brain stimulation), as are issues surrounding the acceptability of neurostimulation for adolescent populations and individuals who experience qualitatively different types of AVH. PMID:26834541

  14. Henry's voices: the representation of auditory verbal hallucinations in an autobiographical narrative.

    PubMed

    Demjén, Zsófia; Semino, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The book Henry's Demons (2011) recounts the events surrounding Henry Cockburn's diagnosis of schizophrenia from the alternating perspectives of Henry himself and his father Patrick. In this paper, we present a detailed linguistic analysis of Henry's first-person accounts of experiences that could be described as auditory verbal hallucinations. We first provide a typology of Henry's voices, taking into account who or what is presented as speaking, what kinds of utterances they produce and any salient stylistic features of these utterances. We then discuss the linguistically distinctive ways in which Henry represents these voices in his narrative. We focus on the use of Direct Speech as opposed to other forms of speech presentation, the use of the sensory verbs hear and feel and the use of 'non-factive' expressions such as I thought and as if. We show how different linguistic representations may suggest phenomenological differences between the experience of hallucinatory voices and the perception of voices that other people can also hear. We, therefore, propose that linguistic analysis is ideally placed to provide in-depth accounts of the phenomenology of voice hearing and point out the implications of this approach for clinical practice and mental healthcare. PMID:25505160

  15. A New Phenomenological Survey of Auditory Hallucinations: Evidence for Subtypes and Implications for Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations (AHs) is essential for developing accurate models of their causes. Yet, only 1 detailed study of the phenomenology of AHs with a sample size of N ≥ 100 has been published. The potential for overreliance on these findings, coupled with a lack of phenomenological research into many aspects of AHs relevant to contemporary neurocognitive models and the proposed (but largely untested) existence of AH subtypes, necessitates further research in this area. We undertook the most comprehensive phenomenological study of AHs to date in a psychiatric population (N = 199; 81% people diagnosed with schizophrenia), using a structured interview schedule. Previous phenomenological findings were only partially replicated. New findings included that 39% of participants reported that their voices seemed in some way to be replays of memories of previous conversations they had experienced; 45% reported that the general theme or content of what the voices said was always the same; and 55% said new voices had the same content/theme as previous voices. Cluster analysis, by variable, suggested the existence of 4 AH subtypes. We propose that there are likely to be different neurocognitive processes underpinning these experiences, necessitating revised AH models. PMID:23267192

  16. About the mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations: a positron emission tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Stephane, Massoud; Hagen, Matthew C.; Lee, Joel T.; Uecker, Jonathan; Pardo, Patricia J.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Pardo, José V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) likely result from disorders, as yet unspecified, of the neural mechanisms of language. Here we examine the functional neuroanatomy of single-word reading in patients with and without a history of AVH. Method Eighteen medicated schizophrenia patients (8 with AVH and 10 without AVH) and 12 healthy control subjects were scanned with PET 15O-water technique under 2 conditions: reading aloud English nouns and passively looking at English nouns without reading them. Results The contrast between the 2 conditions shows higher activation in Wernicke's area during the reading condition in the patient group and a reversed laterality index for the supplementary motor area in the AVH group. Conclusions These findings provide indications about the possible mechanisms of AVH. We suggest that the abnormal laterality of the supplementary motor area activity accounts for the failure to attribute speech generated by one's own brain to one's self and that the activation of Wernicke's area accounts for the perceptual nature (hearing) of the patient's experience. PMID:17136217

  17. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  18. Listening to voices: the use of phenomenology to differentiate malingered from genuine auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Resnick, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    The experience of hearing a voice in the absence of an appropriate external stimulus, formally termed an auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), may be malingered for reasons such as personal financial gain, or, in criminal cases, to attempt a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. An accurate knowledge of the phenomenology of AVHs is central to assessing the veracity of claims to such experiences. We begin by demonstrating that some contemporary criminal cases still employ inaccurate conceptions of the phenomenology of AVHs to assess defendants' claims. The phenomenology of genuine, malingered, and atypical AVHs is then examined. We argue that, due to the heterogeneity of AVHs, the use of typical properties of AVHs as a yardstick against which to evaluate the veracity of a defendant's claims is likely to be less effective than the accumulation of instances of defendants endorsing statements of atypical features of AVHs. We identify steps towards the development of a formal tool for this purpose, and examine other conceptual issues pertinent to criminal cases arising from the phenomenology of AVHs.

  19. Henry's voices: the representation of auditory verbal hallucinations in an autobiographical narrative.

    PubMed

    Demjén, Zsófia; Semino, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The book Henry's Demons (2011) recounts the events surrounding Henry Cockburn's diagnosis of schizophrenia from the alternating perspectives of Henry himself and his father Patrick. In this paper, we present a detailed linguistic analysis of Henry's first-person accounts of experiences that could be described as auditory verbal hallucinations. We first provide a typology of Henry's voices, taking into account who or what is presented as speaking, what kinds of utterances they produce and any salient stylistic features of these utterances. We then discuss the linguistically distinctive ways in which Henry represents these voices in his narrative. We focus on the use of Direct Speech as opposed to other forms of speech presentation, the use of the sensory verbs hear and feel and the use of 'non-factive' expressions such as I thought and as if. We show how different linguistic representations may suggest phenomenological differences between the experience of hallucinatory voices and the perception of voices that other people can also hear. We, therefore, propose that linguistic analysis is ideally placed to provide in-depth accounts of the phenomenology of voice hearing and point out the implications of this approach for clinical practice and mental healthcare.

  20. Listening to voices: the use of phenomenology to differentiate malingered from genuine auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Resnick, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    The experience of hearing a voice in the absence of an appropriate external stimulus, formally termed an auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), may be malingered for reasons such as personal financial gain, or, in criminal cases, to attempt a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. An accurate knowledge of the phenomenology of AVHs is central to assessing the veracity of claims to such experiences. We begin by demonstrating that some contemporary criminal cases still employ inaccurate conceptions of the phenomenology of AVHs to assess defendants' claims. The phenomenology of genuine, malingered, and atypical AVHs is then examined. We argue that, due to the heterogeneity of AVHs, the use of typical properties of AVHs as a yardstick against which to evaluate the veracity of a defendant's claims is likely to be less effective than the accumulation of instances of defendants endorsing statements of atypical features of AVHs. We identify steps towards the development of a formal tool for this purpose, and examine other conceptual issues pertinent to criminal cases arising from the phenomenology of AVHs. PMID:24268827

  1. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  2. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): a pilot trial of an interactive text-messaging intervention for medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Link, Peter C; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Holden, Jason L

    2012-05-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia.

  3. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  4. Differential brain glucose metabolic patterns in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia with and without auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Guillermo; Parellada, Eduard; Lomeña, Francisco; Fernández-Egea, Emilio; Mané, Anna; Font, Mireia; Falcón, Carles; Konova, Anna B.; Pavia, Javier; Ros, Domènec; Bernardo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Previous reports on neural activity patterns associated with AVHs are inconsistent, arguably owing to the lack of an adequate control group (i.e., patients with similar characteristics but without AVHs) and neglect of the potential confounding effects of medication. Methods The current study was conducted in a homogeneous group of patients with schizophrenia to assess whether the presence or absence of AVHs was associated with differential regional cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. We investigated differences between patients with commenting AVHs and patients without AVHs among a group of dextral antipsychotic-naive inpatients with acute first-episode schizophrenia examined with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at rest. Univariate and multivariate approaches were used to establish between-group differences. Results We included 9 patients with AVHs and 7 patients without AVHs in this study. Patients experiencing AVHs during FDG uptake had significantly higher metabolic rates in the left superior and middle temporal cortices, bilateral superior medial frontal cortex and left caudate nucleus (cluster level p < 0.005, family wise error–corrected, and bootstrap ratio > 3.3, respectively). Additionally, the multivariate method identified hippocampal–parahippocampal, cerebellar and parietal relative hypoactivity during AVHs in both hemispheres (bootstrap ratio < −3.3). Limitations The FDG-PET imaging technique does not provide information regarding the temporal course of neural activity. The limited sample size may have increased the risk of false-negative findings. Conclusion Our results indicate that AVHs in patients with schizophrenia may be mediated by an alteration of neural pathways responsible for normal language function. Our findings also point to the potential role of the dominant caudate nucleus and the parahippocampal gyri in the

  5. "Who is talking to me?" - Self-other attribution of auditory hallucinations and sulcation of the right temporoparietal junction.

    PubMed

    Plaze, Marion; Mangin, Jean-François; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Gaillard, Raphaël; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Cachia, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    Brain imaging research in schizophrenia has provided a better understanding of the neural basis of auditory hallucinations (AH). Recently, renewed interest in the phenomenology of AH raised questions related to their neural substrates. Hence, the neural basis of AH self/other attribution have yet to be investigated as beliefs regarding the origin of the voices is a cardinal feature of AH phenomenology. As the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) play a key role in disentangling the origin of sensory events and in self/other distinction, we tested the hypothesis that the morphology of the IPL/TPJ area may be involved in AH self/other attribution. Magnetic resonance images of 39 right-handed patients with persistent auditory hallucinations and 19 healthy subjects were analyzed with sulcus-based morphometry. AH self-other attribution were found to be associated with the sulcal pattern of the posterior part of the Sylvian fissure, encompassing the IPL/TPJ area. The preference for the attribution of AH to self or to others could be associated with early neurodevelopmental events as the sulcal pattern is determined during fetal life and is stable after birth. Our study also raises basic cognitive questions regarding self-consciousness and suggest that impairments at a pre-reflexive level, leading to hearing his/her thoughts as voices ('I' level or feeling of agency), and a reflexive level leading to attribution belief ('Me' level or judgment of agency) are likely involved in AH. PMID:26463879

  6. "Who is talking to me?" - Self-other attribution of auditory hallucinations and sulcation of the right temporoparietal junction.

    PubMed

    Plaze, Marion; Mangin, Jean-François; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Gaillard, Raphaël; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Cachia, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    Brain imaging research in schizophrenia has provided a better understanding of the neural basis of auditory hallucinations (AH). Recently, renewed interest in the phenomenology of AH raised questions related to their neural substrates. Hence, the neural basis of AH self/other attribution have yet to be investigated as beliefs regarding the origin of the voices is a cardinal feature of AH phenomenology. As the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) play a key role in disentangling the origin of sensory events and in self/other distinction, we tested the hypothesis that the morphology of the IPL/TPJ area may be involved in AH self/other attribution. Magnetic resonance images of 39 right-handed patients with persistent auditory hallucinations and 19 healthy subjects were analyzed with sulcus-based morphometry. AH self-other attribution were found to be associated with the sulcal pattern of the posterior part of the Sylvian fissure, encompassing the IPL/TPJ area. The preference for the attribution of AH to self or to others could be associated with early neurodevelopmental events as the sulcal pattern is determined during fetal life and is stable after birth. Our study also raises basic cognitive questions regarding self-consciousness and suggest that impairments at a pre-reflexive level, leading to hearing his/her thoughts as voices ('I' level or feeling of agency), and a reflexive level leading to attribution belief ('Me' level or judgment of agency) are likely involved in AH.

  7. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maïza, Olivier; Hervé, Pierre-Yve; Etard, Olivier; Razafimandimby, Annick; Montagne-Larmurier, Aurélie; Dollfus, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS) and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI). After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities. PMID:24961421

  8. Individualized covariance profile of cortical morphology for auditory hallucinations in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Lee, Tae Young; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Neocortical phenotype of cortical surface area (CSA) and thickness (CT) are influenced by distinctive genetic factors and undergo differential developmental trajectories, which could be captured using the individualized cortical structural covariance (ISC). Disturbed patterns of neocortical development and maturation underlie the perceptual disturbance of psychosis including auditory hallucination (AH). To demonstrate the utility of selected ISC features as primal biomarker of AH in first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects experiencing AH (FEP-AH), we employed herein a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 147 subjects (FEP-AH, n = 27; FEP-NAH, n = 24; HC, n = 96) underwent T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The FreeSurfer software suite was used for cortical parcellation, with the CSA-ISC and CT-ISC then calculated. The most informative ISCs showing statistical significance (P < 0.001) across every run of leave-one-out group-comparison were aligned according to the absolute value of averaged t-statistics and were packaged into candidate feature sets for classification analysis using the SVM. An optimal feature set comprising three CSA-ISCs, including the intraparietal sulcus, Broca's complex, and the anterior insula, distinguished FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 83.6% accuracy (sensitivity = 82.8%; specificity = 85.7%). Furthermore, six CT-ISCs encompassing the executive control network and Wernicke's module classified FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 82.3% accuracy (sensitivity = 79.5%; specificity = 88.6%). Finally, extended sets of ISCs related to the default-mode network distinguished FEP-AH or FEP-NAH from HC subjects with 89.0-93.0% accuracy (sensitivity = 88.4-93.4%; specificity = 89.0-94.1%). This study established a distinctive intermediate phenotype of biological proneness for AH in FEP using CSA-ISCs as well as a state marker of disease progression using CT-ISCs. PMID:26678706

  9. Individualized covariance profile of cortical morphology for auditory hallucinations in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Lee, Tae Young; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Neocortical phenotype of cortical surface area (CSA) and thickness (CT) are influenced by distinctive genetic factors and undergo differential developmental trajectories, which could be captured using the individualized cortical structural covariance (ISC). Disturbed patterns of neocortical development and maturation underlie the perceptual disturbance of psychosis including auditory hallucination (AH). To demonstrate the utility of selected ISC features as primal biomarker of AH in first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects experiencing AH (FEP-AH), we employed herein a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 147 subjects (FEP-AH, n = 27; FEP-NAH, n = 24; HC, n = 96) underwent T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The FreeSurfer software suite was used for cortical parcellation, with the CSA-ISC and CT-ISC then calculated. The most informative ISCs showing statistical significance (P < 0.001) across every run of leave-one-out group-comparison were aligned according to the absolute value of averaged t-statistics and were packaged into candidate feature sets for classification analysis using the SVM. An optimal feature set comprising three CSA-ISCs, including the intraparietal sulcus, Broca's complex, and the anterior insula, distinguished FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 83.6% accuracy (sensitivity = 82.8%; specificity = 85.7%). Furthermore, six CT-ISCs encompassing the executive control network and Wernicke's module classified FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 82.3% accuracy (sensitivity = 79.5%; specificity = 88.6%). Finally, extended sets of ISCs related to the default-mode network distinguished FEP-AH or FEP-NAH from HC subjects with 89.0-93.0% accuracy (sensitivity = 88.4-93.4%; specificity = 89.0-94.1%). This study established a distinctive intermediate phenotype of biological proneness for AH in FEP using CSA-ISCs as well as a state marker of disease progression using CT-ISCs.

  10. External misattribution of internal thoughts and proneness to auditory hallucinations: the effect of emotional valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kanemoto, Mari; Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp) in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are strongly correlated with the external misattribution of internal thoughts, conceptualized in terms of false memory, using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We found a significant relationship between experimental performance and total scores on the Launay–Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS). Among the LSHS factors, only vivid mental image, which is said to be a predictor of auditory hallucinations, was significantly related to experimental performance. We then investigated the potential effect of emotional valence using the DRM paradigm. The results indicate that participants with low scores on the LSHS (the low-AHp group in the current study) showed an increased discriminability index (d′) for positive words and a decreased d′ for negative words. However, no effects of emotional valence were found for participants with high LSHS scores (high-AHp group). This study indicated that external misattribution of internal thoughts predicts AHp, and that the high-AHp group showed a smaller emotional valence effect in the DRM paradigm compared with the low-AHp group. We discuss this outcome from the perspective of the dual-process activation-monitoring framework in the DRM paradigm in regard to emotion-driven automatic thought in false memory. PMID:23847517

  11. Translating Neurocognitive Models of Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations into Therapy: Using Real-time fMRI-Neurofeedback to Treat Voices.

    PubMed

    Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; Mathiak, Klaus; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based "trait markers" (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on "state markers." In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine

  12. Translating Neurocognitive Models of Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations into Therapy: Using Real-time fMRI-Neurofeedback to Treat Voices

    PubMed Central

    Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; Mathiak, Klaus; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based “trait markers” (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on “state markers.” In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine

  13. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Solesvik, Martine; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Langeveld, Johannes; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Bjørnestad, Jone; Anda, Liss Gøril; Gisselgård, Jens; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Velden

    2016-01-01

    Background Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample. Methods Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204). Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations) and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group. Results Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations. Conclusion Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma. PMID:27144681

  14. Better than mermaids and stray dogs? Subtyping auditory verbal hallucinations and its implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thomas, Neil; Strauss, Clara; Dodgson, Guy; Jones, Nev; Woods, Angela; Brewin, Chris R; Hayward, Mark; Stephane, Massoud; Barton, Jack; Kingdon, David; Sommer, Iris E

    2014-07-01

    The phenomenological diversity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is not currently accounted for by any model based around a single mechanism. This has led to the proposal that there may be distinct AVH subtypes, which each possess unique (as well as shared) underpinning mechanisms. This could have important implications both for research design and clinical interventions because different subtypes may be responsive to different types of treatment. This article explores how AVH subtypes may be identified at the levels of phenomenology, cognition, neurology, etiology, treatment response, diagnosis, and voice hearer's own interpretations. Five subtypes are proposed; hypervigilance, autobiographical memory (subdivided into dissociative and nondissociative), inner speech (subdivided into obsessional, own thought, and novel), epileptic and deafferentation. We suggest other facets of AVH, including negative content and form (eg, commands), may be best treated as dimensional constructs that vary across subtypes. After considering the limitations and challenges of AVH subtyping, we highlight future research directions, including the need for a subtype assessment tool.

  15. [Hallucinations attributed to djinns].

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Eker, Hafize; Basalan, Hillal; Aouaj, Youssef; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations often attribute these to djinns, invisible beings. The treatment of these hallucinations is complicated by the patients' reluctance to discuss them, and by their doubts concerning the usefulness of a biomedical treatment for a problem which they experience as metaphysical in nature. In this clinical lesson, we present case studies of three Moroccan patients who attributed their hallucinations to djinns. The first was a 30-year-old factory worker whose compulsive complaints had started when he saw a white figure in the basement who asked him 'What are you doing here?' The psychiatric diagnosis was obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patient was prescribed cognitive behavioural therapy, an SSRI and a consultation by the imam, but he refused. The second patient was a 25-year-old unemployed man, who had auditory hallucinations, delusions, behavioural problems, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. He heard voices which he attributed to maleficent djinns. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia, but his compliance with antipsychotics was insufficient. The imam who was consulted reassured him that his complaints were not caused by djinns. After prolonged treatment with clozapine and cutting down on cannabis use the patient recovered sufficiently to be discharged. The third patient was a 26-year-old unemployed woman who was hearing voices that her imam thought were caused by a djinn. She was examined because of serious self-mutilation and was diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder. Treatment with an antipsychotic, lithium and valproic acid and a consultation by a second imam, who found no signs of evidence of djinns, was successful. We recommend to ask individuals with an Islamic background specifically whether djinns might be involved, especially in cases of mental problems and unexplained symptoms, and to seek the cooperation of a qualified imam or traditional healer for treatment purposes.

  16. Hearing the Unheard: An Interdisciplinary, Mixed Methodology Study of Women’s Experiences of Hearing Voices (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Castro Romero, Maria; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline; Dillon, Jacqui; Cooper-Rompato, Christine; Kieran, Kathryn; Kaufman, Milissa; Blackman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women who “hear voices” (auditory verbal hallucinations). We begin by examining historical understandings of women hearing voices, showing these have been driven by androcentric theories of how women’s bodies functioned leading to women being viewed as requiring their voices be interpreted by men. We show the twentieth century was associated with recognition that the mental violation of women’s minds (represented by some voice-hearing) was often a consequence of the physical violation of women’s bodies. We next report the results of a qualitative study into voice-hearing women’s experiences (n = 8). This found similarities between women’s relationships with their voices and their relationships with others and the wider social context. Finally, we present results from a quantitative study comparing voice-hearing in women (n = 65) and men (n = 132) in a psychiatric setting. Women were more likely than men to have certain forms of voice-hearing (voices conversing) and to have antecedent events of trauma, physical illness, and relationship problems. Voices identified as female may have more positive affect than male voices. We conclude that women voice-hearers have and continue to face specific challenges necessitating research and activism, and hope this paper will act as a stimulus to such work. PMID:26779041

  17. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option☆

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

  18. Better Than Mermaids and Stray Dogs? Subtyping Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Its Implications for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thomas, Neil; Strauss, Clara; Dodgson, Guy; Jones, Nev; Woods, Angela; Brewin, Chris R.; Hayward, Mark; Stephane, Massoud; Barton, Jack; Kingdon, David; Sommer, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenological diversity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is not currently accounted for by any model based around a single mechanism. This has led to the proposal that there may be distinct AVH subtypes, which each possess unique (as well as shared) underpinning mechanisms. This could have important implications both for research design and clinical interventions because different subtypes may be responsive to different types of treatment. This article explores how AVH subtypes may be identified at the levels of phenomenology, cognition, neurology, etiology, treatment response, diagnosis, and voice hearer’s own interpretations. Five subtypes are proposed; hypervigilance, autobiographical memory (subdivided into dissociative and nondissociative), inner speech (subdivided into obsessional, own thought, and novel), epileptic and deafferentation. We suggest other facets of AVH, including negative content and form (eg, commands), may be best treated as dimensional constructs that vary across subtypes. After considering the limitations and challenges of AVH subtyping, we highlight future research directions, including the need for a subtype assessment tool. PMID:24936087

  19. Better than mermaids and stray dogs? Subtyping auditory verbal hallucinations and its implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thomas, Neil; Strauss, Clara; Dodgson, Guy; Jones, Nev; Woods, Angela; Brewin, Chris R; Hayward, Mark; Stephane, Massoud; Barton, Jack; Kingdon, David; Sommer, Iris E

    2014-07-01

    The phenomenological diversity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is not currently accounted for by any model based around a single mechanism. This has led to the proposal that there may be distinct AVH subtypes, which each possess unique (as well as shared) underpinning mechanisms. This could have important implications both for research design and clinical interventions because different subtypes may be responsive to different types of treatment. This article explores how AVH subtypes may be identified at the levels of phenomenology, cognition, neurology, etiology, treatment response, diagnosis, and voice hearer's own interpretations. Five subtypes are proposed; hypervigilance, autobiographical memory (subdivided into dissociative and nondissociative), inner speech (subdivided into obsessional, own thought, and novel), epileptic and deafferentation. We suggest other facets of AVH, including negative content and form (eg, commands), may be best treated as dimensional constructs that vary across subtypes. After considering the limitations and challenges of AVH subtyping, we highlight future research directions, including the need for a subtype assessment tool. PMID:24936087

  20. Hearing the Unheard: An Interdisciplinary, Mixed Methodology Study of Women's Experiences of Hearing Voices (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations).

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Castro Romero, Maria; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline; Dillon, Jacqui; Cooper-Rompato, Christine; Kieran, Kathryn; Kaufman, Milissa; Blackman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women who "hear voices" (auditory verbal hallucinations). We begin by examining historical understandings of women hearing voices, showing these have been driven by androcentric theories of how women's bodies functioned leading to women being viewed as requiring their voices be interpreted by men. We show the twentieth century was associated with recognition that the mental violation of women's minds (represented by some voice-hearing) was often a consequence of the physical violation of women's bodies. We next report the results of a qualitative study into voice-hearing women's experiences (n = 8). This found similarities between women's relationships with their voices and their relationships with others and the wider social context. Finally, we present results from a quantitative study comparing voice-hearing in women (n = 65) and men (n = 132) in a psychiatric setting. Women were more likely than men to have certain forms of voice-hearing (voices conversing) and to have antecedent events of trauma, physical illness, and relationship problems. Voices identified as female may have more positive affect than male voices. We conclude that women voice-hearers have and continue to face specific challenges necessitating research and activism, and hope this paper will act as a stimulus to such work. PMID:26779041

  1. Do We Need Multiple Models of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations? Examining the Phenomenological Fit of Cognitive and Neurological Models

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are still unclear. The evidence for 2 prominent cognitive models of AVHs, one based on inner speech, the other on intrusions from memory, is briefly reviewed. The fit of these models, as well as neurological models, to the phenomenology of AVHs is then critically examined. It is argued that only a minority of AVHs, such as those with content clearly relating to verbalizations experienced surrounding previous trauma, are consistent with cognitive AVHs-as-memories models. Similarly, it is argued that current neurological models are only phenomenologically consistent with a limited subset of AVHs. In contrast, the phenomenology of the majority of AVHs, which involve voices attempting to regulate the ongoing actions of the voice hearer, are argued to be more consistent with inner speech–based models. It is concluded that subcategorizations of AVHs may be necessary, with each underpinned by different neurocognitive mechanisms. The need to study what is termed the dynamic developmental progression of AVHs is also highlighted. Future empirical research is suggested in this area. PMID:18820262

  2. Hearing the Unheard: An Interdisciplinary, Mixed Methodology Study of Women's Experiences of Hearing Voices (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations).

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Castro Romero, Maria; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline; Dillon, Jacqui; Cooper-Rompato, Christine; Kieran, Kathryn; Kaufman, Milissa; Blackman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women who "hear voices" (auditory verbal hallucinations). We begin by examining historical understandings of women hearing voices, showing these have been driven by androcentric theories of how women's bodies functioned leading to women being viewed as requiring their voices be interpreted by men. We show the twentieth century was associated with recognition that the mental violation of women's minds (represented by some voice-hearing) was often a consequence of the physical violation of women's bodies. We next report the results of a qualitative study into voice-hearing women's experiences (n = 8). This found similarities between women's relationships with their voices and their relationships with others and the wider social context. Finally, we present results from a quantitative study comparing voice-hearing in women (n = 65) and men (n = 132) in a psychiatric setting. Women were more likely than men to have certain forms of voice-hearing (voices conversing) and to have antecedent events of trauma, physical illness, and relationship problems. Voices identified as female may have more positive affect than male voices. We conclude that women voice-hearers have and continue to face specific challenges necessitating research and activism, and hope this paper will act as a stimulus to such work.

  3. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Methods: Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Conclusion: Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH. PMID:26612293

  4. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F; Huon, R; Ziégler, M

    2000-04-01

    Hallucinations, mainly of a visual nature, are considered to affect about one-quarter of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are commonly viewed as a side-effect of antiparkinsonian treatment, but other factors may be involved. The aim of this study was to determine the phenomenology, prevalence and risk factors of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Two-hundred and sixteen consecutive patients fulfilling clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease were studied. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor and cognitive status, depressive symptoms and sleep-wake disturbances. Patients with and without hallucinations were compared using non-parametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Hallucinations had been present during the previous 3 months in 39.8% of the patients, and fell into three categories: minor forms, consisting of a sensation of a presence (person), a sideways passage (commonly of an animal) or illusions were present in 25.5% of the patients (an isolated occurrence in 14.3%), formed visual hallucinations were present in 22.2% (isolated in 9.3%) and auditory hallucinations were present in 9.7% (isolated in 2.3%). Patients with minor hallucinations had a higher depression score than non-hallucinators but did not differ in other respects. Logistic regression analysis identified three factors independently predictive of formed visual hallucinations: severe cognitive disorders, daytime somnolence and a long duration of Parkinson's disease. These findings indicate that, when minor hallucinations are included, the total prevalence is much higher than previously reported. A simple side-effect of dopaminergic treatment is not sufficient to explain the occurrence of all visual hallucinations. The main risk factor in treated patients is cognitive impairment, although sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and possibly other factors related to the duration of the disease, act as cofactors.

  5. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: 'hearing voices') are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual's personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed 'dissociative AVH') and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called 'psychotic AVH') needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. PMID:26283997

  6. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: ‘hearing voices’) are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual’s personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed ‘dissociative AVH’) and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called ‘psychotic AVH’) needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. PMID:26283997

  7. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: 'hearing voices') are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual's personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed 'dissociative AVH') and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called 'psychotic AVH') needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  8. Impaired Self-Monitoring of Inner Speech in Schizophrenia Patients with Verbal Hallucinations and in Non-clinical Individuals Prone to Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Roca, Mercedes; Nieto, Lourdes; Usall, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that various memory errors reflecting failure in the self-monitoring of speech were associated with auditory/verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients and with proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical individuals. Method: We administered to 57 schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy participants a verbal memory task involving free recall and recognition of lists of words with different structures (high-frequency, low-frequency, and semantically organisable words). Extra-list intrusions in free recall were tallied, and the response bias reflecting tendency to make false recognitions of non-presented words was computed for each list. Results: In the male patient subsample, extra-list intrusions were positively associated with verbal hallucinations and inversely associated with negative symptoms. In the healthy participants the extra-list intrusions were positively associated with proneness to hallucinations. A liberal response bias in the recognition of the high-frequency words was associated with verbal hallucinations in male patients and with proneness to hallucinations in healthy men. Meanwhile, a conservative response bias for these high-frequency words was associated with negative symptoms in male patients and with social anhedonia in healthy men. Conclusion: Misattribution of inner speech to an external source, reflected by false recollection of familiar material, seems to underlie both clinical and non-clinical hallucinations. Further, both clinical and non-clinical negative symptoms may exert on verbal memory errors an effect opposite to that of hallucinations. PMID:27683568

  9. Impaired Self-Monitoring of Inner Speech in Schizophrenia Patients with Verbal Hallucinations and in Non-clinical Individuals Prone to Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Roca, Mercedes; Nieto, Lourdes; Usall, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that various memory errors reflecting failure in the self-monitoring of speech were associated with auditory/verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients and with proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical individuals. Method: We administered to 57 schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy participants a verbal memory task involving free recall and recognition of lists of words with different structures (high-frequency, low-frequency, and semantically organisable words). Extra-list intrusions in free recall were tallied, and the response bias reflecting tendency to make false recognitions of non-presented words was computed for each list. Results: In the male patient subsample, extra-list intrusions were positively associated with verbal hallucinations and inversely associated with negative symptoms. In the healthy participants the extra-list intrusions were positively associated with proneness to hallucinations. A liberal response bias in the recognition of the high-frequency words was associated with verbal hallucinations in male patients and with proneness to hallucinations in healthy men. Meanwhile, a conservative response bias for these high-frequency words was associated with negative symptoms in male patients and with social anhedonia in healthy men. Conclusion: Misattribution of inner speech to an external source, reflected by false recollection of familiar material, seems to underlie both clinical and non-clinical hallucinations. Further, both clinical and non-clinical negative symptoms may exert on verbal memory errors an effect opposite to that of hallucinations.

  10. The hodology of hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ffytche, Dominic H

    2008-09-01

    The hodotopic framework is a recent revision of Geschwind's disconnection paradigm incorporating advances in functional and white matter imaging. Its intention is to help clinico-pathological correlations across a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions and generate novel research questions. Here I consider hallucinations within this framework. The paper is divided into three parts. The first reviews the auditory and visual hallucination literature from the dual perspectives of dysfunction localised to specific brain regions (topological) and dysfunction related to connections between brain regions (hodological), combining evidence from tractography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies. Patients prone to hallucinations have complex, task-specific hodological abnormalities that persist between hallucination episodes. During hallucinations, topological increases in activity are found whose location defines hallucination content and modality. Whether these activity increases are accompanied by transient hodological change is unclear. The second part of the paper addresses this issue in EEG and fMRI studies of a 200-year-old paradigm. Photic stimulation within a specific frequency and luminance range induces hallucinations of geometrical patterns, colours and motion in normal subjects. By comparing hallucination-inducing with control stimulation, topological activity increases were identified in visual areas whose specialisations matched the induced hallucination contents. During hallucinations, fMRI connectivity between LGN and cortex changed from a positive to negative relationship while EEG connectivity between occipital and other brain regions increased. The complex and dynamic topological and hodological changes during induced hallucinations are consistent with a shift in thalamocortical circuitry from tonic to burst mode and may have direct relevance to the Charles Bonnet Syndrome. The third part of the

  11. Musical hallucinations and palinacousis.

    PubMed

    Terao, T; Matsunaga, K

    1999-01-01

    So far, little attention has been paid to the similarities between musical hallucinations and palinacousis. Since the authors found a 75-year-old woman suffering from both symptoms, the similarities were investigated. As a result, musical hallucinations have all the four components of palinacousis structurally, although there are some differences in content. Thus, there exist substantial similarities. Moreover, both symptoms are often associated with seizure activity and there have been several case reports where anticonvulsants were successfully used to treat both symptoms. These findings indicate the possibility that there may exist a common pathway generating musical hallucinations and palinacousis.

  12. [Episodic manifestation of hemiparkinson syndrome with severe dementia personality change and precursors of paranoid hallucination symptoms].

    PubMed

    Postrach, F

    1989-09-01

    A case of episodic manifestation of semiparalysis agitans is described, accompanied by severe demential personality change and precursory hallucinatory symptoms, which is made the basis for the discussion of aspects of mental disorders, notably dementia and symptoms resembling schizophrenia, in Parkinsonian patients. By way of allusion to Glass, a diagnosis including a very extensive, complex, symptomatology is made of a Parkinsonian syndrome.

  13. Musical hallucinations - a challenge for psychiatric therapeutical management. Case report.

    PubMed

    Focseneanu, B E; Marian, G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musical hallucinations occur in individuals with and without mental illness, and many patients tend to have intact reality testing. Although literature on musical hallucinations is limited, they have been associated with hearing abnormalities, adverse effects of pharmacological agents, female gender, advances in age and psychiatric illness. Aim. To present the psychiatric management of a case of an old female patient, who suddenly developed verbal and musical hallucinations with a pervasive impact on her daily activities. Method. Female, 71 years old, developed verbal and musical hallucinations 6 months before that have intensified later. She was known with bilateral hypoacusia starting with the age of 45, and magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year before proved multiple lacunar infarcts. Because of the persistence, most of the time of these auditory hallucinations, the patient experienced pervasive difficulties with her major areas of activities. She was referred to a psychiatric department for evaluation and treatment. Results. The psychiatric consult revealed neither a depressive relapse, nor a mild cognitive impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected with intrusive obsessions. Patient received, as antiobsessional augmentation escitalopram 10mg/ day, an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which at 3 mg/ day induced extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the dose of risperidone was reduced, extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared, and 300mg/ day of acidum valproicum was initiated. Discussion. Our patient presented with diminished sensory input to the auditory cortex, and it was hard to make a differential diagnosis between an organic and a mental etiology. Conclusion. The integration of musical hallucinations into a psychiatric disorder may be a difficult task, and, their treatment represents a challenge. PMID:26664485

  14. Musical hallucination associated with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Rocha, Savya Cybelle Milhomem; Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Kii, Márcia Akemi; Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Pereira, Cristiana Borges

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that musical hallucination have a significant impact on patients' lives, they have received very little attention of experts. Some researchers agree on a combination of peripheral and central dysfunctions as the mechanism that causes hallucination. The most accepted physiopathology of musical hallucination associated to hearing loss (caused by cochlear lesion, cochlear nerve lesion or by interruption of mesencephalon or pontine auditory information) is the disinhibition of auditory memory circuits due to sensory deprivation. Concerning the cortical area involved in musical hallucination, there is evidence that the excitatory mechanism of the superior temporal gyrus, as in epilepsies, is responsible for musical hallucination. In musical release hallucination there is also activation of the auditory association cortex. Finally, considering the laterality, functional studies with musical perception and imagery in normal individuals showed that songs with words cause bilateral temporal activation and melodies activate only the right lobe. The effect of hearing aids on the improvement of musical hallucination as a result of the hearing loss improvement is well documented. It happens because auditory hallucination may be influenced by the external acoustical environment. Neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants have been used in the treatment of musical hallucination. Cases of improvement with the administration of carbamazepine, meclobemide and donepezil were reported, but the results obtained were not consistent. PMID:21625772

  15. Hallucinations in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Nico J; Fénelon, Gilles; Stebbins, Glenn; Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-06-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can experience hallucinations (spontaneous aberrant perceptions) and illusions (misinterpretations of real perceptual stimuli). Of such phenomena, visual hallucinations (VHs) and illusions are the most frequently encountered, although auditory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations can also occur. In cross-sectional studies, VHs occur in approximately one-third of patients, but up to three-quarters of patients might develop VHs during a 20-year period. Hallucinations can have substantial psychosocial effects and, historically, were the main reason for placing patients in nursing homes. Concomitant or overlapping mechanisms are probably active during VHs, and these include the following: central dopaminergic overactivity and an imbalance with cholinergic neurotransmission; dysfunction of the visual pathways, including specific PD-associated retinopathy and functional alterations of the extrastriate visual pathways; alterations of brainstem sleep-wake and dream regulation; and impaired attentional focus. Possible treatments include patient-initiated coping strategies, a reduction of antiparkinson medications, atypical neuroleptics and, potentially, cholinesterase inhibitors. Evidence-based studies, however, only support the use of one atypical neuroleptic, clozapine, and only in patients without dementia. Better phenomenological discrimination, combined with neuroimaging tools, should refine therapeutic options and improve prognosis. The aim of this Review is to present epidemiological, phenomenological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of hallucinations in PD. PMID:19498436

  16. Hallucinations in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Nico J; Fénelon, Gilles; Stebbins, Glenn; Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-06-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can experience hallucinations (spontaneous aberrant perceptions) and illusions (misinterpretations of real perceptual stimuli). Of such phenomena, visual hallucinations (VHs) and illusions are the most frequently encountered, although auditory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations can also occur. In cross-sectional studies, VHs occur in approximately one-third of patients, but up to three-quarters of patients might develop VHs during a 20-year period. Hallucinations can have substantial psychosocial effects and, historically, were the main reason for placing patients in nursing homes. Concomitant or overlapping mechanisms are probably active during VHs, and these include the following: central dopaminergic overactivity and an imbalance with cholinergic neurotransmission; dysfunction of the visual pathways, including specific PD-associated retinopathy and functional alterations of the extrastriate visual pathways; alterations of brainstem sleep-wake and dream regulation; and impaired attentional focus. Possible treatments include patient-initiated coping strategies, a reduction of antiparkinson medications, atypical neuroleptics and, potentially, cholinesterase inhibitors. Evidence-based studies, however, only support the use of one atypical neuroleptic, clozapine, and only in patients without dementia. Better phenomenological discrimination, combined with neuroimaging tools, should refine therapeutic options and improve prognosis. The aim of this Review is to present epidemiological, phenomenological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of hallucinations in PD.

  17. Visual hallucinations in photographs in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vaou, Okeanis; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Friedman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are reported in 16-37% of drug-treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and are the most common hallucinations in PD. We report two patients with PD with symptoms that uniquely integrate visual hallucinations and delusions. We report two cases of patients with PD with visual hallucinations who saw the persistence of these hallucinations in photographs. These pictures were taken to prove the absence of these hallucinations. We believe this is the first description of this peculiar phenomenon, in which hallucinations or illusions could be replicated in photographs. Both patients had delusions associated with the images and we speculate that the images they saw in the photographs represent a further delusion, hence a 'delusional hallucination' or 'delusional illusion.' We believe that delusions fostering hallucinations are rare. PMID:23704424

  18. Visual hallucinations in photographs in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vaou, Okeanis; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Friedman, Joseph

    2013-05-22

    Visual hallucinations are reported in 16-37% of drug-treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and are the most common hallucinations in PD. We report two patients with PD with symptoms that uniquely integrate visual hallucinations and delusions. We report two cases of patients with PD with visual hallucinations who saw the persistence of these hallucinations in photographs. These pictures were taken to prove the absence of these hallucinations. We believe this is the first description of this peculiar phenomenon, in which hallucinations or illusions could be replicated in photographs. Both patients had delusions associated with the images and we speculate that the images they saw in the photographs represent a further delusion, hence a 'delusional hallucination' or 'delusional illusion.' We believe that delusions fostering hallucinations are rare.

  19. Auditory hallucinations in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia with and without a childhood trauma history: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, Martin J; Shannon, Ciarán; Seagar, Lenaire; Corr, Mary; Stewart, Kellie; Hanna, Donncha; Mulholland, Ciaran; Middleton, Warwick

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about similarities and differences in voice hearing in schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the role of child maltreatment and dissociation. This study examined various aspects of voice hearing, along with childhood maltreatment and pathological dissociation in 3 samples: schizophrenia without child maltreatment (n = 18), schizophrenia with child maltreatment (n = 16), and DID (n = 29). Compared with the schizophrenia groups, the DID sample was more likely to have voices starting before 18, hear more than 2 voices, have both child and adult voices and experience tactile and visual hallucinations. The 3 groups were similar in that voice content was incongruent with mood and the location was more likely internal than external. Pathological dissociation predicted several aspects of voice hearing and appears an important variable in voice hearing, at least where maltreatment is present.

  20. Deviations in cortex sulcation associated with visual hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cachia, A; Amad, A; Brunelin, J; Krebs, M-O; Plaze, M; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

    2015-09-01

    Hallucinations, and auditory hallucinations (AH) in particular, constitute the most typical and disabling schizophrenia symptoms. Although visual hallucinations (VH) have been largely neglected in psychiatric disorders, a recent review reported a 27% mean prevalence of VH in schizophrenia patients. The pathophysiology underlying VH in schizophrenia remains elusive. Several schizophrenia studies reported a significant effect of age on VH; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia may explain VH occurrence. We analyzed cortex sulcation, a marker of brain development, in healthy controls (HCs) and two subgroups of carefully selected schizophrenia patients suffering from hallucinations: patients with only AH (that is, patients who never reported VH) and patients with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH). Different cortical sulcation and left-right sulcal asymmetry were found between A+VH and AH patients, with decreased sulcation in both A+VH and AH patients in comparison with the HCs. Although a specific association between VH and neurodegenerative mechanisms, for example, in Body-Lewy Dementia or Parkinson's Disease, has previously been reported in the literature, the current study provides the first neuroimaging evidence of an association between VH and neurodevelopmental mechanisms.

  1. Visual Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Bruce L.

    1987-01-01

    Visual hallucinations occur in diverse clinical circumstances including ophthalmologic diseases, neurologic disorders, toxic and metabolic disorders and idiopathic psychiatric illnesses. Their content, duration and timing relate to their cause and provide useful differential diagnostic information. Hallucinations must be distinguished from delusions and confabulation. A systematic approach to differentiating among hallucinatory syndromes may improve diagnostic accuracy. ImagesFigure 2. PMID:3825109

  2. Hallucinations in Nonpsychotic Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, John F.

    1975-01-01

    Case histories of ten nonpsychotic patients revealed significant anxiety and depression in a majority of the patients, with five expressing suicidal ideas. Stress factors were primarily family and school. Eight patients had combined auditory and visual hallucinations. The purposes of the hallucinations were multiple, but escape mechanisms were…

  3. A new comparator account of auditory verbal hallucinations: how motor prediction can plausibly contribute to the sense of agency for inner speech.

    PubMed

    Swiney, Lauren; Sousa, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The comparator account holds that processes of motor prediction contribute to the sense of agency by attenuating incoming sensory information and that disruptions to this process contribute to misattributions of agency in schizophrenia. Over the last 25 years this simple and powerful model has gained widespread support not only as it relates to bodily actions but also as an account of misattributions of agency for inner speech, potentially explaining the etiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH). In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the traditional comparator account for inner speech, pointing out serious problems with the specification of inner speech on which it is based and highlighting inconsistencies in the interpretation of the electrophysiological evidence commonly cited in its favor. In light of these analyses we propose a new comparator account of misattributed inner speech. The new account follows leading models of motor imagery in proposing that inner speech is not attenuated by motor prediction, but rather derived directly from it. We describe how failures of motor prediction would therefore directly affect the phenomenology of inner speech and trigger a mismatch in the comparison between motor prediction and motor intention, contributing to abnormal feelings of agency. We argue that the new account fits with the emerging phenomenological evidence that AVHs are both distinct from ordinary inner speech and heterogeneous. Finally, we explore the possibility that the new comparator account may extend to explain disruptions across a range of imagistic modalities, and outline avenues for future research. PMID:25221502

  4. A new comparator account of auditory verbal hallucinations: how motor prediction can plausibly contribute to the sense of agency for inner speech.

    PubMed

    Swiney, Lauren; Sousa, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The comparator account holds that processes of motor prediction contribute to the sense of agency by attenuating incoming sensory information and that disruptions to this process contribute to misattributions of agency in schizophrenia. Over the last 25 years this simple and powerful model has gained widespread support not only as it relates to bodily actions but also as an account of misattributions of agency for inner speech, potentially explaining the etiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH). In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the traditional comparator account for inner speech, pointing out serious problems with the specification of inner speech on which it is based and highlighting inconsistencies in the interpretation of the electrophysiological evidence commonly cited in its favor. In light of these analyses we propose a new comparator account of misattributed inner speech. The new account follows leading models of motor imagery in proposing that inner speech is not attenuated by motor prediction, but rather derived directly from it. We describe how failures of motor prediction would therefore directly affect the phenomenology of inner speech and trigger a mismatch in the comparison between motor prediction and motor intention, contributing to abnormal feelings of agency. We argue that the new account fits with the emerging phenomenological evidence that AVHs are both distinct from ordinary inner speech and heterogeneous. Finally, we explore the possibility that the new comparator account may extend to explain disruptions across a range of imagistic modalities, and outline avenues for future research.

  5. A new comparator account of auditory verbal hallucinations: how motor prediction can plausibly contribute to the sense of agency for inner speech

    PubMed Central

    Swiney, Lauren; Sousa, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The comparator account holds that processes of motor prediction contribute to the sense of agency by attenuating incoming sensory information and that disruptions to this process contribute to misattributions of agency in schizophrenia. Over the last 25 years this simple and powerful model has gained widespread support not only as it relates to bodily actions but also as an account of misattributions of agency for inner speech, potentially explaining the etiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH). In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the traditional comparator account for inner speech, pointing out serious problems with the specification of inner speech on which it is based and highlighting inconsistencies in the interpretation of the electrophysiological evidence commonly cited in its favor. In light of these analyses we propose a new comparator account of misattributed inner speech. The new account follows leading models of motor imagery in proposing that inner speech is not attenuated by motor prediction, but rather derived directly from it. We describe how failures of motor prediction would therefore directly affect the phenomenology of inner speech and trigger a mismatch in the comparison between motor prediction and motor intention, contributing to abnormal feelings of agency. We argue that the new account fits with the emerging phenomenological evidence that AVHs are both distinct from ordinary inner speech and heterogeneous. Finally, we explore the possibility that the new comparator account may extend to explain disruptions across a range of imagistic modalities, and outline avenues for future research. PMID:25221502

  6. Voriconazole-induced musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, A K; Sherman, L K

    2004-10-01

    1 Voriconazole (Vfend) is a second-generation azole antifungal that is increasing in popularity especially for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis as well as empirically for the febrile neutropenic patient. In addition, voriconazole tends to have a mild side effect profile with reversible visual disturbances being the most widely described effect. We describe a patient who had musical hallucinations secondary to voriconazole. The patient was a 78-year-old man admitted for induction of chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who began to have auditory hallucinations, specifically of Christmas music, the 2nd day of voriconazole therapy. His psychiatric evaluation was otherwise unremarkable. After discontinuing voriconazole the hallucinations decreased in intensity by the 2nd day and ceased altogether by the 3rd day. An extensive literature search, including Pfizer drug trial safety data, yielded no other reports of auditory hallucinations with voriconazole. Several other interesting cases of musical hallucinations secondary to a variety of causes have been reported in the literature, and are reviewed. Notably, musical hallucinations tend to occur secondary to temporal lobe insults and often are of a religious or patriotic theme.

  7. Musical hallucinations associated with seizures originating from an intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D L; Tatini, U; Zimmerman, R S; Bortz, J J; Sirven, J I

    2001-04-01

    Hallucinations are defined as sensory phenomena in the absence of external sensory stimuli. Auditory hallucinations have been shown to arise from many different intracranial lesions, but seizures manifesting as musical hallucinations triggered by unruptured intracranial aneurysms are rare. We present a case of persistent, episodic musical hallucinations associated with seizures that led to the discovery of 2 small intracranial aneurysms. Typical electroencephalographic findings for seizure activity were observed but resolved after surgical clipping of the aneurysms. Concomitantly, the patient's hallucinations resolved. The literature on musical hallucinations is reviewed. PMID:11322359

  8. Effects of Fronto-Temporal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Left Temporo-Parietal Junction in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mondino, Marine; Jardri, Renaud; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise; Saoud, Mohamed; Poulet, Emmanuel; Brunelin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia are associated with abnormal hyperactivity in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and abnormal connectivity between frontal and temporal areas. Recent findings suggest that fronto-temporal transcranial Direct Current stimulation (tDCS) with the cathode placed over the left TPJ and the anode over the left prefrontal cortex can alleviate treatment-resistant AVH in patients with schizophrenia. However, brain correlates of the AVH reduction are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of tDCS on the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the left TPJ. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and treatment-resistant AVH were randomly allocated to receive 10 sessions of active (2 mA, 20min) or sham tDCS (2 sessions/d for 5 d). We compared the rs-FC of the left TPJ between patients before and after they received active or sham tDCS. Relative to sham tDCS, active tDCS significantly reduced AVH as well as the negative symptoms. Active tDCS also reduced rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left anterior insula and the right inferior frontal gyrus and increased rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left angular gyrus, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. The reduction of AVH severity was correlated with the reduction of the rs-FC between the left TPJ and the left anterior insula. These findings suggest that the reduction of AVH induced by tDCS is associated with a modulation of the rs-FC within an AVH-related brain network, including brain areas involved in inner speech production and monitoring. PMID:26303936

  9. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  10. Hallucinations as a trauma-based memory: implications for psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Steel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between hallucinations and life events is a topic of significant clinical importance. This review discusses the extent to which auditory and visual hallucinations may be directly related to traumatic events. Evidence suggests that intrusive images occur frequently within individuals who also report hallucinatory experiences. However, there has been limited research specifically investigating the extent to which hallucinations are the re-experiencing of a traumatic event. Our current theoretical understanding of these relationships, along with methodological difficulties associated with research in this area, are considered. Recent clinical studies, which adopt interventions aimed at the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, are reviewed. There is a need for the development of evidence-based interventions in this area. PMID:26441698

  11. Hallucinations as a trauma-based memory: implications for psychological interventions

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between hallucinations and life events is a topic of significant clinical importance. This review discusses the extent to which auditory and visual hallucinations may be directly related to traumatic events. Evidence suggests that intrusive images occur frequently within individuals who also report hallucinatory experiences. However, there has been limited research specifically investigating the extent to which hallucinations are the re-experiencing of a traumatic event. Our current theoretical understanding of these relationships, along with methodological difficulties associated with research in this area, are considered. Recent clinical studies, which adopt interventions aimed at the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, are reviewed. There is a need for the development of evidence-based interventions in this area. PMID:26441698

  12. Culture and Hallucinations: Overview and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A.; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient’s cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations. PMID:24936082

  13. Culture and hallucinations: overview and future directions.

    PubMed

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela

    2014-07-01

    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient's cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations.

  14. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  15. Musical hallucinations – a challenge for psychiatric therapeutical management. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Focseneanu, BE; Marian, G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musical hallucinations occur in individuals with and without mental illness, and many patients tend to have intact reality testing. Although literature on musical hallucinations is limited, they have been associated with hearing abnormalities, adverse effects of pharmacological agents, female gender, advances in age and psychiatric illness. Aim. To present the psychiatric management of a case of an old female patient, who suddenly developed verbal and musical hallucinations with a pervasive impact on her daily activities. Method. Female, 71 years old, developed verbal and musical hallucinations 6 months before that have intensified later. She was known with bilateral hypoacusia starting with the age of 45, and magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year before proved multiple lacunar infarcts. Because of the persistence, most of the time of these auditory hallucinations, the patient experienced pervasive difficulties with her major areas of activities. She was referred to a psychiatric department for evaluation and treatment. Results. The psychiatric consult revealed neither a depressive relapse, nor a mild cognitive impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected with intrusive obsessions. Patient received, as antiobsessional augmentation escitalopram 10mg/ day, an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which at 3 mg/ day induced extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the dose of risperidone was reduced, extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared, and 300mg/ day of acidum valproicum was initiated. Discussion. Our patient presented with diminished sensory input to the auditory cortex, and it was hard to make a differential diagnosis between an organic and a mental etiology. Conclusion. The integration of musical hallucinations into a psychiatric disorder may be a difficult task, and, their treatment represents a challenge. PMID:26664485

  16. Musical hallucinations associated with acquired deafness.

    PubMed Central

    Hammeke, T A; McQuillen, M P; Cohen, B A

    1983-01-01

    Two patients with auditory hallucinations beginning after a long history of progressive bilateral hearing loss were studied. The hallucinations included both unformed (tinnitus and irregular sounds of varying pitch and timbre) and formed (instrumental music, singing and voices) components, and were repetitive. They were affected by ambient noise levels; their content and speed were influenced by attentional and intentional factors. There was no evidence of global dementia, nor of epileptogenic or psychiatric disturbance. A combination of peripheral and associated central "disinhibition" may be responsible for the occurrence of such hallucinations. PMID:6875592

  17. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Maindreville, Anne Doé; Fénelon, Gilles; Mahieux, Florence

    2005-02-01

    To study prevalence of hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during a 1-year period, and identify factors predictive of the onset of hallucinations in patients who were hallucination-free at baseline, 141 unselected outpatients with PD were evaluated prospectively for a set of demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables and the presence of hallucinations during the previous 3 months. Patient groups were compared with nonparametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Follow-up data were available for 127 patients. The hallucination prevalence rates (%) at the first and second evaluation were, respectively, 41.7 and 49.6 for hallucinations of all types (NS), 29.1 and 40.2 for minor hallucinations (i.e., presence or passage hallucinations, and illusions) (P = 0.02), 22.8 and 21.2 for formed visual hallucinations (NS), and 8.7 and 8.7 for auditory hallucinations (NS). Hallucinations rarely started or ceased during the study. The most labile forms were minor hallucinations, which developed in 20% of patients and ceased in 9%. During follow-up, 15% of patients started to hallucinate. Three factors, all present at the first evaluation, independently predicted the onset of hallucinations in patients previously free of hallucinations at baseline (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): severe sleep disturbances (14.3; 2.5-80.9), ocular disorders (9.1; 1.6-52.0), and a high axial motor score (5.7; 1.2-27.4). Hallucinations have a chronic course in most parkinsonian patients. Factors predicting the onset of hallucinations point to a role of extranigral brainstem involvement and a nonspecific, facilitating role of ocular disorders.

  18. Delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy: 1. Elementary phenomena.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Brent; Joyce, Eileen; Shorvon, Simon

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this paper and its pair is to provide a comprehensive review, from the different perspectives of neurology and neuropsychiatry, of the phenomenology and mechanisms of hallucinatory experience in epilepsy. We emphasise the clinical and electrophysiological features, and make comparisons with the primary psychoses. In this paper, we consider definitions and elementary hallucinatory phenomena. Regarding definition, there is a clearly divergent evolution in meaning of the terms delusion, illusion and hallucination in the separate traditions of neurology and psychiatry. Psychiatry makes clear distinctions between the terms and has focussed on the empirical use of descriptive psychopathology in order to delineate the various psychiatric syndromes, including those in epilepsy. These distinctions in psychiatry have stood the test of time and are useful in clinical descriptive terms, but do not help to understand the basic mechanisms. The focus of neurology has been to regard delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy as a result of localised or network based neuronal epileptic activity that can be investigated especially using intracranial stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). The neurological approach leads to a more synoptical definition of 'hallucination' than in psychiatry and to the conclusion that there is little point in differentiating hallucination from illusion or delusion in view of the overlap in the physiological bases of the phenomena. The semiologically derived differentiation of these terms in psychiatry is not supported by similarly discrete electrophysiological signatures. However, as discussed in the second paper, some psychotic states are associated with similar electrophysiological changes. The wide range of hallucinatory symptoms occurring during epileptic seizures recorded during intracranial SEEG and brain stimulation are reviewed here, including: experiential and interpretive phenomena, affective symptoms, as well as auditory

  19. Delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy: 1. Elementary phenomena.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Brent; Joyce, Eileen; Shorvon, Simon

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this paper and its pair is to provide a comprehensive review, from the different perspectives of neurology and neuropsychiatry, of the phenomenology and mechanisms of hallucinatory experience in epilepsy. We emphasise the clinical and electrophysiological features, and make comparisons with the primary psychoses. In this paper, we consider definitions and elementary hallucinatory phenomena. Regarding definition, there is a clearly divergent evolution in meaning of the terms delusion, illusion and hallucination in the separate traditions of neurology and psychiatry. Psychiatry makes clear distinctions between the terms and has focussed on the empirical use of descriptive psychopathology in order to delineate the various psychiatric syndromes, including those in epilepsy. These distinctions in psychiatry have stood the test of time and are useful in clinical descriptive terms, but do not help to understand the basic mechanisms. The focus of neurology has been to regard delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy as a result of localised or network based neuronal epileptic activity that can be investigated especially using intracranial stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). The neurological approach leads to a more synoptical definition of 'hallucination' than in psychiatry and to the conclusion that there is little point in differentiating hallucination from illusion or delusion in view of the overlap in the physiological bases of the phenomena. The semiologically derived differentiation of these terms in psychiatry is not supported by similarly discrete electrophysiological signatures. However, as discussed in the second paper, some psychotic states are associated with similar electrophysiological changes. The wide range of hallucinatory symptoms occurring during epileptic seizures recorded during intracranial SEEG and brain stimulation are reviewed here, including: experiential and interpretive phenomena, affective symptoms, as well as auditory

  20. Visual command hallucinations in a patient with pure alexia

    PubMed Central

    ffytche, D; Lappin, J; Philpot, M

    2004-01-01

    Around 25% of patients with visual hallucinations secondary to eye disease report hallucinations of text. The hallucinated text conveys little if any meaning, typically consisting of individual letters, words, or nonsense letter strings (orthographic hallucinations). A patient is described with textual visual hallucinations of a very different linguistic content following bilateral occipito-temporal infarcts. The hallucinations consisted of grammatically correct, meaningful written sentences or phrases, often in the second person and with a threatening and command-like nature (syntacto-semantic visual hallucinations). A detailed phenomenological interview and visual psychophysical testing were undertaken. The patient showed a classical ventral occipito-temporal syndrome with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and associative visual agnosia. Of particular significance was the presence of pure alexia. Illusions of colour induced by monochromatic gratings and a novel motion–direction illusion were also observed, both consistent with the residual capacities of the patient's spared visual cortex. The content of orthographic visual hallucinations matches the known specialisations of an area in the left posterior fusiform gyrus—the visual word form area (VWFA)—suggesting the two are related. The VWFA is unlikely to be responsible for the syntacto-semantic hallucinations described here as the patient had a pure alexic syndrome, a known consequence of VWFA lesions. Syntacto-semantic visual hallucinations may represent a separate category of textual hallucinations related to the cortical network implicated in the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenia. PMID:14707313

  1. Visual command hallucinations in a patient with pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Ffytche, D H; Lappin, J M; Philpot, M

    2004-01-01

    Around 25% of patients with visual hallucinations secondary to eye disease report hallucinations of text. The hallucinated text conveys little if any meaning, typically consisting of individual letters, words, or nonsense letter strings (orthographic hallucinations). A patient is described with textual visual hallucinations of a very different linguistic content following bilateral occipito-temporal infarcts. The hallucinations consisted of grammatically correct, meaningful written sentences or phrases, often in the second person and with a threatening and command-like nature (syntacto-semantic visual hallucinations). A detailed phenomenological interview and visual psychophysical testing were undertaken. The patient showed a classical ventral occipito-temporal syndrome with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and associative visual agnosia. Of particular significance was the presence of pure alexia. Illusions of colour induced by monochromatic gratings and a novel motion-direction illusion were also observed, both consistent with the residual capacities of the patient's spared visual cortex. The content of orthographic visual hallucinations matches the known specialisations of an area in the left posterior fusiform gyrus--the visual word form area (VWFA)--suggesting the two are related. The VWFA is unlikely to be responsible for the syntacto-semantic hallucinations described here as the patient had a pure alexic syndrome, a known consequence of VWFA lesions. Syntacto-semantic visual hallucinations may represent a separate category of textual hallucinations related to the cortical network implicated in the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenia.

  2. One patient with Sjogren's syndrome presenting schizophrenia-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-En

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid depression in patients with Sjogren's syndrome has been reported frequently, while comorbid psychosis in subjects with Sjogren's syndrome has rarely been reported. Here we report a patient with Sjogren's syndrome who presented with schizophrenia-like symptoms such as persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in contrast to her previous psychiatric presentations, which only included depression and anxiety. PMID:27042076

  3. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: High Rate of Visual Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher N.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Gochman, Pete; Miller, Rachel; Tossell, Julia W.; Mattai, Anand A.; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To document high rates and clinical correlates of nonauditory hallucinations in childhood onset schizophrenia (COS). Method: Within a sample of 117 pediatric patients (mean age 13.6 years), diagnosed with COS, the presence of auditory, visual, somatic/tactile, and olfactory hallucinations was examined using the Scale for the Assessment…

  4. Phenomenology of hallucinations, illusions, and delusions as part of seizure semiology.

    PubMed

    Kasper, B S; Kasper, E M; Pauli, E; Stefan, H

    2010-05-01

    In partial epilepsy, a localized hypersynchronous neuronal discharge evolving into a partial seizure affecting a particular cortical region or cerebral subsystem can give rise to subjective symptoms, which are perceived by the affected person only, that is, ictal hallucinations, illusions, or delusions. When forming the beginning of a symptom sequence leading to impairment of consciousness and/or a classic generalized seizure, these phenomena are referred to as an epileptic aura, but they also occur in isolation. They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple partial seizures, but they also can be associated to different degrees of disturbed consciousness. Initial ictal symptoms often are closely related to the physiological functions of the cortical circuit involved and, therefore, can provide localizing information. When brain regions related to sensory integration are involved, the seizure discharge can cause specific kinds of hallucinations, for example, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and cutaneous sensory sensations. In addition to these elementary sensory perceptions, quite complex hallucinations related to a partial seizure can arise, for example, perception of visual scenes or hearing music. By involving psychic and emotional spheres of human perception, many seizures also give rise to hallucinatory emotional states (e.g., fear or happiness) or even more complex hallucinations (e.g., visuospatial phenomena), illusions (e.g., déjà vu, out-of-body experience), or delusional beliefs (e.g., identity change) that often are not easily recognized as epileptic. Here we suggest a classification into elementary sensory, complex sensory, and complex integratory seizure symptoms. Epileptic hallucinations, illusions, and delusions shine interesting light on the physiology and functional anatomy of brain regions involved and their functions in the human being. This article, in which 10 cases are described, introduces the fascinating

  5. Phenomenology of hallucinations, illusions, and delusions as part of seizure semiology.

    PubMed

    Kasper, B S; Kasper, E M; Pauli, E; Stefan, H

    2010-05-01

    In partial epilepsy, a localized hypersynchronous neuronal discharge evolving into a partial seizure affecting a particular cortical region or cerebral subsystem can give rise to subjective symptoms, which are perceived by the affected person only, that is, ictal hallucinations, illusions, or delusions. When forming the beginning of a symptom sequence leading to impairment of consciousness and/or a classic generalized seizure, these phenomena are referred to as an epileptic aura, but they also occur in isolation. They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple partial seizures, but they also can be associated to different degrees of disturbed consciousness. Initial ictal symptoms often are closely related to the physiological functions of the cortical circuit involved and, therefore, can provide localizing information. When brain regions related to sensory integration are involved, the seizure discharge can cause specific kinds of hallucinations, for example, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and cutaneous sensory sensations. In addition to these elementary sensory perceptions, quite complex hallucinations related to a partial seizure can arise, for example, perception of visual scenes or hearing music. By involving psychic and emotional spheres of human perception, many seizures also give rise to hallucinatory emotional states (e.g., fear or happiness) or even more complex hallucinations (e.g., visuospatial phenomena), illusions (e.g., déjà vu, out-of-body experience), or delusional beliefs (e.g., identity change) that often are not easily recognized as epileptic. Here we suggest a classification into elementary sensory, complex sensory, and complex integratory seizure symptoms. Epileptic hallucinations, illusions, and delusions shine interesting light on the physiology and functional anatomy of brain regions involved and their functions in the human being. This article, in which 10 cases are described, introduces the fascinating

  6. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133

  7. Clinical Significance of Auditory Target P300 Subcomponents in Psychosis: Differential Diagnosis, Symptom Profiles, and Course

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Greg; Foti, Dan; Jackson, Felicia; Kotov, Roman; Constantino, Eduardo; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced auditory target P300 amplitude is a leading biomarker for psychotic disorders, although its relevance for differential diagnosis and link to specific clinical features (symptom profiles, functional impairment, and course) is unclear. This study aims to clarify the clinical significance of auditory target P300 using concurrent and retrospective clinical data from a longitudinal cohort with psychosis. Methods 92 cases from an epidemiological study of first-admission psychosis were assessed using an auditory oddball paradigm at 15-year follow-up along with 44 never-psychotic adults. Subcomponents of auditory target P300 amplitude (i.e., a central positive P3a, a parietal positive P3b, and a frontal negative slow wave) were isolated using temporal-spatial principal components analysis. Results P3a amplitude was blunted across psychotic disorders relative to non-psychotic adults. P3b amplitude was reduced in schizophrenia specifically, including cases initially misclassified at baseline. The frontal negative slow wave did not distinguish among groups. P3b amplitude reduction was associated with several clinical features at the concurrent assessment, as well as previous time points, including recovery from psychosis even 5 years earlier and functioning even 15 years earlier. Conclusions Auditory target P300 amplitude yields both a schizophrenia-specific component (i.e., P3b) and a transdiagnostic psychosis component (i.e., P3a). The P3b component may also shed light on prognosis, real-world functioning, and course, as well as help to reduce misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders. Prospective studies are needed to test whether P3b tracks or predicts clinical status. PMID:25934167

  8. Visual text hallucinations of thoughts in an alexic woman.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Bun; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-04-15

    In this report we describe a patient with a clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies, who had hallucinations of reading her thoughts in the air although she was alexic and unable to read. She also had severe visuoperceptual deficits and closing-in phenomenon. SPECT imaging demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left parieto-occipital cortices together with hyperperfusion of the left orbitofronto-temporal areas. Her visual text hallucinations may represent another type of textual hallucinations related to syntacto-semantic network hyperactivation, which is implicated in auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:24530173

  9. Visual text hallucinations of thoughts in an alexic woman.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Bun; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-04-15

    In this report we describe a patient with a clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies, who had hallucinations of reading her thoughts in the air although she was alexic and unable to read. She also had severe visuoperceptual deficits and closing-in phenomenon. SPECT imaging demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left parieto-occipital cortices together with hyperperfusion of the left orbitofronto-temporal areas. Her visual text hallucinations may represent another type of textual hallucinations related to syntacto-semantic network hyperactivation, which is implicated in auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  10. Visual plus nonvisual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: development and evolution over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Ouyang, Bichun

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the development and evolution of visual and nonvisual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease over 10 years. Hallucinations increase over time, but minimal attention has been placed on nonvisual domains. We studied 60 patients with Parkinson's disease who had never hallucinated at baseline and followed them over 10 years. The Rush Hallucination Inventory monitored frequency and type (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory) of hallucinations at baseline and after 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years. Descriptive statistics were applied, and general estimating equation modeling assessed longitudinal risks. Over 10 years, visual hallucinations were endorsed by patients more frequently than other sensory modalities. Whereas isolated visual hallucinations dominated the early hallucination profile, visual plus nonvisual hallucinations accounted for progressively higher proportions of hallucinators over 10 years: 0.5 years, 0%; 4 years, 26%; 6 years, 47%; 10 years, 60% (odds ratio, 1.17; confidence interval, 1.01-1.37; P = .04). Once visual plus nonvisual hallucinations developed, the risk of continuing to have multidomain hallucinations was high (odds ratio, 3.67; confidence interval, 1.13-11.93; P = .03). Hallucination severity was highly associated with current visual plus nonvisual hallucinations (odds ratio, 4.06; confidence interval, 2.93-5.61; P < .0001) and the continuation of multidomain hallucinations (odds ratio, 1.58; confidence interval, 1.12-2.24; P = .01). Whereas visual hallucinations in isolation are classic in Parkinson's disease, nonvisual hallucinations emerge over time, and the combination of visual with nonvisual hallucinations predominates in late Parkinson's disease. To capture the breadth and severity of hallucinations in chronically hallucinating patients with Parkinson's disease, screening inventories and practice-based interviews must include questions on both visual and nonvisual components.

  11. Musical hallucinations in schizophrenia. 2. Relations with verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Baba, Akira; Hamada, Hidemichi; Kocha, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The musical hallucinations reported by 33 schizophrenics who fulfilled ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were assessed semiologically. The subjects were 24 men and 9 women. The duration of 48 episodes of musical hallucinations varied. They occurred at all times during the course of schizophrenia, and 9 of them (18.8%) occurred before the diagnosis was made. All of the episodes could be divided into three stages: 17 (35.4%) were first stage, close to obsession, 5 (10.4%) were second stage, close to Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, and 26 (54.2%) were third stage, which is the autochthonous experience. The sounds were in a subjective space in 38 episodes and in the majority of cases, their content was familiar. The second stage was associated with xenopathic experience ("gemachtes Erlebnis") and audition of thought, and words were added to melodies that normally had no lyrics. Musical hallucinations in schizophrenia are pseudohallucinations that originate in memory representations, and they may undergo a transition to true hallucinations. The authors think that the three stages are related to the severity of the disease. PMID:12766321

  12. Atypical behavioral and psychiatric symptoms: Neurosyphilis should always be considered.

    PubMed

    Crozatti, Lucas Lonardoni; de Brito, Marcelo Houat; Lopes, Beatriz Noele Azevedo; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis still remains a major health concern worldwide because of the possibility of serious medical and psychological consequences, long-term disability, and death. Neurosyphilis (NS) may occur at any stage of infection. Its clinical presentation has been changing over recent years including- psychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms. Several recent studies have described cases with these symptoms as the principal signs of NS. We present the case of neurosyphilis with a psychiatric presentation characterized by mood disturbance and auditory and visual hallucinations. PMID:26558247

  13. Effect of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Sook; Byun, Ki-Won; Park, Yong-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Han; Jung, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Hong

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effects of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Forty-seven male children (7-13 yr old), who were clinically diagnosed with ADHD at the Balance Brain Center in Seoul, Korea, were included in this study. The complex treatment consisted of visual and auditory stimuli, core muscle exercise, targeting ball exercise, ocular motor exercise, and visual motor integration. All subjects completed the complex treatment for 60 min/day, 2-3 times/week for more than 12 weeks. Data regarding visual and auditory reaction time and cognitive function were obtained using the Neurosync program, Stroop Color-Word Test, and test of nonverbal intelligence (TONI) at pre- and post-treatment. The complex treatment significantly decreased the total reaction time, while it increased the number of combo actions on visual and auditory stimuli (P< 0.05). The Stroop color, word, and color-word scores were significantly increased at post-treatment compared to the scores at pretreatment (P< 0.05). There was no significant change in the TONI scores, although a tendency toward an increase in these scores was observed. In conclusion, complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli alleviated the symptoms of ADHD and improved cognitive function in children. In addition, visual and auditory function might be possible indicators for demonstrating effective ADHD intervention. PMID:24278878

  14. Effect of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Sook; Byun, Ki-Won; Park, Yong-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Han; Jung, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Hong

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effects of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Forty-seven male children (7-13 yr old), who were clinically diagnosed with ADHD at the Balance Brain Center in Seoul, Korea, were included in this study. The complex treatment consisted of visual and auditory stimuli, core muscle exercise, targeting ball exercise, ocular motor exercise, and visual motor integration. All subjects completed the complex treatment for 60 min/day, 2-3 times/week for more than 12 weeks. Data regarding visual and auditory reaction time and cognitive function were obtained using the Neurosync program, Stroop Color-Word Test, and test of nonverbal intelligence (TONI) at pre- and post-treatment. The complex treatment significantly decreased the total reaction time, while it increased the number of combo actions on visual and auditory stimuli (P< 0.05). The Stroop color, word, and color-word scores were significantly increased at post-treatment compared to the scores at pretreatment (P< 0.05). There was no significant change in the TONI scores, although a tendency toward an increase in these scores was observed. In conclusion, complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli alleviated the symptoms of ADHD and improved cognitive function in children. In addition, visual and auditory function might be possible indicators for demonstrating effective ADHD intervention.

  15. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  16. Musical Hallucinations Treated with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Coebergh, Jan Adriaan F.; Lauw, René; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Musical hallucinations are relatively rare auditory percepts which, due to their intrusive nature and the accompanying fear of impending mental decline, tend to cause significant distress and impairment. Although their etiology and pathophysiology appear to be heterogeneous and no evidence-based treatment methods are available, case reports indicate that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may yield positive results in patients with comorbid hearing loss. We present two female patients (aged 76 and 78 years) both of whom suffered from hearing impairment and practically incessant musical hallucinations. Both patients were successfully treated with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Based on these two case descriptions and an overview of studies describing the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in similar patients, we discuss possible mechanisms and propose further research on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for musical hallucinations experienced in concordance with hearing loss. PMID:25904872

  17. Heterogeneity of Auditory Verbal Working Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Gerard E.; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Kroppmann, Christopher J.; Fekri, Shiva; Gil, Roberto; Jarskog, Lars F.; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Goetz, Raymond; Kayser, Jürgen; Wexler, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of schizophrenia remains an obstacle for understanding its pathophysiology. Studies using a tone discrimination screening test to classify patients have found evidence for two subgroups having either a specific deficit in verbal working memory (WM) or deficits on both verbal and nonverbal memory tests. This study aimed to: (1) replicate in larger samples differences between these subgroups on the word serial position test (WSPT); (2) further evaluate their performance on additional tests of verbal WM, explicit memory, and sustained attention; (3) determine the relation of verbal WM deficits to auditory hallucinations and other symptoms; and (4) examine medication effects. WSPT of verbal WM and tone discrimination performance did not differ between medicated (n=45) and unmedicated (n=38) patients. Patients with schizophrenia who passed the auditory screening test (discriminators, n=60) were compared to those who did not (nondiscriminators, n=23), and healthy controls (n=47). The discriminator subgroup showed poorer verbal WM than controls and a deficit in verbal but not visual memory on Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, whereas the nondiscriminator subgroup showed overall poorer performance on both verbal and nonverbal tests and a marked deficit in sustained attention. Verbal WM deficits in discriminators on WSPT were correlated with auditory hallucinations but not with negative symptoms. The results are consistent with a verbal memory deficit in a subgroup of schizophrenia having intact auditory perception, which may stem from dysfunction of language-related cortical regions, and a more generalized cognitive deficit in a subgroup having auditory perceptual and attentional dysfunction. PMID:21319926

  18. Add-on oral olanzapine worsens hallucinations in schizoaffective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Umberto; Vignapiano, Annarita; Gallo, Olimpia; Fabrazzo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence tends to favour olanzapine in the treatment of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders; however, no conclusive evidence is available on this topic. We report here a clinical case in which a 46-year-old man, suffering from a schizoaffective disorder (depressed type), underwent olanzapine treatment (20 mg/day). After inducing an initial amelioration, the patient had a re-exacerbation of auditory hallucinations and a clinical and psychosocial worsening, which subsided after olanzapine discontinuation. Olanzapine may induce a worsening of hallucinations in a psychotic disorder with substantial affective component and therefore its use should be carefully evaluated in such cases. PMID:25336551

  19. The Hallucinations of Widowhood

    PubMed Central

    Rees, W. Dewi

    1971-01-01

    227 widows and 66 widowers were interviewed to determine the extent to which they had hallucinatory experiences of their dead spouse. The people interviewed formed 80·7% of all widowed people resident within a defined area, in mid-Wales, and 94·2% of those suitable, through the absence of incapacitating illness, for interview. Almost half the people interviewed had hallucinations or illusions of the dead spouse. The proportion of men and women who had these experiences was similar. The hallucinations often lasted many years but were most common during the first 10 years of widowhood. Social isolation did not affect the incidence of hallucination, nor was it related to the incidence of known depressive illness. There was no variation within cultural groups and there was no variation with place of residence, whether this was within town, country, or village, or within England and Wales. Young people were less likely to be hallucinated than those widowed after the age of 40. The incidence of hallucination increased with length of marriage and was particularly associated with a happy marriage and parenthood. Members of the “professional and managerial” group were particularly likely to be hallucinated, while widows of “non-manual and sales workers” were the ones least likely to be hallucinated. The incidence was greater with hysteroid than obsessoid people. It was unusual for the hallucinations to have been disclosed, even to close friends or relatives. These hallucinations are considered to be normal and helpful accompaniments of widowhood. PMID:5096884

  20. Ictal hallucination and hemispheric specialization: findings from 217 cases with a unilateral epileptic focus.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Anik; Braun, Claude M J; Daigneault, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    Epileptic populations are generally considered inappropriate to investigate hemispheric specialization. However, (1) because hallucination occurs in the early stage of the ictus during which activation is observed in and around the focus, the former could be a direct result of the latter (hypothesis 1), and (2) the type of psychological content of ictal hallucination could depend on which hemisphere is ictally activated (hypothesis 2). It was predicted that, on the basis of quantitative analysis of previously published singles case reports, unilateral ictal hallucinations should occur in the visual field, ear or hemibody contralateral to the side of the ictal focus (test of hypothesis 1). It was also predicted that verbal ictal auditory hallucinations should result more often from left hemisphere foci, and non-verbal auditory ictal hallucinations from right hemisphere foci (test of hypothesis 2). Previously published cases (N=217) of ictal hallucination from a unilateral epileptic focus were reviewed and analyzed with multivariate statistics. Both predictions were strongly supported.

  1. Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological associations in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M

    2000-12-27

    Hallucinations are perceptual phenomena involved in many fields of pathology. Although clinically widely explored, studies in the general population of these phenomena are scant. This issue was investigated using representative samples of the non-institutionalized general population of the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy aged 15 years or over (N=13,057). These surveys were conducted by telephone and explored mental disorders and hallucinations (visual, auditory, olfactory, haptic and gustatory hallucinations, out-of-body experiences, hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations). Overall, 38.7% of the sample reported hallucinatory experiences (19.6% less than once in a month; 6.4% monthly; 2.7% once a week; and 2.4% more than once a week). These hallucinations occurred, (1) At sleep onset (hypnagogic hallucinations 24.8%) and/or upon awakening (hypnopompic hallucinations 6.6%), without relationship to a specific pathology in more than half of the cases; frightening hallucinations were more often the expression of sleep or mental disorders such as narcolepsy, OSAS or anxiety disorders. (2) During the daytime and reported by 27% of the sample: visual (prevalence of 3.2%) and auditory (0.6%) hallucinations were strongly related to a psychotic pathology (respective OR of 6.6 and 5.1 with a conservative estimate of the lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders in this sample of 0.5%); and to anxiety (respective OR of 5.0 and 9.1). Haptic hallucinations were reported by 3.1% with current use of drugs as the highest risk factor (OR=9.8). In conclusion, the prevalence of hallucinations in the general population is not negligible. Daytime visual and auditory hallucinations are associated with a greater risk of psychiatric disorders. The other daytime sensory hallucinations are more related to an organic or a toxic disorder.

  2. Education about Hallucinations Using an Internet Virtual Reality System: A Qualitative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowlees, Peter M.; Cook, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate an Internet virtual reality technology as an education tool about the hallucinations of psychosis. Method: This is a pilot project using Second Life, an Internet-based virtual reality system, in which a virtual reality environment was constructed to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations of two patients…

  3. [Hallucinations and dementia. Prevalence, clinical presentation and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F

    2004-04-01

    Hallucinations are a common feature of certain degenerative diseases with a risk of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Obtaining valid epidemiological data is nevertheless quite difficult because of methodological problems. As a rule, hallucinations are more prevalent in Lewy body disease than Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence in parkinsonian dementia is about the same as in Lewy body disease. Complex visual hallucinations predominate, auditory or tactile hallucinations are more exceptional. Minor forms (illusions, sensation of presence) are also observed. Recurrence is common, mainly in the evening or at night. Patients with advanced mental impairment generally take the hallucinations for reality. The hallucinations can be associated with psychological and behavioral disorders such as delusionnal idea or identification disorders. It is important to search for other causes of hallucinations such as drugs, ocular disorders, or depression, but many of these disorders are common comorbidities in elderly patients with degenerative disease. There is no unique model fitting all the hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms. Complex visual hallucinations most likely arise from abnormal activation of the extra-striat temporal associative regions, but only hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed. Genetic studies and functional imaging have not provided convincing evidence. Current focus is placed on an imbalance between deficient cholinergic transmission and preserved or augmented monoaminergic transmission at the cortical level, but other neurotransmission systems could be involved. The dream dysregulation mechanism proposed in Parkinson's disease cannot be generalized. The link between cognitive disorders and hallucination is also poorly understood: hallucinations are associated with more severe cognitive impairments or more rapid cognitive deline in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the

  4. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs. PMID:26235475

  5. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs.

  6. Visual hallucinations and the Charles Bonnet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ffytche, Dominic H

    2005-06-01

    After dividing clinicians for almost 70 years, Charles Bonnet syndrome has reached an impasse. Defined by a neurologist in the 1930s, the syndrome was intended to eponymize the association of visual hallucinations with age, but evolved into one describing their association with eye disease or, more recently, an etiologically neutral phenomenologic description. Each tradition has its merits but none has defined a specific clinical entity or accounted for visual hallucinations across the spectrum of associated clinical conditions. Recent insights into the neurobiology of vision have shed new light on the problem. Viewed from a neuro-phenomenologic perspective, clinical evidence reveals two distinct hallucination syndromes: one directly related to visual system pathology, the other to pathology in the brainstem or ascending neurotransmitter pathways. The implication is of two independent but interacting pathophysiologic mechanisms and of a need to reassess the classification and management of this common psychopathologic symptom.

  7. Hallucination in a seizure patient using levetiracetam: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shakya, D R; Dutta, A; Gautam, R

    2012-01-01

    Levetiracetam, a relatively new antiepileptic drug (AED), is used mainly as adjuvant and less as monotherapy of seizure. Though rare, Levetiracetam is reported to induce hallucination. To highlight the potential of this adverse drug event, we report a seizure-case that had auditory hallucination with Levetiracetam. A 32-year lady had 7-year history of unresponsive spells which increased in the last year, also occurred while asleep and were diagnosed as "generalized seizure" with video-EEG. With gradual optimization of Levetiracetam to 2250 mg, she continuously heard distressing sound of saw cutting wooden blocks. After 3-day continuous auditory hallucination, Levetiracetam had to be changed to sodium valproate. PMID:22851978

  8. Visual hallucinations: charles bonnet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jan, Tiffany; Del Castillo, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    The following is a case of Charles Bonnet syndrome in an 86-year-old woman who presented with visual hallucinations. The differential diagnosis of visual hallucinations is broad and emergency physicians should be knowledgeable of the possible etiologies.

  9. Eye-related visual hallucinations: consider 'Charles Bonnet syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Nilgun; Sahin, Sevki; Karsidag, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is typically characterized by visual hallucinations in elderly people without cognitive defects. This article presents the case of an 80-year-old male patient with a one-year history of visual hallucinations, secondary to glaucoma, in both eyes. Neither a dopamine agonist nor cholinesterase inhibitor therapy improved his symptoms. In this case, the hallucinations were gradually improved after administration of a GABAergic drug, pregabalin, for diabetic polyneuropathy. Placebo-controlled clinical trials would be needed to support this effect of pregabalin, as suggested by this association.

  10. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahoun, Tarik; Eliez, Stephan; Chen, Fei; Badoud, Deborah; Schneider, Maude; Larøi, Frank; Debbane, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. Studies using a variety of paradigms involving self-performed actions argue in favor of perspective taking confusion in hallucination-prone subjects. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims (1) to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP) and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP) during adolescence (2) to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents (3) to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs. genetic) is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females), 12 hallucination-prone adolescents [auditory hallucination (AH) group; 7 females] and 13 adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females) were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues) indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective (“you”-1PP) or a third person perspective (“best friend”-3PP) and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Hallucination-proneness was assessed using a self-report questionnaire [Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale (CAPS)]. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AHs and 22q11.2DS). More precisely, adolescents in the AH group presented decreased activations in the right middle occipital gyrus BA19, left cingulate gyrus BA31

  11. Mirtazapine improves visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tagai, Kenji; Nagata, Tomoyuki; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Tsuno, Norifumi; Ozone, Motohiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Psychotic symptoms often occur as a complication in Parkinson's disease patients, and a set of criteria for Parkinson's disease with psychosis (PDPsy) has been established. Among these criteria, hallucinations are one of the specific symptoms, with visual hallucinations being the most common. While atypical antipsychotic agents are often used for the treatment of PDPsy, adverse effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms, often hinder its continuation or tolerance. There have been some reports and reviews indicating that antidepressants may be effective for PDPsy and other forms of dementia with psychosis. In this report, we present a patient with PDPsy who was treated with one of the new-generation antidepressants, mirtazapine. Mirtazapine improved the patient's refractory psychotic symptoms, especially her visual hallucinations, without worsening her motor symptoms.

  12. Clinical symptoms of major depression are associated with the intensity dependence of auditory event-related potential components.

    PubMed

    Linka, Thomas; Sartory, Gudrun; Gastpar, Markus; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W

    2009-09-30

    The intensity (loudness) dependent amplitude change (IDAP) of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) has been shown to be associated with the outcome of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depression. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate associations between clinical symptoms of major depression and the IDAP as an indirect indicator of cortical serotonergic function. We assessed 40 in-patients suffering from a major depressive episode (DSM-IV) prior to antidepressant treatment. Psychometric characteristics of depression were assessed by means of psychiatric rating scales (CGI, HDRS, HAMA, STAI and BDI) and evaluated for associations with auditory evoked P1, N1, P2 as well as P1/N1 and N1/P2 peak to peak amplitude slopes. Our data revealed a positive correlation of the intensity dependent N1 amplitude slope with the degree of certain somatic symptoms of depression: loss of appetite and weight, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction. The results of our study might contribute to a more specific clinical basis in the differential indication of serotonergic versus noradrenergic antidepressants.

  13. One patient with Sjogren’s syndrome presenting schizophrenia-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-En

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid depression in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome has been reported frequently, while comorbid psychosis in subjects with Sjogren’s syndrome has rarely been reported. Here we report a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome who presented with schizophrenia-like symptoms such as persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in contrast to her previous psychiatric presentations, which only included depression and anxiety. PMID:27042076

  14. Visual illusions and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kölmel, H W

    1993-08-01

    Visual illusions and hallucinations may accompany a wide variety of disorders with many different aetiologies; therefore, they are non-specific phenomena. Lesions in the visual pathway may be associated with visual misperceptions. In these cases more exact information about the misperceptions--whether they are monocular or binocular, present in the whole visual field or a hemifield--may contribute to diagnostic accuracy and to a more comprehensive understanding of the patient and his state of mind. Illusions such as perseveration, monocular diplopia and polyopia, and dysmorphopsia may also occur in healthy individuals, but they are found most often in patients with epilepsy, migraine and stroke. These phenomena do not permit exact localization and definition of an aetiology, but lesions in the occipital and occipitotemporal regions near the visual pathway are involved in most cases. Hallucinations always represent a pathological form of perception. They are classified as unformed (photopsias) or formed (complex). Photopsias may be described in terms of colour, shape and brightness. Their wide variety makes it difficult, if not impossible, to arrive at an exact description of their aetiology, but it is possible to define their anatomical origin in some cases. Complex hallucinations suggest an occipitotemporal locus. Whether they appear in the whole visual field or in the hemifield may prove decisive in determining pathogenesis. A number of characteristics permit a rough classification of these phenomena. Complex hallucinations accompany physical illness and are susceptible to psychodynamic interpretation.

  15. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition.

  16. Behavioural coping patterns in Parkinson's patients with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jim; Connelly, Vince; Boubert, Laura; Maravic, Ksenija

    2013-09-01

    Visual Hallucinations are considered to affect about 20%-40% of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are generally seen as a side effect of this long-term illness and can severely affect the daily quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the coping patterns or strategies used by patients and establish whether the phenomenology and behaviours used by patients enabled control of the phenomenon. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor measures, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms. Patient with hallucinations were at a more advance stage of the disease and displayed more depressive symptoms than their non-hallucinating counterparts. Most patients used more than one constructive coping strategy, the most common were simple behavioural strategies based around motor action or cognitive approaches resulting in visual modification. In addition, humour was a common technique used by the patients to deal with the phenomenon. Emotional responses varied between patients, but it was found that the actual content of the hallucination was not directly associated with whether it caused trouble to the patient, but perceived stress was strongly correlated with the subjective disturbing nature of visual hallucinations (VHs). This study gives insight into the role of cognitive-behavioural approaches when dealing with VHs and opens up avenues for future studies in helping patient to deal with hallucinations.

  17. Studying Hallucinations Within the NIMH RDoC Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Morris, Sarah E.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Sommer, Iris; Waters, Flavie; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thoma, Robert J.; Turner, Jessica A.; Keedy, Sarah K.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how hallucinations might be studied within the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, which asks investigators to step back from diagnoses based on symptoms and focus on basic dimensions of functioning. We start with a description of the objectives of the RDoC project and its domains and constructs. Because the RDoC initiative asks investigators to study phenomena across the wellness spectrum and different diagnoses, we address whether hallucinations experienced in nonclinical populations are the same as those experienced by people with psychotic diagnoses, and whether hallucinations studied in one clinical group can inform our understanding of the same phenomenon in another. We then discuss the phenomenology of hallucinations and how different RDoC domains might be relevant to their study. We end with a discussion of various challenges and potential next steps to advance the application of the RDoC approach to this area of research. PMID:24847862

  18. Atypical behavioral and psychiatric symptoms: Neurosyphilis should always be considered

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Marcelo Houat; Lopes, Beatriz Noele Azevedo; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis still remains a major health concern worldwide because of the possibility of serious medical and psychological consequences, long-term disability, and death. Neurosyphilis (NS) may occur at any stage of infection. Its clinical presentation has been changing over recent years including­ psychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms. Several recent studies have described cases with these symptoms as the principal signs of NS. We present the case of neurosyphilis with a psychiatric presentation characterized by mood disturbance and auditory and visual hallucinations. PMID:26558247

  19. Comparing schizophrenia symptoms in the Iban of Sarawak with other populations to elucidate clinical heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Duncan; Loa, Peter; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; McGrath, John; Gratten, Jake; Mowry, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The symptom profile of schizophrenia can vary between ethnic groups. We explored selected symptom variables previously reported to be characteristic of schizophrenia in the Iban of Sarawak in transethnic populations from Australia, India and Sarawak, Malaysia. We tested site differences to confirm previous research, and to explore implications of differences across populations for future investigations. Methods We recruited schizophrenia samples in Australia (n=609), India (n=310) and Sarawak (n=205) primarily for the purposes of genetic studies. We analyzed seven identified variables and their relationship to site using logistic regression, including: global delusions, bizarre delusions, thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, global hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and prodromal duration. Results We identified a distinct symptom profile in our Sarawak sample. Specifically, the Iban exhibit: low frequency of thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, high frequency of auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, with a comparatively short prodrome when compared with Australian and Indian populations. Discussion Understanding between-site variation in symptom profile may complement future transethnic genetic studies, and provide important clues as to the nature of differing schizophrenia expression across ethnically distinct groups. A comprehensive approach to subtyping schizophrenia is warranted, utilizing comprehensively ascertained transethnic samples to inform both schizophrenia genetics and nosology. PMID:24038814

  20. Neurophysiological Indices of Atypical Auditory Processing and Multisensory Integration Are Associated with Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandwein, Alice B.; Foxe, John J.; Butler, John S.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Bates, Juliana C.; Shulman, Lisa H.; Molholm, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship…

  1. Prospective Prediction of PTSD Symptoms Using Fear Potentiated Auditory Startle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pole, Nnamdi; Neylan, Thomas C.; Otte, Christian; Henn-Hasse, Clare; Metzler, Thomas J.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Background PTSD has been most consistently associated with exaggerated physiological reactivity to startling sounds when such sounds occur in threatening contexts. There is conflicting evidence about whether startle hyperreactivity is a pre-existing vulnerability factor for PTSD or an acquired result of post-trauma neural sensitization. Until now, there have been no prospective studies of physiological reactivity to startling sounds in threatening contexts as predictors of PTSD symptoms. Methods One hundred and thirty-eight police academy cadets without current psychopathology were exposed to repeated 106 dB startling sounds under increasing (low, medium, or high) threat of mild electric shock while their eyeblink electromyogram, skin conductance, heart rate, and subjective fear responses were recorded. Measures of response habituation were also calculated. Following one year of exposure to police-related trauma, these participants were assessed for PTSD symptom severity. Results After accounting for other baseline variables that were predictive of PTSD symptom severity (age and general psychiatric distress), more severe PTSD symptoms were prospectively and independently predicted by the following startle measures: greater subjective fear under low threat, greater skin conductance under high threat, and slower skin conductance habituation. Conclusions These results imply that hypersensitivity to contextual threat (indexed by greater fear under low threat), elevated sympathetic nervous system reactivity to explicit threat (indexed by larger responses under high threat), and failure to adapt to repeated aversive stimuli (evidenced by slower habituation) are all unique pre-existing vulnerability factors for greater PTSD symptom severity following traumatic stress exposure. These measures may eventually prove useful for preventing PTSD. PMID:18722593

  2. Minds on replay: musical hallucinations and their relationship to neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Erin C; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of musical hallucinations, in which individuals perceive music in the absence of an external auditory stimulus, has been described sparingly in the literature through small case reports and series. Musical hallucinations have been linked to multiple associated conditions, including psychiatric and neurologic disease, brain lesions, drug effect, and hearing impairment. This study aimed to review the demographics of subjects with musical hallucinations and to determine the prevalence of neurological disorders, particularly neurodegenerative disease. Through the Mayo medical record, 393 subjects with musical hallucinations were identified and divided into five categories based on comorbid conditions that have been associated with musical hallucinations: neurological, psychiatric, structural, drug effect and not otherwise classifiable. Variables, including hearing impairment and the presence of visual and other auditory hallucinations, were evaluated independently in all five groups. The mean age at onset of the hallucinations was 56 years, ranging from 18 to 98 years, and 65.4% of the subjects were female. Neurological disease and focal brain lesions were found in 25% and 9% of the total subjects, respectively. Sixty-five subjects were identified with a neurodegenerative disorder, with the Lewy body disorders being the most common. Visual hallucinations were more common in the group with neurological disease compared to the psychiatric, structural, and not otherwise classifiable groups (P < 0.001), whereas auditory hallucinations were more common in the psychiatric group compared to all other groups (P < 0.001). Structural lesions associated with musical hallucinations involved both hemispheres with a preference towards the left, and all but two included the temporal lobe. Hearing impairment was common, particularly in the not otherwise classifiable category where 67.2% had documented hearing impairment, more than in any other group (P < 0.001). Those

  3. Psychosis and Hallucinations in FTD with C9ORF72 mutation: A detailed clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Andrew; Ang, Lee Cyn; Jesso, Sarah; MacKinley, Julia; Baker, Matt; Brown, Patricia; Shoesmith, Christen; Rademakers, Rosa; Finger, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe in detail the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a cohort of patients with Frontotemporal dementia and the recently described C9ORF72 repeat expansion. BACKGROUND Recent discovery of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion linked to familial frontotemporal dementia and ALS has permitted retrospective evaluation of potential defining clinical characteristics that may distinguish C9ORF72 mutation carriers from other patients with FTD. Prior reports have identified a subset of patients with an increased incidence of psychosis, specifically delusions, though the detailed nature of these symptoms is not yet well described. METHODS We conducted a retrospective chart review of to report the detailed case histories of 7 patients with C9ORF72 mutations from a cohort of 61 patients with FTD. Results Detailed histories available from these patients reveal an increased incidence of psychosis, including visual and auditory hallucinations and delusions compared to sporadic FTD patients in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS This cohort confirms and adds symptom-related details to prior reports of increased incidence of psychotic phenomenon in FTD and ALS patients with C9ORF72 mutations, to enhance future clinical identification and diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. PMID:24077574

  4. Does hallucination affect vigilance performance in schizophrenia? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudeshna; Ray, Deepshikha; Banerjee, Mallika

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigates the role of "auditory verbal hallucination" (AVH) in the attentional processes of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia compared with healthy participants. The sample consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia divided into - "schizophrenia with hallucination" (N=12) and "schizophrenia without hallucination" (N=14). 13 matched healthy participants were taken. A general health questionnaire was used to screen out psychiatric morbidity in healthy participants. The presence and/or absence of AVH were substantiated through the administration of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Only individuals having higher composite scores in the positive scale were included. Edinburgh Handedness Inventory was administered to all participants. Software designed to measure vigilance was used to assess attentional deficits in the three groups included in the study. The complexity of the "vigilance task" was varied across three parameters: (1) spatial position of the target stimulus and buffer, (2) frequency of the target stimulus and buffer and (3) colour of target stimulus and buffer. The performances of the 3 groups were compared statistically in terms of Hit, Miss and False Alarm scores. Results revealed that schizophrenia patients are deficient as compared to their healthy counterparts in the ability to focus on a specific target while inhibiting non-relevant information across all conditions. Also, schizophrenia patients who have AVH are relatively more deficient as compared to the schizophrenia patients without AVH. It can be concluded that perceptual abnormality in schizophrenia patients with hallucination has an additional negative impact on attentional processes. PMID:23051117

  5. Neuromyelitis optica presenting with psychiatric symptoms and catatonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alam, Abdulkader; Patel, Rachit; Locicero, Briana; Rivera, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an aggressive disease characteristically affecting the spinal cord and optic nerves that has recently been differentiated from multiple sclerosis. We present a case of a 16-year-old Antiguan female previously diagnosed with NMO who presented with a 1-week history of confusion and agitation. She had symptoms of psychosis, including delusional thinking and auditory and visual hallucinations, and scored 11/23 on the Bush-Francis Catatonia Scale. This case demonstrates an NMO exacerbation that presented with psychotic symptoms and catatonia.

  6. Hallucinations from a cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Larøi, Frank; Woodward, Todd S

    2007-01-01

    Although the phenomenological diversity of hallucinations has been well documented, experimental investigations into their cognitive underpinnings have not yet reflected this complexity. Our goal in this review is to contrast the restricted set of experimental conditions that have been utilized in source-monitoring studies of hallucinations with their documented phenomenological diversity. In particular, we initially focus on the theoretical distinction between origin and source that has been recognized at the level of phenomenology, and then review the source-monitoring literature within this theoretical framework. In addition, we touch on several other aspects of the phenomenological diversity of hallucinations that have not yet been sufficiently investigated experimentally--namely, intentionality, affect, and motivational factors. Finally, we list other methodological problems that may have led to inconsistencies in the literature. We conclude with concrete recommendations for future source-monitoring investigations of hallucinations. PMID:17510830

  7. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, Richard P.; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86–42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26–37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  8. Hallucinations in the classical Indian system of Ayurveda: A brief overview.

    PubMed

    Balsavar, Anuradha; Deshpande, Smita N

    2014-10-01

    The ancient Indian system of medicine "Ayurveda" is a compendium of various health related theories and practices and explained the abnormal state of mind, i.e., psychopathology in various contexts. Hallucinations were deemed abnormal. In Ayurvedic classics, hallucinations were called false perceptions (mithyajnana), illusions (maya), infatuations (moha), or confusion (bhrama). Hallucinations were not independent but a symptom of mental disorder (manasa roga). Hallucinations of different sensory organs were observed and explained. These symptoms could be observed in patients suffering from any illness of tridosha origin, organic disease or psychiatric disorder. False perceptions observed in patients were used as tools to understand the prognosis of the condition. This article may help provide preliminary insight and encourage interdisciplinary study toward understanding one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25568471

  9. Hallucinations in the classical Indian system of Ayurveda: A brief overview.

    PubMed

    Balsavar, Anuradha; Deshpande, Smita N

    2014-10-01

    The ancient Indian system of medicine "Ayurveda" is a compendium of various health related theories and practices and explained the abnormal state of mind, i.e., psychopathology in various contexts. Hallucinations were deemed abnormal. In Ayurvedic classics, hallucinations were called false perceptions (mithyajnana), illusions (maya), infatuations (moha), or confusion (bhrama). Hallucinations were not independent but a symptom of mental disorder (manasa roga). Hallucinations of different sensory organs were observed and explained. These symptoms could be observed in patients suffering from any illness of tridosha origin, organic disease or psychiatric disorder. False perceptions observed in patients were used as tools to understand the prognosis of the condition. This article may help provide preliminary insight and encourage interdisciplinary study toward understanding one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia.

  10. Hallucinations in the classical Indian system of Ayurveda: A brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Balsavar, Anuradha; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda” is a compendium of various health related theories and practices and explained the abnormal state of mind, i.e., psychopathology in various contexts. Hallucinations were deemed abnormal. In Ayurvedic classics, hallucinations were called false perceptions (mithyajnana), illusions (maya), infatuations (moha), or confusion (bhrama). Hallucinations were not independent but a symptom of mental disorder (manasa roga). Hallucinations of different sensory organs were observed and explained. These symptoms could be observed in patients suffering from any illness of tridosha origin, organic disease or psychiatric disorder. False perceptions observed in patients were used as tools to understand the prognosis of the condition. This article may help provide preliminary insight and encourage interdisciplinary study toward understanding one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25568471

  11. Misperceiving facial affect: effects of laterality and individual differences in susceptibility to visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Coy, Abbie L; Hutton, Samuel B

    2012-04-30

    It has been suggested that certain types of auditory hallucinations may be the by-product of a perceptual system that has evolved to be oversensitive to threat-related stimuli. People with schizophrenia and high schizotypes experience visual as well as auditory hallucinations, and have deficits in processing facial emotions. We sought to determine the relationship between visual hallucination proneness and the tendency to misattribute threat and non-threat related emotions to neutral faces. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing visual hallucination proneness (the Revised Visual Hallucination Scale - RVHS). High scoring individuals (N=64) were compared to low scoring individuals (N=72) on a novel emotion detection task. The high RVHS group made more false positive errors (ascribing emotions to neutral faces) than the low RVHS group, particularly when detecting threat-related emotions. All participants made more false positives when neutral faces were presented to the right visual field than to the left visual field. Our results support continuum models of visual hallucinatory experience in which tolerance for false positives is highest for potentially threatening emotional stimuli and suggest that lateral asymmetries in face processing extend to the misperception of facial emotion.

  12. 'Alice in Wonderland' syndrome and Lilliputian hallucinations in a patient with a substance-related disorder.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, K; Takata, T

    1999-01-01

    The present paper describes a patient who exhibited 'Alice in Wonderland' (AIW) syndrome as well as Lilliputian hallucinations. The patient regularly consumed a cough syrup that contained dihydrocodein phosphate and dl-methylephedrine hydrochloride over 3 years. At the age of 46, he developed AIW syndrome. The patient ingested a large dose of triazolam and exhibited delirium. Even after the disappearance of symptoms associated with AIW syndrome and delirium, the patient continued to experience Lilliputian hallucinations. We believe that these hallucinations were caused by some of the components of the cough syrup. PMID:9885400

  13. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease without dementia: common and comorbid with other non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela H; Weintraub, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and associated with a range of negative outcomes. Dementia and psychosis are highly correlated in PD, but the frequency and correlates of psychosis in patients without cognitive impairment are not well understood. One hundred and ninety-one non-demented PD patients at two movement disorders centers participated in a study of neuropsychiatric complications in PD and completed a detailed neurological and neuropsychiatric assessment, including the rater-administered Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale for hallucinations, delusions, and minor symptoms of psychosis (illusions and misidentification of persons). Psychotic symptoms were present in 21.5% of the sample. Visual hallucinations were most common (13.6%), followed by auditory hallucinations (6.8%), illusions or misidentification of people (7.3%), and paranoid ideation (4.7%). Visual hallucinations and illusions or misidentification of people were the most common comorbid symptoms (3.1%). Depression (P = 0.01) and rapid eye movement behavior disorder symptoms (P = 0.03) were associated with psychosis in a multivariable model. The odds of experiencing psychotic symptoms were approximately five times higher in patients with comorbid disorders of depression and sleep-wakefulness. Even in patients without global cognitive impairment, psychosis in PD is common and most highly correlated with other non-motor symptoms. Screening for psychosis should occur at all stages of PD as part of a broad non-motor assessment. In addition, these findings suggest a common neural substrate for disturbances of perception, mood, sleep-wakefulness, and incipient cognitive decline in PD. PMID:22674352

  14. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease without dementia: common and comorbid with other non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela H; Weintraub, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and associated with a range of negative outcomes. Dementia and psychosis are highly correlated in PD, but the frequency and correlates of psychosis in patients without cognitive impairment are not well understood. One hundred and ninety-one non-demented PD patients at two movement disorders centers participated in a study of neuropsychiatric complications in PD and completed a detailed neurological and neuropsychiatric assessment, including the rater-administered Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale for hallucinations, delusions, and minor symptoms of psychosis (illusions and misidentification of persons). Psychotic symptoms were present in 21.5% of the sample. Visual hallucinations were most common (13.6%), followed by auditory hallucinations (6.8%), illusions or misidentification of people (7.3%), and paranoid ideation (4.7%). Visual hallucinations and illusions or misidentification of people were the most common comorbid symptoms (3.1%). Depression (P = 0.01) and rapid eye movement behavior disorder symptoms (P = 0.03) were associated with psychosis in a multivariable model. The odds of experiencing psychotic symptoms were approximately five times higher in patients with comorbid disorders of depression and sleep-wakefulness. Even in patients without global cognitive impairment, psychosis in PD is common and most highly correlated with other non-motor symptoms. Screening for psychosis should occur at all stages of PD as part of a broad non-motor assessment. In addition, these findings suggest a common neural substrate for disturbances of perception, mood, sleep-wakefulness, and incipient cognitive decline in PD.

  15. [A Clinical Case of Grief Hallucination through the Mourning Work Normal Grief and Spiritual Care].

    PubMed

    Kurotori, Isaku; Kato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Auditory or visual hallucinations of a deceased person are well known in the normal course of the bereavement process. According to DSM-5, this symptom is included in the associated features supporting diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder. In Japan, however, little is known about these hallucinatory experiences during grieving, and few reports on their prevalence are available. Here, we have reported a clinical case of such experiences following the loss of a spouse. A 66-year-old patient presented to the outpatient department with insomnia after her husband's death. She was preoccupied with a sense of loss and absolute loneliness. One day, she confessed to regularly encountering her husband's ghost at night; the ghost was distinguishable from a dream and provided the bereaved wife with some degree of comfort. The appearances lasted for 15 months and occurred several times a week without disturbing her social functioning. She gradually became aware that her husband was returning from the spirit world to give her solace. Her treatment was focused on resolving her conflicting feelings concerning her grief at his death and her relief at his no longer suffering from disease. While accepting her experiences, she started to review the days they spent together and appreciated his attachment. Therefore she completed the work of mourning and the ghost no longer appeared. One year after the departure of the ghost, she still attends the hospital regularly and there has been no recurrence. A reconstruction of her internal world leads us to conclude that the support of normal grief with such hallucinations prevents the intense experience of loss from generating pathological grief. Furthermore, we suggest reconsidering the importance of the mourning work and the inclusion of both the bereaved and deceased person in the medical context. PMID:26642726

  16. Hallucinations and psychosis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Josè Martin

    2009-12-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered mainly a movement disorder, robust information accumulated during the last 30 years has shown that about 30% of PD patients may also suffer from psychosis, which deeply affects their quality of life and eventually brings them to permanent hospitalization in nursing homes. PD psychosis (PDPsy) mainly occurs after 10 or more years of treatment. The main features of PDPsy include recurrent and continuous hallucinations and delusions for at least 1 month. In addition, a recent consensus of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute of Mental Health Working Group also included illusions and a false sense of presence as "minor symptoms" supporting the diagnosis. In addition, accumulated clinical data have shown that "minor symptoms" and benign hallucinations also imply a bad prognosis with time. In the diagnostic criteria for PDPsy, it is considered that patients suffer from PD for at least more than 1 year before psychosis develops. If this is not the case, there is an unsolved problem of an overlapping diagnosis with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Most clinicians consider that the main cause of psychosis is chronic exposure to dopaminergic medication. However, from an operational point of view there remain difficulties in defining a specific time of exposure and dose of treatment and the occurrence of PDPsy. Specific rating scales have been developed for the evaluation of PDPsy, such as the Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale. The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms usually applied in schizophrenic patients has also proved useful for scoring psychotic symptomatology in PD. Clozapine in low doses has been proven to be the most effective antipsychotic medication for PDPsy. However, its use may cause neutropenia. Therefore, new atypical antipsychotic drugs with serotonin 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist properties have been developed. Recently, pimavanserin--a 5-HT2A inverse agonist

  17. Hallucinations and psychosis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Josè Martin

    2009-12-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered mainly a movement disorder, robust information accumulated during the last 30 years has shown that about 30% of PD patients may also suffer from psychosis, which deeply affects their quality of life and eventually brings them to permanent hospitalization in nursing homes. PD psychosis (PDPsy) mainly occurs after 10 or more years of treatment. The main features of PDPsy include recurrent and continuous hallucinations and delusions for at least 1 month. In addition, a recent consensus of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute of Mental Health Working Group also included illusions and a false sense of presence as "minor symptoms" supporting the diagnosis. In addition, accumulated clinical data have shown that "minor symptoms" and benign hallucinations also imply a bad prognosis with time. In the diagnostic criteria for PDPsy, it is considered that patients suffer from PD for at least more than 1 year before psychosis develops. If this is not the case, there is an unsolved problem of an overlapping diagnosis with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Most clinicians consider that the main cause of psychosis is chronic exposure to dopaminergic medication. However, from an operational point of view there remain difficulties in defining a specific time of exposure and dose of treatment and the occurrence of PDPsy. Specific rating scales have been developed for the evaluation of PDPsy, such as the Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale. The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms usually applied in schizophrenic patients has also proved useful for scoring psychotic symptomatology in PD. Clozapine in low doses has been proven to be the most effective antipsychotic medication for PDPsy. However, its use may cause neutropenia. Therefore, new atypical antipsychotic drugs with serotonin 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist properties have been developed. Recently, pimavanserin--a 5-HT2A inverse agonist

  18. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in Australian adolescents: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, James; Martin, Graham; Bor, William; Sawyer, Michael; Clark, Jennifer; McGrath, John

    2009-02-01

    There is an emerging interest in children and adolescents who have hallucinations and other psychotic-like experiences to enable identification of those potentially at risk for schizophrenia in adulthood. This study examines the prevalence, demographic and clinical correlates of hallucinations in the adolescent subgroup of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1261 adolescents aged 13-17 years. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires with two questions relating to hallucinations and questions pertaining to depressive symptoms and cannabis use. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Hallucinations were reported by 8.4% of adolescents. Those living in blended or sole parent families were more likely to report hallucinations than those living with both biological parents (OR 3.27; 95% CI 1.93, 5.54; OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.63, 4.13 respectively). Hallucinations were more prevalent in adolescents who scored in the highest decile of the CBCL or had elevated depression symptoms (OR 3.30; 95% CI 2.10, 5.20; OR 5.02; 95% CI 3.38, 7.45 respectively). Hallucinations were associated with depressive disorder (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.16, 6.28) and were more prevalent in those adolescents who had smoked cannabis more than twice in the month prior to the survey (OR 3.27; 95% CI 1.76, 6.08). Hallucinations occur relatively frequently in adolescents and are associated with a range of demographic and clinical correlates. Further research may assist in understanding the variable trajectory of children and adolescents who hallucinate.

  19. Consciousness and hallucinations in schizophrenia: the role of synapse regression.

    PubMed

    Bennett A O, Maxwell R

    2008-11-01

    Consciousness takes two forms, transitive and intransitive. Transitive consciousness is a matter of being conscious of something or other whereas intransitive consciousness has no object, as being conscious or awake. Of the different forms of transitive consciousness, perceptual, somatic, kinaesthetic and so on, cognitive neuroscience has concentrated on determining the neural concomitants of perceptual consciousness. To be conscious of a percept is to be aware of it and this requires attending to it. This work sets out a hypothesis as to what brain areas are involved in a schizophrenia subject attending and becoming aware of hallucinations. First, the different areas of cortex that support different visual and auditory illusions of percepts are considered. Next it is argued that endogenous activity in these areas of cortex give rise to hallucinations of percepts that are similar to the percepts that these same areas support during illusions. The basis of such endogenous activity, it is suggested, is to be found in the paucity of afferent synapses to these cortical areas. This may occur as a consequence of loss and regression of synapses due to a degenerative disease or because of abnormal synapse formation and regression during childhood and adolescence, as is likely to be the case in schizophrenia. Finally the neural basis of attention and awareness of these hallucinations are considered for subjects suffering from schizophrenia, and a set of important questions posed that await elucidation through future experimental studies.

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  1. The behavioral treatment of auditory hallucinatory responding of a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, J M; Todman, M; Perez, M; Godoy, J F; Landon-Jimenez, D V

    1996-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a behaviorally based treatment package to decrease the frequency of verbal responding to auditory hallucinations and to increase attention to important external stimuli, rather than to the hallucinations. The subject, a 49-year-old male, with a 20-year history of auditory hallucinatory responding (AHR), laughing and talking to himself, was seen in an outpatient clinic. Observations were made during management skill training, given usually twice a week. Observation sessions were divided into 15-minute intervals. The intervention package included reinforcement in the form of praise, pats on the back, and token reinforcement contingent on the absence of auditory hallucinations. Cancellation tests were given to measure his ability to attend to external tasks. Using an ABCAD design, it was seen that the data indicated that the intervention resulted in both a sharp decrease in auditory hallucinations and an increase in the subject's ability to attend to external tasks.

  2. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  3. Hallucinations in the psychotic state: Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences compared.

    PubMed

    De Masi, Franco; Davalli, Cesare; Giustino, Gabriella; Pergami, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, which takes account of important findings in neuroscientific as well as psychoanalytic research, the authors explore the meaning of the deep-going distortions of psychic functioning occurring in hallucinatory phenomena. Neuroscientific studies have established that hallucinations distort the sense of reality owing to a complex alteration in the balance between top-down and bottom-up brain circuits. The present authors postulate that hallucinatory phenomena represent the outcome of a psychotic's distorted use of the mind over an extended period of time. In the hallucinatory state the psychotic part of the personality uses the mind to generate auto-induced sensations and to achieve a particular sort of regressive pleasure. In these cases, therefore, the mind is not used as an organ of knowledge or as an instrument for fostering relationships with others. The hallucinating psychotic decathects psychic (relational) reality and withdraws into a personal, bodily, and sensory space of his own. The opposing realities are not only external and internal but also psychic and sensory. Visual hallucinations could thus be said to originate from seeing with the 'eyes' of the mind, and auditory hallucinations from hearing with the mind's 'ears'. In these conditions, mental functioning is restricted, cutting out the more mature functions, which are thus no longer able to assign real meaning to the surrounding world and to the subject's psychic experience. The findings of the neurosciences facilitate understanding of how, in the psychotic hallucinatory process, the mind can modify the working of a somatic organ such as the brain.

  4. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Posterior Cortical Atrophy and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J.; Franco-Macías, Emilio; Gil-Néciga, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by early progressive visual dysfunction in the context of relative preservation of memory and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving the posterior cortex. The aim of the present study is to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of PCA. Methods: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess 12 neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 28 patients with PCA and 34 patients with typical Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, disease duration, and illness severity. Results: The most commonly reported NPS in both groups were depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability. However, aside from a trend toward lower rates of apathy in patients with PCA, there were no differences in the percentage of NPS presented in each group. All those patients presenting visual hallucinations in the PCA group also met diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Auditory hallucinations were only present in patients meeting diagnosis criteria for DLB. Conclusion: Prevalence of the 12 NPS examined was similar between patients with PCA and AD. Hallucinations in PCA may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between PCA-AD and PCA-DLB. PMID:26404166

  5. Speech repetition as a window on the neurobiology of auditory-motor integration for speech: A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study.

    PubMed

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Poppa, Tasha; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W; Damasio, Hanna; Love, Tracy; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke's area and Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt's critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area of

  6. Speech repetition as a window on the neurobiology of auditory-motor integration for speech: A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Poppa, Tasha; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W.; Damasio, Hanna; Love, Tracy; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt’s critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area

  7. Speech repetition as a window on the neurobiology of auditory-motor integration for speech: A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study.

    PubMed

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Poppa, Tasha; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W; Damasio, Hanna; Love, Tracy; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke's area and Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt's critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area of

  8. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  9. Are Hallucinations Due to an Imbalance Between Excitatory and Inhibitory Influences on the Brain?

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hughes, Matthew; Brunelin, Jérôme; Waters, Flavie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Smailes, Dave; Sterzer, Philipp; Corlett, Philip R; Leptourgos, Pantelis; Debbané, Martin; Cachia, Arnaud; Denève, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    This review from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research intends to question the pertinence of the excitatory-to-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance hypothesis as a model for hallucinations. A large number of studies suggest that subtle impairments of the E/I balance are involved in neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. Emerging evidence also points to a role of the E/I balance in maintaining stable perceptual representations, suggesting it may be a plausible model for hallucinations. In support, hallucinations have been linked to inhibitory deficits as shown with impairment of gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plasticity, reductions in gamma-frequency oscillations, hyperactivity in sensory cortices, and cognitive inhibition deficits. However, the mechanisms by which E/I dysfunctions at the cellular level might relate to clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits remain unclear. Given recent data advances in the field of clinical neuroscience, it is now possible to conduct a synthesis of available data specifically related to hallucinations. These findings are integrated with the latest computational frameworks of hallucinations, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:27261492

  10. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test. Methods The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs. Results The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82), and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42). Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Conclusions Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:27171377

  11. Brief Report: Suboptimal Auditory Localization in Autism Spectrum Disorder--Support for the Bayesian Account of Sensory Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Joshua C.; Gebauer, Line

    2016-01-01

    Convergent research suggests that people with ASD have difficulties localizing sounds in space. These difficulties have implications for communication, the development of social behavior, and quality of life. Recently, a theory has emerged which treats perceptual symptoms in ASD as the product of impairments in implicit Bayesian inference; as…

  12. Low-dose aripiprazole resolved complex hallucinations in the left visual field after right occipital infarction (Charles Bonnet syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Che; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    We reported a patient who suffered from complex visual hallucinations with left homonymous hemianopsia. Brain imaging showed an acute haemorrhage infarct at the right occipital lobe. Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) was suspected and aripiprazole was prescribed at 5 mg daily. After 3 weeks, the symptoms of hallucinations and anxiety were relieved. Although some CBS patients might be self-limited without discomfort, low-dose aripiprazole can be considered as a safe medication for significantly anxious patients with CBS.

  13. Visual phenomena, disturbances, and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, D T

    1996-01-01

    The visual system and its processing of sensory information can be affected in a variety of ways that may be either normal or associated with numerous disorders and diseases. Visual images produced by the intrinsic components of the eyes are often normal and are known as entoptic phenomena. In contrast, the visual system may be disrupted by various disorders and pathologic processes, which can result in metamorphopsia, transient loss of vision, and positive scotomas. Such disruptions can be secondary to retinal and optic nerve disease, migraines associated with visual auras, and cerebrovascular and neurologic diseases; they can also be side effects of certain drugs. In addition, the visual system may process incoming sensory information in such a way that what is seen is perceived incorrectly, i.e. illusion; or the visual system may produce images of things not really there, i.e. hallucination. Various types of visual phenomena, disturbances, and hallucinations are discussed. The numerous visual presentations need to be differentiated so that appropriate treatment, management, and patient education can be rendered.

  14. Sensory gating deficits, pattern completion, and disturbed fronto-limbic balance, a model for description of hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Arash

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia, if not the most difficult, is one of the most difficult mysterious puzzles for psychiatrists, psychologists, and neuroscientists to solve. In this paper, based on the previously known pathologies of schizophrenia, a new model is proposed for explanation of the formation of positive psychotic symptoms of hallucinations and delusions. This model can be used for understanding psychotic or psychotic-like positive symptoms of bipolar mood disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive, and amphetamine and drug-induced psychotic disorders. Based on the postulated model, a spectral view on these disorders with psychotic features is also proposed. These pathologies include auditory sensory gating deficits in hippocampus, abnormal emotional coding in amygdala, pattern completion in thalamic and cortical areas, and disturbed fronto-limbic balance. This model includes anatomical and neurotransmitter defects of hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, cingula, and prefrontal cortex and their interconnections. A role for hippocampal sensory gating deficits in the pathogenesis of positive psychotic symptoms and interrelation between amygdala and its dopamine level with hippocampus is speculated. This model also hires the interesting function of pattern completion in thalamus and cortical areas for a better explanation of the pathogenesis of hallucinations and delusional psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, there is also explanation for the polygenic etiology of the schizophrenic and psychotic disorders and relation between schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in anatomy and neural systems involved. A spectral view is proposed that explains the absence of clear cut border between different psychotic or psychotic-like disorders in their form and severity based on the involved genes and brain functional systems. Including excessive prefrontal pruning, there is also explanation for the appearance of positive psychotic symptoms in early adulthood. An explanation

  15. An interesting case that included visual hallucinations in a patient with severe hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Andrea

    2011-12-05

    A 57-year-old man presenting with profound visual hallucinations was found to have severe hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia with a normal level of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Magnesium is essential to the release of PTH so the suspected pathophysiology was thought to be: low Mg → inappropriately low PTH → low Ca. He commenced supplementation and his symptoms resolved. Causes of hypomagnesaemia are discussed.

  16. Hallucinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common) Fever , especially in children and the older people Narcolepsy (disorder that causes a person to fall into periods of deep sleep) Mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and psychotic depression Sensory problem, such as blindness or deafness Severe ...

  17. [Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Fénelon, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    About one third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience hallucinations, mostly of a complex visual type, less often auditory or tactile. Minor hallucinatory phenomena, including sense of presence, passage hallucinations and visual illusions are frequent. Hallucinations primarily occur in a context of clear sensorium in patients with longstanding PD. They are more frequent in the evening or during the night. Insight in the hallucinatory nature of the phenomenon may be retained, partial, fluctuating, or abolished. An altered insight is common when cognitive impairment is present, and may be associated with delusions and (or) delusional misidentifications. Pharmacological factors such as dopaminergic treatment clearly trigger or increase the occurence of hallucinations in PD. However, in the recent years, emphasis has been made on disease-related factors including cognitive impairment, diurnal somnolence, visual disorders (either contrast and color discrimination impairment due to PD, or coincident ocular disorders), long duration of PD, late onset, severe axial impairment and autonomic dysfunction. The pathophysiology of hallucinations of PD is poorly understood but is likely to be multifactorial. The first steps of the treatment consist in giving information and reassurance to the patient and his/her caregiver, re-evaluating the antiparkinsonian treatment and associated medications, and evaluating the patient for mood disorder, visual impairment, and cognitive impairment. Cholinesterase inhibitors, when prescribed for associated cognitive impairment, may be beneficial on hallucinations. In the more severe forms, clozapine has been proved to be safe and effective.

  18. Cortical auditory disorders: clinical and psychoacoustic features.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M F; Geehan, G R

    1988-01-01

    The symptoms of two patients with bilateral cortical auditory lesions evolved from cortical deafness to other auditory syndromes: generalised auditory agnosia, amusia and/or pure word deafness, and a residual impairment of temporal sequencing. On investigation, both had dysacusis, absent middle latency evoked responses, acoustic errors in sound recognition and matching, inconsistent auditory behaviours, and similarly disturbed psychoacoustic discrimination tasks. These findings indicate that the different clinical syndromes caused by cortical auditory lesions form a spectrum of related auditory processing disorders. Differences between syndromes may depend on the degree of involvement of a primary cortical processing system, the more diffuse accessory system, and possibly the efferent auditory system. Images PMID:2450968

  19. Isolated sleep paralysis and hypnic hallucinations in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gangdev, Prakash; Dua, Varinder; Desjardins, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Usually remembered in the context of Narcolepsy-Cataplexy syndrome, isolated sleep paralysis (SP) and hypnic hallucination are widely prevalent and because of the overlap of symptoms with schizophrenia, their identification is important but unrecognized. Aims: To determine the presence of SP and hypnic hallucinations (HH) in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: Participants were patients receiving follow-up care for schizophrenia from Assertive Community Treatment Team. A screening questionnaire was administered during their routine follow-up visits. Results: Of 71 respondents (49 males, 22 females) only 11 (10 males and 1 female), that is, 15% reported SP, and 12 (7 males and 5 females), that is, 16.9% reported HH, a considerably low prevalence. Conclusion: It is difficult to study the presence of SP and HH in patients with active or residual symptoms of schizophrenia, and more refined studies and appropriate questionnaires are required. The possibility of SP and HH confounding or being misdiagnosed as psychotic symptoms needs to be borne in mind. PMID:26816427

  20. [Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual hallucination].

    PubMed

    Singh, Amardeep; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome is characterized by vivid, complex and recurrent visual hallucinations occurring in psychologically normal people. Though not related to any specific eye condition, it commonly affects visually impaired elderly persons and is thus an important differential diagnosis to many conditions which cause visual hallucinations. Patients usually retain insight into the unreal nature of their hallucination. The hallucinatory experiences are generally not distressing, but patients may fear impending insanity. There is no specific treatment for this condition which in most cases is self-limiting.

  1. Familial aggregation of schizophrenia-like symptoms in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, D; DiGiacomo, L; Lipe, H; Bird, T D

    1998-07-10

    An increased incidence of schizophrenia-like symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD) has been well-documented in the past. The reasons for this association, however, have never been explained. At the University of Washington Medical Genetics Clinic, we had the opportunity to evaluate a unique juvenile-onset HD proband who had schizophrenia-like symptoms. This patient was referred to our clinic because of new onset of somatic delusions and command auditory hallucinations early in the course of her illness. Since we had already evaluated other affected individuals in her family, we selected another family with a nonpsychotic juvenile-onset proband for comparison. Using these two families in a small case-control study, we investigated the following hypotheses which could explain the association between schizophrenia-like symptoms and HD: first, schizophrenia-like symptoms may be related to the number of CAG repeats in the HD gene; second, schizophrenia-like symptoms may segregate in certain HD families, for unknown reasons; and third, there may coincidentally be an unrelated gene for schizophrenia in certain HD families. Comparisons of clinical characteristics and the HD genotype showed that family history of schizophrenia-like symptoms segregated with the HD gene; however, age of onset of HD, size of CAG repeat, and sex of the transmitting parent were not associated with psychotic symptoms. Further genetic and neurobiological studies are necessary to investigate the potential mechanism underlying this association.

  2. Brain modules of hallucination: an analysis of multiple patients with brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Claude M.J.; Dumont, Mathieu; Duval, Julie; Hamel-Hébert, Isabelle; Godbout, Lucie

    2003-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the localization of focal brain lesions that cause isolated hallucination in a single sensory modality. Case reports of post-lesion nonparoxysmal hallucination in 1 (and only 1) of 3 sensory modalities (i.e., visual, auditory, somatic) were reviewed, and the content of the qualitative descriptions was analyzed for each modality. The lesion is practically always located in the brain pathway of the sensory modality of the hallucination. There seem to exist localized sensory brain circuits that in healthy people diminish the intensity of internal sensory representation. After a lesion, hallucinosis seems to be caused also by compensatory overactivation of tissue in the nearby brain sensory pathway. This type of hallucination may indeed be termed a “release” form, whereby patients are aware of the hallucinatory nature of their experience, but not usually of “dream centres” as proposed by Lhermitte. Instead, we propose that it is dreaming that should be considered a special case of neural “release.” Nous avons passé en revue systématiquement l'emplacement des lésions cérébrales focales qui causent des hallucinations isolées dans un seul mode sensoriel. On a analysé des rapports de cas portant sur l'hallucination non paroxystique postlésionnelle dans un mode sensoriel (et un seulement) sur trois (c.-à-d. visuel, auditif, somatique), et on a analysé le contenu des descriptions qualitatives de chaque mode. La lésion est presque toujours située dans la voie cérébrale du mode sensoriel de l'hallucination. Il semble y avoir des circuits cérébraux sensoriels localisés qui, chez les gens en bonne santé, «atténuent» l'intensité de la représentation sensorielle interne. Après une lésion, l'hallucinose semble être causée aussi par une suractivation compensatoire de tissus de la voie sensorielle cérébrale voisine. On peut en fait qualifier ce type d'hallucination de forme de «libération», dans laquelle les

  3. Tactile hallucinations: conceptual and historical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, G E

    1982-01-01

    A brief historical analysis of the general concept of hallucination is presented and the suggestion is made that it emerged as the unwarranted generalisation of a perceptual model that was meant to apply only to vision and the "distance senses". Against this background the evolution of tactile hallucinations is considered and its interaction with 19th century psychological theory explored. It is concluded that tactile hallucinations are sui generis phenomena which do not fit the conventional model and whose clinical identification rests on criteria so far unclear. A brief review of their taxonomy and diagnostic usefulness is presented. Some wider implications are drawn which should be relevant to the general concept of hallucination. PMID:7042917

  4. Propionic acidemia associated with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Taghreed; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Megdad, Eman; Abebe, Dejene; Al-Saif, Amr; Doubi, Alaa; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Abouzied, Mohei Eldin; Al-Owain, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Propionic acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder, is a common form of organic aciduria resulting from the deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. It is characterized by frequent and potentially lethal episodes of metabolic acidosis often accompanied by hyperammonemia. A wide range of brain abnormalities have been reported in propionic acidemia. We report recurrent visual hallucinations in 2 children with propionic acidemia. Four visual hallucination events were observed in the 2 patients. Three episodes were preceded by an intercurrent illness, and 2 were associated with mild metabolic decompensation. The 2 events in one patient were associated with a seizure disorder with abnormal electroencephalogram. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal basal ganglia and faint temporo-occipital swelling bilaterally. This is probably the first report of visual hallucinations in propionic acidemia and should alert the treating clinicians to look for visual hallucinations in patients with organic acidurias, especially in an unusually anxious child.

  5. [Hallucinations and Parkinson's disease in the elderly: Pitfalls and medical care].

    PubMed

    Leroy, Arnaud; Roche, Jean; Dujardin, Kathy; Duthoit, Didier; Puisieux, François; Pins, Delphine; Jardri, Renaud; Boulanger, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Hallucinations are common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), with a significant prognosis impact. It is necessary to rule out other diagnoses that can be mentioned when hallucinations occur in old patients with PD. The various etiological factors must be systematically checked and can help for diagnosis. Medical care will be focused on treating the primary cause (medical or iatrogenic origin) and will privilege non-pharmacological strategies. Due to their frequent adverse effects, antipsychotic medication should be limited and started at low dose in old patients with multiple comorbidities. Clozapine and quetiapine have the highest level of recommendation in this indication. In the future, defining fMRI-based targets for noninvasive brain stimulation tools should pave the way for innovative non-pharmacological treatment of hallucinations. PMID:27039336

  6. Musical hallucinations: review of treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Coebergh, Jan A. F.; Lauw, R. F.; Bots, R.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Blom, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. Objective: To review the effects of published treatment methods for musical hallucinations. Methods: A literature search yielded 175 articles discussing a total number of 516 cases, of which 147 articles discussed treatment in 276 individuals. We analyzed the treatment results in relation to the etiological factor considered responsible for the mediation of the musical hallucinations, i.e., idiopathic/hypoacusis, psychiatric disorder, brain lesion, and other pathology, epilepsy or intoxication/pharmacology. Results: Musical hallucinations can disappear without intervention. When hallucinations are bearable, patients can be reassured without any other treatment. However, in other patients musical hallucinations are so disturbing that treatment is indicated. Distinct etiological groups appear to respond differently to treatment. In the hypoacusis group, treating the hearing impairment can yield significant improvement and coping strategies (e.g., more acoustic stimulation) are frequently helpful. Pharmacological treatment methods can also be successful, with antidepressants being possibly more helpful than antiepileptics (which are still better than antipsychotics). The limited use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has looked promising. Musical hallucinations occurring as part of a psychiatric disorder tend to respond well to psychopharmacological treatments targeting the underlying disorder. Musical hallucinations experienced in the context of brain injuries and epilepsy tend to respond well to antiepileptics, but their natural course is often benign, irrespective of any pharmacological treatment. When intoxication/pharmacology is the main etiological factor, it is important to stop or switch the

  7. Unilateral musical hallucinations and all that jazz.

    PubMed

    Couper, J

    1994-09-01

    A 78-year-old hearing-impaired woman who presented to hospital with a stroke and a subsequent epileptic seizure later developed unilateral musical hallucinations in her better hearing (right) ear. She was found to have a left-sided temporal epileptic focus and the music ceased after a second anti-convulsant was introduced. Comments are made on unusual features of the hallucination and its probable causation.

  8. Charles bonnet syndrome: treating nonpsychiatric hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Diem; Osterweil, Dan; Hoffman, Janice

    2013-03-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by recurrent or persistent complex visual hallucinations that occur in visually impaired individuals with intact cognition and no evidence of psychiatric illness. Patients usually retain insight into the unreal nature of their hallucinations.3,4 CBS is often misdiagnosed, and predominantly affects elderly patients with vision changes (e.g., age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataract). While many require only the assurance of the benign nature of the hallucinations, nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been reported to be useful in the treatment of CBS. This case involves an 83-year-old female, with a two-year history of CBS, who presented to the clinic with worsening visual hallucinations over the past few months. She was starting to lose insight into her hallucinations secondary to her new diagnosis of dementia. Several pharmacological agents were explored to determine the most appropriate choice for our patient. Ultimately, this patient was started on donepezil (reported to be successful in a CBS case report), which helped improve her cognitive function. At future follow-up visits, her hallucinations improved and her cognitive function stabilized. Pharmacists should be aware of CBS and its treatment options to properly assist physicians in the medication-selection process to alleviate distress experienced by patients with CBS. In patients who may benefit from pharmacological treatment, physicians should weigh the risks and benefits of the different treatment options. Donepezil can be a favorable option in CBS patients with Alzheimer's type dementia.

  9. From Tones in Tinnitus to Sensed Social Interaction in Schizophrenia: How Understanding Cortical Organization Can Inform the Study of Hallucinations and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    ffytche, Dominic H.; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2014-01-01

    The content, modality, and perceptual attributes of hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms may be related to neural representation at a single cell and population level in the cerebral cortex. A brief survey of some principles and examples of cortical representation and organization will be presented together with evidence for a correspondence between the neurobiology of brain areas activated at the time of a hallucination and the content of the corresponding hallucinatory and psychotic experiences. Contrasting the hallucinations of schizophrenia with other conditions, we highlight phenomenological aspects of hallucinations that are ignored in clinical practice but carry potentially important information about the brain regions and dysfunctions underlying them. Knowledge of cortical representation and organization are being used to develop animal models of hallucination and to test treatments that are now beginning to translate to the clinical domain. PMID:24936089

  10. Vivid dreams, hallucinations, psychosis and REM sleep in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cochen, V; Arnulf, I; Demeret, S; Neulat, M L; Gourlet, V; Drouot, X; Moutereau, S; Derenne, J P; Similowski, T; Willer, J C; Pierrot-Deseiligny, C; Bolgert, F

    2005-11-01

    We conducted a prospective controlled study of the clinical and biological determinants of the mental status abnormalities in 139 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and 55 patients without GBS placed in the intensive care unit (ICU controls). There were mental status changes in 31% of GBS patients and in 16% of controls (odds ratio = 2.3; P = 0.04). In GBS patients, they included vivid dreams (19%), illusions (30%, including an illusory body tilt), hallucinations (60%, mainly visual) and delusions (70%, mostly paranoid). They appeared a median 9 days after disease onset (range 1-40 days, during the progression or the plateau of the disease), and lasted a median 8 days. Seven (16%) patients experienced the symptoms before their admission to the ICU. Hallucinations were frequently hypnagogic, occurring as soon as the patients closed their eyes. Autonomic dysfunction, assisted ventilation and high CSF protein levels were significant risk factors for abnormal mental status in GBS patients. CSF hypocretin-1 (a hypothalamic neuropeptide deficient in narcolepsy) levels, measured in 20 patients, were lower in GBS patients with hallucinations (555 +/- 132 pg/ml) than in those without (664 +/- 71 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Since the mental status abnormalities had dream-like aspects, we examined their association with rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) using continuous sleep monitoring in 13 GBS patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 6) hallucinations and 6 tetraplegic ICU controls without hallucinations. Although sleep was short and fragmented in all groups, REM sleep latency was shorter in GBS patients with hallucinations (56 +/- 115 min) than in GBS patients without hallucinations (153 +/- 130 min) and in controls (207 +/- 179 min, P < 0.05). In addition, sleep structure was highly abnormal in hallucinators, with sleep onset in REM sleep periods (83%), abnormal eye movements during non-REM sleep (57%), high percentages of REM sleep without atonia (92 +/- 22%), REM

  11. Psychiatric symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy with left mesial hippocampal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Sang Hag; Choo, Il Han; Kim, Seung Gon

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old woman was referred to us for depression and persistent suicidal and homicidal ideation. From 2010, the patient visited a neurologist due to recurrent grand mal epilepsy, auditory and visual hallucinations, episodic memory loss, and persistent depression. Upon admission, it was revealed through clinical history taking that she had suffered from chronic bullying from same-sex peers and sexual abuse, twice, from an adult male in the neighborhood when she was 10 years old. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed left mesial hippocampal sclerosis. The patient exhibited improvement of her psychiatric symptoms after treatment with a combination of fluoxetine (30 mg) and aripiprazole (10 mg). Children and adolescents with epilepsy experience conflicts in the family, challenges at school, stigma, and psychosocial limitations or deprivations due to their comorbid psychiatric symptoms and hence, psychiatric evaluation and early intervention is important when treating these patients. PMID:25866531

  12. Psychiatric Symptoms in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Left Mesial Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Sang Hag; Choo, Il Han

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old woman was referred to us for depression and persistent suicidal and homicidal ideation. From 2010, the patient visited a neurologist due to recurrent grand mal epilepsy, auditory and visual hallucinations, episodic memory loss, and persistent depression. Upon admission, it was revealed through clinical history taking that she had suffered from chronic bullying from same-sex peers and sexual abuse, twice, from an adult male in the neighborhood when she was 10 years old. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed left mesial hippocampal sclerosis. The patient exhibited improvement of her psychiatric symptoms after treatment with a combination of fluoxetine (30 mg) and aripiprazole (10 mg). Children and adolescents with epilepsy experience conflicts in the family, challenges at school, stigma, and psychosocial limitations or deprivations due to their comorbid psychiatric symptoms and hence, psychiatric evaluation and early intervention is important when treating these patients. PMID:25866531

  13. Optimization of a multinomial model for investigating hallucinations and delusions with source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Todd S; Menon, Mahesh; Hu, Xiangen; Keefe, Richard S E

    2006-07-01

    Studies of source monitoring have played an important role in cognitive investigations of the inner/outer confusions that characterize hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia, and multinomial modelling is a statistical/cognitive modelling technique that provides a powerful method for analyzing source monitoring data. The purpose of the current work is to describe how multinomial models can be optimized to answer direct questions about hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia research. To demonstrate this, we present a reanalysis of previously published source monitoring data, comparing a group of patients with schneiderian first rank symptoms to a group without schneiderian first rank symptoms. The main findings of this analysis were (1) impaired recognition of self-generated items and (2) evidence that impaired source discrimination of perceived items is accompanied by an internalization bias in the target symptom group. Statistical and cognitive interpretations of the findings are discussed. PMID:16626938

  14. Visual misperceptions and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: dysfunction of attentional control networks?

    PubMed

    Shine, James M; Halliday, Glenda M; Naismith, Sharon L; Lewis, Simon J G

    2011-10-01

    Visual misperceptions and hallucinations are a major cause of distress in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in the advanced stages of the condition. Recent work has provided a framework for understanding the pathogenesis of these symptoms, implicating impairments from the retina to the integration of external information with preformed internal images. In this article, we propose a novel hypothesis that attempts to explain the presence of visual misperceptions and hallucinations in PD through the aberrant coordination of complimentary yet competing neural networks. We propose that hallucinations in PD reflect the relative inability to recruit activation in the dorsal attention network in the presence of an ambiguous percept, leading to overreliance on default mode network processing and salience arising from the ventral attention network. This inability is proposed to stem from improper function across cortical and subcortical structures secondary to the presence of Lewy body pathology. This hypothesis may be empirically tested by the use of targeted cognitive paradigms. In turn, this may assist our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and cognitive processes contributing to visual misperceptions and hallucinations and ultimately may inform more effective treatment strategies for this troubling symptom.

  15. Emotional prosody modulates attention in schizophrenia patients with hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Ferrara, L.; de Erausquin, G. A.; Hirnstein, M.; Weis, S.; Hausmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that emotional prosody (EP) attracts attention involuntarily (Grandjean et al., 2008). The automat shift of attention toward emotionally salient stimuli can be overcome by attentional control (Hahn et al., 2010). Attentional control is impaired in schizophrenia, especially in schizophrenic patients with hallucinations because the “voices” capture attention increasing the processing load and competing for top-down resources. The present study investigates how involuntary attention is driven by implicit EP in schizophrenia with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and without (NAVH). Fifteen AVH patients, 12 NAVH patients and 16 healthy controls (HC) completed a dual-task dichotic listening paradigm, in which an emotional vocal outburst was paired with a neutral vocalization spoken in male and female voices. Participants were asked to report the speaker's gender while attending to either the left or right ear. NAVH patients and HC revealed shorter response times for stimuli presented to the attended left ear than the attended right ear. This laterality effect was not present in AVH patients. In addition, NAVH patients and HC showed faster responses when the EP stimulus was presented to the unattended ear, probably because of less interference between the attention-controlled gender voice identification task and involuntary EP processing. AVH patients did not benefit from presenting emotional stimuli to the unattended ear. The findings suggest that similar to HC, NAVH patients show a right hemispheric bias for EP processing. AVH patients seem to be less lateralized for EP and therefore might be more susceptible to interfering involuntary EP processing; regardless which ear/hemisphere receives the bottom up input. PMID:23459397

  16. A brain basis for musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy.

  17. Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alana J; Shine, James M; Halliday, Glenda M; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-11-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in neuroscience is to be able to meaningfully connect information across the different levels of investigation, from molecular or structural biology to the resulting behavior and cognition. Visual hallucinations are a frequent occurrence in Parkinson's disease and significantly contribute to the burden of the disease. Because of the widespread pathological processes implicated in visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, a final common mechanism that explains their manifestation will require an integrative approach, in which consideration is taken across all complementary levels of analysis. This review considers the leading hypothetical frameworks for visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, summarizing the key aspects of each in an attempt to highlight the aspects of the condition that such a unifying hypothesis must explain. These competing hypotheses include implications of dream imagery intrusion, deficits in reality monitoring, and impairments in visual perception and attention.

  18. The face hallucinating two-step framework using hallucinated high-resolution residual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naleer, H. M. M.; Lu, Yao; An, Yaozu

    2011-06-01

    In video surveillance, the attention human faces are frequently of small size. Image hallucination is an imperative factor disturbing the face classification by human and computer. In this paper, we propose a two-step face hallucination framework by means of training data sets which have a small quantity of low and high resolution images. In the first step, the global face is constructed based on optimal weights of training images. In the second step, a local residual compensation method bases on position patch via residual training face image data sets. Moreover, the hallucinated highresolution residual image which is obtained by the identical process can be subsequent for the local face. Finally, the hallucinated high-resolution residual image is appended with the input low-resolution face image which is interpolated to the high-resolution image dimension by an upsampling factor. Experiments fully demonstrate that our framework is very flexible and accomplishs good performance via small training data sets.

  19. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  20. Visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum and comparative information from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; Ffytche, Dominic H; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications.

  1. [Neurocybernetic basis of hallucinations and related illusions].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, A

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of circuits of neurons involved in the development of regular perception are used as a basis for discussing possible processes proceeding in these circuits and producing hallucinations and other illusions and false perceptions in mental patients or normal subjects.

  2. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  3. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.

  4. Misusing volatile substances for their hallucinatory effects: a qualitative pilot study with Mexican teenagers and a pharmacological discussion of their hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Silvia L; Domínguez, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the solvent-induced hallucinatory experiences of 10 male and seven female teenagers in Mexico City from 1998 to 2000. The youth were recruited from public schools through a combined snowball and convenience sampling procedure. Inclusion criteria were: 13-18 years of age, school attendance, living with family, and weekly toluene-based solvent misuse. Interested students were interviewed and transcripts were analyzed. Hallucinations and illusions were common, including changes in color perception, visual, somatic, auditory, and tactile hallucinations. Some users described their hallucinatory experience as being able to be shared by a group and modulated by their environment. The pharmacological linkages with hallucinations are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21609151

  5. Misusing volatile substances for their hallucinatory effects: a qualitative pilot study with Mexican teenagers and a pharmacological discussion of their hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Silvia L; Domínguez, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the solvent-induced hallucinatory experiences of 10 male and seven female teenagers in Mexico City from 1998 to 2000. The youth were recruited from public schools through a combined snowball and convenience sampling procedure. Inclusion criteria were: 13-18 years of age, school attendance, living with family, and weekly toluene-based solvent misuse. Interested students were interviewed and transcripts were analyzed. Hallucinations and illusions were common, including changes in color perception, visual, somatic, auditory, and tactile hallucinations. Some users described their hallucinatory experience as being able to be shared by a group and modulated by their environment. The pharmacological linkages with hallucinations are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  6. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down'. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, E J O

    2008-12-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are often associated with sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis occurs immediately prior to falling asleep (hypnagogic paralysis) or upon waking (hypnopompic paralysis). In 1664, the Dutch physician Isbrand Van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) published a collection of case histories. One history with the title 'Of the Night-Mare' describes the nightly experiences of the 50-year-old woman. This case report is subject of this article. The experiences in this case could without doubt be diagnosed as sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnagogic hallucinations. This case from 1664 should be cited as the earliest detailed account of sleep paralysis associated with hypnagogic illusions and as the first observation that sleep paralysis and hypnagogic experiences occur more often in supine position of the body.

  7. The 40-Hz auditory steady-state response: a selective biomarker for cortical NMDA function.

    PubMed

    Sivarao, Digavalli V

    2015-05-01

    When subjected to a phasic input, sensory cortical neurons display a remarkable ability to entrain faithfully to the driving stimuli. The entrainment to rhythmic sound stimuli is often referred to as the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and can be captured using noninvasive techniques, such as scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An ASSR to a driving frequency of approximately 40 Hz is particularly interesting in that it shows, in relative terms, maximal power, synchrony, and synaptic activity. Moreover, the 40-Hz ASSR has been consistently found to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients across multiple studies. The nature of the reported abnormality has been less consistent; while most studies report a deficit in entrainment, several studies have reported increased signal power, particularly when there are concurrent positive symptoms, such as auditory hallucinations. However, the neuropharmacological basis for the 40-Hz ASSR, as well as its dysfunction in schizophrenia, has been unclear until recently. On the basis of several recent reports, it is argued that the 40-Hz ASSR represents a specific marker for cortical NMDA transmission. If confirmed, the 40-Hz ASSR may be a simple and easy-to-access pharmacodynamic biomarker for testing the integrity of cortical NMDA neurotransmission that is robustly translational across species. PMID:25809615

  8. The mind with a radio of its own: a case report and review of the literature on the treatment of musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Colon-Rivera, Hector A; Oldham, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Musical hallucinations (MH) have been labeled Oliver Sacks syndrome, and in the majority of cases, they occur in the context of a hearing loss. In these instances, they have been described as auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome because they are thought to represent a cortical release phenomenon. Patients with MH tend to have intact reality testing, and as such, the condition may also be described as musical hallucinosis. The temporal course of MH is variable, but given that they may improve or remit with time, education on their benign nature is often sufficient. MH also may improve when hearing loss is reversed. The use of ambient noise potentially ameliorates mild to moderate MH; however, where this is insufficient, somatic treatments may be considered. Case reports have documented successful use of low-dose antiepileptics, atypical antipsychotics and donepezil. We present a case of a 52-year-old man who received only partial relief from serial treatment with several psychotropic agents. He developed major depression with suicidal ideation in the context of persistent, intrusive MH that were refractory to several medication trials, and whereas a course of electroconvulsive therapy led to remission of depressive and suicidal symptoms, it provided only transient relief of his MH. In this article, we also provide a review of the literature on the neurobiology and treatment of MH.

  9. Bilateral osseous stenosis of the internal auditory canal: case report.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bianchini, C; Borrelli, M; Calzolari, F; Martini, A

    2011-06-01

    Osteomas as well as exostoses of the internal auditory canal are rare, benign, usually slow-growing lesions. The most common localizations of these temporal bone lesions are the mastoid cortex and the external auditory canal. A rare case is reported of bilateral osseous stenosis of the internal auditory canal, in the absence of clinical (auditory, vestibular and facial nerve) symptoms. In the absence of auditory, vestibular and/or facial nerve symptoms, long-term follow-up should be assessed; surgical intervention may be warranted only if symptoms are present.

  10. Hallucinating face in the DCT domain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Cham, Wai-Kuen

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based face hallucination framework built in the DCT domain, which can produce a high-resolution face image from a single low-resolution one. The problem is formulated as inferring the DCT coefficients in frequency domain instead of estimating pixel intensities in spatial domain. Our study shows that DC coefficients can be estimated fairly accurately by simple interpolation-based methods. AC coefficients, which contain the information of local features of face image, cannot be estimated well using interpolation. A simple but effective learning-based inference model is proposed to infer the ac coefficients. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in producing high quality hallucinated face images.

  11. Spatiotemporally varying visual hallucinations: I. Corticothalamic theory.

    PubMed

    Henke, H; Robinson, P A; Drysdale, P M; Loxley, P N

    2014-09-21

    The thalamus is introduced to a recent model of the visual cortex to examine its effect on pattern formation in general and the generation of temporally oscillating patterns in particular. By successively adding more physiological details to a basic corticothalamic model, it is determined which features are responsible for which effects. In particular, with the addition of a thalamic population, several changes occur in the spatiotemporal power spectrum: power increases at resonances of the corticothalamic loop, while the loop acts as a spatiotemporal low-pass filter, and synaptic and dendritic dynamics temporally low-pass filter the activity more generally. Investigation of the effect of altering parameters and gains reveals new parameter regimes where activity that corresponds to hallucinations is induced by both spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous temporally oscillating modes. This suggests that the thalamus and corticothalamic loops are essential components of a model of oscillating visual hallucinations.

  12. Nicotine and the hallucinating brain: effects on mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Grant, Bryan; Smith, Dylan M; Borracci, Giuseppe; Labelle, Alain; Knott, Verner J

    2012-04-30

    Elevated smoking rates have been noted in schizophrenia, and it has been hypothetically attributed to nicotine's ameliorating abnormal brain processes in this illness. There is some preliminary evidence that nicotine may alter pre-attentive auditory change detection, as indexed by the EEG-derived mismatch negativity (MMN), but no previous study has examined what role auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) may have on these effects. The objective of this study was to examine MMN-indexed acoustic change detection in schizophrenia (SZ) following nicotine administration and elucidate its association with AVH. Using a modified multi-feature paradigm, MMNs to duration, frequency and intensity deviants were recorded in 12 schizophrenia outpatients (SZ) with persistent AVHs following nicotine (6mg) and placebo administration. Electrical activity was recorded from 32 scalp electrodes; MMN amplitudes and latencies for each deviant were compared between treatments and were correlated with trait (PSYRATS) and state measures of AVH severity and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings. Nicotine administration resulted in a shortened latency for intensity MMN. Additionally, nicotine-related change in MMN amplitude was correlated with nicotine-related change in subjective measures of hallucinatory state. In summary, nicotine did not affect MMN amplitudes in schizophrenia patients with persistent AVHs, however this study reports accelerated auditory change detection to intensity deviants with nicotine in this group. Additionally, nicotine appeared to induce a generalized activation of the auditory cortex in schizophrenia, resulting in a concurrent increase in intensity MMN amplitude and subjective clarity of AVHs. PMID:22425471

  13. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation.

  14. A brain basis for musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy. PMID:24445167

  15. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  16. Changes of retina are not involved in the genesis of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kopal, Aleš; Mejzlíková, Eva; Preiningerová, Jana Lízrová; Brebera, David; Ulmanová, Olga; Ehler, Edvard; Roth, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include primarily visual hallucinations (VH). The aim of our study was to establish whether patients with PD and visual hallucinations (PDH+) have structural changes of retina detected by an optical coherence tomography (OCT) in comparison with PD patients without visual hallucinations (PDH-). We examined 52 PD patients (18 with VH, 34 without VH) and 15 age and sex matched healthy controls. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular thickness and volume were assessed by OCT. Functional impairment of retina was assessed using 2.5% contrast sensitivity test. For OCT outcomes we analyzed 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH- subjects matched for age, gender, and PD duration. For contrast sensitivity we analyzed 8 pairs of patients matched for age, gender, and visual acuity. There was no significant difference in RNFL thickness and macular thickness and macular volume between 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH- subjects, and also between a group of 44 PD patients (both PDH+ and PDH-) and 15 age and gender matched healthy controls. No significant difference was found for 2.5% contrast sensitivity test values between PDH+ and PDH- subjects. Therefore we conclude that functional and structural changes in retina play no role in genesis of VH in PD.

  17. Visual Hallucinations and Amyloid Deposition in Parkinson's Disease Dementia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Ho-Jun; Han, Jin-Hee; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jung, Won-Sang; Choi, Woo Hee; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is notorious for its debilitating clinical course and high mortality rates. Consequently, various attempts to investigate predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been made. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old female patient with PD who visited the clinic with complaints of recurrent visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, whose symptoms were ameliorated by the titration of rivastigmine. Imaging results showed pronounced diffuse cortical amyloid deposition evidenced by 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This observation suggests that pronounced amyloid deposition and visual hallucinations in PD patients could be clinically significant predictors of cognitive decline in PD patients. Future research should concentrate on accumulating more evidence for possible predictors of cognitive decline and their association with PD pathology that can enable an early intervention and standardized treatment in PDD patients. PMID:27247605

  18. [Sexual hallucinations and dreams under anesthesia and sedation : medicolegal aspects].

    PubMed

    Schneemilch, C; Schiltz, K; Meinshausen, E; Hachenberg, T

    2012-03-01

    Dreams and hallucinations under sedation or anesthesia have been well known phenomena since the introduction of anesthesia. Sexual hallucinations may lead to allegations of sexual molestation or assault by medical doctors or professional nursing staff. Hallucinations under the influence of sedative or hypnotic drugs may be very vivid and as misinterpreted as being real and it is therefore often difficult to disprove the resulting false allegations. In this report the terms drug-induced dreams and hallucinations are defined and the probable mechanism described. By a historical review and case reports the medicolegal consequences are demonstrated and procedures recommended to avoid allegations of sexual assault.

  19. Improvement in Psychotic Symptoms After a Gluten-Free Diet in a Boy With Complex Autoimmune Illness

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Chen, Lian-Yu; Dohan, F. Curtis; Kelly, Deanna L.; Cascella, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    CASE PRESENTATION At age 8, “Chris,” a Caucasian boy, experienced intermittent auditory and visual hallucinations, but without bizarre behaviors or much deterioration in functioning. At age 15, he developed a depressed mood, started talking to himself, and became socially withdrawn, and his academic performance declined. He was hospitalized and diagnosed as having major depressive disorder with psychotic features. MRI and EEG showed no abnormalities. Treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and aripiprazole (5 mg/day) had little effect. Several weeks after discharge, he was admitted for a second time with the same diagnosis; a third admission, again with the same diagnosis, occurred several months after that. At age 16, Chris developed visual and auditory hallucinations with homicidal ideations. He cut himself superficially following the command of voice hallucinations, and he was hospitalized again, with the diagnosis changed to schizophrenia, paranoid type. During this inpatient stay, he was treated with venlafaxine (150 mg/day) and risperidone (1.5 mg/day). During the same admission, a blood test showed the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), but the patient had no symptoms of any autoimmune disease. In the meantime, he was also receiving clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide and adapaline gels and minocycline for acne and fluticasone nasal spray and albuterol for asthma. An allergy to gluten was demonstrated by an assay (Accessa Labs) that showed only IgE antigluten antibodies. Chris’sparents reported that he developed anallergy to peanuts and soy at about the same time. Gluten was removed from his diet at the suggestion of the mother, a licensed dietitian. After the dietary change, the intensity of Chris’s auditory hallucinations declined dramatically and the violent element diminished, and he was discharged after 9 weeks. During the next 2 years, Chris remained on a gluten-free diet, which he and his family associated with the disappearance of his

  20. Hallucination proneness, schizotypy and meta-cognition.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John; Barkus, Emma; Lewis, Shon

    2007-06-01

    Disordered or maladaptive meta-cognitive processing appears to be a prominent feature for some individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We sought to establish whether healthy individuals distinguished either in terms hallucination proneness (HP) or level of schizotypy could also be differentiated on the sub-scales of the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), or a modified version of it in which items about worry were replaced with items specifically related to thinking. A total of 106 healthy volunteers completed the Oxford and Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and Launay-Slade hallucination scale, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and two versions of the MCQ: the original which assesses five domains of meta-cognition and an adapted version in which items relating to worry had been replaced by items relating to thinking or reflecting on thinking (MCQ-th). ANOVA indicated highly significant differences between three groups of individuals differentiated in terms of high, medium and low proneness to hallucinations on four of the five MCQ sub-scales, and three of the four MCQ-th factors. Regression analyses indicated that the MCQ factors encompassing (1) a sense of uncontrollability of thinking (and the perceived attendant dangers of this) and (2) negative beliefs about thinking related to suspicion and punishment were the strongest predictors of high schizotypy. Individuals who score higher on a measure of HP are more likely to display patterns of meta-cognitive processing that resemble, in certain respects, those reported in individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. High schizotypy predicts a negative appraisal about both the controllability and consequences of thinking. PMID:16934218

  1. Sensory dynamics of visual hallucinations in the normal population

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Joel; Chiou, Rocco; Rogers, Sebastian; Wicken, Marcus; Heitmann, Stewart; Ermentrout, Bard

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations occur in both normal and clinical populations. Due to their unpredictability and complexity, the mechanisms underlying hallucinations remain largely untested. Here we show that visual hallucinations can be induced in the normal population by visual flicker, limited to an annulus that constricts content complexity to simple moving grey blobs, allowing objective mechanistic investigation. Hallucination strength peaked at ~11 Hz flicker and was dependent on cortical processing. Hallucinated motion speed increased with flicker rate, when mapped onto visual cortex it was independent of eccentricity, underwent local sensory adaptation and showed the same bistable and mnemonic dynamics as sensory perception. A neural field model with motion selectivity provides a mechanism for both hallucinations and perception. Our results demonstrate that hallucinations can be studied objectively, and they share multiple mechanisms with sensory perception. We anticipate that this assay will be critical to test theories of human consciousness and clinical models of hallucination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17072.001 PMID:27726845

  2. Visual memory errors in Parkinson's disease patient with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Boubert, L

    2011-03-01

    The occurrences of visual hallucinations seem to be more prevalent in low light and hallucinators tend to be more prone to false positive type errors in memory tasks. Here we investigated whether the richness of stimuli does indeed affect recognition differently in hallucinating and nonhallucinating participants, and if so whether this difference extends to identifying spatial context. We compared 36 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with visual hallucinations, 32 Parkinson's patients without hallucinations, and 36 age-matched controls, on a visual memory task where color and black and white pictures were presented at different locations. Participants had to recognize the pictures among distracters along with the location of the stimulus. Findings revealed clear differences in performance between the groups. Both PD groups had impaired recognition compared to the controls, but those with hallucinations were significantly more impaired on black and white than on color stimuli. In addition, the group with hallucinations was significantly impaired compared to the other two groups on spatial memory. We suggest that not only do PD patients have poorer recognition of pictorial stimuli than controls, those who present with visual hallucinations appear to be more heavily reliant on bottom up sensory input and impaired on spatial ability.

  3. A circuit for motor cortical modulation of auditory cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity. PMID:24005287

  4. Visual and spatial symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Davidsdottir, Sigurros; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Lee, Alison

    2005-05-01

    The interaction of visual/visuospatial and motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) was investigated by means of a 31-item self-report questionnaire. The majority of 81 non-demented patients reported problems on non-motor tasks that depended on visual or visuospatial abilities. Over a third reported visual hallucinations, double vision and difficulty estimating spatial relations. Freezing of gait was associated with visual hallucinations, double vision and contrast sensitivity deficits. Visual strategies frequently were employed to overcome freezing. The results underscore the importance of investigating visual and visuospatial impairments in PD and their relation to motor symptoms, in order to help patients develop successful compensatory strategies.

  5. The neural basis of Charles Bonnet hallucinations: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Burke, W

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the hallucinations occurring as a result of a macular hole in each eye and to investigate the neural basis. Methods: Psychophysical observations including sketches of the hallucinations calibrated for size. Results: All the hallucinations were of the geometric (patterned) type and lasted for only a few days. Conclusions: The observations can be explained on the basis of a "deafferentation" model, which is described in some detail. It is proposed that the hallucinations result from activation of the "blobs" of area V1 and the "stripes" of area V2 in the visual cortex. A theory is proposed to account for the disappearance of the hallucinations by a "filling in" mechanism. PMID:12397147

  6. From mind-pops to hallucinations? A study of involuntary semantic memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elua, Ia; Laws, Keith R; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2012-04-30

    Involuntary semantic memories or mind-pops consist of isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word or a sentence, proper name, image or a melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, without any deliberate attempt to recall them. They can be experienced as alien and uncontrollable, and may share some phenomenological similarities with hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and frequency of mind-pops in people with schizophrenia (N=37), as well as clinically depressed (N=31) and non-clinical controls (N=31). Results showed that schizophrenia patients reported experiencing mind-pops more frequently than both depressed and non-clinical controls. Schizophrenia patients also reported a wider range of different types of mind-pops than non-clinical controls. The depressed group did not differ from non-clinical controls in the frequency and range of mind-pops, indicating that mind-pops are not characteristic of clinical populations in general, but may be particularly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The possible implications of this finding to current models of auditory verbal hallucinations are discussed and the need for future research in this area is emphasized. PMID:22424894

  7. Osteoma of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, J; Subarić, M; Lajtman, Z; Curcić, I

    2001-01-01

    Osteomas of the internal auditory canal, inaccesible to clinical examination, are rare lesions. There are only 14 cases of osteomas and exostoses of the internal auditory canal reported in the international medical literature. A patient with an osteoma of the internal auditory canal is presented, along with differential diagnosis and possible etiologic factors for the lesion. The auditory brainsteam evoked response testing showed increased absolute latencies of 1 wave and discrepancy of the wave morphology due to bony compression of the eight nerve in the internal auditory canal. Computed tomography showed a bony growth in the internal auditory canal. Magnetic response showed no abnormalities. No surgery was performed since the symptoms improved by conservative therapy.

  8. Auditory synesthesias.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality (the inducer) elicits an involuntary or automatic sensation in another sensory modality or different aspect of the same sensory modality (the concurrent). Auditory synesthesias (AS) occur when auditory stimuli trigger a variety of concurrents, or when non-auditory sensory stimulations trigger auditory synesthetic perception. The AS are divided into three types: developmental, acquired, and induced. Developmental AS are not a neurologic disorder but a different way of experiencing one's environment. They are involuntary and highly consistent experiences throughout one's life. Acquired AS have been reported in association with neurologic diseases that cause deafferentation of anterior optic pathways, with pathologic lesions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) outside of the optic pathways, as well as non-lesional cases associated with migraine, and epilepsy. It also has been reported with mood disorders as well as a single idiopathic case. Induced AS has been reported in experimental and postsurgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenics or psychedelics. In this chapter the three different types of synesthesia, their characteristics, and phenomologic differences, as well as their possible neural mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25726281

  9. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  10. Hallucinations and related concepts-their conceptual background.

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination. By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey), while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish). More integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes. The terms pseudohallucination, illusion, and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were "lack of objectivity" and "presence of insight" (differing from hallucinations). Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved. These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper. PMID:26283978

  11. Hallucinations and related concepts-their conceptual background.

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination. By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey), while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish). More integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes. The terms pseudohallucination, illusion, and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were "lack of objectivity" and "presence of insight" (differing from hallucinations). Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved. These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper.

  12. Hallucinations, sleep fragmentation, and altered dream phenomena in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pappert, E J; Goetz, C G; Niederman, F G; Raman, R; Leurgans, S

    1999-01-01

    In a series of consecutively randomized outpatients who had Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined the association of three behaviors: sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions. Using a log-linear model methodology, we tested the independence of each behavior. Sixty-two percent of the subjects had sleep fragmentation, 48% had altered dream phenomena, and 26% had hallucinations/illusions. Eighty-two percent of the patients with hallucinations/illusions experienced some form of sleep disorder. The three phenomena were not independent. The interaction between sleep fragmentation and altered dream phenomena was strongly statistically significant. Likewise, a significant interaction existed between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations/illusions. No interaction occurred between sleep fragmentation and hallucinations/illusions. Sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions in PD should be considered distinct but often overlapping behaviors. The close association between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations suggests that therapeutic interventions aimed at diminishing dream-related activities may have a specific positive impact on hallucinatory behavior.

  13. Hallucinations and related concepts—their conceptual background

    PubMed Central

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination. By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey), while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish). More integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes. The terms pseudohallucination, illusion, and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were “lack of objectivity” and “presence of insight” (differing from hallucinations). Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved. These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper. PMID:26283978

  14. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Paraneoplastic Hallucinations and Cognitive Decline from Limbic Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joshua W; Cherukuri, Ramesh; Buchan, Debra

    2015-07-01

    We present a 66-year-old woman with 2 months of visual hallucinations, unintentional weight loss, and short-term memory decline, whose clinical presentation and EEG supported a diagnosis of limbic encephalitis. Subsequent evaluation for a paraneoplastic etiology revealed a renal mass, which was resected and identified as clear cell renal carcinoma. The patient's clinical condition improved after resection of the mass. When patients present with incongruous subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, clinicians should be mindful of paraneoplastic neurological disorders, as early diagnosis and treatment of malignancy may lead to symptomatic improvement.

  15. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Paraneoplastic Hallucinations and Cognitive Decline from Limbic Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joshua W; Cherukuri, Ramesh; Buchan, Debra

    2015-07-01

    We present a 66-year-old woman with 2 months of visual hallucinations, unintentional weight loss, and short-term memory decline, whose clinical presentation and EEG supported a diagnosis of limbic encephalitis. Subsequent evaluation for a paraneoplastic etiology revealed a renal mass, which was resected and identified as clear cell renal carcinoma. The patient's clinical condition improved after resection of the mass. When patients present with incongruous subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, clinicians should be mindful of paraneoplastic neurological disorders, as early diagnosis and treatment of malignancy may lead to symptomatic improvement. PMID:25608740

  16. Visual hallucinations of autobiographic memory and asomatognosia: a case of epilepsy due to brain cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Kerik, Nora Estela; Diaz Meneses, Iván; Pérez-Gay, Fernanda Juárez

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the case of a woman with symptomatic epilepsy due to brain cysticercosis acquired during childhood. During her adolescence, she developed seizures characterized by metamorphopsia, hallucinations of autobiographic memory and, finally, asomatognosia. Magnetic brain imaging showed a calcified lesion in the right occipitotemporal cortex, and positron emission tomography imaging confirmed the presence of interictal hypometabolism in two regions: the right parietal cortex and the right lateral and posterior temporal cortex. We discuss the link between these brain areas and the symptoms described under the concepts of epileptogenic lesion, epileptogenic zone, functional deficit zone, and symptomatogenic zone.

  17. [Visual hallucinations and giant cell arteritis: the Charles Bonnet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bloch, J; Morell-Dubois, S; Koch, E; Launay, D; Maillard-Lefebvre, H; Buchdahl, A-L; Hachulla, E; Rouland, J-F; Hatron, P-Y; Lambert, M

    2011-12-01

    In patients with visual hallucinations, diagnostic strategy is unclearly codified. In patients known to have giant cell arteritis, the main diagnostic assumption is disease relapse. Indeed, this should lead to rapid corticosteroid therapy. However, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, that is a poorly known etiology of visual hallucinations usually observed in elderly people, should be part of the differential diagnosis. We report a 87-year-old woman, with a 2-year history of giant cell arteritis who was admitted with an acute onset of visual hallucinations and who met all the criteria for Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  18. Spatiotemporally varying visual hallucinations: II. Spectral classification and comparison with theory.

    PubMed

    Henke, H; Robinson, P A; Drysdale, P M

    2014-09-21

    In order to better understand the nature of visual hallucinations, and to test predictions of spatiotemporally oscillating hallucinations from a recent corticothalamic model of visual dynamics, clinical descriptions of hallucinations are used to establish boundaries on the spatiotemporal frequencies observed in various disorders. Detailed comparisons with hallucinations during migraine aura demonstrate that key features are consistent with corticothalamic origin and specific abnormalities, but underline the need for more detailed quantitative data to be obtained on temporally oscillating hallucinations more generally.

  19. Prevalent Hallucinations during Medical Internships: Phantom Vibration and Ringing Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Background Phantom vibration syndrome is a type of hallucination reported among mobile phone users in the general population. Another similar perception, phantom ringing syndrome, has not been previously described in the medical literature. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns (46 males, 28 females; mean age, 24.8±1.2 years) was conducted using repeated investigations of the prevalence and associated factors of phantom vibration and ringing. The accompanying symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories before the internship began, and again at the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, and two weeks after the internship ended. Results The baseline prevalence of phantom vibration was 78.1%, which increased to 95.9% and 93.2% in the third and sixth internship months. The prevalence returned to 80.8% at the twelfth month and decreased to 50.0% 2 weeks after the internship ended. The baseline prevalence of phantom ringing was 27.4%, which increased to 84.9%, 87.7%, and 86.3% in the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, respectively. This returned to 54.2% two weeks after the internship ended. The anxiety and depression scores also increased during the internship, and returned to baseline two weeks after the internship. There was no significant correlation between phantom vibration/ringing and symptoms of anxiety or depression. The incidence of both phantom vibration and ringing syndromes significantly increased during the internship, and subsequent recovery. Conclusion This study suggests that phantom vibration and ringing might be entities that are independent of anxiety or depression during evaluation of stress-associated experiences during medical internships. PMID:23762302

  20. Hymns and arias: musical hallucinations in older people in Wales.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nick; Aziz, Victor

    2005-07-01

    This is a phenomenological study of 30 consecutive referrals of older people with musical hallucinations concentrating on the names of the melodies heard. Hymns and Christmas carols were the most common experience with 'Abide with Me' particularly frequent.

  1. Psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Devin; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-07-01

    Although psychotic features have long been recognized in association with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), recent genetic discoveries enabling further subtyping of FTD have revealed that psychotic symptoms are frequent in some forms of FTD. Hallucinations and delusions can even precede onset of other cognitive or behavioural symptoms in patients with FTD. In this review, we explore the frequency and types of psychotic symptoms reported in patients with FTD, as well as in other neuropsychiatric disorders, to aid practitioners' consideration of these features in the diagnosis of FTD and related disorders.

  2. Tricks of the mind: Visual hallucinations as disorders of attention.

    PubMed

    Shine, James M; O'Callaghan, Claire; Halliday, Glenda M; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Visual hallucinations are common across a number of disorders but to date, a unifying pathophysiology underlying these phenomena has not been described. In this manuscript, we combine insights from neuropathological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to propose a testable common neural mechanism for visual hallucinations. We propose that 'simple' visual hallucinations arise from disturbances within regions responsible for the primary processing of visual information, however with no further modulation of perceptual content by attention. In contrast, 'complex' visual hallucinations reflect dysfunction within and between the Attentional Control Networks, leading to the inappropriate interpretation of ambiguous percepts. The incorrect information perceived by hallucinators is often differentially interpreted depending on the time-course and the neuroarchitecture underlying the interpretation. Disorders with 'complex' hallucinations without retained insight are proposed to be associated with a reduction in the activity within the Dorsal Attention Network. The review concludes by showing that a variety of pathological processes can ultimately manifest in any of these three categories, depending on the precise location of the impairment.

  3. The neural mechanisms of hallucinations: A quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zmigrod, Leor; Garrison, Jane R; Carr, Joseph; Simons, Jon S

    2016-10-01

    Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying auditory-verbal and visual hallucinations (AVHs and VHs). Consistent activation across studies during AVHs, but not VHs, in Wernicke's and Broca's areas is consistent with involvement of speech and language processes in the experience of hearing voices when none are present. Similarly, greater activity in auditory cortex during AVHs and in visual cortex during VHs supports models proposing over-stimulation of sensory cortices in the generation of these perceptual anomalies. Activation across studies in the medial temporal lobe highlights a role for memory intrusions in the provision of content for AVHs, whereas insula activation may relate to the involvement of awareness and self-representation. Finally, activation in the paracingulate region of medial prefrontal cortex during AVHs is consistent with models implicating reality monitoring impairment in the misattribution of self-generated information as externally perceived. In the light of the results, the need for unified theoretical frameworks that account for the full range of hallucinatory experiences is discussed. PMID:27473935

  4. The neural mechanisms of hallucinations: A quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zmigrod, Leor; Garrison, Jane R; Carr, Joseph; Simons, Jon S

    2016-10-01

    Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying auditory-verbal and visual hallucinations (AVHs and VHs). Consistent activation across studies during AVHs, but not VHs, in Wernicke's and Broca's areas is consistent with involvement of speech and language processes in the experience of hearing voices when none are present. Similarly, greater activity in auditory cortex during AVHs and in visual cortex during VHs supports models proposing over-stimulation of sensory cortices in the generation of these perceptual anomalies. Activation across studies in the medial temporal lobe highlights a role for memory intrusions in the provision of content for AVHs, whereas insula activation may relate to the involvement of awareness and self-representation. Finally, activation in the paracingulate region of medial prefrontal cortex during AVHs is consistent with models implicating reality monitoring impairment in the misattribution of self-generated information as externally perceived. In the light of the results, the need for unified theoretical frameworks that account for the full range of hallucinatory experiences is discussed.

  5. Visual hallucinations related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use: case reports and review.

    PubMed

    Doane, John; Stults, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Four patients experienced visual hallucinations that appear to have been precipitated by lisinopril. Other cases of visual hallucinations have been reported with other angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Older patients, particularly those with a history of either dementia or mild cognitive impairment, may be at higher risk. Hallucinations resolved within 1 to 30 days after cessation of ACE inhibitors. Development of visual hallucinations after initiation of ACE inhibitors should prompt discontinuation of therapy. Visual hallucinations have been reported in one case involving an ARB. Visual hallucinations have not been associated with direct renin inhibitors. Consideration should be given to use of alternative, unrelated antihypertensive drug classes.

  6. Influence of metacognitive variables and thought suppression on number of thoughts, discomfort they produce and number and quality of auditory illusions.

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José M; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Fidalgo, Angel M

    2004-01-01

    Based on the model proposed by Morrison, Haddock & Tarrier (1995) on auditory hallucinations, this study explores the relationships between certain metacognitive variables and number of thoughts, the discomfort they produce, number of auditory illusions and the quality with which they are perceived in a sample from a non-clinical population. After group administration of the Metacognitions Questionnaire, 61 participants were randomly assigned to a suppression group (n = 31) or a focalization group (n = 30) in relation to thoughts with different degrees of self-discrepancy. Forty-eight hours after the set task, a non-vocal auditory stimulus was presented, and subjects were required to say whether they heard any words and, if so, how clearly. The results show how the metacognitive factors studied are useful for predicting our findings only for the suppression group and not for that of focalization. These data are discussed in the light of Morrison et al.'s model of auditory hallucinations.

  7. Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Neil K; Clarke, Mike P; Mosimann, Urs P; Burn, David J

    2011-11-01

    Visual symptoms are common in PD and PD dementia and include difficulty reading, double vision, illusions, feelings of presence and passage, and complex visual hallucinations. Despite the established prognostic implications of complex visual hallucinations, the interaction between cognitive decline, visual impairment, and other visual symptoms remains poorly understood. Our aim was to characterize the spectrum of visual symptomatology in PD and examine clinical predictors for their occurrence. Sixty-four subjects with PD, 26 with PD dementia, and 32 age-matched controls were assessed for visual symptoms, cognitive impairment, and ocular pathology. Complex visual hallucinations were common in PD (17%) and PD dementia (89%). Dementia subjects reported illusions (65%) and presence (62%) more frequently than PD or control subjects, but the frequency of passage hallucinations in PD and PD dementia groups was equivalent (48% versus 69%, respectively; P = 0.102). Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity was impaired in parkinsonian subjects, with disease severity and age emerging as the key predictors. Regression analysis identified a variety of factors independently predictive of complex visual hallucinations (e.g., dementia, visual acuity, and depression), illusions (e.g., excessive daytime somnolence and disease severity), and presence (e.g., rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime somnolence). Our results demonstrate that different "hallucinatory" experiences in PD do not necessarily share common disease predictors and may, therefore, be driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms. If confirmed, such a finding will have important implications for future studies of visual symptoms and cognitive decline in PD and PD dementia.

  8. Network localization of neurological symptoms from focal brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Boes, Aaron D; Prasad, Sashank; Liu, Hesheng; Liu, Qi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Caviness, Verne S; Fox, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    A traditional and widely used approach for linking neurological symptoms to specific brain regions involves identifying overlap in lesion location across patients with similar symptoms, termed lesion mapping. This approach is powerful and broadly applicable, but has limitations when symptoms do not localize to a single region or stem from dysfunction in regions connected to the lesion site rather than the site itself. A newer approach sensitive to such network effects involves functional neuroimaging of patients, but this requires specialized brain scans beyond routine clinical data, making it less versatile and difficult to apply when symptoms are rare or transient. In this article we show that the traditional approach to lesion mapping can be expanded to incorporate network effects into symptom localization without the need for specialized neuroimaging of patients. Our approach involves three steps: (i) transferring the three-dimensional volume of a brain lesion onto a reference brain; (ii) assessing the intrinsic functional connectivity of the lesion volume with the rest of the brain using normative connectome data; and (iii) overlapping lesion-associated networks to identify regions common to a clinical syndrome. We first tested our approach in peduncular hallucinosis, a syndrome of visual hallucinations following subcortical lesions long hypothesized to be due to network effects on extrastriate visual cortex. While the lesions themselves were heterogeneously distributed with little overlap in lesion location, 22 of 23 lesions were negatively correlated with extrastriate visual cortex. This network overlap was specific compared to other subcortical lesions (P < 10(-5)) and relative to other cortical regions (P < 0.01). Next, we tested for generalizability of our technique by applying it to three additional lesion syndromes: central post-stroke pain, auditory hallucinosis, and subcortical aphasia. In each syndrome, heterogeneous lesions that themselves had

  9. Olfactory hallucinations elicited by electrical stimulation via subdural electrodes: effects of direct stimulation of olfactory bulb and tract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gogi; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-06-01

    In 1954, Penfield and Jasper briefly described that percepts of unpleasant odor were elicited by intraoperative electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb in patients with epilepsy. Since then, few peer-reviewed studies have reported such phenomena elicited by stimulation mapping via subdural electrodes implanted on the ventral surface of the frontal lobe. Here, we determined what types of olfactory hallucinations could be reproduced by such stimulation in children with focal epilepsy. This study included 16 children (age range: 5 to 17 years) who underwent implantation of subdural electrodes to localize the presumed epileptogenic zone and eloquent areas. Pairs of electrodes were electrically stimulated, and clinical responses were observed. In case a patient reported a perception, she/he was asked to describe its nature. We also described the stimulus parameters to elicit a given symptom. Eleven patients reported a perception of smell in response to electrical stimulation while the remaining five did not. Nine patients perceived an unpleasant smell (like bitterness, smoke, or garbage) while two perceived a pleasant smell (like strawberry or good food). Such olfactory hallucinations were induced by stimulation proximal to the olfactory bulb or tract on either hemisphere but not by that of orbitofrontal gyri lateral to the medial orbital sulci. The range of stimulus parameters employed to elicit olfactory hallucinations was comparable to those for other sensorimotor symptoms. Our systematic study of children with epilepsy replicated stimulation-induced olfactory hallucinations. We failed to provide evidence that a positive olfactory perception could be elicited by conventional stimulation of secondary olfactory cortex alone.

  10. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  11. Testing an aetiological model of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, David A; Parkkinen, Laura; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Spratt, Alexander; Shah, Ameet; Davey, Clare C; Bremner, Fion D; Revesz, Tamas; Williams, David R; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2011-11-01

    The exact pathogenesis of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease is not known but an integrated model has been proposed that includes impaired visual input and central visual processing, impaired brainstem regulation of sleep-wake cycle with fluctuating vigilance, intrusion of rapid eye movement dream imagery into wakefulness and emergence of internally generated imagery, cognitive dysfunction and influence of dopaminergic drugs. In a clinical study, we assessed motor and non-motor function, including sleep, mood, autonomic and global, frontal and visuoperceptive cognitive function in patients with and without visual hallucinations. A subgroup of patients underwent detailed ophthalmological assessment. In a separate pathological study, histological specimens were obtained from cases of pathologically proven Parkinson's disease and a retrospective case notes review was made for reporting of persistent formed visual hallucinations. An assessment of Lewy body and Lewy neurite pathology was carried out in five cortical regions as recommended by diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy Bodies and in brainstem nuclei. Ninety-four patients (mean age 67.5 ± 9.5 years) participated in the clinical study of whom 32% experienced visual hallucinations. When corrected for multiple comparisons, patients with visual hallucinations had significantly greater disease duration, treatment duration, motor severity and complications, sleep disturbances, in particular excessive daytime somnolence and rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder, disorders of mood, autonomic dysfunction and global, frontal and visuoperceptive cognitive dysfunction. Of the 94 patients, 50 (53%) underwent ophthalmological assessment. There were no differences in ocular pathology between the visual hallucination and non-visual hallucination groups. In a logistic regression model the four independent determinants of visual hallucinations were rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder (P = 0

  12. High resolution examination of the role of sleep disturbance in predicting functioning and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia: A novel experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Lee D; Haddock, Gillian; Emsley, Richard; Neil, Sandra T; Kyle, Simon D

    2016-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in schizophrenia, but its role in predicting functioning and psychotic symptoms has yet to be rigorously examined. The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective, high-resolution examination of the relationship between nightly sleep and next-day functioning and psychotic symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Experience sampling methodology was integrated with actigraphy and sleep diaries across 7 days in 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Momentary assessments of mood, psychotic symptoms, and functioning were gathered at 5 points each day following pseudorandom schedules. Multilevel modeling was performed to evaluate the links between variables. Objective and subjective sleep disturbance predicted reduced next-day functioning, which remained significant after controlling for psychotic symptom severity. Increased sleep fragmentation and reduced subjective and objective sleep efficiency predicted greater next-day auditory hallucinations, whereas increased objective sleep fragmentation and reduced subjective sleep quality predicted greater paranoia and delusions of control. Negative affect on awakening mediated a proportion of these relationships (range: 17.9-57.3%). For the first time, we show that sleep disturbance is a predictor of next-day impaired functioning and psychotic symptom severity in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Therefore, interventions targeting sleep may have the potential to directly and indirectly enhance functional and symptomatic recovery in those experiencing psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362488

  13. Pathology and temporal onset of visual hallucinations, misperceptions and family misidentification distinguishes Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferman, T.J.; Arvanitakis, Z.; Fujishiro, H.; Duara, R.; Parfitt, F.; Purdy, M.; Waters, C.; Barker, W.; Graff-Radford, N.R.; Dickson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the temporal onset of visual phenomena distinguishes Lewy body disease (LBD) from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and to characterize the extent Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles are associated with these clinical features. Methods Consecutive cases of autopsy-confirmed LBD (n=41), AD (n=70), and AD with amygdala-predominant Lewy bodies (AD-ALB) (n=14) with a documented clinical history of dementia were included. We mailed questionnaires to next-of-kin asking about symptoms during life. Lewy pathology and neurofibrillary tangle pathology were assessed. Results The occurrence of visual hallucinations, misperceptions and family misidentification did not distinguish LBD from AD or AD-ALB, but the onset was earlier in LBD compared to AD and AD-ALB. When visual hallucinations developed within the first 5 years of dementia, the odds were 4 to 5 times greater for autopsy-confirmed LBD (or intermediate/high likelihood DLB) and not AD or AD-ALB. In LBD, limbic but not cortical Lewy body pathology was related to an earlier onset of visual hallucinations, while limbic and cortical Lewy body pathology were associated with visual misperceptions and misidentification. Cortical neurofibrillary tangle burden was associated with an earlier onset of misidentification and misperceptions in LBD and AD, but only with earlier visual hallucinations in AD/AD-ALB. Conclusion When visual hallucinations occur within the first 5 years of the dementia, a diagnosis of DLB was more likely than AD. Visual hallucinations in LBD were associated with limbic Lewy body pathology. Visual misperceptions and misidentification delusions were related to cortical Lewy body and neurofibrillary tangle burden in LBD and AD/AD-ALB. PMID:23182311

  14. Might Hallucinations Have Social Utility?: A Proposal for Scientific Study.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Paul Richard

    2016-09-01

    There are many historical examples of people who heard voices or saw visions but were not classified as having a mental illness and who were supported by a religious community. The article offers a perspective for effective psychosocial supports for schizophrenia. The author analyzes data on 95 people who experienced verifiable persistent non-drug-assisted hallucinations in Europe, North America, and Australasia and discusses the life outcomes of 39 subjects. They include founders of religions, dysfunctional monarchs, persons with cosmological beliefs, and mental health workers. Their psychoses were intrinsic to their personalities and contributions. Hallucinations generated by psychosis were useful for cultural innovation, particularly in religion as many hallucinators were integrated into church history. Community, work, friendship, and supportive practices are discussed. A scientific study of effective psychosocial support to supplement medication for schizophrenia is outlined. PMID:27570899

  15. Human EEG spectra before and during cannabis hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, M; Lehmann, D

    1976-12-01

    EEG correlates of subjective experiences induced by delta9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and EEG correlates of individual disposition to such experiences were investigated. Twelve normal volunteers took 200 mug/kg THC orally. The subjects were asked to signal subjective experiences. The EEG was analyzed (period analysis) before and repeatedly after THC injestion, during resting, attention, eye closure, visual hallucinations, and body image disturbances. EEG frequency spectra differed significantly between resting and visual hallucinations and body image disturbances. The differences included slower alpha and more theta during THC experiences, reminiscent of initial drowsiness EEG, and of some results in schizophrenia. The differences between spectra during visual hallucinations and during body image disturbances indicate different functional brain states. Subjects with a high tendency to cannabinol induced experiences exhibited resting spectra before and after THC with higher modal alpha frequences (reminiscent of subjects with high neuroticism scores) than subjects with a low tendency.

  16. Benign Visual Hallucinations, or "Phantom Vision" in Visually Impaired and Blind Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, W. E.; Taylor, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Benign visual hallucinations ("phantom vision") were examined in 2 studies, involving a total of 443 adventitiously blinded and sight-impaired veterans. In one study, unusual visual events were reported by 38.7 percent, with 30.6 percent reporting complex hallucinations. Causes of the hallucinations and their treatment are discussed. (Author/JDD)

  17. Network dynamics during the different stages of hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Demeulemeester, Morgane; Leroy, Arnaud; Delmaire, Christine; Lopes, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia suffer from hallucinations. While the triple-network model, which includes the default mode network (DMN), the central executive network (CEN) and the salience network (SAL), has recently been applied to schizophrenia, how this framework could explain the emergence of hallucinations remains unclear. Therefore, complementary brain regions that have been linked to hallucinations, such as the left hippocampus, should also be considered and added to this model. Accordingly, the present study explored the effective connectivity across these four components (i.e., the quadripartite model) during the different stages of hallucinations. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia participated in a single session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to capture hallucinatory experiences. Based on the participants' self-report of the psychosensory experiences that occurred during scanning, hallucinatory experiences were identified and divided into four stages: periods without hallucination ("OFF"), periods with hallucination ("ON"), transition periods between "OFF" and "ON", and the extinction of the hallucinatory experience ("END"). Using stochastic dynamic causal modeling analysis, this study first confirmed that the SAL played a critical and causal role in switching between the CEN and the DMN in schizophrenia. In addition, effective connectivity within the quadripartite model depended on the hallucinatory stage. In particular, "ON" periods were linked to memory-based sensory input from the hippocampus to the SAL, while "END" periods were associated with a takeover of the CEN in favor of a voluntary process. Finally, the pathophysiological and therapeutic implications of these findings are critically discussed. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2571-2586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27016153

  18. Visual hallucinations (Charles Bonnet syndrome) associated with neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jason; Waisbren, Emily; Hashemi, Nafiseh; Lee, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    The Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) refers to lucid and complex visual hallucinations in cognitively normal patients with acquired vision loss. It can be associated with any type of vision loss including that related to macular degeneration, corneal disease, diabetic retinopathy, and occipital infarct. Neurosarcoidosis, a multi-systemic inflammatory granulomatous disease affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems, is rarely associated with CBS. We report a patient with biopsy-confirmed neurosarcoidosis who experienced visual hallucinations following the development of a right seventh-nerve palsy, right facial paresthesia, and bilateral progressive visual loss. This case highlights the importance of recognizing that the CBS can occur in visual loss of any etiology.

  19. Commentary on visual hallucinations and Charles Bonnet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benaur, Marina; Kahn, David

    2011-03-01

    The authors comment on two case reports of visual hallucinations due to non-psychiatric disorders: retinal detachment in a patient with schizophrenia, and Charles Bonnet syndrome. The physiology of visual misperception is reviewed, based on abnormalities along various points from the eye to the optic tracts to the occipital cortex. The approach to patients with visual hallucinations should include not only an evaluation for psychiatric disorders, but also an appreciation of possible non-psychiatric causes that may have major ramifications for care and potentially for preservation of sight.

  20. [Optical hallucinations in the aged with diseases of the eye].

    PubMed

    Olbrich, H M; Lodemann, E; Engelmeier, M P

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) showing an unusual history are reported. In a 67-year-old man visual hallucinations developed 38 years after bilateral optic nerve damage due to methyl alcohol poisoning. A 78-year-old woman suffering from bilateral advanced cataract experienced visual hallucinations which ceased after improvement of vision resulting from cataract extraction. Sensory deprivation and--possibly--central neurophysiological disturbance are to be regarded as important pathogenetic factors. Signs of cerebral dysfunction which could be relevant to the pathogenesis of CBS were revealed by the EEG.

  1. Persistent psychotic symptoms after long-term heavy use of mephedrone: A two-case series.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Gaskell, Matthew; Goti, Javier; Vilardell, Sergi; Fàbregas, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic stimulant drug of the cathinone class. Similar effects to those of cocaine and ecstasy are reported by users, with a high addictive potential. Given its increasing rate of consumption in Europe, it is getting more and more attention from the addiction field. In spite of that, little is known about the long-term consequences of prolonged heavy use. The two following cases might depict some of them. Case 1 was a middle-age man who reported three years of intravenous use of mephedrone. He used to binge for several days in a row. Psychotic symptoms appeared after a few months, especially paranoid delusions. Sent to aftercare in a therapeutic community, delusions kept reappearing after prolonged abstinence. A good response to risperidone was observed. Case 2 was a young man who used mephedrone heavily for two years, always snorted. Upon admission to the therapeutic community, the patient reported auditory hallucinations that partially remitted with olanzapine. Both cases showed a good insight and no personality deterioration. Given its similarities to other substances that are known to induce psychotic symptoms, and the increasing consumption of mephedrone around Europe, similar cases are expected in the near future. Conventional antipsychotic treatment seems a reasonable pharmacological approach. PMID:27399224

  2. Persistent psychotic symptoms after long-term heavy use of mephedrone: A two-case series.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Gaskell, Matthew; Goti, Javier; Vilardell, Sergi; Fàbregas, Josep Maria

    2016-06-15

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic stimulant drug of the cathinone class. Similar effects to those of cocaine and ecstasy are reported by users, with a high addictive potential. Given its increasing rate of consumption in Europe, it is getting more and more attention from the addiction field. In spite of that, little is known about the long-term consequences of prolonged heavy use. The two following cases might depict some of them. Case 1 was a middle-age man who reported three years of intravenous use of mephedrone. He used to binge for several days in a row. Psychotic symptoms appeared after a few months, especially paranoid delusions. Sent to aftercare in a therapeutic community, delusions kept reappearing after prolonged abstinence. A good response to risperidone was observed. Case 2 was a young man who used mephedrone heavily for two years, always snorted. Upon admission to the therapeutic community, the patient reported auditory hallucinations that partially remitted with olanzapine. Both cases showed a good insight and no personality deterioration. Given its similarities to other substances that are known to induce psychotic symptoms, and the increasing consumption of mephedrone around Europe, similar cases are expected in the near future. Conventional antipsychotic treatment seems a reasonable pharmacological approach.

  3. Complex visual hallucinations in a Parkinson patient: don't blame James if it's Charles's fault.

    PubMed

    Segers, Kurt

    2013-03-01

    A patient with a history of Parkinson's disease and severe bilateral peripheral vision loss due to vitreous hemorrhages had complex visual hallucinations that persisted for three days and appeared every morning on awakening. The persistent nature of these hallucinations, the patient's preserved insight, and the presence of severe visual impairment was suggestive for Charles Bonnet syndrome rather than Parkinson-related hallucinations. A treatment with carbamazepine was started and proved to be successful. Physicians treating Parkinson patients should be familiar with Charles Bonnet syndrome and consider it as a potential alternative etiology for visual hallucinations, especially when the patient has severely impaired vision and when the hallucinations are sustained during wakefulness.

  4. Visuoperceptive region atrophy independent of cognitive status in patients with Parkinson's disease with hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Dinh, Vy; Bernard, Bryan; Merkitch, Doug; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Goetz, Christopher G

    2014-03-01

    Visual hallucinations are frequent, disabling complications of advanced Parkinson's disease, but their neuroanatomical basis is incompletely understood. Previous structural brain magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest volume loss in the mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions in subjects with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations, relative to those without visual hallucinations. However, these studies have not always controlled for the presence of cognitive impairment or dementia, which are common co-morbidities of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease and whose neuroanatomical substrates may involve mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions. Therefore, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter atrophy patterns associated with visual hallucinations, comparing Parkinson's disease hallucinators to Parkinson's disease non-hallucinators of comparable cognitive function. We studied 50 subjects with Parkinson's disease: 25 classified as current and chronic visual hallucinators and 25 as non-hallucinators, who were matched for cognitive status (demented or non-demented) and age (± 3 years). Subjects underwent (i) clinical evaluations; and (ii) brain MRI scans analysed using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry techniques. Clinically, the Parkinson's disease hallucinators did not differ in their cognitive classification or performance in any of the five assessed cognitive domains, compared with the non-hallucinators. The Parkinson's disease groups also did not differ significantly in age, motor severity, medication use or duration of disease. On imaging analyses, the hallucinators, all of whom experienced visual hallucinations, exhibited grey matter atrophy with significant voxel-wise differences in the cuneus, lingual and fusiform gyri, middle occipital lobe, inferior parietal lobule, and also cingulate, paracentral, and precentral gyri, compared with the non-hallucinators. Grey matter atrophy in the hallucinators occurred

  5. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis presenting with auditory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pankhania, Miran; Elloy, Marianne; Conboy, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 54-year-old Chinese lady presenting to the ears, nose and throat clinic after family members noticed that her hearing had progressively deteriorated over the preceding weeks. She also complained of tinnitus. Examination of the ears, nose and throat was unremarkable. Flexible nasoendoscopy demonstrated swelling in the postnasal space, which, following biopsy, was shown to be pathognomonic of tuberculosis. This was successfully treated with multidisciplinary input and the patient made a complete recovery.

  6. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and their management].

    PubMed

    Lykouras, L; Gournellis, R

    2011-01-01

    The decline in cognitive function is a core feature of dementias. However, other symptoms of the disease are also crucial. These symptoms are the behavioral and psychological manifestations of dementia and include symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, delusional misindentification syndromes (DMS), illusions, anxiety, aggression, depression, personality changes, disinhibition-impulsivity, violation of social and moral norms, changes in dietary or eating behavior and repetitive behaviors. Delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, depression and aggression are highly prevalent in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, whereas symptoms that include severe disturbance of behavior are highly prevalent in frontotemporal dementias. Psychotic symptoms are associated with subcortical disturbances mainly of the limbic system. Patients with depression present greater loss of noradrenergic cells in the locus coeruleus and loss of serotonergic nuclei of dorsal raphe. Furthermore, disturbances of behavior are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. Atypical antipsychotics is the first treatment option for delusions, hallucinations, misidentifications, anxiety and aggression. Furthermore, antidepressants may be useful for moderate or severe depression as well as for disinhibition-impulsivity, aggression, changes in dietary or eating behavior and repetitive behaviors. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also improve apathy, anxiety, disinhibition, aberrant behavior, mood disorders and hallucinations. Moreover, non-pharmacological methods alone or in combination with psychotropic drugs may also improve patient's symptomatology. PMID:21688522

  7. Musical hallucinations in normal children and adult non-psychiatric population

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive account of musical hallucinations of a series of 19 people is presented. Five people reported the onset of hallucination before adulthood. In this paper we demonstrate that musical hallucinations are not necessarily pathological and can occur as a normal experience in people (children and adults) who have no contact with mental health services and no concurrent mental disorder. This is also the first paper to recognise that children can experience musical hallucinations. Also, we show that musical hallucinations are more common than previously thought, but people do not report their occurrence. It seems plausible that in musical hallucinations there is an insult to the ear or brain that produces a change in quality of these images, converting them to a psychotic experience. Musical hallucinations should be regarded as a continuum with normal experiences and clinical syndromes. PMID:21686956

  8. Hallucinations predict attentional improvements with rivastigmine in dementia with lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    McKeith, Ian G; Wesnes, Keith A; Perry, Elaine; Ferrara, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this analysis of the effects of cholinergic therapy in dementia with Lewy bodies was to determine whether rivastigmine-induced benefits in attention and memory could be predicted by the presence of visual hallucinations. At study entry, 74% of patients were hallucinators and 26% were non-hallucinators. The population was analyzed for two-factor scores: power of attention (PoA) and quality of memory (QoM). A significant effect over placebo on PoA was observed in hallucinators at weeks 12 (p = 0.023) and 20 (p = 0.0019), while no treatment effects were seen in non-hallucinators. Significant treatment effects on QoM were not observed in either subgroup. Visual hallucinations predicted greater improvements in PoA, but not QoM. This may reflect the greater cholinergic deficits in areas of the brain responsible for visual hallucinations, offering greater potential for attentional improvement. PMID:15087584

  9. Visual hallucinations in PD and Lewy body dementias: old and new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Onofrj, M; Taylor, J P; Monaco, D; Franciotti, R; Anzellotti, F; Bonanni, L; Onofrj, V; Thomas, A

    2013-01-01

    Visual Hallucinations (VH) are a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the Lewy body dementias (LBD) of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The origin of VH in PD and LBD is debated: earlier studies considered a number of different possible mechanisms underlying VH including visual disorders, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Intrusions, dysfunctions of top down or bottom up visual pathways, and neurotransmitter imbalance. More recently newer hypotheses introduce, among the possible mechanisms of VH, the role of attention networks (ventral and dorsal) and of the Default Mode Network (DMN) a network that is inhibited during attentional tasks and becomes active during rest and self referential imagery. Persistent DMN activity during active tasks with dysfunctional imbalance of dorsal and ventral attentional networks represents a new hypothesis on the mechanism of VH. We review the different methods used to classify VH and discuss reports supporting or challenging the different hypothetical mechanisms of VH.

  10. Disturbances of Agency and Ownership in Schizophrenia: An Auditory Verbal Event Related Potentials Study.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Tim; Kindler, Jochen; Schneider, Rahel C; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A 'sense of self' is essentially the ability to distinguish between self-generated and external stimuli. It consists of at least two very basic senses: a sense of agency and a sense of ownership. Disturbances seem to provide a basic deficit in many psychiatric diseases. The aim of our study was to manipulate those qualities separately in 28 patients with schizophrenia (14 auditory hallucinators and 14 non-hallucinators) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and to investigate the effects on the topographies and the power of the event-related potential (ERP). We performed a 76-channel EEG while the participants performed the task as in our previous paper. We computed ERPs and difference maps for the conditions and compared the amount of agency and ownership between the HC and the patients. Furthermore, we compared the global field power and the topographies of these effects. Our data showed effects of agency and ownership in the healthy controls and the hallucinator group and to a lesser degree in the non-hallucinator group. We found a reduction of the N100 during the presence of agency, and a bilateral temporal negativity related to the presence of ownership. For the agency effects, we found significant differences between HC and the patients. Contrary to the expectations, our findings were more pronounced in non-hallucinators, suggesting a more profoundly disturbed sense of agency compared to hallucinators. A contemporary increase of global field power in both patient groups indicates a compensatory recruitment of other mechanisms not normally associated with the processing of agency and ownership. PMID:27209172

  11. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  12. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  13. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D.; Musiek, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  14. Avatar therapy for persecutory auditory hallucinations: What is it and how does it work?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Julian; Williams, Geoffrey; Huckvale, Mark; Arbuthnot, Maurice; Leff, Alex P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel therapy based on a computer program, which enables the patient to create an avatar of the entity, human or non-human, which they believe is persecuting them. The therapist encourages the patient to enter into a dialogue with their avatar, and is able to use the program to change the avatar so that it comes under the patient's control over the course of six 30-min sessions and alters from being abusive to becoming friendly and supportive. The therapy was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with a partial crossover design. One group went straight into the therapy arm: “immediate therapy”. The other continued with standard clinical care for 7 weeks then crossed over into Avatar therapy: “delayed therapy”. There was a significant reduction in the frequency and intensity of the voices and in their omnipotence and malevolence. Several individuals had a dramatic response, their voices ceasing completely after a few sessions of the therapy. The average effect size of the therapy was 0.8. We discuss the possible psychological mechanisms for the success of Avatar therapy and the implications for the origins of persecutory voices. PMID:24999369

  15. A Neuropsychiatric Model of Biological and Psychological Processes in the Remission of Delusions and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This selective review combines cognitive models and biological models of psychosis into a tentative integrated neuropsychiatric model. The aim of the model is to understand better, how pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy come forward as partners in the treatment of psychosis and play complementary and mutually reinforcing roles. The article reviews the dominant models in literature. The focus in this review is on one hand on neural circuits that are involved in cognitive models and on the other hand on cognitive processes and experiences involved in biological models. In this way, a 4-component neuropsychiatric model is tentatively constructed: (1) a biological component that leads to aberrant perceptions and salience of stimuli, (2) a cognitive component that attempts to explain the psychic abnormal events, (3) a mediating component with psychological biases which influences the reasoning process in the direction of the formation of (secondary) delusions, and (4) a component of psychological processes that maintains delusions and prevents the falsification of delusional ideas. Remission consists actually of 2 processes. Biological remission consists of the dampening of mesolimbic dopamine releases with antipsychotic medication and decreases the continuous salient experiences. Psychological remission consists of the reappraisal of primary psychotic experiences. Both forms of remission are partially independent. We expect that a full remission including biological and psychological remission could prevent relapse. PMID:16905635

  16. Attentional modulation of external speech attribution in patients with hallucinations and delusions.

    PubMed

    Ilankovic, Lana Marija; Allen, Paul P; Engel, Rolf; Kambeitz, Joseph; Riedel, Michael; Müller, Norbert; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients. Most influential theories are those implicating the defective self-monitoring of inner speech. Some recent studies measured response bias independently of self-monitoring and found the results inconsistent with the defective self-monitoring model, but explained by an externalizing response bias. We aimed to investigate the role of attentional bias in external misattribution of source by modulating participant's endogenous expectancies. Comparisons were made between patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=23) and matched healthy controls (N=23) who participated in two different versions of an audio-visual task, which differed based upon level of the cue predictiveness. The acoustic characteristic of voice was altered in half of the trials by shifting the pitch (distortion). Participants passively listened to recordings of single adjectives spoken in their own and another person's voice (alien) preceded by their own or another person's (alien) face and made self/non self judgments about the source. The patients showed increased error rates comparing to controls, when listening to the distorted self spoken words, misidentifying their own speech as produced by others. Importantly, patients made significantly more errors across all the invalid cue conditions. This suggests not only the presence of pathological misattribution bias, but also an inadequate balance between top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the patients, which could be responsible for misattribution of the ambiguous sensory material. PMID:21241719

  17. Progressive auditory neuropathy in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ceranic, B; Luxon, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate auditory neural involvement in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods: Auditory assessment was undertaken in two patients with LHON. One was a 45 year old woman with Harding disease (multiple-sclerosis-like illness and positive 11778mtDNA mutation) and mild auditory symptoms, whose auditory function was monitored over five years. The other was a 59 year old man with positive 11778mtDNA mutation, who presented with a long standing progressive bilateral hearing loss, moderate on one side and severe to profound on the other. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, stapedial reflex threshold measurements, stapedial reflex decay, otoacoustic emissions with olivo-cochlear suppression, auditory brain stem responses, and vestibular function tests were undertaken. Results: Both patients had good cochlear function, as judged by otoacoustic emissions (intact outer hair cells) and normal stapedial reflexes (intact inner hair cells). A brain stem lesion was excluded by negative findings on imaging, recordable stapedial reflex thresholds, and, in one of the patients, olivocochlear suppression of otoacoustic emissions. The deterioration of auditory function implied a progressive course in both cases. Vestibular function was unaffected. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with auditory neuropathy—a lesion of the cochlear nerve presenting with abnormal auditory brain stem responses and with normal inner hair cells and the cochlear nucleus (lower brain stem). The association of auditory neuropathy, or any other auditory dysfunction, with LHON has not been recognised previously. Further studies are necessary to establish whether this is a consistent finding. PMID:15026512

  18. Multimodal MRI of the hippocampus in Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nailin; Cheung, Charlton; Pang, Shirley; Shek-kwan Chang, Richard; Lau, Kui Kai; Suckling, John; Yu, Kevin; Ka-Fung Mak, Henry; Chua, Siew Eng; Ho, Shu-Leong; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2016-01-01

    Visual hallucinations carry poor prognosis in Parkinson's disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that the hippocampus and visuospatial memory impairment play a central role in the pathology of PD with visual hallucinations. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was carried out in 12 people with PD and visual hallucinations; 15 PD individuals without hallucinations; and 14 healthy controls. Age, gender, cognitive ability, and education level were matched across the three groups. PD patients were taking dopaminergic medication. Hippocampal volume, shape, mean diffusivity (MD), and functional connectivity within the whole brain were examined. Visuospatial memory was compared between groups, and correlations with hippocampal MD, functional connectivity, and the severity of hallucinations were explored. There were no macrostructural differences across groups, but individuals with hallucinations had higher diffusivity in posterior hippocampus than the other two groups. Visuospatial memory was poorer in both PD groups compared to controls, and was correlated with hallucinations. Finally, hippocampal functional connectivity in the visual cortices was lower in those with hallucinations than other groups, and this correlated with visuospatial memory impairment. In contrast, functional connectivity between the hippocampus and default mode network regions and frontal regions was greater in the PD hallucinators compared to other groups. We suggest that hippocampal pathology, which disrupts visuospatial memory, makes a key contribution to visual hallucinations in PD. These findings may pave the way for future studies of imaging biomarkers to measure treatment response in those with PD who are most at risk of poor outcomes.

  19. The similarities between the hallucinations associated with the partial epileptic seizures of the occipital lobe and ball lightning observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ball Lightning was seen and described since antiquity and recorded in many places. Ball lightning is usually observed during thunderstorms but large number of ball lightning observations is also reported during fine weather without any connection to thunderstorms or lightning. However, so far no one has managed to generate them in the laboratory. It is photographed very rarely and in many cases the authenticity of them is questionable. It is possible that many different phenomena are grouped together and categorized simply as ball lightning. Indeed, the visual hallucinations associated with simple partial epileptic seizures, during which the patient remains conscious, may also be categorized by a patient unaware of his or her condition as ball lightning observation. Such visual hallucinations may occur as a result of an epileptic seizure in the occipital, temporo-occipital or temporal lobes of the cerebrum [1,2,3]. In some cases the hallucination is perceived as a coloured ball moving horizontally from the periphery to the centre of the vision. The ball may appear to be rotating or spinning. The colour of the ball can be red, yellow, blue or green. Sometimes, the ball may appear to have a solid structure surrounded by a thin glow or in other cases the ball appears to generate spark like phenomena. When the ball is moving towards the centre of the vision it may increase its intensity and when it reaches the centre it can 'explode' illuminating the whole field of vision. During the hallucinations the vision is obscured only in the area occupied by the apparent object. The hallucinations may last for 5 to 30 seconds and rarely up to a minute. Occipital seizures may spread into other regions of the brain giving auditory, olfactory and sensory sensations. These sensations could be buzzing sounds, the smell of burning rubber, pain with thermal perception especially in the arms and the face, and numbness and tingling sensation. In some cases a person may experience only

  20. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as 'Cartesian' and contrast with a recent 'un-Cartesian' model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain.

  1. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as ‘Cartesian’ and contrast with a recent ‘un-Cartesian’ model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain. PMID:26236257

  2. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as 'Cartesian' and contrast with a recent 'un-Cartesian' model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain. PMID:26236257

  3. Unified framework of face hallucination across multiple modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Liu, Junhui; Li, Wenmin

    2015-02-01

    Face hallucination in a single modality environment has been heavily studied, in real-world environments under multiple modalities is still in its early stage. This paper presents a unified framework to solve face hallucination problem across multiple modalities i.e. different expressions, poses, illuminations. Almost all of the state-of-the-art face superresolution methods only generate a single output with the same modality of the low-resolution input. Our proposed framework is able to generate multiple outputs of different new modalities from only a single low-resolution input. It includes a global transformation with diagonal loading for modeling the mappings among different new facial modalities, and a local position-patch based method with weights compensation for incorporating image details. Experimental results illustrate the superiority of our framework.

  4. Visual Hallucinations (Charles Bonnet Syndrome) Associated with Neurosarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jason; Waisbren, Emily; Hashemi, Nafiseh; Lee, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    The Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) refers to lucid and complex visual hallucinations in cognitively normal patients with acquired vision loss. It can be associated with any type of vision loss including that related to macular degeneration, corneal disease, diabetic retinopathy, and occipital infarct. Neurosarcoidosis, a multi-systemic inflammatory granulomatous disease affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems, is rarely associated with CBS. We report a patient with biopsy-confirmed neurosarcoidosis who experienced visual hallucinations following the development of a right seventh-nerve palsy, right facial paresthesia, and bilateral progressive visual loss. This case highlights the importance of recognizing that the CBS can occur in visual loss of any etiology. PMID:24339694

  5. Interactions of visual hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Abhishek; Hegde, Shantala; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease may develop various non-motor symptoms during the course of the illness. Visual hallucinations (VH) and cognitive impairment (CI) are two common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Studies have reported association of both VH and CI with presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Presence of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairment has been described as risk factors for emergence of each other. There is marked overlap in the risk factors for development of RBD, VH and CI in patients with PD. Results of clinical and epidemiological studies as well as studies based on neuroimaging, electrophysiology especially transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuropsycholgical evaluations in PD patients have suggested presence of certain common neurobiological process leading to emergence of RBD, VH and CI. Structural neuroimaging studies using voxel-based morphometry have often reported grey matter atrophy of hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices in PD patients with RBD, VH and CI. Cholinergic dysfunction is common in PD patients with RBD, VH and CI. This review explores the complex interactions of RBD, VH and CI in patients with PD and their potential implications.

  6. Prolonged spontaneous complex visual hallucinations and illusions as ictal phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sowa, M V; Pituck, S

    1989-01-01

    A patient without a previous history of seizures had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure followed by multiple complex visual hallucinations and illusions (CVHIs) lasting weeks. The patient reported a total of 19 different CVHIs. EEGs performed revealed rhythmic right temporal activity occurring only during the CVHIs. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) resolved the CVHIs and normalized the EEG. An attempt at discontinuation of one AED resulted in a resurgence of the CVHIs and EEG abnormality.

  7. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression. PMID:18024027

  8. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  9. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  10. EEG coherence in post-LSD visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Abraham, H D; Duffy, F H

    2001-10-01

    LSD use in certain individuals may result in chronic visual hallucinations, a DSM-IV syndrome known as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD). We studied 38 HPPD subjects with a mean of 9.7 years of persistent visual hallucinations and 33 control subjects. Measures of local and medium distance EEG spectral coherence were calculated from all subjects. Coherence, a measure of spectral similarity over time, may estimate cortical coupling. In the eyes-open state in HPPD subjects, widespread reduction of coherence was noted. However, upon eye closure, the occipital region demonstrated augmented regional coherence over many frequencies but with reduced coherence of the occipital region to more distant regions. This occipital coherence increase correlated with previously reported shortened occipital visual evoked potential latency for HPPD subjects. We speculate from coherence and known clinical and psychophysical data that, in HPPD, there is widespread cortical inhibition in the eyes-opened state, but localized and isolated occipital disinhibition upon eye closure, a state known to facilitate hallucinatory experiences. An analogy is drawn to findings in the interictal and ictal epileptic focus. In HPPD, we speculate that occipital EEG hypersynchrony resulting from increased regional coherence, when coupled with relative isolation of visual cortex, especially upon eye closure, facilitates hallucinations and illusions.

  11. Fifty Percent Prevalence of Extracampine Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth A.; Hopkins, Sarah A.; Moodley, Kuven K.; Chan, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Extracampine hallucinations (EH), the sense of a presence or fleeting movement in the absence of an associated visual percept, have been reported in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients but their prevalence, characteristics, and temporal relationship to visual hallucinations (VH) remain unclear. Given that, VH are predictive of cognitive impairment in PD, improved understanding of EH may have significant prognostic implications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of EH in a large unselected population with PD and to assess the temporal relationship between EH, VH, and memory decline. Cross-sectional data were collected from 414 PD patients using a questionnaire circulated via an online patient community. Data were obtained regarding the occurrence, timing, and characteristics of VH and EH and symptoms of PD, disease duration, disease severity, and medication history. About 50.4% of respondents reported EH and 15.5% reported VH. EH were typically experienced alongside, rather than behind, the individual (p < 0.001) without clear lateralization (p = 0.438) and were more likely to be of unfamiliar presences (p < 0.001). The occurrence of EH was associated with Hoehn and Yahr score (p = 0.002) but not disease duration (p = 0.158). EH onset was associated with VH onset (p = 0.046) and occurred after the onset of anosmia (p < 0.001), cognitive decline (p = 0.002), and sleep disturbance (p = 0.002). The reported prevalence of EH in PD patients was threefold greater than that of VH, with similar timings of onset, suggesting that EH are under-recognized and under-reported. Further work is needed to determine whether EH are predictive of cognitive decline. PMID:26733937

  12. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  13. Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of

  14. Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of

  15. Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Neil K; Clarke, Mike P; Mosimann, Urs P; Burn, David J

    2011-11-01

    Visual symptoms are common in PD and PD dementia and include difficulty reading, double vision, illusions, feelings of presence and passage, and complex visual hallucinations. Despite the established prognostic implications of complex visual hallucinations, the interaction between cognitive decline, visual impairment, and other visual symptoms remains poorly understood. Our aim was to characterize the spectrum of visual symptomatology in PD and examine clinical predictors for their occurrence. Sixty-four subjects with PD, 26 with PD dementia, and 32 age-matched controls were assessed for visual symptoms, cognitive impairment, and ocular pathology. Complex visual hallucinations were common in PD (17%) and PD dementia (89%). Dementia subjects reported illusions (65%) and presence (62%) more frequently than PD or control subjects, but the frequency of passage hallucinations in PD and PD dementia groups was equivalent (48% versus 69%, respectively; P = 0.102). Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity was impaired in parkinsonian subjects, with disease severity and age emerging as the key predictors. Regression analysis identified a variety of factors independently predictive of complex visual hallucinations (e.g., dementia, visual acuity, and depression), illusions (e.g., excessive daytime somnolence and disease severity), and presence (e.g., rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime somnolence). Our results demonstrate that different "hallucinatory" experiences in PD do not necessarily share common disease predictors and may, therefore, be driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms. If confirmed, such a finding will have important implications for future studies of visual symptoms and cognitive decline in PD and PD dementia. PMID:21953737

  16. Auditory Hallucinosis as a Presenting Feature of Interpeduncular Lipoma with Proximal P1 Segment Fenestration: Report of a Rare Case and Review of Literature on Peduncular Hallucinosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulhari, Ashish; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Kumar, Kunal; Tarr, Robert W; Bambakidis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a unique case of intracranial lipoma in the interpeduncular cistern associated with proximal P1 segment fenestration. This patient is a 20-year-old male with extensive psychiatric history and complaints of recent auditory hallucinations. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T1, T2, and FLAIR) showed a hyperintense lesion in the left aspect of interpeduncular cistern with a prominent flow void within the hyperintense lesion suggestive of a combined vascular–lipomatous lesion. Computed tomography (CT) angiography showed a high-riding large tortuous P1 segment on the left side with proximal fenestration, the ectatic posteromedial limb harboring a fusiform dilated segment. Since there are anecdotal cases of cerebral aneurysms associated with intracranial lipomas, a conventional angiography was done, which confirmed a proximal left P1 fenestration and a fusiform-dilated segment, and no aneurysm. There are few cases of hallucinations associated with a vascular midbrain pathology reported in literature, but hallucinations associated with a combination of lipoma and arterial ectasia have never been reported. This article not only demonstrates the MRI and angiographic appearance of this rare lipomatous lesion but also highlights this unique association and significance of auditory hallucinations as a clinical presentation, akin to peduncular hallucinosis. PMID:27403217

  17. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. PMID:27358492

  18. Elementary Visual Hallucinations and Their Relationships to Neural Pattern-Forming Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billock, Vincent A.; Tsou, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    An extraordinary variety of experimental (e.g., flicker, magnetic fields) and clinical (epilepsy, migraine) conditions give rise to a surprisingly common set of elementary hallucinations, including spots, geometric patterns, and jagged lines, some of which also have color, depth, motion, and texture. Many of these simple hallucinations fall into a…

  19. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness.

  20. Unpleasant auditory illusions and related avoidance behaviour in a child.

    PubMed

    Barba, Carmen; Guerrini, Renzo

    2008-03-01

    Auditory aura is a rare symptom in focal epilepsy. It has been described in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features, but is, in general, poorly documented. We report on a 7-year-old, right-handed boy, who suffered seizures characterized by positive auditory illusions with verbal and gestural automatisms and noticeable attempts at covering his ears. Clinical evaluation and video-recording of the seizures, confirmed that most of the ictal behavior was deliberately directed at trying to prevent the unpleasant sensations reaching his ears. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:18367430

  1. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  2. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  3. Dreaming and hallucinations - continuity or discontinuity? Perspectives from dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Collerton, Daniel; Perry, Elaine

    2011-12-01

    Comparing the phenomenology, neurochemical pathology, and psychopharmacology of hallucinations and dreaming is limited by the available data. Evidence to date reveals no simple correspondence between the two states. Differences in the phenomenology of visual hallucinations and the visual component of dreams may reflect variations in visual context acting on the same underlying mechanism - the minimal visual input during dreaming contrasts with the more substantial perceived context in hallucinations. Variations in cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter function during sleep and during hallucinations in Lewy body dementias, together with relevant drug effects suggest that, on the whole, different, potentially opposite, changes characterise the two states. A similar analysis of other psychotic features in Lewy body dementia and other disorders suggests that, in contrast to hallucinations, there may be more convincing parallels between dreaming and delusional states.

  4. Visual hallucinations during duloxetine treatment in a patient with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kaneko, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    Duloxetine is a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic pain. The safety of duloxetine has been shown by many previous studies. We report a patient who experienced visual hallucinations after taking duloxetine. The patient experienced insomnia and chronic somatic pain. He began taking duloxetine after a diagnosis of MDD and developed visual hallucinations after the duloxetine dose was increased. The hallucinations disappeared after the duloxetine dose was decreased and then stopped; the dose of quetiapine was increased as an alternative. The specific cause of the duloxetine-induced hallucinations is unclear. In addition to other prescription medications and possible interactions with duloxetine, increasing dopamine by blocking noradrenaline transporters or serotonergic neurotransmission function may contribute to the occurrence of hallucinations.

  5. Human auditory evoked responses during hangover.

    PubMed

    Järvilehto, T; Laakso, M L; Virsu, V

    1975-05-28

    Auditory evoked responses (AER) to trains of 6 click stimuli (1 click/sec) were studied in 9 subjects under hangover, tired control, and normal control conditions in order to find out whether the symptoms of hyperexcitability during hangover have a correlate in the characteristics of the AER. In addition, the audiograms were measured. AERs to the first click in a stimulus train were markedly smaller during hangover than in the other 2 states. The amplitude levels of the AERs during the repetition of the click stimulus were, however, similar under all three conditions. The audiograms obtained in the three states were similar except for a very slight decrease of auditory threshold sensitivity during hangover as compared with the tired control condition. The results show that the effects of hangover on AERs resemble those of alcohol intoxication. The symptoms of hyperexcitability during hangover cannot be explained in terms of increased peripheral sensitivity.

  6. The Distributed Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Jeffery A.; Lee, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    A synthesis of cat auditory cortex (AC) organization is presented in which the extrinsic and intrinsic connections interact to derive a unified profile of the auditory stream and use it to direct and modify cortical and subcortical information flow. Thus, the thalamocortical input provides essential sensory information about peripheral stimulus events, which AC redirects locally for feature extraction, and then conveys to parallel auditory, multisensory, premotor, limbic, and cognitive centers for further analysis. The corticofugal output influences areas as remote as the pons and the cochlear nucleus, structures whose effects upon AC are entirely indirect, and has diverse roles in the transmission of information through the medial geniculate body and inferior colliculus. The distributed AC is thus construed as a functional network in which the auditory percept is assembled for subsequent redistribution in sensory, premotor, and cognitive streams contingent on the derived interpretation of the acoustic events. The confluence of auditory and multisensory streams likely precedes cognitive processing of sound. The distributed AC constitutes the largest and arguably the most complete representation of the auditory world. Many facets of this scheme may apply in rodent and primate AC as well. We propose that the distributed auditory cortex contributes to local processing regimes in regions as disparate as the frontal pole and the cochlear nucleus to construct the acoustic percept. PMID:17329049

  7. Failing to self-ascribe thought and motion: towards a three-factor account of passivity symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gray, David Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been emphasis put on providing two-factor accounts of monothematic delusions. Such accounts would explain (1) whether a delusional hypothesis (e.g. someone else is inserting thoughts into my mind) can be understood as a prima facie reasonable response to an experience and (2) why such a delusional hypothesis is believed and maintained given its implausibility and evidence against it. I argue that if we are to avoid obfuscating the cognitive mechanisms involved in monothematic delusion formation we should split the first factor (1 above) into two factors: how abnormal experience can give rise to a delusional 'proto-hypothesis' and how a 'proto-hypothesis' in consort with normal experiences and background information, can be developed into a delusional hypothesis. In particular I will argue that a schizophrenic is faced with the unusual requirement of having to identify an introspectively accessible thought as one's own, and that this requirement of identification is the central experiential abnormality of thought insertion, auditory verbal hallucination, and alien control (i.e. passivity symptoms). Additionally, I will consider non-experiential factors which are required for the formation of a delusional hypothesis. PMID:23835003

  8. Imagine that: elevated sensory strength of mental imagery in individuals with Parkinson's disease and visual hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Shine, James M.; Keogh, Rebecca; O'Callaghan, Claire; Muller, Alana J.; Lewis, Simon J. G.; Pearson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Visual hallucinations occur when our conscious experience does not accurately reflect external reality. However, these dissociations also regularly occur when we imagine the world around us in the absence of visual stimulation. We used two novel behavioural paradigms to objectively measure visual hallucinations and voluntary mental imagery in 19 individuals with Parkinson's disease (ten with visual hallucinations; nine without) and ten healthy, age-matched controls. We then used this behavioural overlap to interrogate the connectivity both within and between the major attentional control networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with visual hallucinations had elevated mental imagery strength compared with patients without hallucinations and controls. Specifically, the sensory strength of imagery predicted the frequency of visual hallucinations. Together, hallucinations and mental imagery predicted multiple abnormalities in functional connectivity both within and between the attentional control networks, as measured with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the two phenomena were also dissociable at the neural level, with both mental imagery and visual misperceptions associated with specific abnormalities in attentional network connectivity. Our results provide the first evidence of both the shared and unique neural correlates of these two similar, yet distinct phenomena. PMID:25429016

  9. Graphical illustration and functional neuroimaging of visual hallucinations during prolonged blindfolding: a comparison to visual imagery.

    PubMed

    Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Oertel, Viola; Mohr, Harald; Linden, David; Singer, Wolf

    2008-01-01

    Visual hallucinations can occur in healthy subjects during prolonged visual deprivation. We investigated the visual percepts and the associated brain activity in a 37-year-old healthy female subject who developed visual hallucinations during three weeks of blindfolding, and then compared this activity with the cortical activity associated with mental imagery of the same patterns. We acquired fMRI data with a Siemens 3T Magnetom Allegra towards the end of the deprivation period to assess hallucination-related activity, and again after recovery from blindfolding to measure imagery-related activity. Detailed subjective descriptions and graphical illustrations were provided by the subject after blindfolding was completed. The subject reported the occurrence of simple and elementary hallucinations, consisting of flashes and coloured and moving patterns during the period of blindfolding. Neural activity related to hallucinations was found in extrastriate occipital, posterior parietal, and several prefrontal regions. In contrast, mental imagery of the same percepts led to activation in prefrontal, but not in posterior, parietal, and occipital regions. These results suggest that deprivation-induced hallucinations result from increased excitability of extrastriate visual areas, while mentally induced imagery involves active read-out under the volitional control of prefrontal structures. This agrees with the subject's report that visual hallucinations were more vivid than mental imagery.

  10. Imagine that: elevated sensory strength of mental imagery in individuals with Parkinson's disease and visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Shine, James M; Keogh, Rebecca; O'Callaghan, Claire; Muller, Alana J; Lewis, Simon J G; Pearson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Visual hallucinations occur when our conscious experience does not accurately reflect external reality. However, these dissociations also regularly occur when we imagine the world around us in the absence of visual stimulation. We used two novel behavioural paradigms to objectively measure visual hallucinations and voluntary mental imagery in 19 individuals with Parkinson's disease (ten with visual hallucinations; nine without) and ten healthy, age-matched controls. We then used this behavioural overlap to interrogate the connectivity both within and between the major attentional control networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with visual hallucinations had elevated mental imagery strength compared with patients without hallucinations and controls. Specifically, the sensory strength of imagery predicted the frequency of visual hallucinations. Together, hallucinations and mental imagery predicted multiple abnormalities in functional connectivity both within and between the attentional control networks, as measured with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the two phenomena were also dissociable at the neural level, with both mental imagery and visual misperceptions associated with specific abnormalities in attentional network connectivity. Our results provide the first evidence of both the shared and unique neural correlates of these two similar, yet distinct phenomena.

  11. On visual hallucinations and cortical networks: a trans-diagnostic review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rowena; Ffytche, Dominic H

    2015-07-01

    Our current clinical approach to visual hallucinations is largely derived from work carried out by Georges de Morsier in the 1930s. Now, almost a century after his influential papers, we have the research tools to further explore the ideas he put forward. In this review, we address de Morsier's proposal that visual hallucinations in all clinical conditions have a similar neurological mechanism by comparing structural imaging studies of susceptibility to visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies and schizophrenia. Systematic review of the literature was undertaken using PubMed searches. A total of 18 studies across conditions were identified reporting grey matter differences between patients with and without visual hallucinations. Grey matter changes were categorised into brain regions relevant to current theories of visual hallucinations. The distribution of cortical atrophy supports de Morsier's premise that visual hallucinations are invariably linked to aberrant activity within visual thalamo-cortical networks. Further work is required to determine by what mechanism these networks become predisposed to spontaneous activation, and whether the frontal lobe and hippocampal changes identified are present in all conditions. The findings have implications for the development of effective treatments for visual hallucinations.

  12. A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.

    PubMed

    Şanlıdağ, Burçin; Derinöz, Okşan; Yıldız, Nagehan

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported. PMID:25341608

  13. [Chronic visual hallucinations and illusions following brain lesions. A single case study].

    PubMed

    Kasten, E; Müller-Oehring, E; Poggel, D; Sabel, B A

    1998-02-01

    Lesions of the visual system do not necessarily lead to deficits in visual function. In some cases, there may even occur Positive Spontaneous Visual Phenomena (PSVP) following cerebral damage. We present data from a male patient with continuous, long-term visual illusions after having experienced cerebral infarction at the age of 56. Basing on conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, lesions could be located in areas supported by the lateral and medial occipital artery. Initially, homonymous hemianopsia of the right visual field was found in perimetric examinations, but in the course of six months, visual function recovered completely. Ever since the incident, the patient has been suffering from permanent photopsia, intense colourful visual hallucinations and perseverations located in the former defective area which continued unabated even after the remission of his visual field defects. While many authors have published data on PSVP lasting for several seconds, usually vanishing completely within days or weeks after cerebral lesion, in our patient the symptoms continued over a period of so far nine months. Surprisingly, he was even able to make drawings of his illusions so that we were able to include some of his pictures.

  14. Structural and functional neuroimaging in patients with Parkinson's disease and visual hallucinations: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Saini, Jitender; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop various non-motor symptoms (NMS) during the course of the illness and psychosis is one of the common NMS of PD. Visual hallucinations (VH) are the most common manifestation of psychosis in PD. The exact pathogenesis of VH in patients with PD is not clearly understood. Presence of VH has been described to be associated with rapid cognitive decline and increased nursing home placements in PD patients. A large number of structural and functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted to understand the cerebral basis of VH in PD. Structural imaging studies (Voxel Based Morphometry) have reported grey matter atrophy in multiple regions of the brain such as primary visual cortex, visual association cortex, limbic regions, cholinergic structures such as pedunculopontine nucleus and substantia innominata, which conclude possible alterations of brain regions associated with functions such as visuospatial-perception, attention control and memory. Most functional neuroimaging studies (functional MRI, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerized tomography) have reported altered activation, blood flow, or reduced metabolism in both dorsal and ventral visual pathways, which probably indicates an alteration in the normal bottom-top visual processing and the presence of an aberrant top-down visual processing. This review critically analyzes the published studies on the structural and functional neuroimaging in PD patients with VH.

  15. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  16. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  17. Speaking modifies voice-evoked activity in the human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Curio, G; Neuloh, G; Numminen, J; Jousmäki, V; Hari, R

    2000-04-01

    The voice we most often hear is our own, and proper interaction between speaking and hearing is essential for both acquisition and performance of spoken language. Disturbed audiovocal interactions have been implicated in aphasia, stuttering, and schizophrenic voice hallucinations, but paradigms for a noninvasive assessment of auditory self-monitoring of speaking and its possible dysfunctions are rare. Using magnetoencephalograpy we show here that self-uttered syllables transiently activate the speaker's auditory cortex around 100 ms after voice onset. These phasic responses were delayed by 11 ms in the speech-dominant left hemisphere relative to the right, whereas during listening to a replay of the same utterances the response latencies were symmetric. Moreover, the auditory cortices did not react to rare vowel changes interspersed randomly within a series of repetitively spoken vowels, in contrast to regular change-related responses evoked 100-200 ms after replayed rare vowels. Thus, speaking primes the human auditory cortex at a millisecond time scale, dampening and delaying reactions to self-produced "expected" sounds, more prominently in the speech-dominant hemisphere. Such motor-to-sensory priming of early auditory cortex responses during voicing constitutes one element of speech self-monitoring that could be compromised in central speech disorders.

  18. Associative hallucinations result from stimulating left ventromedial temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Aminoff, Elissa M; Li, Yuanning; Pyles, John A; Ward, Michael J; Richardson, R Mark; Ghuman, Avniel S

    2016-10-01

    Visual recognition requires connecting perceptual information with contextual information and existing knowledge. The ventromedial temporal cortex (VTC), including the medial fusiform, has been linked with object recognition, paired associate learning, contextual processing, and episodic memory, suggesting that this area may be critical in connecting visual processing, context, knowledge and experience. However, evidence for the link between associative processing, episodic memory, and visual recognition in VTC is currently lacking. Using electrocorticography (ECoG) in a single human patient, medial regions of the left VTC were found to be sensitive to the contextual associations of objects. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) of this part of the left VTC of the patient, functionally defined as sensitive to associative processing, caused memory related, associative experiential visual phenomena. This provides evidence of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory. These results suggest a potential role for abnormalities of these processes as part of a mechanism that gives rise to some visual hallucinations.

  19. Palinacousis - auditory perseveration: two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Di Dio, Adam S; Fields, Madeline C; Rowan, A James

    2007-09-01

    Palinacousis is an auditory illusion rarely reported in cases of temporal lobe dysfunction. Detailed observations where made by Jacobs et al. in 1973. Since that time, only a few other cases have been described in the literature. After reviewing the literature and comparing our clinical experience, we believe that palinacousis can occur as an aura, a simple partial seizure, a complex partial seizure, and/or a postictal event. Within one academic year, we observed two patients who experienced palinacousis. Palinacousis maybe more common than recognized in patients with receptive aphasias or diffuse cerebral dysfunction, whose language deficits preclude adequate description. It is important to differentiate palinacousis from auditory hallucinations seen in psychotic and psychiatric patients. Identification of palinacousis as an aura, simple partial seizure, complex partial seizure, and/or postictal phenomenon can help localize potential lesions and improve patient care.

  20. What geometric visual hallucinations tell us about the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bressloff, Paul C; Cowan, Jack D; Golubitsky, Martin; Thomas, Peter J; Wiener, Matthew C

    2002-03-01

    Many observers see geometric visual hallucinations after taking hallucinogens such as LSD, cannabis, mescaline or psilocybin; on viewing bright flickering lights; on waking up or falling asleep; in "near-death" experiences; and in many other syndromes. Klüver organized the images into four groups called form constants: (I) tunnels and funnels, (II) spirals, (III) lattices, including honeycombs and triangles, and (IV) cobwebs. In most cases, the images are seen in both eyes and move with them. We interpret this to mean that they are generated in the brain. Here, we summarize a theory of their origin in visual cortex (area V1), based on the assumption that the form of the retino-cortical map and the architecture of V1 determine their geometry. (A much longer and more detailed mathematical version has been published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 356 [2001].) We model V1 as the continuum limit of a lattice of interconnected hypercolumns, each comprising a number of interconnected iso-orientation columns. Based on anatomical evidence, we assume that the lateral connectivity between hypercolumns exhibits symmetries, rendering it invariant under the action of the Euclidean group E(2), composed of reflections and translations in the plane, and a (novel) shift-twist action. Using this symmetry, we show that the various patterns of activity that spontaneously emerge when V1's spatially uniform resting state becomes unstable correspond to the form constants when transformed to the visual field using the retino-cortical map. The results are sensitive to the detailed specification of the lateral connectivity and suggest that the cortical mechanisms that generate geometric visual hallucinations are closely related to those used to process edges, contours, surfaces, and textures.

  1. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  2. Decision Making about Children with Psychotic Symptoms: Using the Best Evidence in Choosing a Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Philip; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Peter, an 11-year-old boy, with brief self-limited hallucinations and persecutory ideation (if not frank delusions) on a background of a gradual deterioration in overall functioning. Affective symptoms are not prominent, and there is little to suggest an organic contribution. This raises the possibility that he has, or is on…

  3. Hallucinations and sleep-wake cycle in Alzheimer's disease: a questionnaire-based study in 218 patients.

    PubMed

    Sinforiani, E; Terzaghi, M; Pasotti, C; Zucchella, C; Zambrelli, E; Manni, R

    2007-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the relationship between hallucinations and the sleep-wake cycle in a sample of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the early-moderate stage. Two hundred and eighteen AD patients (66 males, 152 females, mean age 74.3+/-6.85) were administered a sleep questionnaire in the presence of a care-giver. Twenty-six out of 218 (12%) reported the occurrence of hallucinations, mainly visual. In 18/28 (69%) hallucinations occurred when the patient was awake and in 8 (31%) hallucinations were reported to occur close to a specific phase of the sleep-wake cycle. Vivid dreams were reported in 25/218 (11%) and violent sleep-related and dream-related behaviours (probable REM behaviour episodes) in 22/218 (10%). Both REM phenomena were more frequent in AD hallucinators than in AD non-hallucinators (26.9% vs. 9.3%, and 26.9% vs. 7.8%, p<0.007). Our data indicate a lower incidence of hallucinations and presumable REM behaviour disorder (RBD) in AD, at least in the early-moderate phase, than that observed in synucleinopathies. However, the higher occurrence of vivid dreams and RBD in AD patients with hallucinations compared to those without hallucinations indicates a potential role of disordered REM sleep in influencing the occurrence of hallucinations in AD, similar to what has been observed in synucleinopathies.

  4. Visual hallucinations and pontine demyelination in a child: possible REM dissociation?

    PubMed

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mariotti, Paolo

    2008-12-15

    An 11 year-old-boy acutely developed complex visual and acoustic hallucinations. Hallucinations, consisting of visions of a threatening, evil character of the Harry Potter saga, persisted for 3 days. Neurological and psychiatric examinations were normal. Ictal EEG was negative. MRI documented 3 small areas of hyperintense signal in the brainstem, along the paramedian and lateral portions of pontine tegmentum, one of which showed post-contrast enhancement. These lesions were likely of inflammatory origin, and treatment with immunoglobulins was started. Polysomnography was normal, multiple sleep latency test showed a mean sleep latency of 8 minutes, with one sleep-onset REM period. The pontine tegmentum is responsible for REM sleep regulation, and contains definite "REM-on" and "REM-off" regions. The anatomical distribution of the lesions permits us to hypothesize that hallucinations in this boy were consequent to a transient impairment of REM sleep inhibitory mechanisms, with the appearance of dream-like hallucinations during wake.

  5. From stroboscope to dream machine: a history of flicker-induced hallucinations.

    PubMed

    ter Meulen, B C; Tavy, D; Jacobs, B C

    2009-01-01

    When early neurophysiologists, like William Grey Walter (1910-1977), started using intermittent photic driving in electroencephalography, they were struck by a wide range of visual hallucinations that were reported. In current neuroscience, the phenomenon is used mainly to model hallucinations that are related to altered neuronal activity between the thalamus and the visual cortex, such as the Charles Bonnet syndrome. However, during the psychedelic 1960s, Brion Gysin (1916-1986), a painter and a poet, became interested in the hallucinations and designed his own stroboscope or dream machine, as a means for spiritual enlightenment. This article traces back the history of flicker-induced hallucinations from the early use of stroboscopes in neurophysiology to the dream machine. PMID:19729929

  6. Visual hallucinations and pontine demyelination in a child: possible REM dissociation?

    PubMed

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mariotti, Paolo

    2008-12-15

    An 11 year-old-boy acutely developed complex visual and acoustic hallucinations. Hallucinations, consisting of visions of a threatening, evil character of the Harry Potter saga, persisted for 3 days. Neurological and psychiatric examinations were normal. Ictal EEG was negative. MRI documented 3 small areas of hyperintense signal in the brainstem, along the paramedian and lateral portions of pontine tegmentum, one of which showed post-contrast enhancement. These lesions were likely of inflammatory origin, and treatment with immunoglobulins was started. Polysomnography was normal, multiple sleep latency test showed a mean sleep latency of 8 minutes, with one sleep-onset REM period. The pontine tegmentum is responsible for REM sleep regulation, and contains definite "REM-on" and "REM-off" regions. The anatomical distribution of the lesions permits us to hypothesize that hallucinations in this boy were consequent to a transient impairment of REM sleep inhibitory mechanisms, with the appearance of dream-like hallucinations during wake. PMID:19110890

  7. Bereavement among elderly people: grief reactions, post-bereavement hallucinations and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Grimby, A

    1993-01-01

    Ratings of grief reactions, post-bereavement hallucinations and illusions and quality of life were made during the first year after the death of a spouse among 14 men and 36 women in their early seventies. In both sexes, the reactions were generally moderate or mild and characterized by loneliness, low mood, fatigue, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctioning. Feeling lonely was the most persistent problem during the year. Post-bereavement hallucinations or illusions were very frequent and considered helpful. Half of the subjects felt the presence of the deceased (illusions); about one third reported seeing, hearing and talking to the deceased (hallucinations). Former marital harmony was found to make a person more prone to loneliness, crying and hallucinations or illusions. The quality of life was significantly lower among the bereaved than among married people and those who never married, but equalled that found among divorcees.

  8. Auditory processing--speech, space and auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K

    2005-04-01

    There have been recent developments in our understanding of the auditory neuroscience of non-human primates that, to a certain extent, can be integrated with findings from human functional neuroimaging studies. This framework can be used to consider the cortical basis of complex sound processing in humans, including implications for speech perception, spatial auditory processing and auditory scene segregation. PMID:15831402

  9. Multimodal Hallucination (Audio-visual, Kinaesthetic and Scenic) Associated with the Use of Zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Eiman, Najla; Gowdappa, Basavana

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting a case of zolpidem induced multimodal hallucinations in a 22 year old female without any history of psychiatric disorders. Zolpidem, by acting on gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptor has a potential to cause a paradoxical reaction and there also exists a possibility of an induced delirium with its use. This case reports evaluates its potential to cause multimodal hallucinations. Zolpidem needs to be prescribed judiciously with the caution of potential side effects particularly in females. PMID:26243852

  10. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding.

  11. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding. PMID:24304759

  12. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Ahn, Jeeyun; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S; Kim, Tae Wan

    2014-01-01

    Defective visual information processing from both central and peripheral pathways is one of the suggested mechanisms of visual hallucination in Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate the role of retinal thinning for visual hallucination in PD, we conducted a case-control study using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We examined a representative sample of 61 patients with PD and 30 healthy controls who had no history of ophthalmic diseases. General ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography scans were performed in each participant. Total macular thickness and the thickness of each retinal layer on horizontal scans through the fovea were compared between the groups. In a comparison between patients with PD and healthy controls, there was significant parafoveal inner nuclear layer thinning, whereas other retinal layers, including the retinal nerve fiber layer, as well as total macular thicknesses were not different. In terms of visual hallucinations among the PD subgroups, only retinal nerve fiber layer thickness differed significantly, whereas total macular thickness and the thickness of other retinal layers did not differ. The retinal nerve fiber layer was thinnest in the group that had hallucinations without dementia, followed by the group that had hallucinations with dementia, and the group that had no hallucinations and no dementia. General ophthalmologic examinations did not reveal any significant correlation with hallucinations. There were no significant correlations between retinal thicknesses and duration or severity of PD and medication dosages. The results indicate that retinal nerve fiber layer thinning may be related to visual hallucination in nondemented patients with PD. Replication studies as well as further studies to elucidate the mechanism of thinning are warranted.

  13. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  14. Visual hallucinations on eye closure after orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Otomo, Sumi; Sugita, Michiko; Yano, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman suffering from rheumatoid arthritis without a contributory neurological, mental, or psychological history experienced visual hallucinations solely on eye closure after total hip arthroplasty under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The visual hallucinations first appeared when she arose from sleep early on postoperative day 1, approximately 12 h after the end of surgery. Only on closing her eyes, she had a clear view of colored clothes, lace curtains, handbags, hats, and sofas, all of which were vivid, realistic, complex, of natural size, and in normal perspective without distortion and appeared independently and randomly in succession. The hallucinations disappeared when she opened her eyes even in the dark. The visual hallucinations gradually decreased as the days elapsed and they had entirely subsided on postoperative day 4. The level and content of her consciousness seemed entirely normal throughout her hospital course. Although postoperative visual hallucinations are not uncommon, they do not always show the closed-eye variation. The causes and underlying mechanisms of this type of visual hallucination remain to be elucidated.

  15. Hallucinators find meaning in noises: pareidolic illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kayoko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Uchiyama, Makoto; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2014-04-01

    By definition, visual illusions and hallucinations differ in whether the perceived objects exist in reality. A recent study challenged this dichotomy, in which pareidolias, a type of complex visual illusion involving ambiguous forms being perceived as meaningful objects, are very common and phenomenologically similar to visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesise that a common psychological mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB that confers meaning upon meaningless visual information. Furthermore, we believe that these two types of visual misperceptions have a common underlying neural mechanism, namely, cholinergic insufficiency. The current study investigated pareidolic illusions using meaningless visual noise stimuli (the noise pareidolia test) in 34 patients with DLB, 34 patients with Alzheimer׳s disease and 28 healthy controls. Fifteen patients with DLB were administered the noise pareidolia test twice, before and after donepezil treatment. Three major findings were discovered: (1) DLB patients saw meaningful illusory images (pareidolias) in meaningless visual stimuli, (2) the number of pareidolic responses correlated with the severity of visual hallucinations, and (3) cholinergic enhancement reduced both the number of pareidolias and the severity of visual hallucinations in patients with DLB. These findings suggest that a common underlying psychological and neural mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:24491313

  16. Preclinical Polymodal Hallucinations for 13 Years before Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Carlo; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Inglese, Silvia; Viti, Niccolò; Cantatore, Alessandra; De Agostini, Lisa; Pirri, Federico; Marino, Lorenza; Bagarolo, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We describe a case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that presented long-lasting preclinical complex polymodal hallucinations. Background. Few studies have deeply investigated the characteristics of hallucinations in DLB, especially in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the clinical phenotype of mild cognitive impairment-(MCI-) DLB is poorly understood. Methods. The patient was followed for 4 years and a selective phenomenological and cognitive study was performed at the predementia stage. Results. The phenomenological study showed the presence of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations that allowed us to make a differential diagnosis between DLB and Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). The neuropsychological evaluation showed a multiple domain without amnesia MCI subtype with prefrontal dysexecutive, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial impairments and simultanagnosia, which has not previously been reported in MCI-DLB. Conclusions. This study extends the prognostic value of hallucinations for DLB to the preclinical phases. It supports and refines the MCI-DLB concept and identifies simultanagnosia as a possible early cognitive marker. Finally, it confirms an association between hallucinations and visuoperceptual impairments at an intermediate stage of the disease course and strongly supports the hypothesis that hallucinations in the earliest stages of DLB may reflect a narcolepsy-like REM-sleep disorder. PMID:24868122

  17. Hallucinators find meaning in noises: pareidolic illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kayoko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Uchiyama, Makoto; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2014-04-01

    By definition, visual illusions and hallucinations differ in whether the perceived objects exist in reality. A recent study challenged this dichotomy, in which pareidolias, a type of complex visual illusion involving ambiguous forms being perceived as meaningful objects, are very common and phenomenologically similar to visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesise that a common psychological mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB that confers meaning upon meaningless visual information. Furthermore, we believe that these two types of visual misperceptions have a common underlying neural mechanism, namely, cholinergic insufficiency. The current study investigated pareidolic illusions using meaningless visual noise stimuli (the noise pareidolia test) in 34 patients with DLB, 34 patients with Alzheimer׳s disease and 28 healthy controls. Fifteen patients with DLB were administered the noise pareidolia test twice, before and after donepezil treatment. Three major findings were discovered: (1) DLB patients saw meaningful illusory images (pareidolias) in meaningless visual stimuli, (2) the number of pareidolic responses correlated with the severity of visual hallucinations, and (3) cholinergic enhancement reduced both the number of pareidolias and the severity of visual hallucinations in patients with DLB. These findings suggest that a common underlying psychological and neural mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB.

  18. Attachment in detachment: The positive role of caregivers in POWs' dissociative hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Stein, Jacob Y; Crompton, Laura; Ohry, Avi; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-01-01

    Humans are social creatures and therefore exhibit a pervasive need for others. Hence, when benevolent human contact is scarce, this dearth may be compensated imaginatively. War captivity is an extreme example of such deprivation and one wherein dissociative hallucinations have been exhibited. Although hallucinations may serve to virtually summon benevolent others and thus provide the prisoner of war (POW) with a platform for compensation, the contents of such hallucinations have yet to be investigated. The current qualitative study is the first to examine whether the content of such hallucinations may harbor positive effects. Guided by the notion that people search for compensation in lack of companionship, we scrutinized testimonies of former POWs for accounts of hallucinatory experiences. A narrative analysis was utilized in an attempt to understand the meaning of the hallucinations for the POW. Findings reveal that benevolent figures and concomitant acts of care are exhibited in war captivity hallucinatory experiences. Thus, it is argued that the content of such hallucinations may be protective. These findings are discussed in light of the literature concerning peritraumatic dissociative experiences. In addition, attachment theory is suggested as a plausible framework for understanding these findings. Finally, limitations of the study are discussed, and future researched is suggested. PMID:26905750

  19. Performance evaluation in color face hallucination with error regression model in MPCA subspace method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavaskulkiet, Krissada

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel face super-resolution reconstruction (hallucination) technique for YCbCr color space. The underlying idea is to learn with an error regression model and multi-linear principal component analysis (MPCA). From hallucination framework, many color face images are explained in YCbCr space. To reduce the time complexity of color face hallucination, we can be naturally described the color face imaged as tensors or multi-linear arrays. In addition, the error regression analysis is used to find the error estimation which can be obtained from the existing LR in tensor space. In learning process is from the mistakes in reconstruct face images of the training dataset by MPCA, then finding the relationship between input and error by regression analysis. In hallucinating process uses normal method by backprojection of MPCA, after that the result is corrected with the error estimation. In this contribution we show that our hallucination technique can be suitable for color face images both in RGB and YCbCr space. By using the MPCA subspace with error regression model, we can generate photorealistic color face images. Our approach is demonstrated by extensive experiments with high-quality hallucinated color faces. Comparison with existing algorithms shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. The Impact of Social Deprivation on Paranoia, Hallucinations, Mania and Depression: The Role of Discrimination Social Support, Stress and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health. PMID:25162703

  1. The impact of social deprivation on paranoia, hallucinations, mania and depression: the role of discrimination social support, stress and trust.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.

  2. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young. PMID:25991931

  3. Auditory Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  4. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  5. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  6. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth E; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  7. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A.; Kuipers, Elizabeth E.; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  8. [Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, J; Kyriafinis, G; Ereliadis, S; Daniilidis, J

    2004-10-01

    Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal is extremely rare. A 55-year old woman presented with a 6 month history of unilateral gustatory otorrhea. She never complained of hearing impairment, tinnitus, vertigo or otalgia. No trauma or surgical signs were evident near the ear or parotid gland. Examination of the ear showed an intact tympanic membrane without disease. A diagnosis of gustatory sweating syndrome was suggested by the observation of sweat production after chewing and by Minor's starch-iodine test. Symptoms were relieved after tympanic neurectomy. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.

  9. [Symptoms of DSM IV borderline personality disorder in a nonclinical population of adolescents: study of a series of 35 patients].

    PubMed

    Chabrol, H; Chouicha, K; Montovany, A; Callahan, S

    2001-01-01

    personality disorder in adolescents. Two criteria of schizotypal personality disorder were also frequent in this group: 68.6% of the borderline group reported odd beliefs or magical thinking, in particular beliefs in clairvoyance or telepathy and 88.6% reported unusual perceptual experiences, in particular sensing the presence of a force or person and bodily illusions. Moreover, 31.4% of the borderline group reported transient "quasi" psychotic experiences, mainly "quasi" visual hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations or delusional ideas were not observed. This symptomatology suggests a "quasi" psychotic dimension of adolescent borderline personality disorder. Affective instability was the next most frequent symptom which was usually marked by a cyclothymic appearance. Comorbidity with major depressive disorder was high: 85.7% of the borderline subjects had a concurrent diagnosis of major depression versus 45.8% of the non-borderline subjects. Thus, major depression is more frequent than most of the borderline personality disorder criteria, with the exception of the already noted paranoid ideation and affective instability. Hypomanic symptoms were frequent in the borderline group (65.7%) as well as in the non-borderline group (38.8%). This symptomatology suggests that adolescent borderline personality disorder is linked to an attenuated bipolar spectrum characterised by major depressive episodes and soft signs of bipolarity. However, hypomanic symptoms, which were quite frequent in non-borderline subjects, might also be due to a mechanism of defence, i.e. the denial of depression. Comorbidity with anxiety disorders appeared also to be high: anxiety symptoms were found in 91.4% of the borderline subjects who reported symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and somatoform disorders. The overall clinical appearance of these borderline adolescents not referred for treatment seemed to be quite similar to that of borderline adolescents in clinical samples. This

  10. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  11. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  12. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  13. Neurosyphilis with psychotic symptoms and Parkinsonism in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Zou, Shoukang; Huang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl with neurosyphilis was misdiagnosed as having viral encephalitis with psychotic symptoms and Parkinsonism. We found that she was experiencing visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, flattening of affect, poorness of thought, tremors, four-limb rigidity, and restlessness, and she was unable to communicate with others. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory serum test and further lumbar puncture enabled us to diagnose her with neurosyphilis. After antibiotic treatment, her psychotic symptoms and Parkinsonism were relieved. From this case, we believe that it is important to keep organic psychosis in mind during the diagnostic workup, and we argue that routine syphilis screening is necessary in psychiatry clinical practice.

  14. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Jutras, Marie France; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Vidailhet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia. PMID:22888466

  15. Rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, dreams, and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Manni, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    After the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in 1953, oneiric activity was long thought to be associated uniquely with REM sleep. Subsequent evaluation of sleep in humans combining neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and, more recently, functional neuroimaging investigations, has instead shown that dreaming also occurs during non-REM (NREM) sleep. It has been documented that hallucinatory activity during sleep is a normal phenomenon that is not constant throughout the night but increases toward morning when it tends to become present to the same extent in REM and NREM sleep. The role of sleep mechanisms in the generation of visual hallucinations is well-recognized in narcolepsy in the case of hypnagogic hallucinations, which are thought to derive from a REM-dissociation state in which dream imagery intrudes into wakefulness. Similar mechanisms have been hypothesized to play a role in the physiopathogenesis of visual hallucinations in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence indicates that not only REM but also NREM processes, such as arousal-related processes, may play a role in the physiopathogenesis of hallucinations in the aforementioned disorders. The role of these processes has been most extensively documented in visual hallucinations occurring in the context of delirium tremens and Parkinson's disease.

  16. Complex visual hallucinations in the visually impaired: the Charles Bonnet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Menon, G Jayakrishna; Rahman, Imran; Menon, Sharmila J; Dutton, Gordon N

    2003-01-01

    Visually impaired patients may experience complex visual hallucinations, a condition known as the Charles Bonnet Syndrome. Patients usually possess insight into the unreality of their visual experiences, which are commonly pleasant but may sometimes cause distress. The hallucinations consist of well-defined, organized, and clear images over which the subject has little control. It is believed that they represent release phenomena due to de-afferentation of the visual association areas of the cerebral cortex, leading to a form of phantom vision. Cognitive defects, social isolation, and sensory deprivation have also been implicated in the etiology of this condition. This condition, which is most common in the elderly, frequently goes unrecognized in clinical practice, due to both lack of awareness among doctors and patients' reluctance to admit to hallucinatory experiences, for fear of being labeled mentally unstable. Furthermore, patients who comprehend the unreality of their hallucinations may be distressed by the real fear of imminent insanity. Sensitive and sympathetic history taking is essential to ascertain the existence of hallucinations. Reassurance and explanation that the visions are benign and do not signify mental illness have a powerful therapeutic effect. Hallucinatory activity may terminate spontaneously, on improving visual function or on addressing social isolation. There is no universally effective drug treatment but anticonvulsants may play a limited role in aborting the hallucinations. Physician awareness and empathy are the cornerstones of management.

  17. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms.

  18. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  19. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  20. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  1. Clinical assessment of auditory dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, W G

    1982-01-01

    Many drugs, chemical substances and agents are potentially toxic to the human auditory system. The extent of toxicity depends on numerous factors. With few exceptions, toxicity in the auditory system affects various organs or cells within the cochlea or vestibular system, with brain stem and other central nervous system involvement reported with some chemicals and agents. This ototoxicity usually presents as a decrease in auditory sensitivity, tinnitus and/or vertigo or loss of balance. Classical and newer audiological techniques used in clinical assessment are beneficial in specifying the site of lesion in the cochlea, although auditory test results, themselves, give little information regarding possible pathology or etiology within the cochlea. Typically,, ototoxicity results in high frequency hearing loss, progressive as a function of frequency, usually accompanied by tinnitus and occasionally by vertigo or loss of balance. Auditory testing protocols are necessary to document this loss in auditory function. PMID:7044778

  2. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  3. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables.

  4. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables. PMID:26488914

  5. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  6. Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bousman, Chad A.; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Everall, Ian P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Results Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). Discussion and Conclusion MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. Scientific Significance This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. PMID:25864598

  7. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: can Beliefs about Voices Mediate the Relationship Patients establish with them and Negative Affect?

    PubMed

    León-Palacios, María de Gracia; Úbeda-Gómez, Juan; Escudero-Pérez, Silvia; Barros-Albarán, María Dolores; López-Jiménez, Ana María; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador

    2015-10-13

    This study was designed to find out whether a person's relationship with his voices and the negative affect he suffers from are mediated by beliefs about the voices. Research done to date shows contradictory results (Sorrell, Hayward, & Meddings, 2010, Vaughan & Fowler, 2004). A cross-sectional study was done to study the associations among variables, and a multiple mediation model (Preacher & Hayes, 2008) in which the beliefs about voices were the mediating variables was tested. Sixty subjects who heard voices participated. The VAY (Hayward, Denney, Vaughan, & Fowler, 2008), BAVQ (Chadwick & Birchwood, 1995), BAI (Beck & Steer, 1993) and BDI-II (Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996) were given. We found a significant positive correlation between perception of voices as dominant and intrusive and maintaining a position of distance from them on one hand, and negative affect [anxiety (r = .57, p < .001; r = .40, p < .001; r = .34, p < .01 respectively) and depression (r = .58, p < .001; r = .37, p < .01; r = .38, p < .001 respectively)] on the other. We also found that beliefs of malevolence and omnipotence mediated between relating style and negative affect (anxiety and depression). The theoretical implications of the results and clinical implications of the mediating relationships found are discussed.

  8. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed.

  9. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed. PMID:26163900

  10. Elementary visual hallucinations and their relationships to neural pattern-forming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Billock, Vincent A; Tsou, Brian H

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary variety of experimental (e.g., flicker, magnetic fields) and clinical (epilepsy, migraine) conditions give rise to a surprisingly common set of elementary hallucinations, including spots, geometric patterns, and jagged lines, some of which also have color, depth, motion, and texture. Many of these simple hallucinations fall into a small number of perceptual geometries-the Klüver forms-that (via a nonlinear mapping from retina to cortex) correspond to even simpler sets of oriented stripes of cortical activity (and their superpositions). Other simple hallucinations (phosphenes and fortification auras) are linked to the Klüver forms and to pattern-forming cortical mechanisms by their spatial and temporal scales. The Klüver cortical activity patterns are examples of self-organized pattern formation that arise from nonlinear dynamic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons; with reasonable modifications, this model accounts for a wide range of hallucinated patterns. The Klüver cortical activity patterns are a subset of autonomous spatiotemporal cortical patterns, some of which have been studied with functional imaging techniques. Understanding the interaction of these intrinsic patterns with stimulus-driven cortical activity is an important problem in neuroscience. In line with this, hallucinatory pattern formation interacts with physical stimuli, and many conditions that induce hallucinations show interesting interactions with one another. Both types of interactions are predictable from neural and psychophysical principles such as localized processing, excitatory-inhibitory neural circuits, lateral inhibition, simultaneous and sequential contrast, saccadic suppression, and perceptual opponency. Elementary hallucinations arise from familiar mechanisms stimulated in unusual ways. PMID:22448914

  11. Dementia and visual hallucinations associated with limbic pathology in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzakis, M E; Christian, L M; Moran, L B; Graeber, M B; Pearce, R K B; Gentleman, S M

    2009-03-01

    The pathological basis of dementia and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not yet fully understood. To investigate this further we have conducted a clinico-pathological study based on 30 post-mortem PD brains. PD cases were stratified into groups according to clinical characteristics as follows: (1) cognitively intact (n=9); (2) cases with severe dementia and visual hallucinations (n=12); (3) cases with severe dementia and no visual hallucinations (n=4); and (4) cases with severe visual hallucinations and no dementia (n=5). The extent of alpha-synuclein (alphaSyn), tau and amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) deposition was then examined in the CA2 sector of the hippocampus and in neocortical and subcortical areas known to subserve cognitive function. We find that dementia in PD is significantly associated with alphaSyn in the anterior cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, amygdaloid complex and CA2 sector of the hippocampus. Abeta in the anterior cingulate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, amygdaloid complex and nucleus basalis of Meynert is also associated with dementia as is tau in the CA2 sector of the hippocampus. alphaSyn burden in the amygdala is strongly related to the presence of visual hallucinations but only in those PD cases with concomitant dementia. Statistical analysis revealed that alphaSyn burden in the anterior cingulate gyrus could differentiate demented from non-demented PD cases with high sensitivity and specificity. We conclude that alphaSyn in limbic regions is related to dementia in PD as well as to visual hallucinations when there is an underlying dementia.

  12. Elementary visual hallucinations and their relationships to neural pattern-forming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Billock, Vincent A; Tsou, Brian H

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary variety of experimental (e.g., flicker, magnetic fields) and clinical (epilepsy, migraine) conditions give rise to a surprisingly common set of elementary hallucinations, including spots, geometric patterns, and jagged lines, some of which also have color, depth, motion, and texture. Many of these simple hallucinations fall into a small number of perceptual geometries-the Klüver forms-that (via a nonlinear mapping from retina to cortex) correspond to even simpler sets of oriented stripes of cortical activity (and their superpositions). Other simple hallucinations (phosphenes and fortification auras) are linked to the Klüver forms and to pattern-forming cortical mechanisms by their spatial and temporal scales. The Klüver cortical activity patterns are examples of self-organized pattern formation that arise from nonlinear dynamic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons; with reasonable modifications, this model accounts for a wide range of hallucinated patterns. The Klüver cortical activity patterns are a subset of autonomous spatiotemporal cortical patterns, some of which have been studied with functional imaging techniques. Understanding the interaction of these intrinsic patterns with stimulus-driven cortical activity is an important problem in neuroscience. In line with this, hallucinatory pattern formation interacts with physical stimuli, and many conditions that induce hallucinations show interesting interactions with one another. Both types of interactions are predictable from neural and psychophysical principles such as localized processing, excitatory-inhibitory neural circuits, lateral inhibition, simultaneous and sequential contrast, saccadic suppression, and perceptual opponency. Elementary hallucinations arise from familiar mechanisms stimulated in unusual ways.

  13. Braille alexia during visual hallucination in a blind man with selective calcarine atrophy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kengo; Yasuda, Hitoshi; Haneda, Masakazu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2003-04-01

    The case of a 56-year-old man who has been blind for 25 years due to retinal degeneration is herein described. The patient complained of elementary visual hallucination, during which it was difficult for him to read Braille. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked atrophy of the bilateral striate cortex. Visual hallucination as a release phenomenon of the primary visual cortex has never been reported to cause alexia for Braille. The present case supports the results of recent functional imaging studies of the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading.

  14. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  15. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  16. Hearing suppression induced by electrical stimulation of human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Albert J; Severson, Meryl A; Volkov, Igor O; Brugge, John F; Howard, Matthew A

    2006-11-01

    In the course of performing electrical stimulation functional mapping (ESFM) in neurosurgery patients, we identified three subjects who experienced hearing suppression during stimulation of sites within the superior temporal gyrus (STG). One of these patients had long standing tinnitus that affected both ears. In all subjects, auditory event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from chronically implanted intracranial electrodes and the results were used to localize auditory cortical fields within the STG. Hearing suppression sites were identified within anterior lateral Heschl's gyrus (HG) and posterior lateral STG, in what may be auditory belt and parabelt fields. Cortical stimulation suppressed hearing in both ears, which persisted beyond the period of electrical stimulation. Subjects experienced other stimulation-evoked perceptions at some of these same sites, including symptoms of vestibular activation and alteration of audio-visual speech processing. In contrast, stimulation of presumed core auditory cortex within posterior medial HG evoked sound perceptions, or in one case an increase in tinnitus intensity, that affected the contralateral ear and did not persist beyond the period of stimulation. The current results confirm a rarely reported experimental observation, and correlate the cortical sites associated with hearing suppression with physiologically identified auditory cortical fields. PMID:16979144

  17. A population-based twin study of parentally reported tactile and auditory defensiveness in young children.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, H H; Van Hulle, C A; Arneson, C L; Schreiber, J E; Gernsbacher, M A

    2006-06-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a population-based sample of 1,394 toddler-aged twins, mothers reported on tactile and auditory defensiveness, temperament, and behavior problems. The incidence of defensive symptoms was widely distributed, with some accumulation of cases in the extreme range. Girls were overrepresented in the extreme tactile defensiveness group. Both auditory and tactile defensiveness were modestly associated with fearful temperament and anxiety, but they were relatively distinct from other common dimensions of childhood behavioral dysfunction. Twin correlations for the full range of scores and concordance rates for the extremes suggested moderate genetic influences, with some indication that the tactile domain might be more heritable than the auditory domain.

  18. Issues in Human Auditory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Lynne A.

    2007-01-01

    The human auditory system is often portrayed as precocious in its development. In fact, many aspects of basic auditory processing appear to be adult-like by the middle of the first year of postnatal life. However, processes such as attention and sound source determination take much longer to develop. Immaturity of higher-level processes limits the…

  19. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  20. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  1. From phenomenology to neurophysiological understanding of hallucinations in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Debbané, Martin; Jenner, Jack A; Kelleher, Ian; Dauvilliers, Yves; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Demeulemeester, Morgane; David, Christopher N; Rapoport, Judith; Dobbelaere, Dries; Escher, Sandra; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the other hand, ideas of reference, passivity phenomena, and misidentification syndrome have been shown to increase the risk of self-injury or heteroaggressive behaviors. Cognitive psychology and brain-imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these early-onset hallucinations. Notably, specific functional impairments have been associated with certain phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations in youths, including intrusiveness and the sense of reality. In this review, we provide an update of associated epidemiological and phenomenological factors (including sociocultural context, social adversity, and genetics, considered in relation to the psychosis continuum hypothesis), cognitive models, and neurophysiological findings concerning hallucinations in children and adolescents. Key issues that have interfered with progress are considered and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:24936083

  2. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Command Hallucinations and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowcliff, Alastair L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature detailing cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis in people with intellectual disability. Of the available literature, only two case studies involve people with command hallucinations and these do not address specific issues of intervention indicated in the wider literature for this type of…

  3. Serial and semantic encoding of lists of words in schizophrenia patients with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Brébion, Gildas; Ohlsen, Ruth I; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S

    2011-03-30

    Previous research has suggested that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia are associated with abnormal salience of visual mental images. Since visual imagery is used as a mnemonic strategy to learn lists of words, increased visual imagery might impede the other commonly used strategies of serial and semantic encoding. We had previously published data on the serial and semantic strategies implemented by patients when learning lists of concrete words with different levels of semantic organisation (Brébion et al., 2004). In this paper we present a re-analysis of these data, aiming at investigating the associations between learning strategies and visual hallucinations. Results show that the patients with visual hallucinations presented less serial clustering in the non-organisable list than the other patients. In the semantically organisable list with typical instances, they presented both less serial and less semantic clustering than the other patients. Thus, patients with visual hallucinations demonstrate reduced use of serial and semantic encoding in the lists made up of fairly familiar concrete words, which enable the formation of mental images. Although these results are preliminary, we propose that this different processing of the lists stems from the abnormal salience of the mental images such patients experience from the word stimuli.

  4. Zolpidem-induced Hallucinations: A Brief Case Report from the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurvinder Pal; Loona, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting a case of zolpidem-induced hallucinations in a 20-year-old patient. The duration of this phenomenon was brief, 15-20 minutes. Our case suggests that clinicians must be aware of this phenomenon while prescribing zolpidem. PMID:24049236

  5. Psychotic symptoms, self-harm and violence in individuals with schizophrenia and substance misuse problems.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Gillian; Eisner, Emily; Davies, Gabriel; Coupe, Nia; Barrowclough, Christine

    2013-12-01

    When schizophrenia is combined with substance misuse, rates are consistently higher. However research findings on the relationship between violence, self-harm and schizophrenia are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine links between specific psychotic symptoms, substance misuse and violence in people dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and substance misuse. Presence and frequency of violence to self and others were examined in relation to the type and severity of psychotic symptoms and level of substance use over a 24 month period in 327 people with schizophrenia and substance misuse problems. 32.3% had an incident of violence to others during the study period and 28.6% had a self-harm/suicide incident. 39 (11.9%) participants reported command hallucinations (CH) and 157 (48.0%) had threat control override symptoms (TCOS). Presence of TCOS and presence of CH were not associated with violence to others but were both associated with self-harm. Different command hallucination sub-types were associated with different types of violence. Delusional and hallucination severity and distress were mainly associated with self-harm. These findings suggest that specific symptoms are related to different outcomes, particularly in relation to self-harm, and these effects remain even after substance use is controlled for. This has important implications for assessment and treatment of this group.

  6. Pedunculopontine cholinergic cell loss in hallucinating Parkinson disease patients but not in dementia with Lewy bodies patients.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Dagmar Hyacintha; Ruiter, A M; Galis, Y; Voorn, P; Rozemuller, A J M; Berendse, H W; Foncke, E M J; van de Berg, W D J

    2013-12-01

    There is a cholinergic deficit in Parkinson disease (PD) and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that plays a role in a variety of clinical symptoms, including visual hallucinations (VH). The aim of this study was to assess cholinergic neuronal loss and PD and Alzheimer disease pathology in the pedunculopontine nucleus pars compacta (PPNc) of PD and DLB patients with VH. Postmortem brainstem tissue samples of 9 clinically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed PD patients with VH, 9 DLB patients with VH, and 9 age- and sex-matched nondemented controls were obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank. Using a morphometric approach, we estimated the density of cholinergic neurons in the PPNc and determined the local load of α-synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy pathology, neurofibrillary tangles, and β-amyloid plaques. Cholinergic cell density in the PPNc was significantly lower in PD compared with DLB patients with VH (-39%, p < 0.001) and controls (-41%, p < 0.001). Alpha-synuclein load was higher in PD, whereas β-amyloid plaque pathology was more pronounced in DLB patients. The mean cell density in DLB patients was not significantly reduced compared with that in controls. These results may indicate different patterns of degeneration of cholinergic output structures in PD and DLB.

  7. Pedunculopontine cholinergic cell loss in hallucinating Parkinson disease patients but not in dementia with Lewy bodies patients.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Dagmar Hyacintha; Ruiter, A M; Galis, Y; Voorn, P; Rozemuller, A J M; Berendse, H W; Foncke, E M J; van de Berg, W D J

    2013-12-01

    There is a cholinergic deficit in Parkinson disease (PD) and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that plays a role in a variety of clinical symptoms, including visual hallucinations (VH). The aim of this study was to assess cholinergic neuronal loss and PD and Alzheimer disease pathology in the pedunculopontine nucleus pars compacta (PPNc) of PD and DLB patients with VH. Postmortem brainstem tissue samples of 9 clinically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed PD patients with VH, 9 DLB patients with VH, and 9 age- and sex-matched nondemented controls were obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank. Using a morphometric approach, we estimated the density of cholinergic neurons in the PPNc and determined the local load of α-synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy pathology, neurofibrillary tangles, and β-amyloid plaques. Cholinergic cell density in the PPNc was significantly lower in PD compared with DLB patients with VH (-39%, p < 0.001) and controls (-41%, p < 0.001). Alpha-synuclein load was higher in PD, whereas β-amyloid plaque pathology was more pronounced in DLB patients. The mean cell density in DLB patients was not significantly reduced compared with that in controls. These results may indicate different patterns of degeneration of cholinergic output structures in PD and DLB. PMID:24226265

  8. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  9. The Application of Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alisa R.; Addington, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective treatment for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia yet there are few cognitive therapists in North America who are specialized to work with this patient population. There is a need for further dissemination of CT for schizophrenia in order to increase its…

  10. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  11. Language Development Activities through the Auditory Channel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzmaurice, Peggy, Comp.; And Others

    Presented primarily for use with educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children are approximately 100 activities for language development through the auditory channel. Activities are grouped under the following three areas: receptive skills (auditory decoding, auditory memory, and auditory discrimination); expressive skills (auditory…

  12. Beyond Intuition: Patient Fever Symptom Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Nancy J.; Peng, Claudia; Powers, John H.; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Rosenberg, Alice; VanRaden, Mark; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Fever is an important sign of inflammation recognized by health care practitioners and family caregivers. However, few empirical data obtained directly from patients exist to support many of the long-standing assumptions about the symptoms of fever. Many of the literature-cited symptoms, including chills, diaphoresis, and malaise, have limited scientific bases, yet they often represent a major justification for antipyretic administration. Objectives To describe the patient experience of fever symptoms for the preliminary development of a fever assessment questionnaire. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 inpatients, the majority (86%) with cancer diagnoses, who had a recorded temperature of ≥38°C within approximately 12 hours before the interview. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit patient fever experiences. Thematic analyses were conducted by three independent research team members, and the data were verified through two rounds of consensus building. Results Eleven themes emerged. The participants reported experiences of feeling cold, weakness, warmth, sweating, nonspecific bodily sensations, gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, emotional changes, achiness, respiratory symptoms, and vivid dreams/hallucinations. Conclusion Our data not only confirm long-standing symptoms of fever but also suggest new symptoms and a level of variability and complexity not captured by the existing fever literature. Greater knowledge of patients’ fever experiences will guide more accurate assessment of symptoms associated with fever and the impact of antipyretic treatments on patient symptoms in this common condition. Results from this study are contributing to the content validity of a future instrument that will evaluate patient outcomes related to fever interventions. PMID:23742739

  13. A case of persistent visual hallucinations of faces following LSD abuse: a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study.

    PubMed

    Iaria, Giuseppe; Fox, Christopher J; Scheel, Michael; Stowe, Robert M; Barton, Jason J S

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient experiencing hallucinations of faces that could be reliably precipitated by looking at trees. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we found that face hallucinations were associated with increased and decreased neural activity in a number of cortical regions. Within the same fusiform face area, however, we found significant decreased and increased neural activity according to whether the patient was experiencing hallucinations or veridical perception of faces, respectively. These findings may indicate key differences in how hallucinatory and veridical perceptions lead to the same phenomenological experience of seeing faces.

  14. DSM-IV “criterion A” schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia is contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n=776), India (n=504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n=259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form. PMID:24981830

  15. Late onset autistic symptoms and other fluctuating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Siddiqi, Siraj; Janicke, David M; Harbert, Mary Jo; Trauner, Doris; Taylor, Tasha; Stein, Martin T

    2009-12-01

    Suzanna was born to a 26-year-old woman who used cocaine, alcohol, and cigarettes and experienced domestic violence throughout her pregnancy. Suzanna was placed in foster care with her current adoptive family after her birth. Her initial evaluation at 4 years revealed a global developmental delay (physical: 6 months; social and communication: 12 months). Improvements in development seemed to be in response to subsequent interventions. At 5 years, she had borderline intellectual functioning, an expressive or receptive language disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Suzanna experienced an abrupt developmental decline at 6 1/2 years old. She lost cognitive abilities, and she no longer carried on conversations. Although she was no longer interactive with most people, she remained affectionate with her parents. Her mother thought that Suzanna had visual and auditory hallucinations. In addition, she developed encopresis and hand flapping. A neurological evaluation, including a test for Rett Syndrome, was negative. Her Full Scale IQ dropped from 73 to 50 with decreased adaptive functioning and clinically significant problems with hyperactivity, attention, and functional communication.Suzanna's development stabilized temporarily during an 18-month period. A second period of declining function included "zombie-like" behavior, anxiety, and hallucinations. Weekly sessions in child psychiatry included treatment with risperidone, methylphenidate, and supportive therapy for mother and child. After some clinical improvements in behavior, attention, and functioning, a psychological assessment confirmed the persistence of moderate mental retardation. A multidisciplinary team considered a diagnosis of childhood disintegrative disorder. PMID:19996905

  16. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder: Auditory-evoked response in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G) subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD. PMID:27551667

  17. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  18. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  19. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  20. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  1. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  2. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration. PMID:27145914

  3. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  4. Osteoma of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Estrem, S A; Vessely, M B; Oro, J J

    1993-03-01

    The use of MRI for the evaluation of lesions in the internal auditory canal presents a potential pitfall in the diagnosis of bony lesions of the IAC, because bone is poorly visualized with this method of imaging. The presence of marrow in an osteoma might aid in its detection, since fat in the marrow has a bright signal intensity of T1-weighted imaging. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of choice for bony lesions of the temporal bone. We demonstrate a case of IAC osteoma in which surgical removal resulted in improvement of symptoms. The gross and microscopic appearance of the IAC osteoma in this case is similar to the characteristic findings of osteomas of the EAC. This suggests that the criteria applied to osteomas and exostoses of the EAC may also be used to differentiate bony lesions of the IAC.

  5. Impaired visual processing preceding image recognition in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Meppelink, Anne Marthe; de Jong, Bauke M; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L; Cornelissen, Frans W; van Laar, Teus

    2009-11-01

    Impaired visual processing may play a role in the pathophysiology of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. In order to study involved neuronal circuitry, we assessed cerebral activation patterns both before and during recognition of gradually revealed images in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations (PDwithVHs), Parkinson's disease patients without visual hallucinations (PDnonVHs) and healthy controls. We hypothesized that, before image recognition, PDwithVHs would show reduced bottom-up visual activation in occipital-temporal areas and increased (pre)frontal activation, reflecting increased top-down demand. Overshoot of the latter has been proposed to play a role in generating visual hallucinations. Nine non-demented PDwithVHs, 14 PDnonVHs and 13 healthy controls were scanned on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Static images of animals and objects gradually appearing out of random visual noise were used in an event-related design paradigm. Analyses were time-locked on the moment of image recognition, indicated by the subjects' button-press. Subjects were asked to press an additional button on a colour-changing fixation dot, to keep attention and motor action constant and to assess reaction times. Data pre-processing and statistical analysis were performed with statistical parametric mapping-5 software. Bilateral activation of the fusiform and lingual gyri was seen during image recognition in all groups (P < 0.001). Several seconds before image recognition, PDwithVHs showed reduced activation of the lateral occipital cortex, compared with both PDnonVHs and healthy controls. In addition, reduced activation of extrastriate temporal visual cortices was seen just before image recognition in PDwithVHs. The association between increased vulnerability for visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease and impaired visual object processing in occipital and temporal extrastriate visual cortices supported the hypothesis of impaired bottom

  6. [External auditory canal osteoma resulting in cholesteatoma which is complicated with meningitis].

    PubMed

    Yorgancılar, Ediz; Kınış, Vefa; Gün, Ramazan; Bakır, Salih; Ozbay, Musa; Topçu, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Osteoma of external auditory canal is a unilateral benign tumor which usually presents with no symptoms. They only cause symptoms when cerumen collection or conduction type hearing loss occurs. They are the most common osseous lesions of the temporal bone. It very rarely presents with cholesteatoma. So far, no osteoma case concomitant with, cholesteatoma and meningitis has not been reported. In this article, we report an interesting case presenting with external auditory canal osteoma, cholestatoma and meningitis concomitantly who was treated successfully using the canal Wall-down mastoidectomy technique.

  7. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, André; Hoek, Hans W; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-12-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks. At the mesoscopic level it explains them in relation to global brain states, and at the macroscopic level in relation to social-network structures and dynamics. Due to the scale-free nature of biological networks, all three levels are governed by the same general laws, thereby allowing for an integrated model of biological, psychological, and social phenomena involved in the mediation of positive symptoms of psychosis. This integrated network model of psychotic symptoms (INMOPS) is described together with various possibilities for application in clinical practice.

  8. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, André; Hoek, Hans W; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-12-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks. At the mesoscopic level it explains them in relation to global brain states, and at the macroscopic level in relation to social-network structures and dynamics. Due to the scale-free nature of biological networks, all three levels are governed by the same general laws, thereby allowing for an integrated model of biological, psychological, and social phenomena involved in the mediation of positive symptoms of psychosis. This integrated network model of psychotic symptoms (INMOPS) is described together with various possibilities for application in clinical practice. PMID:26432501

  9. The interactions between religion, religiosity, religious delusion/hallucination, and treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Shieh, Ming-Shien; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Su, Jin Chung-Jen

    2011-05-30

    Religion could influence the psychopathology, treatment-seeking behavior, and treatment outcome in schizophrenia, but the associations between these factors have never been explored thoroughly, and the data in Han-Chinese society are scarcer still. The current study recruited 55 schizophrenic patients to explore the relationship between religion, psychopathology with religious content, treatment-seeking behavior, and outcome. Subjects with religious delusions/hallucinations had lower scores on functioning and higher scores on religiosity. The higher religiosity scores were correlated with older age, longer duration of illness, religious affiliation, lower preference of psychiatric treatment, lower functioning score, and delusion/hallucination. As to treatment-seeking behavior, patients with religious affiliation showed less preference toward psychiatric treatment. Individuals with religious delusion/hallucination were more likely to receive magico-religious healing and not to be satisfied with psychiatric treatment. A more positive view of psychiatric treatment was predicted by lower religiosity score, higher satisfaction with psychiatric treatment, and lower years of education. The religiosity level seems not directly related to clinical severity, but it seems to be a better predictor of religious delusions/hallucinations than religious affiliation status. Patients with religious delusions/hallucinations did not necessarily have more severe psychopathology. There are different profiles associated with religious affiliation/religiosity and religious delusions/hallucinations in relation to treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenia patients in Han-Chinese society.

  10. The Hyperactivity of Efferent Auditory System in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Suzaily; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Zakaria, Mohd. Normani

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electrophysiological studies, which are mostly focused on afferent pathway, have proven that auditory processing deficits exist in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, reports on the suppressive effect of efferent auditory pathway on cochlear outer hair cells among schizophrenia patients are limited. The present, case-control, study examined the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were twenty-three healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal hearing, middle ear and cochlear outer hair cells function. Absolute non-linear and linear TEOAEs were measured in both ears by delivering clicks stimuli at 80 dB SPL and 60 dB SPL respectively. Subsequently, contralateral suppression was determined by subtracting the absolute TEOAEs response obtained at 60 dBpe SPL during the absence and presence of contralateral white noise delivered at 65 dB HL. No attention tasks were conducted during measurements. Results We found no significant difference in absolute TEOAEs responses at 80 dB SPL, in either diagnosis or ear groups (p>0.05). However, the overall contralateral suppression was significantly larger in schizophrenia patients (p<0.05). Specifically, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly increased right ear contralateral suppression compared to healthy control (p<0.05). Conclusion The present findings suggest increased inhibitory effect of efferent auditory pathway especially on the right cochlear outer hair cells. Further studies to investigate increased suppressive effects are crucial to expand the current understanding of auditory hallucination mechanisms in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26766950

  11. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person

  12. Visual hallucinations with written words in a case of left parietotemporal lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, M; Debrock, D; Cabaret, M; Steinling, M

    1994-01-01

    A 15 year old ambidextrous patient presented with left temporoparietal lesions after head trauma. Seizures associated with visual hallucinations of written words arose six months later. Electroencephalography showed spike and wave complexes with phase opposition over the left parietal area. On MRI a post-traumatic porencephalic lesion was seen in area 7 and the superior part of area 39 of Brodmann; on T2 sequences, it was surrounded by a hyperecho predominating in the inferior part of the parietal lobe and extending in the posteroexternal temporal cortex. This first description of hallucinations of written words raises the possibility of the presence, in the temporoparietal cortex, of specific representations ("lexicon") of corresponding information. Images PMID:7931396

  13. Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religious themes are commonly encountered in delusions and hallucinations associated with major mental disorders, and the form and content of presentation are significant in relation to both diagnosis and management. Aims: This study aimed to establish what is known about the frequency of occurrence of religious delusions (RD) and religious hallucinations (RH) and their inter-relationship. Methods: A review was undertaken of the quantitative empirical English literature on RD and RH. Results: A total of 55 relevant publications were identified. The lack of critical criteria for defining and classifying RD and RH makes comparisons between studies difficult, but prevalence clearly varies with time and place, and probably also according to personal religiosity. In particular, little is known about the content and frequency of RH and the relationship between RH and RD. Conclusion: Clearer research criteria are needed to facilitate future study of RD and RH, and more research is needed on the relationship between RD and RH. PMID:25770205

  14. Heterogeneous iris image hallucination using sparse representation on a learned heterogeneous patch dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yung-Hui; Zheng, Bo-Ren; Ji, Dai-Yan; Tien, Chung-Hao; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Cross sensor iris matching may seriously degrade the recognition performance because of the sensor mis-match problem of iris images between the enrollment and test stage. In this paper, we propose two novel patch-based heterogeneous dictionary learning method to attack this problem. The first method applies the latest sparse representation theory while the second method tries to learn the correspondence relationship through PCA in heterogeneous patch space. Both methods learn the basic atoms in iris textures across different image sensors and build connections between them. After such connections are built, at test stage, it is possible to hallucinate (synthesize) iris images across different sensors. By matching training images with hallucinated images, the recognition rate can be successfully enhanced. The experimental results showed the satisfied results both visually and in terms of recognition rate. Experimenting with an iris database consisting of 3015 images, we show that the EER is decreased 39.4% relatively by the proposed method.

  15. Tc SPECT scan in a patient with occipital lobe infarction and complex visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Assadi, Mitra; Baseman, Susan; Hyman, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    We have described a patient with occipital lobe infarction and CVH in the hemianopic field. Increased uptake in the right temporal lobe was documented on the brain Tc SPECT scan. We propose that activation of this area might be the underlying mechanism for visual hallucinations. This case report is a clear example of the wide spectrum of the clinical manifestations in stroke victims. We also emphasize the importance of educating the medical staff about the organic basis for human behavior.

  16. Neural interactions between flicker-induced self-organized visual hallucinations and physical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Billock, Vincent A.; Tsou, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous pattern formation in cortical activity may have consequences for perception, but little is known about interactions between sensory-driven and self-organized cortical activity. To address this deficit, we explored the relationship between ordinary stimulus-controlled pattern perception and the autonomous hallucinatory geometrical pattern formation that occurs for unstructured visual stimulation (e.g., empty-field flicker). We found that flicker-induced hallucinations are biased by the presentation of adjacent geometrical stimuli; geometrical forms that map to cortical area V1 as orthogonal gratings are perceptually opponent in biasing hallucinations. Rotating fan blades and pulsating circular patterns are the most salient biased hallucinations. Apparent motion and fractal (1/f) noise are also effective in driving hallucinatory pattern formation (the latter is consistent with predictions of spatiotemporal pattern formation driven by stochastic resonance). The behavior of these percepts suggests that self-organized hallucinatory pattern formation in human vision is governed by the same cortical properties of localized processing, lateral inhibition, simultaneous contrast, and nonlinear retinotopic mapping that govern ordinary vision. PMID:17470794

  17. Effect of religious context on the content of visual hallucinations in individuals high in religiosity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil; Clarke, Natasha

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the interaction between the current environment and personality factors associated with religiosity in determining the content of false perceptions (used as a model for hallucinations). A primed word-detection task was used to investigate the effect of a 'religious' context on false perceptions in individuals scoring highly on religiosity. After a subliminal prime, participants viewed letter strings, and stated any words that they saw. The prime and the actual words could have a religious connotation or not. Participants measuring high on religiosity were more likely to report false perceptions of a religious type than participants low on religiosity. It is suggested that context affects the content of false perceptions through the activation of stored beliefs and values, which vary between individuals, offering a mechanism for the effect of context on idiosyncratic content of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The effect of context and individual differences on false-perception content in the current study provides possibilities for future work regarding the underlying nature of hallucinations and their treatment.

  18. Auditory Beat Stimulation and its Effects on Cognition and Mood States

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke Caroline; Reber, Thomas P.; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood states. Here, we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation (ABS). We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to ABS and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural-beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural- and binaural-beat frequencies in cognition and mood states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of ABS. PMID:26029120

  19. Differential diagnosis of hallucinations in a patient with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Ouanes, Sami; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Kacem, Imen; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2013-09-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with comorbidity of myasthenia gravis and psychosis. Different diagnostic hypotheses based on a review of the literature are discussed. A protracted history of physical spousal abuse, patient symptoms, and results of different investigations allowed us to conclude that the patient had a form of posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features. Psychosis due to myasthenia gravis is rarely seen, and it remains unclear what is the pathophysiology, if any, for such an association. The present case highlights the difficulties the physician faces in disentangling psychosis as a potential manifestation of myasthenia gravis itself versus being caused by a medical side effect of treatment, or psychosis due to a distinct co-occurring neurologic or psychiatric condition.

  20. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  1. Etiological and Clinical Features of Childhood Psychotic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Cannon, Mary; Ambler, Antony; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Houts, Renate; Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Context It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are common in the general population and may signal neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are associated with the same extensive risk factors established for adult schizophrenia. Objective To examine the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms by testing whether these symptoms share the risk factors and clinical features of adult schizophrenia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of a nationally representative birth cohort in Great Britain. Participants A total of 2232 twelve-year-old children followed up since age 5 years (retention, 96%). Main Outcome Measure Children’s self-reported hallucinations and delusions. Results Children’s psychotic symptoms are familial and heritable and are associated with social risk factors (eg, urbanicity); cognitive impairments at age 5; home-rearing risk factors (eg, maternal expressed emotion); behavioral, emotional, and educational problems at age 5; and comorbid conditions, including self-harm. Conclusions The results provide a comprehensive picture of the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms. For researchers, the findings indicate that children who have psychotic symptoms can be recruited for neuroscience research to determine the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. For clinicians, the findings indicate that psychotic symptoms in childhood are often a marker of an impaired developmental process and should be actively assessed. PMID:20368509

  2. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: SÃntomas Prevent Dehydration Drink plenty of liquids to replace fluids that ...

  3. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  4. [Auditory synaptopathy/neuropathy: clinical findings and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Walger, M; Foerst, A; Beutner, D; Streicher, B; Stürmer, K; Lang-Roth, R

    2011-05-01

    Auditory synaptopathy/neuropathy (AS/AN) is a special subtype of sensorineural hearing disorders with heterogeneous phenotypes and underestimated incidence. AS/AN generally develops in infancy, occasionally in adulthood. Symptoms include fluctuating, mostly bilateral hearing loss and abnormally reduced speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. Within audiological assessments, patients with AS/AN present otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE; DPOAE) and cochlear microphonics (CM), absence of stapedius reflexes (SR) as well as absent or pathologically altered auditory evoked brainstem potentials (ABR). Children with AS/AN cannot be identified within OAE-based newborn hearing screening programs. Clinical findings, transtympanic electrocochleography (ECoG) and further diagnostic tools permit further identification of individual characteristics. In individual cases conventional amplification and the use of FM systems may improve hearing and communication skills. If these interventions, accompanied by intensive hearing, speech and language therapy are unsuccessful, cochlear implants (CI) or alternative forms of communication may be useful options for rehabilitation. PMID:21505928

  5. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers.

  6. Context effects on auditory distraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  7. Rare tumors of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Aletsee, Christoph; Brors, Dominik; Mlynski, Robert; Sudhoff, Holger; Hildmann, Henning; Helms, Jan

    2005-07-01

    The study was performed to identify the incidence and histology of rare tumors with growth restricted to the internal auditory canal (IAC) that are different from vestibular schwannoma (VS). Furthermore, the question was addressed whether a preoperative diagnosis would be possible in these cases. A series of 351 patients that were operated on for IAC tumors through a transtemporal or translabyrinthine approach was investigated retrospectively. Cases with a tumor entity other than VS were analyzed for symptoms, radiological diagnosis, intraoperative findings and postoperative histolopatology to determine if a differential diagnosis to the common VS can be established prior to surgery. In 15 out of 351 cases (4.3%), uncommon processes of the IAC were determined by histology (6 lipomas, 3 hemangiomas, 2 neurofibromas, 2 menigiomas, 1 facial neuroma and 1 case of bilateral malignant lymphoma). The symptoms and the clinical manifestations were typical for patients with VS so that a preoperative differential diagnosis was not possible in the majority of cases. An analysis of the operation reports revealed that in 10 out of the 15 cases the surgeon suspected an unusual tumor of the IAC during surgery. The results of the present investigation suggest that rare lesions of the IAC can be expected in less than 5% of the cases and that preoperative diagnosis of rare IAC tumors is difficult. Intraoperative findings such as adhesion to cranial nerves and consistency of the tumor often indicate unusual processes, but histological analysis of the removed tissue is essential for the definite diagnosis. PMID:15947938

  8. A clinical overview of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Modugno, Nicola; Lena, Francesco; Di Biasio, Francesca; Cerrone, Gloria; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms, including slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity and difficulties with balance and walking, now we are aware that non-motor symptoms are highly prevalent, since they can anticipate motor symptoms and can cause severe consequences. Several studies have shown that non-motor symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and apathy, psychosis (e.g., hallucinations, delusions), sleep disturbance, and pain may have a greater adverse impact on quality of life and health economics compared with motor symptoms. Non-motor symptoms can be divided into four domains: neuropsychiatric (e.g., depression, anxiety, apathy, hallucinations, dementia), autonomic (e.g., constipation, orthostatic hypotension, urinary changes, sweating abnormalities), sleep (e.g., insomnia, sleep fragmentation, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement, sleep behavioural disorder, restless leg syndrome), and sensory dysfunction (e.g., pain, olfactory dysfunction). This review addresses diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. The causative mechanisms remain complex, since they reflect the widespread brainstem and cortical pathology of PD, with involvement of several neurotransmitters, including dopamine (DA), serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine. The diagnosis is often challenging, especially for psychiatric disorders, and in particular affective disorders, because somatic features of psychopathology may overlap with the movement disorder itself. Treatments used are limited and psychiatric drugs may not be as effective as in general population. Evidence based medicine is quite poor and it still requires well-designed clinical studies. PMID:24873924

  9. Amygdalar Auditory Neurons Contribute to Self-Other Distinction during Ultrasonic Social Vocalization in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Takamura, Yusaku; Urakawa, Susumu; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Although, clinical studies reported hyperactivation of the auditory system and amygdala in patients with auditory hallucinations (hearing others' but not one's own voice, independent of any external stimulus), neural mechanisms of self/other attribution is not well understood. We recorded neuronal responses in the dorsal amygdala including the lateral amygdaloid nucleus to ultrasonic vocalization (USVs) emitted by subjects and conspecifics during free social interaction in 16 adult male rats. The animals emitting the USVs were identified by EMG recordings. One-quarter of the amygdalar neurons (15/60) responded to 50 kHz calls by the subject and/or conspecifics. Among the responsive neurons, most neurons (Type-Other neurons; 73%, 11/15) responded only to calls by conspecifics but not subjects. Two Type-Self neurons (13%, 2/15) responded to calls by the subject but not those by conspecifics, although their response selectivity to subjects vs. conspecifics was lower than that of Type-Other neurons. The remaining two neurons (13%) responded to calls by both the subject and conspecifics. Furthermore, population coding of the amygdalar neurons represented distinction of subject vs. conspecific calls. The present results provide the first neurophysiological evidence that the amygdala discriminately represents affective social calls by subject and conspecifics. These findings suggest that the amygdala is an important brain region for self/other attribution. Furthermore, pathological activation of the amygdala, where Type-Other neurons predominate, could induce external misattribution of percepts of vocalization. PMID:27703429

  10. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Cerejeira, J.; Lagarto, L.; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long-term hospitalization, misuse of medication, and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis, and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social, and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological, and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes associated with

  11. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  12. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast.

    PubMed

    Locke, Shannon M; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-06-13

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static "snapshot" model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation.

  13. Effects of Auditory Input in Individuation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how…

  14. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  15. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  16. Auditory Detection of the Human Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Gerald, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated whether listeners can distinguish human brainstem auditory evoked responses elicited by acoustic clicks from control waveforms obtained with no acoustic stimulus when the waveforms are presented auditorily. Detection performance for stimuli presented visually was slightly, but consistently, superior to that which occurred for…

  17. A Population-Based Twin Study of Parentally Reported Tactile and Auditory Defensiveness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Van Hulle, C. A.; Arneson, C. L.; Schreiber, J. E.; Gernsbacher, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a…

  18. Premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  19. Detection of Low-Signal Pulvinar Areas Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Patients with Dementia Experiencing Visual Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Mayuko; Satoh, Masayuki; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Saito, Tomoki; Mori, Mutsuki; Abe, Makiko; Kida, Hirotaka; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little research has been conducted regarding the role of pulvinar nuclei in the pathogenesis of visual hallucinations due to the difficulty of assessing abnormalities in this region using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the relative abilities of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to visualize the pulvinar and to ascertain the relationship between pulvinar visualization and visual hallucinations. Methods A retrospective analysis of 3T MRIs from 73 patients (31 males, 42 females; mean age 73.5 ± 12.7 years) of the Memory Clinic of Mie University Hospital was conducted. Correlations between pulvinar visualization and the following were analyzed: age, sex, education, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, Mini-Mental State Examination score, Evans index, and visual hallucinations. Results DWI detected low-signal pulvinar areas in approximately half of the patients (52.1%). Participants with pulvinar visualization were significantly older, and the pulvinar was more frequently visualized in patients who had experienced visual hallucinations compared to those who had not. No significant association was observed between whole brain atrophy and pulvinar visualization. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that diffusion-weighted 3T MRI is the most suitable method for the detection of pulvinar nuclei in patients with dementia experiencing visual hallucinations. PMID:27790244

  20. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…