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Sample records for augmented space approach

  1. Magnetism on rough surfaces of Fe, Co and Ni : An augmented space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Priyadarshini; Ganguli, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-10-01

    The augmented space formalism coupled with the recursion method and a tight-binding linear Muffin-tin orbitals basis has been applied to study the effects of roughness on the properties of (001) surfaces of body-centered cubic Fe and face-centered cubic Co and Ni. The formalism is also proposed for the study of smooth surface. Comparisons have been made for three types of surfaces: a smooth surface, the surface with a rough top layer, and a more realistic model with several rough top layers converging into a crystalline bulk. Comparisons have been made between the magnetic moments, work function and electronic density of states in the three models described above.

  2. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  3. Horizontal ridge augmentation using a combination approach

    PubMed Central

    Rachana, C.; Sridhar, N.; Rangan, Anand V.; Rajani, V.

    2012-01-01

    Resorption of alveolar bone - a common sequel of tooth loss jeopardizes the functional and esthetic outcome of treatment, especially in the maxillary anterior areas. Therefore, augmentation of deficient alveolar ridges is an important aspect of dental implant therapy. A case of severe maxillary ridge deficiency successfully treated with horizontal ridge augmentation to facilitate implant placement is described. Ridge augmentation was achieved using a combination of autogenous block graft, particulate grafting, and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Follow-up was done next day, after ten days, three months, and six months. Various approaches can be followed in order to achieve an increase in the ridge width. In our case, we used a combination of different techniques for ridge augmentation. A significant improvement in ridge width was noticed at six months thus facilitating the placement of implants. PMID:23162345

  4. An Augmented Lagrangian Approach for Scheduling Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Konishi, Masami

    The paper describes an augmented Lagrangian decomposition and coordination approach for solving single machine scheduling problems to minimize the total weighted tardiness. The problem belongs to the class of NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an augmented Lagrangian decomposition and coordination approach, which is commonly used for continuous optimization problems, for solving scheduling problems despite the fact that the problem is nonconvex and non-differentiable. The proposed method shows a good convergence to a feasible solution without heuristically constructing a feasible solution. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of an ordinary Lagrangian relaxation.

  5. Space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Mohinder S

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Space-based augmentations increase the accuracy and integrity of the GNSS, thereby enhancing users' safety. The corrections for ephemeris, ionospheric delay, and clocks are calculated from reference station measurements of GNSS data in wide-area master stations and broadcast via geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. This paper discusses the clock models, satellite orbit determination, ionospheric delay estimation, multipath mitigation, and GEO uplink subsystem (GUS) as used in the Wide Area Augmentation System developed by the FAA.

  6. Augmenting synthetic aperture radar with space time adaptive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, Michael; Potter, Lee C.; Ertin, Emre

    2013-05-01

    Wide-area persistent radar video offers the ability to track moving targets. A shortcoming of the current technology is an inability to maintain track when Doppler shift places moving target returns co-located with strong clutter. Further, the high down-link data rate required for wide-area imaging presents a stringent system bottleneck. We present a multi-channel approach to augment the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) modality with space time adaptive processing (STAP) while constraining the down-link data rate to that of a single antenna SAR system. To this end, we adopt a multiple transmit, single receive (MISO) architecture. A frequency division design for orthogonal transmit waveforms is presented; the approach maintains coherence on clutter, achieves the maximal unaliased band of radial velocities, retains full resolution SAR images, and requires no increase in receiver data rate vis-a-vis the wide-area SAR modality. For Nt transmit antennas and N samples per pulse, the enhanced sensing provides a STAP capability with Nt times larger range bins than the SAR mode, at the cost of O(log N) more computations per pulse. The proposed MISO system and the associated signal processing are detailed, and the approach is numerically demonstrated via simulation of an airborne X-band system.

  7. Removal of the intestinal mucosa: photochemical approach in bladder augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselhuhn, Gregory D.; Kropp, Kenneth A.; Keck, Rick W.; Selman, Steven H.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether 5-aminoleuvinic acid in combination with light could be used as an adjunct to intestinal bladder augmentation with the aim of removing intestinal mucosa with subsequent re-epithelialization of the treated segment with urothelium. Histopathologic studies of so-treated intestinal segments used in bladder augmentation demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  8. Melatonin enhances vertical bone augmentation in rat calvaria secluded spaces

    PubMed Central

    Shino, Hiromichi; Hasuike, Akira; Arai, Yoshinori; Honda, Masaki; Isokawa, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Melatonin has many roles, including bone remodeling and osseointegration of dental implants. The topical application of melatonin facilitated bone regeneration in bone defects. We evaluated the effects of topical application of melatonin on vertical bone augmentation in rat calvaria secluded spaces. Material and Methods In total, 12 male Fischer rats were used and two plastic caps were fixed in the calvarium. One plastic cap was filled with melatonin powder and the other was left empty. Results Newly generated bone at bone defects and within the plastic caps was evaluated using micro-CT and histological sections. New bone regeneration within the plastic cap was increased significantly in the melatonin versus the control group. Conclusions Melatonin promoted vertical bone regeneration in rat calvaria in the secluded space within the plastic cap. Key words:Melatonin, bone regeneration, bone defects, secluded space, rat calvarium. PMID:26595835

  9. Augmented space recursion study of the effect of disorder on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Venkatasubramanian, A.; Tarafder, Kartick; Dasgupta, Indra; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2009-06-01

    We present a real-space approach to study the effect of disorder on superconductivity. The method is based on augmented space formalism that goes beyond mean-field approximations for configuration averaging and effectively deals with the influence of configuration fluctuations of the neighborhood of an atom. In the regime of validity of Anderson’s theorem our results for s - and d -wave dirty superconductors have excellent agreement with existing results. The formalism is extended and tested for random negative U Hubbard model. Having verified the reliability of our method we use it to study environment-dependent inhomogeneous randomness in disordered superconducting systems.

  10. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  11. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to robustly demonstrate stable and high performance flight. On its development path to preliminary design review (PDR), the stability of the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant dynamics. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm previously presented by Orr and VanZwieten, has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies for which the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria (e.g. gain & phase margin). In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  12. Local vascularized flaps for augmentation of Reinke's space.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Seth H; Gunderson, McLean; Chan, Roger; Torrealba, Jose; Kimura, Miwako; Welham, Nathan V

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and test a novel surgical strategy for augmentation of Reinke's space using vascularized flaps: a thyroid ala perichondrium flap (TAP) and a composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap (CTAP) from the anterior larynx. We hypothesized that these specially designed vascularized flaps would remain viable once inset into the lamina propria, and that they would not disrupt rheologic, biomechanical, and histologic properties of the native vocal fold. Experimental. In vivo canine model. The length and volume of test flaps harvested in six adult human cadaveric larynges were analyzed to determine suitability for use in augmentation in the lamina propria. Also, 12 beagles randomly underwent unilateral placement of either TAP or CTAP, which were designed in accordance with the human adult cadaveric experiments. Flap perfusion was measured before and after harvest with laser Doppler. After 1 month, the beagles were humanely sacrificed and their larynges subjected to aerodynamic and acoustic evaluation using an excised larynx apparatus. The vocal fold lamina propria of four larynges--two TAP and two CTAP--underwent rheologic evaluation using a simple-shear rheometer. The remaining eight larynges underwent quantitative histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. The survival and complication (swallowing, airway, local wound) rates of all dogs were noted. Initial studies with adult human cadaveric larynges established that TAP and CTAP possessed length and volume greater than native lamina propria. In the canine experiments, the perfusion change in the flaps was similar between flap groups. The damping ratio (ζ), dynamic viscosity (η'), elastic shear modulus (G'), and viscous shear modulus (G″) of treated and untreated native vocal folds were not statistically different. The glottic function measures of vocal efficiency, laryngeal resistance, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) of treated and normal larynges were not

  13. Local Vascularized Flaps for Augmentation of Reinke’s Space

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Seth H.; Gunderson, McLean; Chan, Roger; Torrealba, Jose; Kimura, Miwako; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to describe and test a novel surgical strategy for augmentation of Reinke’s space using vascularized flaps: a thyroid ala perichondrium flap (TAP) and a composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap (CTAP) from the anterior larynx. We hypothesized that these specially designed vascularized flaps would remain viable once inset into the lamina propria, and that they would not disrupt rheologic, biomechanical, and histologic properties of the native vocal fold. Study Design Experimental. In vivo canine model. Methods The length and volume of test flaps harvested in six adult human cadaveric larynges were analyzed to determine suitability for use in augmentation in the lamina propria. Also, 12 beagles randomly underwent unilateral placement of either TAP or CTAP, which were designed in accordance with the human adult cadaveric experiments. Flap perfusion was measured before and after harvest with laser Doppler. After 1 month, the beagles were humanely sacrificed and their larynges subjected to aerodynamic and acoustic evaluation using an excised larynx apparatus. The vocal fold lamina propria of four larynges—two TAP and two CTAP—underwent rheologic evaluation using a simple-shear rheometer. The remaining eight larynges underwent quantitative histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. The survival and complication (swallowing, airway, local wound) rates of all dogs were noted. Results Initial studies with adult human cadaveric larynges established that TAP and CTAP possessed length and volume greater than native lamina propria. In the canine experiments, the perfusion change in the flaps was similar between flap groups. The damping ratio (ζ), dynamic viscosity (η′), elastic shear modulus (G′), and viscous shear modulus (G″) of treated and untreated native vocal folds were not statistically different. The glottic function measures of vocal efficiency, laryngeal resistance, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics

  14. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  15. Hands in space: gesture interaction with augmented-reality interfaces.

    PubMed

    Billinghurst, Mark; Piumsomboon, Tham; Huidong Bai

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ) are investigating free-hand gestures for natural interaction with augmented-reality interfaces. They've applied the results to systems for desktop computers and mobile devices.

  16. An activity systemic approach to augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Hedvall, Per-Olof; Rydeman, Bitte

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and highlight how Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can contribute to the understanding of the different factors at play when a person is using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). It is based on data from a 3-year project concerning activity-based vocabulary design of voice output communication aids (VOCAs). Four persons who used AAC and their assistants were interviewed about shopping activities and their views about a vocabulary that included pre-stored phrases. A CHAT model, the Activity Diamond, was applied in an analysis of the data. The result was a multiplicity of human, artifactual, and natural factors, in which six themes were identified: Attitude/Preference, Expectation/Trust, Goal/Power, Place/Space, Time/Learning, and Usability/Accessibility. The themes are exemplified and discussed in relation to AAC.

  17. Space Weather Prediction Error Bounding for Real-Time Ionospheric Threat Adaptation of GNSS Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yoon, M.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) augmentation systems attempt to consider all possible ionospheric events in their correction computations of worst-case errors. This conservatism can be mitigated by subdividing anomalous conditions and using different values of ionospheric threat-model bounds for each class. A new concept of 'real-time ionospheric threat adaptation' that adjusts the threat model in real time instead of always using the same 'worst-case' model was introduced in my previous research. The concept utilizes predicted values of space weather indices for determining the corresponding threat model based on the pre-defined worst-case threat as a function of space weather indices. Since space weather prediction is not reliable due to prediction errors, prediction errors are needed to be bounded to the required level of integrity of the system being supported. The previous research performed prediction error bounding using disturbance, storm time (Dst) index. The distribution of Dst prediction error over the 15-year data was bounded by applying 'inflated-probability density function (pdf) Gaussian bounding'. Since the error distribution has thick and non-Gaussian tails, investigation on statistical distributions which properly describe heavy tails with less conservatism is required for the system performance. This paper suggests two potential approaches for improving space weather prediction error bounding. First, we suggest using different statistical models when fit the error distribution, such as the Laplacian distribution which has fat tails, and the folded Gaussian cumulative distribution function (cdf) distribution. Second approach is to bound the error distribution by segregating data based on the overall level of solar activity. Bounding errors using only solar minimum period data will have less uncertainty and it may allow the use of 'solar cycle prediction' provided by NASA when implementing to real-time threat adaptation. Lastly

  18. Evaluating the Stability of NASA's Space Launch System with Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hannan, Michael R.; Wall, John H.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's baseline Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system (FCS) design includes an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) component that modifies the attitude control system response to provide the classical gain-scheduled control architecture with additional performance and robustness. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) teamed with the Space Launch System (SLS) Program to perform a comprehensive assessment of the stability and robustness of the FCS with AAC. This paper provides an overview of the approach, specific analysis techniques, and outcomes that were particularly relevant for the SLS Program. Multiple analysis techniques that specifically target the nonlinear AAC were commissioned as part of this assessment, which was completed outside of the Program's standard design analysis cycle. The following analyses were included, with each technique adding its own valuable insights: Lyapunov-based stability analysis, classical stability analysis with static AAC gain variations, circle criterion-based analysis of the FCS with a time-varying element, time-domain stability margin assessment, Monte Carlo simulations with expanded dispersions, and an extensive set of stressing cases. Several of the completed analyses focused on determining whether the inclusion of AAC introduced risk to the FCS, while others quantified the benefits of the adaptive augmentation.

  19. Extinction of drug seeking: Neural circuits and approaches to augmentation.

    PubMed

    McNally, Gavan P

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training can reduce drug seeking behavior. This article reviews the neural circuits that contribute to extinction and approaches to enhancing the efficacy of extinction. Extinction of drug seeking depends on cortical-striatal-hypothalamic and cortical-hypothalamic-thalamic pathways. These pathways interface, in the hypothalamus and thalamus respectively, with the neural circuits controlling reinstatement of drug seeking. The actions of these pathways at lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons, and of perifornical/dorsomedial hypothalamic derived opioid peptides at kappa opioid receptors in the paraventricular thalamus, are important for inhibiting drug seeking. Despite effectively reducing or inhibiting drug seeking in the short term, extinguished drug seeking is prone to relapse. Three different strategies to augment extinction learning or retrieval are reviewed: pharmacological augmentation, retrieval - extinction training, and provision of extinction memory retrieval cues. These strategies have been used in animal models and with human drug users to enhance extinction or cue exposure treatments. They hold promise as novel strategies to promote abstinence from drug seeking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  20. Augmenting Space Technology Program Management with Secure Cloud & Mobile Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Munk, Christopher; Helble, Adelle; Press, Martin T.; George, Cory; Johnson, David

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Game Changing Development (GCD) program manages technology projects across all NASA centers and reports to NASA headquarters regularly on progress. Program stakeholders expect an up-to-date, accurate status and often have questions about the program's portfolio that requires a timely response. Historically, reporting, data collection, and analysis were done with manual processes that were inefficient and prone to error. To address these issues, GCD set out to develop a new business automation solution. In doing this, the program wanted to leverage the latest information technology platforms and decided to utilize traditional systems along with new cloud-based web services and gaming technology for a novel and interactive user environment. The team also set out to develop a mobile solution for anytime information access. This paper discusses a solution to these challenging goals and how the GCD team succeeded in developing and deploying such a system. The architecture and approach taken has proven to be effective and robust and can serve as a model for others looking to develop secure interactive mobile business solutions for government or enterprise business automation.

  1. "On the Augmented Cognition Approach to Early Warning Systems- Human System Integration NASA Experiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achimowicz, Jerzy; Bakowski, Rafal; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The authors present results related to the implementation of augmented cognition approach to severe weather early warning systems in aviation and aerospace operational environment. The limitations of automation and adaptive approach in severe weather warning systems are discussed. Also the positive impact of HSI (Human System Integration) NASA approach will be shown, in the process of pilot training in minimal weather conditions. The flight safety procedures related to weather conditions will be analyzed and the meteorological general aviation weather support product developed at IMGW will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on the integration of the military and civilian weather radar/lighting detection systems and the impact of space weather on aerospace operations including the use of unmanned RPAS (Remotely Controlled Aircraf Systems). J.Z. Achimowicz is also affiliated with Flight Safety Division of Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

  2. Augmenting the Funding Sources for Space Science and the ASTRO-1 Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The BoldlyGo Institute was formed in 2013 to augment the planned space science portfolio through philanthropically funded robotic space missions, similar to how some U.S. medical institutes and ground-based telescopes are funded. I introduce BoldlyGo's two current projects: the SCIM mission to Mars and the ASTRO-1 space telescope. In particular, ASTRO-1 is a 1.8-meter off-axis (unobscured) ultraviolet-visible space observatory to be located in a Lagrange point or heliocentric orbit with a wide-field panchromatic camera, medium- and high-resolution spectrograph, and high-contrast imaging coronagraph and/or an accompanying starshade/occulter. It is intended for the post-Hubble Space Telescope era in the 2020s, enabling unique measurements of a broad range of celestial targets, while providing vital complementary capabilities to other ground- and space-based facilities such as the JWST, ALMA, WFIRST-AFTA, LSST, TESS, Euclid, and PLATO. The ASTRO-1 architecture simultaneously wields great scientific power while being technically viable and affordable. A wide variety of scientific programs can be accomplished, addressing topics across space astronomy, astrophysics, fundamental physics, and solar system science, as well as being technologically informative to future large-aperture programs. ASTRO-1 is intended to be a new-generation research facility serving a broad national and international community, as well as a vessel for impactful public engagement. Traditional institutional partnerships and consortia, such as are common with private ground-based observatories, may play a role in the support and governance of ASTRO-1; we are currently engaging interested international organizations. In addition to our planned open guest observer program and accessible data archive, we intend to provide a mechanism whereby individual scientists can buy in to a fraction of the gauranteed observing time. Our next step in ASTRO-1 development is to form the ASTRO-1 Requirements Team

  3. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  4. The Demand for Medical Education: An Augmented Human Capital Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert; Price, Jamie

    1998-01-01

    Examines investment and consumption features of the demand for medical education, using medical application data over the 1948 to 1994 time period. Examines a variant of a pure human capital (investment) model and a model augmented by consumption and demographic variables, using medical education data. A static human capital model best forecasts…

  5. Neurostimulated levator augmentation--a new approach in restoring continence.

    PubMed

    Isbert, Christoph; Schlegel, Nicolas; Reibetanz, Joachim; Krajinovic, Katica; Schmidt, Karsten; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Kim, Mia

    2015-04-01

    Restoration of continence remains a major challenge in patients after abdominoperineal rectal excision (APE) or with end-stage fecal incontinence. A new surgical technique, the neurostimulated levator augmentation, was introduced for pelvic floor augmentation using dynamic graciloplasty in order to restore anorectal angulation. The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and efficiency. From November 2009 to March 2014, n = 17 patients underwent neurostimulated levator augmentation (n = 10 after APE, n = 5 intractable idiopathic fecal incontinence, n = 2 traumatic anal amputation). Gracilis muscle was transposed through the obturator foramen into the pelvic cavity, positioned in a U-shaped sling behind the rectum, fixed to the contralateral os pubis to restore anorectal angulation, and then conditioned by neurostimulation. Questionnaires analyzing function and quality of life were administered. For neurostimulated levator augmentation, four patients suffered from complications that needed operative intervention (n = 3 wound infection, n = 1 colon perforation); three pharmacological treatment and two complications needed no further invasive intervention. One patient died due to causes unrelated to the operation, and no complication required intensive care management. Fecal incontinence in patients with idiopathic incontinence improved significantly after surgery as well as incontinence episodes, urgency, and disease-specific quality of life through all dimensions. Generic quality of life was significantly better after surgery in all patients. After median follow-up of 17 months (2-45), all but one patient would undergo the procedure again. Neurostimulated levator augmentation was feasible in all patients with acceptable morbidity. It may represent a new therapeutic option in selected patients with intractable fecal incontinence.

  6. A Rational Approach to Sinus Augmentation: The Low Window Sinus Lift

    PubMed Central

    Zaniol, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift. To illustrate the use of this approach, a case is presented in which the 50-year-old patient had the left maxillary first molar extracted, followed two months later by sinus augmentation and placement of three implants. One year after delivery of the definitive prosthesis, all three implants were successful, and the prosthesis was fully functional. Controlled studies should be undertaken to assess whether this technique provides significant advantages compared to other sinus augmentation approaches. PMID:28337349

  7. A Rational Approach to Sinus Augmentation: The Low Window Sinus Lift.

    PubMed

    Zaniol, Terry; Zaniol, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift. To illustrate the use of this approach, a case is presented in which the 50-year-old patient had the left maxillary first molar extracted, followed two months later by sinus augmentation and placement of three implants. One year after delivery of the definitive prosthesis, all three implants were successful, and the prosthesis was fully functional. Controlled studies should be undertaken to assess whether this technique provides significant advantages compared to other sinus augmentation approaches.

  8. Biological augmentation and tissue engineering approaches in meniscus surgery.

    PubMed

    Moran, Cathal J; Busilacchi, Alberto; Lee, Cassandra A; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Verdonk, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. Although clinical (human), preclinical (animal), and in vitro tissue engineering studies are included here, we have placed additional focus on addressing preclinical and clinical studies reported during the 5-year period used in this review in a systematic fashion while also providing a summary review of some important in vitro tissue engineering findings in the field over the past decade. A search was performed on PubMed for original works published from 2009 to March 31, 2014 using the term "meniscus" with all the following terms: "scaffolds," "constructs," "cells," "growth factors," "implant," "tissue engineering," and "regenerative medicine." Inclusion criteria were the following: English-language articles and original clinical, preclinical (in vivo), and in vitro studies of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine application in knee meniscus lesions published from 2009 to March 31, 2014. Three clinical studies and 18 preclinical studies were identified along with 68 tissue engineering in vitro studies. These reports show the increasing promise of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. The role of stem cell and growth factor therapy appears to be particularly useful. A review of in vitro tissue engineering studies found a large number of scaffold types to be of promise for meniscus replacement. Limitations include a relatively low number of clinical or preclinical in vivo studies, in addition to the fact there is as yet no report in the literature of a tissue-engineered meniscus construct used clinically. Neither does the literature provide clarity on the optimal meniscus scaffold type or biological augmentation with which meniscus repair or replacement would be best addressed in the future. There is increasing focus on the role of mechanobiology and biomechanical and

  9. A new technique of bone cement augmentation via the disc space for percutaneous pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Kyu; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Dong Chan; Lee, Dong Geun

    2016-01-01

    In elderly patients with severe osteoporosis, instrumented lumbar interbody fusion may result in fixation failure or nonunion because of decreased pedicle screw pullout strength or increased interbody graft subsidence risk. Thus, given its many advantages, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation with cement augmentation can be an effective method to use in elderly patients. The authors report on an easy, safe, and economical technique for bone cement augmentation using a bone biopsy needle inserted into the disc space in 2 osteoporotic patients who were treated with posterior interbody fusion and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. Two elderly patients who complained of back pain and intermittent neurological claudication underwent posterior interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. After routinely assembling rods on the screws, a bone biopsy needle was inserted into the disc space via the operative field; the needle was then placed around the tips of the screws using fluoroscopic radiography for guidance. Bone cement was injected through the bone biopsy needle, also under fluoroscopic radiography guidance. Both patients' symptoms improved after the operation, and there was no evidence of cage subsidence or screw loosening at the 4-month follow-up. The indirect technique of bone cement augmentation via the disc space for percutaneous screw fixation could be an easy, safe, and economical method.

  10. Plant nanobionics approach to augment photosynthesis and biochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Landry, Markita P.; Faltermeier, Sean M.; McNicholas, Thomas P.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Boghossian, Ardemis A.; Reuel, Nigel F.; Hilmer, Andrew J.; Sen, Fatih; Brew, Jacqueline A.; Strano, Michael S.

    2014-04-01

    The interface between plant organelles and non-biological nanostructures has the potential to impart organelles with new and enhanced functions. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) passively transport and irreversibly localize within the lipid envelope of extracted plant chloroplasts, promote over three times higher photosynthetic activity than that of controls, and enhance maximum electron transport rates. The SWNT-chloroplast assemblies also enable higher rates of leaf electron transport in vivo through a mechanism consistent with augmented photoabsorption. Concentrations of reactive oxygen species inside extracted chloroplasts are significantly suppressed by delivering poly(acrylic acid)-nanoceria or SWNT-nanoceria complexes. Moreover, we show that SWNTs enable near-infrared fluorescence monitoring of nitric oxide both ex vivo and in vivo, thus demonstrating that a plant can be augmented to function as a photonic chemical sensor. Nanobionics engineering of plant function may contribute to the development of biomimetic materials for light-harvesting and biochemical detection with regenerative properties and enhanced efficiency.

  11. On augmented superfield approach to vector Schwinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, R.

    2016-11-01

    We exploit the techniques of Bonora-Tonin superfield formalism to derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST as well as (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for the (1+1)-dimensional (2D) bosonized vector Schwinger model. In the derivation of above symmetries, we invoke the (dual)-horizontality conditions as well as gauge and (anti-)co-BRST invariant restrictions on the superfields that are defined onto the (2,2)-dimensional supermanifold. We provide geometrical interpretation of the above nilpotent symmetries (and their corresponding charges). We also express the nilpotency and absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST charges within the framework of augmented superfield formalism.

  12. An approach to space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.

    1990-01-01

    Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

  13. Augmenting LTP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex by Spaced Paired Associative Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Arai, Noritoshi; Fuhl, Anna; Herrmann, Eva; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PASLTP) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) can induce LTP-like plasticity by increasing corticospinal excitability beyond the stimulation period. Previous studies showed that two consecutive PASLTP protocols interact by homeostatic metaplasticity, but animal experiments provided evidence that LTP can be augmented by repeated stimulation protocols spaced by ~30 min. Here we tested in twelve healthy selected PASLTP responders the possibility that LTP-like plasticity can be augmented in the human M1 by systematically varying the interval between two consecutive PASLTP protocols. The first PASLTP protocol (PAS1) induced strong LTP-like plasticity lasting for 30-60 min. The effect of a second identical PASLTP protocol (PAS2) critically depended on the time between PAS1 and PAS2. At 10 min, PAS2 prolonged the PAS1-induced LTP-like plasticity. At 30 min, PAS2 augmented the LTP-like plasticity induced by PAS1, by increasing both magnitude and duration. At 60 min and 180 min, PAS2 had no effect on corticospinal excitability. The cumulative LTP-like plasticity after PAS1 and PAS2 at 30 min exceeded significantly the effect of PAS1 alone, and the cumulative PAS1 and PAS2 effects at 60 min and 180 min. In summary, consecutive PASLTP protocols interact in human M1 in a time-dependent manner. If spaced by 30 min, two consecutive PASLTP sessions can augment LTP-like plasticity in human M1. Findings may inspire further research on optimized therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  14. Nilpotent Symmetries in Jackiw-Pi Model: Augmented Superfield Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, R.

    2016-02-01

    We derive the complete set of off-shell nilpotent (s2_{(a)b} = 0) and absolutely anticommuting ( s b s a b + s a b s b =0) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) ( s b ) as well as anti-BRST symmetry transformations ( s a b ) corresponding to the combined Yang-Mills and non-Yang-Mills symmetries of the (2+1)-dimensional Jackiw-Pi model within the framework of augmented superfield formalism. The absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST symmetries is ensured by the existence of two sets of Curci-Ferrari (CF) type of conditions which emerge naturally in this formalism. The presence of CF conditions enables us to derive the coupled but equivalent Lagrangian densities. We also capture the (anti-)BRST invariance of the coupled Lagrangian densities in the superfield formalism. The derivation of the (anti-)BRST transformations of the auxiliary field ρ is one of the key findings which can neither be generated by the nilpotent (anti-)BRST charges nor by the requirements of the nilpotency and/or absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST transformations. Finally, we provide a bird's-eye view on the role of auxiliary field for various massive models and point out few striking similarities and some glaring differences among them.

  15. Incorporation of an Adaptive Real Space Grid in the Projector Augmented Wave Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, A. R.; Dunning, R. B.; Matthews, G. Eric; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    1997-03-01

    We report initial efforts to incorporate a real space adaptive grid into the projector augmented wave (PAW) method developed by Blöchl(P. Blöchl, Phys. Rev. B50,17953 (1994).). The PAW method allows straightforward treatment of valence electrons while offering computational efficiency similar to pseudopotential methods. Real space adaptive grid methods have been shown to improve speed and decrease storage requirements. The adaptive grid also allows an effective increased plane wave energy cutoff in the vicinity of the ions. In this work, we use a real space adapative grid to solve for the potential, while using a transformed plane wave basis for the wavefunctions, as described by Gygi(F. Gygi, Europhysics Letters 19, 617 (1992).).

  16. Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner augmented spark igniter shutdown detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, C. E.; Mccay, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Detonations were experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner (FPB) augmented spark igniter (ASI) during engine cutoff. Several of these resulted in over pressures sufficient to damage the FPB ASI oxidizer system. The detonations initiated in the FPB ASI oxidizer line when residual oxidizer (oxygen) in the line mixed with backflowing fuel (hydrogen) and detonated. This paper reviews the damage history to the FPB ASI oxidizer system, an engineering assessment of the problem cause, a verification of the mechanisms, the hazards associated with the detonations, and the solution implemented.

  17. Mechanism of augmented exercise hyperpnea in chronic heart failure and dead space loading

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Tin, Chung

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer increased alveolar VD/VT (dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio), yet they demonstrate augmented pulmonary ventilation such that arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) remains remarkably normal from rest to moderate exercise. This paradoxical effect suggests that the control law governing exercise hyperpnea is not merely determined by metabolic CO2 production (V̇CO2) per se but is responsive to an apparent (real-feel) metabolic CO2 load (V˙CO2o) that also incorporates the adverse effect of physiological VD/VT on pulmonary CO2 elimination. By contrast, healthy individuals subjected to dead space loading also experience augmented ventilation at rest and during exercise as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but the resultant response is hypercapnic instead of eucapnic, as with CO2 breathing. The ventilatory effects of dead space loading are therefore similar to those of increased alveolar VD/VT and CO2 breathing combined. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the increased series VD/VT in dead space loading adds to V˙CO2o as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but this is through rebreathing of CO2 in dead space gas thus creating a virtual (illusory) airway CO2 load within each inspiration, as opposed to a true airway CO2 load during CO2 breathing that clogs the mechanism for CO2 elimination through pulmonary ventilation. Thus, the chemosensing mechanism at the respiratory controller may be responsive to putative drive signals mediated by within-breath PaCO2 oscillations independent of breath-to-breath fluctuations of the mean PaCO2 level. Skeletal muscle afferents feedback, while important for early-phase exercise cardioventilatory dynamics, appears inconsequential for late-phase exercise hyperpnea. PMID:23274121

  18. A new approach for vibration control in large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K.; Cochran, J. E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An approach for augmenting vibration damping characteristics in space structures with large panels is presented. It is based on generation of bending moments rather than forces. The moments are generated using bimetallic strips, suitably mounted at selected stations on both sides of the large panels, under the influence of differential solar heating, giving rise to thermal gradients and stresses. The collocated angular velocity sensors are utilized in conjunction with mini-servos to regulate the control moments by flipping the bimetallic strips. A simple computation of the rate of dissipation of vibrational energy is undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Subscore Augmentation: How Much Strength Can We Borrow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Vevea, Jack L.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines a subscore augmentation procedure. The approach uses empirical Bayes adjustments and is intended to improve the overall accuracy of measurement when information is scant. Simulations examined the impact of the method on subscale scores in a variety of realistic conditions. The authors focused on two popular scoring methods:…

  20. Maintaining space in localized ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration with tenting screw technology.

    PubMed

    Chasioti, Evdokia; Chiang, Tat Fai; Drew, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic guided implant surgery requires adequate ridge dimensions for proper implant placement. Various surgical procedures can be used to augment deficient alveolar ridges. Studies have examined new bone formation on deficient ridges, utilizing numerous surgical techniques and biomaterials. The goal is to develop time efficient techniques, which have low morbidity. A crucial factor for successful bone grafting procedures is space maintenance. The article discusses space maintenance tenting screws, used in conjunction with bone allografts and resorbable barrier membranes, to ensure uneventful guided bone regeneration (GBR) enabling optimal implant positioning. The technique utilized has been described in the literature to treat severely resorbed alveolar ridges and additionally can be considered in restoring the vertical and horizontal component of deficient extraction sites. Three cases are presented to illustrate the utilization and effectiveness of tenting screw technology in the treatment of atrophic extraction sockets and for deficient ridges.

  1. The Final Approach Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Bergh, Christopher; Krzeczowski, Ken J.; Schlickenmaier, H. W. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for assisting terminal area air traffic controllers in the management and control of arrival traffic, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. In a cooperative program, NASA and FAA have efforts underway to install and evaluate the system at the Dallas/Fort Worth Terminal Radar Approach Control facility. This paper will review the software architecture, the algorithms components, and the human-machine interface. The system is based on continuous updates of a detailed trajectory analyses of all arrival aircraft. FAST interprets the results of these trajectory analyses to build an efficient and procedurally acceptable plan for the arrival traffic that consists of a sequence, schedule, and runway assignment. The system utilizes a heuristically-based conflict resolution algorithm to build a solution trajectory that satisfies the plan, It extracts a series of speed and heading advisories from the solution trajectory to assist the controller in efficiently managing and controlling the arrival traffic down to the runway. The advisories are displayed in a graphical format to the controller. In addition to the radar tracking data, the system also relies on a series of data bases. These data bases contain aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures, airspace structure, air traffic procedural models, and a three dimensional wind model. Field evaluation of FAST is expected to begin in 1994.

  2. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  3. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  4. Space Weather Conditions During the February 2014 Wide Area Augmentation System GPS Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotoaniu, T. M.; Redmon, R. J.; Codrescu, M.; Singer, H. J.; Viereck, R. A.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 February 2014, at 21:20 GMT, the United States Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) service over Eastern Alaska and Northeastern Continental United States (CONUS) was disrupted. This study presents the space weather conditions leading up to and during the WAAS disruption. An X5-class solar flare, the strongest to date in 2014, was observed by multiple spacecraft on 25 February at 05:00 UT. However, the source of this flare was well off the Sun-Earth line and the coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with the event arrived at Earth with a glancing blow. An NGDC product based on NOAA's GOES magnetometer observations and a magnetopause model indicates the magnetopause compressed to below geosynchronous orbit around the time of the event. However, global geomagnetic activity was moderate and not generally expected to result in a significant WAAS degradation. This study summarizes the WAAS anomaly in the context of comprehensive space weather environmental characterization and highlights the value of geomagnetic activity indicators (e.g., magnetopause location) for situational awareness and predicting space weather geoeffectiveness.

  5. Cortical lamina technique: A therapeutic approach for lateral ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Raison; Baron, Tarun-Kumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a novel technique, the bone lamina technique, in horizontal ridge augmentation clinically & radiographically using a combination of allogenic cortical shell, particulate xenograft and resorbable collagen membrane. Material and Methods Localized horizontal ridge defects, in ten patients (6 male, 4 female), with bucco-palatal ridge width less than 5 mm were included in this study. Localised ridge augmentation was performed using bone lamina technique with mineralised allogenic shell of 1 mm thickness trimmed to the appropriate size using stereo-lithographic models and fixed to the recipient site with stainless steel micro-screws of 1 mm diameter. The space between the shell & host bone was filled with particulate xenograft followed by placement of collagen membrane and primary closure of the site. Clinical parameters including ridge width before & after flap reflection & radiographic (CBCT) ridge width measurements were recorded pre-operatively,and six months after the augmentation procedure. Results obtained were analysed statistically. Results The mean clinical ridge width before flap reflection (BFR), after flap reflection (AFR) & radiographically was 3.7 ± 0.74 mm, 2 ± 0.70 mm & 1.77 ± 0.71 mm respectively at baseline which increased to 6.8 ± 0.95 mm, 5.15 ± 0.98 mm & 4.90 ± 0.90 mm with a mean gain in ridge width of 3.1 ± 0.63 mm (p< 0.005), 3.15 ± 0.63 mm (p<0.005) & 3.13 ± 0.70 mm (p< 0.005) respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that bone lamina technique can be effective means of horizontal ridge augmentation and the use of mineralized allograft in combination with xenograft and collagen membrane leads to good amount of bone regeneration for subsequent implant placement. Key words:Dental implant, guided bone regeneration, horizontal ridge defect, ridge augmentation. PMID:28149458

  6. Real-Time Occlusion Handling in Augmented Reality Based on an Object Tracking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Guan, Tao; Wang, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    To produce a realistic augmentation in Augmented Reality, the correct relative positions of real objects and virtual objects are very important. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time occlusion handling method based on an object tracking approach. Our method is divided into three steps: selection of the occluding object, object tracking and occlusion handling. The user selects the occluding object using an interactive segmentation method. The contour of the selected object is then tracked in the subsequent frames in real-time. In the occlusion handling step, all the pixels on the tracked object are redrawn on the unprocessed augmented image to produce a new synthesized image in which the relative position between the real and virtual object is correct. The proposed method has several advantages. First, it is robust and stable, since it remains effective when the camera is moved through large changes of viewing angles and volumes or when the object and the background have similar colors. Second, it is fast, since the real object can be tracked in real-time. Last, a smoothing technique provides seamless merging between the augmented and virtual object. Several experiments are provided to validate the performance of the proposed method. PMID:22319278

  7. Biomimetic Approach to Advanced Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, C.; Seidl, T.; Broschart, M.

    This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, transfer, parking, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and new biomimetic concepts are proposed to conceive new space systems and subsystems both for the short- and long-term future.

  8. Augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implant using transumbilical approach at a subpectoral level.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won; Choi, Bong-Kyoon; Bang, Sa-Ik; Yang, Eun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    Endoscopic placement of breast implants has been described through an umbilical incision. Limitations include the fact that only inflatable implant can be used through umbilical approach. The purpose of this study is to describe the authors' evolutionary transumbilical technique with cohesive silicone gel implant insertion and to retrospectively analyze preliminary results. The authors' technique is the placement of a cohesive silicone gel implant using a transumbilical approach in a subpectoral plane. Patients who were selected had mammary hypoplasia without ptosis and who requests breast augmentation with a scarless and natural feel breast were considered candidates. The technique and indications are presented thoroughly. From June of 2011 to January of 2012, 42 women aged 23 to 46 years (average, 31.6 years) underwent the endoscopic transumbilical breast augmentation. All patients had round silicone implants placed in the retropectoral pocket location. The results of this study indicate that transumbilical technique is highly successful. Complication included transient periumbilical bulging (5 patients, 11.9%), hypertrophic scar needing revision (1 patient, 2.3%), and conversion to other breast incision due to capsular contracture (3 of 84 breasts, 3.5%). Transumbilical breast augmentation with prefilled implant is a safe and attractive technique for breast implant placement in selected patients. With this inventory modification, the result can permit surgeons expanded spectrum of implant selection for transumbilical approach.

  9. Clinical applications of cell-based approaches in alveolar bone augmentation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Siddharth; Shanbhag, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based approaches, utilizing adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are reported to overcome the limitations of conventional bone augmentation procedures. The study aims to systematically review the available evidence on the characteristics and clinical effectiveness of cell-based ridge augmentation, socket preservation, and sinus-floor augmentation, compared to current evidence-based methods in human adult patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched for related literature. Both observational and experimental studies reporting outcomes of "tissue engineered" or "cell-based" augmentation in ≥5 adult patients alone, or in comparison with non-cell-based (conventional) augmentation methods, were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome was histomorphometric analysis of new bone formation. Effectiveness of cell-based augmentation was evaluated based on outcomes of controlled studies. Twenty-seven eligible studies were identified. Of these, 15 included a control group (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), and were judged to be at a moderate-to-high risk of bias. Most studies reported the combined use of cultured autologous MSCs with an osteoconductive bone substitute (BS) scaffold. Iliac bone marrow and mandibular periosteum were frequently reported sources of MSCs. In vitro culture of MSCs took between 12 days and 1.5 months. A range of autogenous, allogeneic, xenogeneic, and alloplastic scaffolds was identified. Bovine bone mineral scaffold was frequently reported with favorable outcomes, while polylactic-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) scaffold resulted in graft failure in three studies. The combination of MSCs and BS resulted in outcomes similar to autogenous bone (AB) and BS. Three RCTs and one controlled trial reported significantly greater bone formation in cell-based than conventionally grafted sites after 3 to 8 months. Based on limited controlled evidence at a moderate-to-high risk of bias, cell-based approaches are comparable, if

  10. A remotely augmented vehicle approach to flight testing RPV control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, D. A.; Edwards, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A remotely augmented vehicle concept for flight testing advanced control systems was developed as an outgrowth of a remotely piloted research vehicle (RPV) program in which control laws are implemented through telemetry uplink and downlink data channels using a general purpose ground based digital computer which provides the control law computations. Some advantages of this approach are that the cost of one control system facility is spread over a number of RPV programs, and control laws can be changed quickly as required, without changing the flight hardware. The remotely augmented vehicle concept is described, and flight test results from a subscale F-15 program are discussed. Suggestions of how the concept could lead to more effective testing of RPV control system concepts, and how it is applicable to a military RPV reconnaissance mission are given.

  11. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Frank; O’Regan, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences. PMID:28195187

  12. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Frank; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2017-02-14

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences.

  13. Augmentation therapy for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: towards a personalised approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous augmentation therapy is the only specific treatment available for emphysema associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Despite large observational studies and limited interventional studies there remains controversy about the efficacy of this treatment due to the impracticality of conducting adequately powered studies to evaluate the rate of decline in lung function, due to the low prevalence and the slow progression of the disease. However, measurement of lung density by computed tomography is a more specific and sensitive marker of the evolution of emphysema and two small placebo-controlled clinical trials have provided evidence supporting a reduction in the rate of decline in lung density with augmentation therapy. The problem Where augmentation therapy has become available there has been little consideration of a structured approach to therapy which is often introduced on the basis of functional impairment at diagnosis. Data from registries have shown a great variability in the evolution of lung disease according to patient acquisition and the presence of recognised risk factors. Avoidance of risk factors may, in many cases, stabilise the disease. Since augmentation therapy itself will at best preserve the presenting level of lung damage yet require intravenous administration for life with associated costs, identification of patients at risk of continued rapid or long term progression is essential to select those for whom this treatment can be most appropriate and hence generally more cost-effective. This represents a major reconsideration of the current practice in order to develop a consistent approach to management world wide. Purpose of this review The current review assesses the evidence for efficacy of augmentation therapy and considers how the combination of age, physiological impairment, exacerbation history and rate of decline in spirometry and other measures of emphysema may be used to improve therapeutic decision making

  14. NASA's approach to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, Isaac T., IV

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Office of Commercial Programs fosters private participation in commercially oriented space projects. Five Centers for the Commercial Development of Space encourage new ideas and perform research which may yield commercial processes and products for space ventures. Joint agreements allow companies who present ideas to NASA and provide flight hardware access to a free launch and return from orbit. The experimenters furnish NASA with sufficient data to demonstrate the significance of the results. Ground-based tests are arranged for smaller companies to test the feasibility of concepts before committing to the costs of developing hardware. Joint studies of mutual interest are performed by NASA and private sector researchers, and two companies have signed agreements for a series of flights in which launch costs are stretched out to meet projected income. Although Shuttle flights went on hold following the Challenger disaster, extensive work continues on the preparation of commercial research payloads that will fly when Shuttle flights resume.

  15. Electronic structure calculations with GPAW: a real-space implementation of the projector augmented-wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkovaara, J.; Rostgaard, C.; Mortensen, J. J.; Chen, J.; Dułak, M.; Ferrighi, L.; Gavnholt, J.; Glinsvad, C.; Haikola, V.; Hansen, H. A.; Kristoffersen, H. H.; Kuisma, M.; Larsen, A. H.; Lehtovaara, L.; Ljungberg, M.; Lopez-Acevedo, O.; Moses, P. G.; Ojanen, J.; Olsen, T.; Petzold, V.; Romero, N. A.; Stausholm-Møller, J.; Strange, M.; Tritsaris, G. A.; Vanin, M.; Walter, M.; Hammer, B.; Häkkinen, H.; Madsen, G. K. H.; Nieminen, R. M.; Nørskov, J. K.; Puska, M.; Rantala, T. T.; Schiøtz, J.; Thygesen, K. S.; Jacobsen, K. W.

    2010-06-01

    Electronic structure calculations have become an indispensable tool in many areas of materials science and quantum chemistry. Even though the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density-functional theory (DFT) simplifies the many-body problem significantly, one is still confronted with several numerical challenges. In this article we present the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method as implemented in the GPAW program package (https://wiki.fysik.dtu.dk/gpaw) using a uniform real-space grid representation of the electronic wavefunctions. Compared to more traditional plane wave or localized basis set approaches, real-space grids offer several advantages, most notably good computational scalability and systematic convergence properties. However, as a unique feature GPAW also facilitates a localized atomic-orbital basis set in addition to the grid. The efficient atomic basis set is complementary to the more accurate grid, and the possibility to seamlessly switch between the two representations provides great flexibility. While DFT allows one to study ground state properties, time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) provides access to the excited states. We have implemented the two common formulations of TDDFT, namely the linear-response and the time propagation schemes. Electron transport calculations under finite-bias conditions can be performed with GPAW using non-equilibrium Green functions and the localized basis set. In addition to the basic features of the real-space PAW method, we also describe the implementation of selected exchange-correlation functionals, parallelization schemes, ΔSCF-method, x-ray absorption spectra, and maximally localized Wannier orbitals.

  16. Passive damping augmentation of flexible beam-like lattice trusses for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, K.; Weller, T.

    1992-01-01

    A Timoshenko beam continuum model is developed to determine the transient response of a beam-like latticed large space structure, subjected to a unit impulse. It is demonstrated that an increase in diagonal stiffness, on account of the stiffness of the vertical girder, leads to a rise in the transverse shear rigidity. This results in higher natural frequencies and reduction in peak displacement. In addition, in an asymmetrical truss configuration, coupling between the extensional and shear modes raises the maximum peak displacement compared with that obtained for a symmetrical truss. The model is modified to investigate the introduction of passive damping in the form of several dynamic vibration absorbers. A unique absorber parameter optimization procedure, based on the classical steady-state criteria, is used to tune the absorbers, having a total allocated mass budget of 10%, to the first two frequencies of the latticed structure. It is found that inclusion of transverse shear rigidity as a design parameter in damping augmentation studies reduces settling time for predetermined maximum peak displacements.

  17. Passive damping augmentation of flexible beam-like lattice trusses for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, K.; Weller, T.

    1992-01-01

    A Timoshenko beam continuum model is developed to determine the transient response of a beam-like latticed large space structure, subjected to a unit impulse. It is demonstrated that an increase in diagonal stiffness, on account of the stiffness of the vertical girder, leads to a rise in the transverse shear rigidity. This results in higher natural frequencies and reduction in peak displacement. In addition, in an asymmetrical truss configuration, coupling between the extensional and shear modes raises the maximum peak displacement compared with that obtained for a symmetrical truss. The model is modified to investigate the introduction of passive damping in the form of several dynamic vibration absorbers. A unique absorber parameter optimization procedure, based on the classical steady-state criteria, is used to tune the absorbers, having a total allocated mass budget of 10%, to the first two frequencies of the latticed structure. It is found that inclusion of transverse shear rigidity as a design parameter in damping augmentation studies reduces settling time for predetermined maximum peak displacements.

  18. Analysis of Correlation between Ionospheric Spatial Gradients and Space Weather Intensity under Nominal Conditions for Ground-Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by providing differential GPS corrections to aviation users. For GBAS applications, most of ionospheric errors are removed by applying the differential corrections. However, ionospheric correction errors may exist due to ionosphere spatial decorrelation between GBAS ground facility and users. Thus, the standard deviation of ionosphere spatial decorrelation (σvig) is estimated and included in the computation of error bounds on user position solution. The σvig of 4mm/km, derived for the Conterminous United States (CONUS), bounds one-sigma ionospheric spatial gradients under nominal conditions (including active, but not stormy condition) with an adequate safety margin [1]. The conservatism residing in the current σvig by fixing it to a constant value for all non-stormy conditions could be mitigated by subdividing ionospheric conditions into several classes and using different σvig for each class. This new concept, real-time σvig adaptation, will be possible if the level of ionospheric activity can be well classified based on space weather intensity. This paper studies correlation between the statistics of nominal ionospheric spatial gradients and space weather indices. The analysis was carried out using two sets of data collected from Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS) Network; 9 consecutive (nominal and ionospherically active) days in 2004 and 19 consecutive (relatively 'quiet') days in 2010. Precise ionospheric delay estimates are obtained using the simplified truth processing method and vertical ionospheric gradients are computed using the well-known 'station pair method' [2]. The remaining biases which include carrier-phase leveling errors and Inter-frequency Bias (IFB) calibration errors are reduced by applying linear slip detection thresholds. The σvig was inflated to overbound the distribution of vertical ionospheric gradients with the required confidence

  19. Non-US approaches to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The approaches to the commercialization of space taken by the four foreign countries most active in the field - Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan are described. National space program elements with commercial potential are examined in the context of national industrial and science policies, with special attention to objectives, timetables, and budgetary priority relative to other sectors. The role of the European Space Agency in attaining national and regional commercialization objectives is also examined.

  20. Performance analysis of IMU-augmented GNSS tracking systems for space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Benjamin; Markgraf, Markus; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    European space launch operators consider the potential of GNSS (global navigation satellite system) as a promising novel means of localization for the purpose of range safety of launch vehicles like Ariane and Vega, since it is expected that recurring costs are lower and accuracy is higher than currently existing systems like radar tracking. Range safety requires continuous information about the position and velocity of the launch vehicle to quickly detect the occurrence of catastrophic events. However, GNSS outages due, for example, to high jerks at fairing and stage jettisons or other external interferences like (un-)intentional jamming cannot be precluded. The OCAM-G experiment on Ariane 5 flight VA219 has provided evidence that GNSS is capable of providing a highly accurate position and velocity solution during most of the flight, but that outages of several seconds do occur. To increase the continuity of a GNSS-based localization system, it is proposed that the GNSS receiver is augmented by an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is able to output a position and velocity solution even during GNSS outages. Since these outages are expected to be short, a tactical- or even consumer-grade IMU is expected to be sufficient. In this paper, the minimum IMU performance that is required to bridge outages of up to 10 s, and thereby meeting the accuracy requirements of range safety, is determined by means of a thorough simulation study. The focus of the analysis is on current generation microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based IMU, which is lightweight, low-cost, available commercially and has reached acceptable maturity in the last decade.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope approaches Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-04

    STS061-93-031 (4 Dec 1993) --- Part of the vast Indian Ocean forms the backdrop for this scene of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as it approaches the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Denham Sound and Shark Bay, on Australia's west coast, are just below the waiting mechanical arm at lower right corner.

  2. The Supra-Inframammary Fold Approach to Breast Augmentation: Avoiding a Double Bubble

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: The inframammary incision for breast augmentation is commonly made at or below the existing inframammary fold (IMF) in an effort to keep the scar in the crease. In recent studies, surgeons inferiorly relocate the IMF, center the implant at nipple level, and attempt to secure the new IMF with sutures. The fascial attachments (also called ligaments) holding the IMF are released, risking a bottoming-out deformity or a double bubble. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 160 consecutive women undergoing primary subpectoral breast augmentation. An incision was made 0.5–1.0 cm above the IMF. Dissection proceeded directly to the pectoralis margin, preserving IMF fascial attachments. The pectoralis origin was released from the lower sternum. Surveys were administered to obtain patient-reported outcome data. Ninety-eight patients (61%) participated. Results: Implants often appear high on the chest at early follow-up appointments but gradually settle. One patient (0.6%) developed a double bubble. No reoperations were needed for implant malposition. One patient had a mild animation deformity. There were no cases of symmastia. The mean result rating was 9.1/10. Four percent of surveyed patients found their implants too high; 8% found them too low. Ninety-two patients (94%) reported that their scars were well-hidden. Ninety-six women (98%) said that they would redo the surgery. Conclusions: A supra-IMF approach anticipates the normal descent of implants after augmentation. Scars remain hidden both in standing and supine positions. This method reduces the short-term risk of reoperation for implant malposition or a double bubble. PMID:28831352

  3. The Supra-Inframammary Fold Approach to Breast Augmentation: Avoiding a Double Bubble.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2017-07-01

    The inframammary incision for breast augmentation is commonly made at or below the existing inframammary fold (IMF) in an effort to keep the scar in the crease. In recent studies, surgeons inferiorly relocate the IMF, center the implant at nipple level, and attempt to secure the new IMF with sutures. The fascial attachments (also called ligaments) holding the IMF are released, risking a bottoming-out deformity or a double bubble. This retrospective study evaluated 160 consecutive women undergoing primary subpectoral breast augmentation. An incision was made 0.5-1.0 cm above the IMF. Dissection proceeded directly to the pectoralis margin, preserving IMF fascial attachments. The pectoralis origin was released from the lower sternum. Surveys were administered to obtain patient-reported outcome data. Ninety-eight patients (61%) participated. Implants often appear high on the chest at early follow-up appointments but gradually settle. One patient (0.6%) developed a double bubble. No reoperations were needed for implant malposition. One patient had a mild animation deformity. There were no cases of symmastia. The mean result rating was 9.1/10. Four percent of surveyed patients found their implants too high; 8% found them too low. Ninety-two patients (94%) reported that their scars were well-hidden. Ninety-six women (98%) said that they would redo the surgery. A supra-IMF approach anticipates the normal descent of implants after augmentation. Scars remain hidden both in standing and supine positions. This method reduces the short-term risk of reoperation for implant malposition or a double bubble.

  4. Real-time prediction of respiratory motion based on a local dynamic model in an augmented space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.-M.; Jung, B.-H.; Ruan, D.

    2011-03-01

    Motion-adaptive radiotherapy aims to deliver ablative radiation dose to the tumor target with minimal normal tissue exposure, by accounting for real-time target movement. In practice, prediction is usually necessary to compensate for system latency induced by measurement, communication and control. This work focuses on predicting respiratory motion, which is most dominant for thoracic and abdominal tumors. We develop and investigate the use of a local dynamic model in an augmented space, motivated by the observation that respiratory movement exhibits a locally circular pattern in a plane augmented with a delayed axis. By including the angular velocity as part of the system state, the proposed dynamic model effectively captures the natural evolution of respiratory motion. The first-order extended Kalman filter is used to propagate and update the state estimate. The target location is predicted by evaluating the local dynamic model equations at the required prediction length. This method is complementary to existing work in that (1) the local circular motion model characterizes 'turning', overcoming the limitation of linear motion models; (2) it uses a natural state representation including the local angular velocity and updates the state estimate systematically, offering explicit physical interpretations; (3) it relies on a parametric model and is much less data-satiate than the typical adaptive semiparametric or nonparametric method. We tested the performance of the proposed method with ten RPM traces, using the normalized root mean squared difference between the predicted value and the retrospective observation as the error metric. Its performance was compared with predictors based on the linear model, the interacting multiple linear models and the kernel density estimator for various combinations of prediction lengths and observation rates. The local dynamic model based approach provides the best performance for short to medium prediction lengths under relatively

  5. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  6. Measuring the Usability of Augmented Reality e-Learning Systems: A User-Centered Evaluation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Dragoş Daniel

    The development of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is creating new challenges and opportunities for the designers of e-learning systems. The mix of real and virtual requires appropriate interaction techniques that have to be evaluated with users in order to avoid usability problems. Formative usability aims at finding usability problems as early as possible in the development life cycle and is suitable to support the development of such novel interactive systems. This work presents an approach to the user-centered usability evaluation of an e-learning scenario for Biology developed on an Augmented Reality educational platform. The evaluation has been carried on during and after a summer school held within the ARiSE research project. The basic idea was to perform usability evaluation twice. In this respect, we conducted user testing with a small number of students during the summer school in order to get a fast feedback from users having good knowledge in Biology. Then, we repeated the user testing in different conditions and with a relatively larger number of representative users. In this paper we describe both experiments and compare the usability evaluation results.

  7. A computationally efficient approach for hidden-Markov model-augmented fingerprint-based positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, John; Tummala, Murali; McEachen, John

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient approach for mobile subscriber position estimation in wireless networks. A method of data scaling assisted by timing adjust is introduced in fingerprint-based location estimation under a framework which allows for minimising computational cost. The proposed method maintains a comparable level of accuracy to the traditional case where no data scaling is used and is evaluated in a simulated environment under varying channel conditions. The proposed scheme is studied when it is augmented by a hidden-Markov model to match the internal parameters to the channel conditions that present, thus minimising computational cost while maximising accuracy. Furthermore, the timing adjust quantity, available in modern wireless signalling messages, is shown to be able to further reduce computational cost and increase accuracy when available. The results may be seen as a significant step towards integrating advanced position-based modelling with power-sensitive mobile devices.

  8. Probabilistic Approaches for Evaluating Space Shuttle Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, William

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Space Shuttle PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) are to: (1) evaluate mission risks; (2) evaluate uncertainties and sensitivities; (3) prioritize contributors; (4) evaluate upgrades; (5) track risks; and (6) provide decision tools. This report discusses the significance of a Space Shuttle PRA and its participants. The elements and type of losses to be included are discussed. The program and probabilistic approaches are then discussed.

  9. Augmented design and analysis of computer experiments: a novel tolerance embedded global optimization approach applied to SWIR hyperspectral illumination design.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Janos C; John Koshel, R; D'huys, Karlien; De Ketelaere, Bart; Audenaert, Jan; Goos, Peter; Saeys, Wouter

    2016-12-26

    A novel meta-heuristic approach for minimizing nonlinear constrained problems is proposed, which offers tolerance information during the search for the global optimum. The method is based on the concept of design and analysis of computer experiments combined with a novel two phase design augmentation (DACEDA), which models the entire merit space using a Gaussian process, with iteratively increased resolution around the optimum. The algorithm is introduced through a series of cases studies with increasing complexity for optimizing uniformity of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) illumination system (IS). The method is first demonstrated for a two-dimensional problem consisting of the positioning of analytical isotropic point sources. The method is further applied to two-dimensional (2D) and five-dimensional (5D) SWIR HSI IS versions using close- and far-field measured source models applied within the non-sequential ray-tracing software FRED, including inherent stochastic noise. The proposed method is compared to other heuristic approaches such as simplex and simulated annealing (SA). It is shown that DACEDA converges towards a minimum with 1 % improvement compared to simplex and SA, and more importantly requiring only half the number of simulations. Finally, a concurrent tolerance analysis is done within DACEDA for to the five-dimensional case such that further simulations are not required.

  10. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  11. Dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, Thomas E.; Xia, Houchun; Chen, Yung

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatment designs is evaluated separately as passive control measures for low frequency joint dominated modes and higher frequency boom flexure dominated modes using a NASTRAN finite element analysis. Passive damping augmentation is proposed which is based on a constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatment applied to the surface of the manipulators's flexible booms. It is pointed out that even the joint compliance dominated modes can be damped to some degree through appropriate design of the treatment.

  12. New approaches to space weather forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnowski, Aleksei; Cheremnykh, Oleg; Yatsenko, Vitaly

    2010-05-01

    We developed several approaches to the problem of real-time space weather indices forecasting using readily available data from ACE and a number of ground stations. The first one is based on a dynamical-information approach to nonlinear modeling of space plasma [1]. It uses new nonlinear mathematical models of geomagnetic indices and original algorithms for detection of structure and parameters. The identification problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. Novel algorithms provide an optimal structure of discrete dynamical system using fuzzy systems modeling. The second one is based on the regression modeling method [2], which combines the benefits of empirical and statistical approaches. It uses such statistical methods as the linear regression analysis, maximum likelihood method, dispersion analysis and Monte-Carlo simulations to deduce the empirical relationships in the system. In both cases the typical elapsed time per forecast is about several seconds on an average PC. Such techniques can be easily extended to other indices like AE and Kp. The proposed system can also be useful for investigating of physical phenomena related to interactions between the solar wind and the magnetosphere - it already helped uncovering two new geoeffective parameters. In addition, we performed the risk analysis of damage to VUV, EUV and X-ray optics due to space weather factors and analyzed the safety of space instruments. We plan combining short-term and medium-term approaches to accurately predict geomagnetic storms at least 5-10 hours before commencement. Practical applications of such a system include (but are not limited to): - spacecraft safety (prediction of radiation threat); - human health (putting emergency services on alert); - prevention of technological disasters (power grid failures, major radio blackouts). 1. Cheremnykh O.K., Yatsenko V.A., Semeniv O.V., Shatokhina Yu.V. Nonlinear dynamics and prediction for space weather // Ukr. J. Phys. — 2008

  13. Spatial Planning: A Configuration Space Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Stanford Robot Arm.’ Stmtnt’td Artificial itelligence 1 ah(:ralory, 1974. 14-i W~illiamns. .1. SlICKS -a it nw approach to I SI design. SNI T hesis, I...AD-A093 93& MASSACHUETTSN INST AOF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTE-ETC F/6 9/2 SPATIAL PIANN1NG: A CONFIGUORATION SPACE APPROACH.(U) DEC 80 T LOZANA...AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratoryv AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square Cambridge

  14. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    PubMed

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time.

  15. Augmented superfield approach to gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the complete sets of the off-shell nilpotent (i.e. s^2_{(a)b} = 0) and absolutely anticommuting (i.e. s_b s_{ab} + s_{ab} s_b = 0) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) (s_b) and anti-BRST (s_{ab}) symmetries for the (3+1)-dimensional (4D) gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory within the framework of an augmented superfield approach to the BRST formalism. In this formalism, we obtain the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities which respect both BRST and anti-BRST symmetries on the constrained hypersurface defined by the Curci-Ferrari type conditions. The absolute anticommutativity property of the (anti-) BRST transformations (and corresponding generators) is ensured by the existence of the Curci-Ferrari type conditions which emerge very naturally in this formalism. Furthermore, the gauge-invariant restriction plays a decisive role in deriving the proper (anti-) BRST transformations for the Stückelberg-like vector field.

  16. Structural stability augmentation system design using BODEDIRECT: A quick and accurate approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goslin, T. J.; Ho, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology is presented for a modal suppression control law design using flight test data instead of mathematical models to obtain the required gain and phase information about the flexible airplane. This approach is referred to as BODEDIRECT. The purpose of the BODEDIRECT program is to provide a method of analyzing the modal phase relationships measured directly from the airplane. These measurements can be achieved with a frequency sweep at the control surface input while measuring the outputs of interest. The measured Bode-models can be used directly for analysis in the frequency domain, and for control law design. Besides providing a more accurate representation for the system inputs and outputs of interest, this method is quick and relatively inexpensive. To date, the BODEDIRECT program has been tested and verified for computational integrity. Its capabilities include calculation of series, parallel and loop closure connections between Bode-model representations. System PSD, together with gain and phase margins of stability may be calculated for successive loop closures of multi-input/multi-output systems. Current plans include extensive flight testing to obtain a Bode-model representation of a commercial aircraft for design of a structural stability augmentation system.

  17. A learning performance study between the conventional approach and augmented reality textbook among secondary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Valarmathie; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu

    2016-08-01

    Malaysia is moving towards becoming a developed nation by 2020. As such, the need for adequate human resources in science-related fields is one of the requirements to achieve a developed nation status. Unfortunately, there is a downward trend in the number of students pursuing the science stream at the secondary school level. This paper introduces an enhanced science textbook using Augmented Reality (eSTAR) that is intended to motivate students to be interested in science. The eSTAR was implemented to provide a supplement to the conventional science teaching and learning methods in the secondary schools. A learning performance study with a control group was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the eSTAR for science learning among a sample of 140 Form Two secondary school students. The results indicate that the learning performance of the students in both groups had a significant difference in mean scores between the pre-test and post-test. Students using the eSTAR have a better score in the post-test and eventually resulted in a better learning performance compared to those who were exposed to the conventional science learning. Overall, the results show that the students benefited from the use of the conventional and eSTAR learning approaches.

  18. A Novel Approach on Designing Augmented Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Using Fuzzified Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I.

    This paper proposes a new methodology for designing Fuzzy Cognitive Maps using crisp decision trees that have been fuzzified. Fuzzy cognitive map is a knowledge-based technique that works as an artificial cognitive network inheriting the main aspects of cognitive maps and artificial neural networks. Decision trees, in the other hand, are well known intelligent techniques that extract rules from both symbolic and numeric data. Fuzzy theoretical techniques are used to fuzzify crisp decision trees in order to soften decision boundaries at decision nodes inherent in this type of trees. Comparisons between crisp decision trees and the fuzzified decision trees suggest that the later fuzzy tree is significantly more robust and produces a more balanced decision making. The approach proposed in this paper could incorporate any type of fuzzy decision trees. Through this methodology, new linguistic weights were determined in FCM model, thus producing augmented FCM tool. The framework is consisted of a new fuzzy algorithm to generate linguistic weights that describe the cause-effect relationships among the concepts of the FCM model, from induced fuzzy decision trees.

  19. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  20. Semantics Enabled Queries in EuroGEOSS: a Discovery Augmentation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, M.; Mazzetti, P.; Fugazza, C.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main challenges in Earth Science Informatics is to build interoperability frameworks which allow users to discover, evaluate, and use information from different scientific domains. This needs to address multidisciplinary interoperability challenges concerning both technological and scientific aspects. From the technological point of view, it is necessary to provide a set of special interoperability arrangement in order to develop flexible frameworks that allow a variety of loosely-coupled services to interact with each other. From a scientific point of view, it is necessary to document clearly the theoretical and methodological assumptions underpinning applications in different scientific domains, and develop cross-domain ontologies to facilitate interdisciplinary dialogue and understanding. In this presentation we discuss a brokering approach that extends the traditional Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) adopted by most Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) to provide the necessary special interoperability arrangements. In the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (A European approach to GEOSS) project, we distinguish among three possible functional brokering components: discovery, access and semantics brokers. This presentation focuses on the semantics broker, the Discovery Augmentation Component (DAC), which was specifically developed to address the three thematic areas covered by the EuroGEOSS project: biodiversity, forestry and drought. The EuroGEOSS DAC federates both semantics (e.g. SKOS repositories) and ISO-compliant geospatial catalog services. The DAC can be queried using common geospatial constraints (i.e. what, where, when, etc.). Two different augmented discovery styles are supported: a) automatic query expansion; b) user assisted query expansion. In the first case, the main discovery steps are: i. the query keywords (the what constraint) are “expanded” with related concepts/terms retrieved from the set of federated semantic services. A default expansion

  1. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  2. An integrated approach to endoscopic instrument tracking for augmented reality applications in surgical simulation training.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Constantinos; Lahanas, Vasileios; Georgiou, Evangelos

    2013-12-01

    Despite the popular use of virtual and physical reality simulators in laparoscopic training, the educational potential of augmented reality (AR) has not received much attention. A major challenge is the robust tracking and three-dimensional (3D) pose estimation of the endoscopic instrument, which are essential for achieving interaction with the virtual world and for realistic rendering when the virtual scene is occluded by the instrument. In this paper we propose a method that addresses these issues, based solely on visual information obtained from the endoscopic camera. Two different tracking algorithms are combined for estimating the 3D pose of the surgical instrument with respect to the camera. The first tracker creates an adaptive model of a colour strip attached to the distal part of the tool (close to the tip). The second algorithm tracks the endoscopic shaft, using a combined Hough-Kalman approach. The 3D pose is estimated with perspective geometry, using appropriate measurements extracted by the two trackers. The method has been validated on several complex image sequences for its tracking efficiency, pose estimation accuracy and applicability in AR-based training. Using a standard endoscopic camera, the absolute average error of the tip position was 2.5 mm for working distances commonly found in laparoscopic training. The average error of the instrument's angle with respect to the camera plane was approximately 2°. The results are also supplemented by video segments of laparoscopic training tasks performed in a physical and an AR environment. The experiments yielded promising results regarding the potential of applying AR technologies for laparoscopic skills training, based on a computer vision framework. The issue of occlusion handling was adequately addressed. The estimated trajectory of the instruments may also be used for surgical gesture interpretation and assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Delay Fill Technique: A Safer Approach to Combination Augmentation Mastopexy

    PubMed Central

    Patronella, Christopher K.; Mentz, Henry A.; Johnson-Alviza, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Combining breast augmentation with mastopexy is a challenging procedure that has a relatively high revision rate in the literature. Some surgeons prefer a two-stage procedure to avoid the potential for skin flap or nipple–areolar complex necrosis that can occur with a one-stage procedure. The authors compared 101 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with immediate implant fill and mastopexy with 203 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with delayed (10–14 days) implant fill and mastopexy. They found the revision rate for immediate implant fill was 24%; in the delayed implant fill group, the revision rate was 10.3%. Patients had soft tissue-related complications in 16% of the immediate fill group and in 2% of the delayed fill group. Delaying implant fill in combined breast augmentation mastopexy significantly reduces the risk of soft tissue-related complications and revision procedures; the delay flap phenomenon is responsible for fewer wound-healing complications when implant fill is delayed during a combined augmentation mastopexy procedure. PMID:26528084

  4. System Science approach to Space Weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, Michael A.

    There are many dynamical systems in nature that are so complex that mathematical models of their behaviour can not be deduced from first principles with the present level of our knowledge. Obvious examples are organic cell, human brain, etc often attract system scientists. A example that is closer to space physics is the terrestrial magnetosphere. The system approach has been developed to understand such complex objects from the observation of their dynamics. The systems approach employs advanced data analysis methodologies to identify patterns in the overall system behaviour and provides information regarding the linear and nonlinear processes involved in the dynamics of the system. This, in combination with the knowledge deduced from the first principles, creates the opportunity to find mathematical relationships that govern the evolution of a particular physical system. Advances and problems of systems science applications to provide a reliable forecasts of space weather phenomena such as geomagnetic storms, substorms and radiation belts particle fluxes are reviewed and compared with the physics based models.

  5. An MBSE Approach to Space Suit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, Lauren; Kovich, Christine; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The EVA/Space Suit Development Office (ESSD) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) team has utilized MBSE in multiple programs. After developing operational and architectural models, the MBSE framework was expanded to link the requirements space to the system models through functional analysis and interfaces definitions. By documenting all the connections within the technical baseline, ESSD experienced significant efficiency improvements in analysis and identification of change impacts. One of the biggest challenges presented to the MBSE structure was a program transition and restructuring effort, which was completed successfully in 4 months culminating in the approval of a new EVA Technical Baseline. During this time three requirements sets spanning multiple DRMs were streamlined into one NASA-owned Systems Requirement Document (SRD) that successfully identified requirements relevant to the current hardware development effort while remaining extensible to support future hardware developments. A capability-based hierarchy was established to provide a more flexible framework for future space suit development that can support multiple programs with minimal rework of basic EVA/Space Suit requirements. This MBSE approach was most recently applied for generation of an EMU Demonstrator technical baseline being developed for an ISS DTO. The relatively quick turnaround of operational concepts, architecture definition, and requirements for this new suit development has allowed us to test and evolve the MBSE process and framework in an extremely different setting while still offering extensibility and traceability throughout ESSD projects. The ESSD MBSE framework continues to be evolved in order to support integration of all products associated with the SE&I engine.

  6. Communicative Competence Inventory for Students Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Douglas, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) represent a heterogonous group with complex communication needs. AAC--including aided communication means (e.g., pictures, devices) and unaided (e.g., signs, gestures)--is often used to support students who have difficulties with speech production, language comprehension, and…

  7. Communicative Competence Inventory for Students Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Douglas, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) represent a heterogonous group with complex communication needs. AAC--including aided communication means (e.g., pictures, devices) and unaided (e.g., signs, gestures)--is often used to support students who have difficulties with speech production, language comprehension, and…

  8. The Extended Direct Anterior Approach for Column Augmentation in the Deficient Pelvis: A Novel Surgical Technique, and Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Spanyer, Jonathon M; Beaumont, Christopher M; Yerasimides, Jonathan G

    2017-02-01

    Anterior column deficiency of the pelvis may pose a serious threat to the stability of the acetabular component after total hip arthroplasty and, thus, jeopardize the overall success of the procedure. After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective review was undertaken to identify all patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty with anterior column augmentation through an extended direct anterior approach. Demographics and surgical details were collected, and subjects were followed for a 2-year minimum period to measure patient outcomes and to evaluate for the stability of construct fixation. A novel surgical procedure description was provided and supplemented with an illustrative case example. At 2 years post augmentation, patients had favorable functional outcomes with radiologic evidence of stable fixation. Proximal extension of the direct anterior approach to the hip can facilitate anterior column access and augmentation to improve stability of the hip reconstruction. This treatment may be an alternative to spanning constructs such as cup-cage constructs and custom implants, affording the potential for long-term biologic fixation. Further investigation into this technique is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov

    2011-11-01

    We develop a phase space distribution function approach to redshift space distortions (RSD), in which the redshift space density can be written as a sum over velocity moments of the distribution function. These moments are density weighted and have well defined physical interpretation: their lowest orders are density, momentum density, and stress energy density. The series expansion is convergent if kμu/aH < 1, where k is the wavevector, H the Hubble parameter, u the typical gravitational velocity and μ = cos θ, with θ being the angle between the Fourier mode and the line of sight. We perform an expansion of these velocity moments into helicity modes, which are eigenmodes under rotation around the axis of Fourier mode direction, generalizing the scalar, vector, tensor decomposition of perturbations to an arbitrary order. We show that only equal helicity moments correlate and derive the angular dependence of the individual contributions to the redshift space power spectrum. We show that the dominant term of μ{sup 2} dependence on large scales is the cross-correlation between the density and scalar part of momentum density, which can be related to the time derivative of the matter power spectrum. Additional terms contributing to μ{sup 2} and dominating on small scales are the vector part of momentum density-momentum density correlations, the energy density-density correlations, and the scalar part of anisotropic stress density-density correlations. The second term is what is usually associated with the small scale Fingers-of-God damping and always suppresses power, but the first term comes with the opposite sign and always adds power. Similarly, we identify 7 terms contributing to μ{sup 4} dependence. Some of the advantages of the distribution function approach are that the series expansion converges on large scales and remains valid in multi-stream situations. We finish with a brief discussion of implications for RSD in galaxies relative to dark matter

  10. Grafts and implants in nasal and chin augmentation. A rational approach to material selection.

    PubMed

    Adams, J S

    1987-11-01

    Two major factors are involved in choosing augmentation materials: (1) the specific properties and limitations of the materials themselves (Table 2) and (2) the characteristics of the site for implantation. A wide variety of materials are currently available and these vary in density, ability to be sculpted, tissue reaction, resorption, migration, incidence of infection, extrusion rate, and ease of removal. Some of these characteristics are self-evident. For example, materials with high infection or extrusion rates (such as Silastic in nasal reconstruction) are clearly not useful in most instances. Likewise, materials that tend to migrate, such as tiny bits of cartilage, can lead to unacceptable results, but cartilage is such a generally good augmentation material in the nose that the measures to ensure stability are worth the additional time required for implantation. Resorption is a potential problem with all the biologic grafts and possibly with Supramid. Again, in certain situations in which alloplasts are unacceptable, such as infected areas, biologicals must be used and the consequences of resorption accepted. Density and ease of sculpting are often a matter of the surgeon's personal choice. As a general rule, bone is best replaced with firm materials and soft tissues are best augmented with soft materials. Should infection or rejection occur, the porous materials are much more difficult to remove; therefore, Silastic or a biological may be the best choice if there is any question about the presence of infection or possible future infection. The effect of the degree of tissue reaction is not well-understood. For example, Supramid elicits a marked tissue response but in general displays high compatibility with the tissues. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the role of tissue reactivity and porosity in the development of infection and extrusion. When choosing the implant material, the specific characteristics of the site for augmentation must be

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Approach and Landing Test Program consisted of a series of steps leading to the demonstration of the capability of the Space Shuttle orbiter to safely approach and land under conditions similar to those planned for the final phases of an orbital flight. The tests were conducted with the orbiter mounted on top of a specially modified carrier aircraft. The first step provided airworthiness and performance verification of the carrier aircraft after modification. The second step consisted of three taxi tests and five flight tests with an inert unmanned orbiter. The third step consisted of three mated tests with an active manned orbiter. The fourth step consisted of five flights in which the orbiter was separated from the carrier aircraft. For the final two flights, the orbiter tail cone was replaced by dummy engines to simulate the actual orbital configuration. Landing gear braking and steering tests were accomplished during rollouts following the free flight landings. Ferry testing was integrated into the Approach and Landing Test Program to the extent possible. In addition, four ferry test flights were conducted with the orbiter mated to the carrier aircraft in the ferry configuration after the free-flight tests were completed.

  12. Space vehicle approach velocity judgments under simulated visual space conditions.

    PubMed

    Haines, R F

    1989-02-01

    There were 35 volunteers who responded when they first perceived an increase in apparent size of a collimated, two-dimensional perspective image of an Orbiter vehicle. The variables of interest included the presence (or absence) of a fixed reticle within the field of view (FOV), background starfield velocity, initial range to the vehicle and vehicle closure velocity. It was found that: 1) increasing vehicle approach velocity yielded a very small (but significant) effect of faster detection of vehicle movement, nevertheless, response variability was relatively large; 2) including the fixed reticle in the FOV produced significantly slower detection of vehicle radial movement, however this occurred only at the largest range and the magnitude of the effect was only about 15% of the one sigma value; and 3) increasing background star velocity during this judgment led to slower detection of vehicle movement. While statistically significant, this effect was small and occurred primarily at the largest range. A possible explanation for the last two findings is that other static and dynamic objects within the visual field may compete for available attention which otherwise would be available for judging image expansion; thus, the target's retinal image has to expand more than otherwise for its movement to be detected. This study also showed that the Proximity Operations Research Mockup at NASA/Ames can be used effectively to investigate a variety of visual judgment questions related to future space operations. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and possible underlying mechanisms.

  13. Artificial intelligence for Space Station automation: Crew safety, productivity, autonomy, augmented capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Geldberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) R&D projects for the successful and efficient operation of the Space Station are described. The book explores the most advanced AI-based technologies, reviews the results of concept design studies to determine required AI capabilities, details demonstrations that would indicate the existence of these capabilities, and develops an R&D plan leading to such demonstrations. Particular attention is given to teleoperation and robotics, sensors, expert systems, computers, planning, and man-machine interface.

  14. Artificial intelligence for Space Station automation: crew safety, productivity, autonomy, augmented capability

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M.P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P.C.; Geldberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) RandD projects for the successful and efficient operation of the Space Station are described. The book explores the most advanced AI-based technologies, reviews the results of concept design studies to determine required AI capabilities, details demonstrations that would indicate the existence of these capabilities, and develops an RandD plan leading to such demonstrations. Particular attention is given to teleoperation and robotics, sensors, expert systems, computers, planning, and man-machine interface. 293 references.

  15. Monitoring mortality: a state-space approach.

    PubMed

    Dejong, P; Boyle, P P

    1983-09-01

    "A state-space model is developed which provides estimates of decrements in a dynamic environment. The model integrates the actual unfolding experience and a priori or Bayesian views of the rates. The estimates of present rates and predicted future rates are continually updated and associated standard errors have simple expressions. The model is described and applied in the context of mortality estimation but it should prove useful in other actuarial applications. The approach is particularly suitable for dynamic environments where data are scarce and updated parameter estimates are required on a regular basis. To illustrate the method it is used to monitor the unfolding mortality experience of the retired lives under an actual pension plan." excerpt

  16. Bayesian accelerated failure time model for space-time dependency in a geographically augmented survival model

    PubMed Central

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew; Zhang, Jiajia; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Wallace, Kristin; Eberth, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the spatially explicit survival model for small area cancer data by allowing dependency between space and time and using accelerated failure time models. Spatial dependency is modeled directly in the definition of the survival, density, and hazard functions. The models are developed in the context of county level aggregated data. Two cases are considered: the first assumes that the spatial and temporal distributions are independent; the second allows for dependency between the spatial and temporal components. We apply the models to prostate cancer data from the Louisiana SEER cancer registry. PMID:26220537

  17. Space Sustainment: A New Approach for America in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2014 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...emerged. Many com- mercial space companies are on the cusp of fiscal viability or are al- ready sustaining profits. 2 The Cold War ended, and the United...advantages despite a space domain that is increasingly “congested, contested, and competitive.”3 Reforming Space Law The current body of both

  18. A piloted simulator investigation of static stability and stability/control augmentation effects on helicopter handling qualities for instrument approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Forrest, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A ground simulator experiment was conducted on the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft at Ames Research Center to investigate the influence of several static stability and stability/control augmentation design parameters on helicopter flying qualities during terminal area operations in instrument conditions. Effects of light turbulence were included. Two levels of static stability in each rotational axis (pitch, roll, yaw) were examined for a hingeless rotor configuration. The variations in pitch and roll were: (1) stable and (2) neutral static stability; in yaw there were two stable levels. Four types of stability/control augmentation were also examined for the lower level of static stability in each axis. This latter investigation covered three helicopter rotor types: hingeless, articulated, and teetering. Four pilots performed a total of 105 evaluations of these parameters for a representative VOR instrument approach task. Pilot rating results indicate the acceptability of neutral static stability longitudinally and laterally and the need for pitch-roll attitude augmentation to achieve a satisfactory system.

  19. An Evidence-Based Approach to Augmentation and Combination Strategies for

    PubMed Central

    Barowsky, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Design, setting, participants: This paper is a review article that collects and synthesizes up-to-date information about the practice of augmenting and combining medications in regards to treatment resistant major depressive disorder. The authors have written the paper in an evidence-based model in order to show the reader where adequate data exists in regards to these strategies. A thorough MEDLINE search was utilized to collect many papers dedicated to this area of study spanning 1989-2005. Measurements: Papers were divided based upon drug intervention and scientific merit, where randomized controlled trials were given the most evidence-based weight and case studies the least. Results: The literature review data is divided into augmentation and combination strategies in descending order of scientific stringency. For augmentation, lithium, antipsychotic, and thyroid addition has the most empirical support. For combination strategies, heterocyclic addition is the best studied. Conclusion: There is much literature regarding complex medication management of major depression that is generally supportive of this practice. However, much of the literature contains underpowered and uncontrolled studies. PMID:20975817

  20. A Strategic Approach for Space Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    satellite missions. Space Exploration Technologies, known as SpaceX , is also fielding several launch vehicles to compete with the existing launch industry...multiple small satellites into either low earth orbit or geosynchronous transfer orbit. NASA has already contracted with SpaceX to resupply the...International Space Station.56 Currently, SpaceX is in the process of building a strong flight safety track record in order to compete for high value

  1. Space and Domination -- A Marxist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Milton

    1975-01-01

    From a Marxist standpoint the author deals with the subject of economic and social domination in space. Topics discussed include agricultural spaces, spatial specialization and alienation, urban-rural relations in developing countries, and the disalienation of space and man. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  2. GyroWand: An Approach to IMU-Based Raycasting for Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Hincapié-Ramos, Juan David; Özacar, Kasim; Irani, Pourang P; Kitamura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Optical see-through head-mounted displays enable augmented reality (AR) applications that display virtual objects overlaid on the real world. At the core of this new generation of devices are low-cost tracking technologies that allow us to interpret users' motion in the real world in relation to the virtual content for the purposes of navigation and interaction. The advantages of pervasive tracking come at the cost of limiting interaction possibilities, however. To address these challenges the authors introduce GyroWand, a raycasting technique for AR HMDs using inertial measurement unit (IMU) rotational data from a handheld controller.

  3. Weighted augmented Jacobian matrix with a variable coefficient method for kinematics mapping of space teleoperation based on human-robot motion similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhong; Huang, Xuexiang; Hu, Tianjian; Tan, Qian; Hou, Yuzhuo

    2016-10-01

    Space teleoperation is an important space technology, and human-robot motion similarity can improve the flexibility and intuition of space teleoperation. This paper aims to obtain an appropriate kinematics mapping method of coupled Cartesian-joint space for space teleoperation. First, the coupled Cartesian-joint similarity principles concerning kinematics differences are defined. Then, a novel weighted augmented Jacobian matrix with a variable coefficient (WAJM-VC) method for kinematics mapping is proposed. The Jacobian matrix is augmented to achieve a global similarity of human-robot motion. A clamping weighted least norm scheme is introduced to achieve local optimizations, and the operating ratio coefficient is variable to pursue similarity in the elbow joint. Similarity in Cartesian space and the property of joint constraint satisfaction is analysed to determine the damping factor and clamping velocity. Finally, a teleoperation system based on human motion capture is established, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed WAJM-VC method can improve the flexibility and intuition of space teleoperation to complete complex space tasks.

  4. Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Saxena, Sadhvi; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Faria, Andreia V.; Long, Charltien; Wright, Amy; Davis, Cameron; Tippett, Donna C.; Mourdoukoutas, Antonios P.; Bikson, Marom; Celnik, Pablo; Hillis, Argye E.

    2017-01-01

    People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes. PMID:28127284

  5. Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rajani; Saxena, Sadhvi; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Faria, Andreia V; Long, Charltien; Wright, Amy; Davis, Cameron; Tippett, Donna C; Mourdoukoutas, Antonios P; Bikson, Marom; Celnik, Pablo; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-01-01

    People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes.

  6. Augmented message-matrix approach to deterministic dense-coding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjuoy, E.; Williams, H. T.; Bourdon, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    A useful method for deriving analytical results applicable to the standard two-party deterministic dense-coding protocol is introduced and illustrated. In this protocol, communication of K perfectly distinguishable messages is attainable via K selected local unitary operations performed on one qudit from a pair of entangled qudits of equal dimension d in a pure state |ψ⟩ with largest Schmidt coefficient λ0 . The method takes advantage of the fact that the K message states, together with d2-K augmenting orthonormal state vectors, yield a unitary matrix, thereby implying properties of the K message states which otherwise are not readily recognized. Employing this augmented message matrix, we produce simple proofs of previously established results including (i) λ0≤d/K , (ii) λ0

  7. An Integrated approach to the Space Situational Awareness Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0377 An Integrated approach to the Space Situational Awareness Problem Suman Chakravorty TEXAS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION...2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2/15/2013 - 8/31/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated approach to the Space ...approach to the Space Situational Awareness Problem The following papers were a result of this project. Multi-Target Tracking In this work, we have

  8. Space Science Informatics: A Canadian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Shillington, J.; Gordon, M.

    2011-02-01

    The rapidly increasing volume of space science data is leading to a growing need for tools for scientists to access, analyze, and share data. To address this need, the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (CSSDP) provides space scientists with access to a wide range of space data, observations, and investigative tools. CSSDP serves as a one-stop shop for scientists to discover, gather, and visualize relevant data. The data portal has embedded analysis tools and workflows to simplify common research tasks, along with a rich collaboration framework to develop and share scientific findings (see Figure 1). The data portal is accessible at http://www.cssdp.ca.

  9. A hybrid approach to space power control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gholdston, E. W.; Janik, D. F.; Newton, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional control systems have traditionally been utilized for space-based power designs. However, the use of expert systems is becoming important for NASA applications. Rocketdyne has been pursuing the development of expert systems to aid and enhance control designs of space-based power systems. The need for integrated expert systems is vital for the development of autonomous power systems.

  10. The PAM method--periareolar augmentation mastopexy: a personal approach to treat hypoplastic breast with moderate ptosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul

    2012-02-01

    Circumareolar incisions in breast augmentation surgery can center slightly low areolas on the breast mound and treat moderate ptosis. This maneuver, however, is limited to moderate cases because it does not achieve any lifting of the breast. The author describes periareolar augmentation mastopexy (PAM), a new systematic approach of breast augmentation and lifting through a circumareolar incision, by means of a vertical or T-plication on the lower pole of the breast. Twenty-eight patients underwent PAM. Intraoperatively, the epidermis was stripped on the area between the areola and the circumareolar incisions; after abundant tumescent infiltration, a detachment was performed on the areolar plane at the breast's lower pole. The submuscular plane was reached through a vertical incision on the breast, and a high-profile implant was placed. Over the same incision, a strong plication was performed to tighten the laxity causing the ptosis. The skin was closed with a purse-string suture. The complication rate was low in this patient series: one case of small necrosis of the periareolar skin, one case of areolar asymmetry, three cases in which the areolas were not postoperatively round, and one case of infection in the unilateral purse-string suture. All patients saw great improvement in breast shape and were satisfied with ptosis correction. The technique results in minimal postoperative scarring, since it relies on a single circumareolar incision. In this small series, PAM proved to be an excellent technique with consistent aesthetic results for correction of hypomastia in patients with moderate to minimally severe ptosis.

  11. The implementation of an AR (augmented reality) approach to support mammographic interpretation training: an initial feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2017-03-01

    Appropriate feedback plays an important role in optimising mammographic interpretation training whilst also ensuring good interpretation performance. The traditional keyboard, mouse and workstation technical approach has a critical limitation in providing supplementary image-related information and providing complex feedback in real time. Augmented Reality (AR) provides a possible superior approach in this situation, as feedback can be provided directly overlaying the displayed mammographic images so making a generic approach which can also be vendor neutral. In this study, radiological feedback was dynamically remapped virtually into the real world, using perspective transformation, in order to provide a richer user experience in mammographic interpretation training. This is an initial attempt of an AR approach to dynamically superimpose pre-defined feedback information of a DICOM image on top of a radiologist's view, whilst the radiologist is examining images on a clinical workstation. The study demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although there are limitations on interactive operations which are due to the hardware used. The results of this fully functional approach provide appropriate feedback/image correspondence in a simulated mammographic interpretation environment. Thus, it is argued that employing AR is a feasible way to provide rich feedback in the delivery of mammographic interpretation training.

  12. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  13. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  14. Approach and Evaluation of a Mobile Video-Based and Location-Based Augmented Reality Platform for Information Brokerage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastageeri, H.; Storz, M.; Koukofikis, A.; Knauth, S.; Coors, V.

    2016-09-01

    Providing mobile location-based information for pedestrians faces many challenges. On one hand the accuracy of localisation indoors and outdoors is restricted due to technical limitations of GPS and Beacons. Then again only a small display is available to display information as well as to develop a user interface. Plus, the software solution has to consider the hardware characteristics of mobile devices during the implementation process for aiming a performance with minimum latency. This paper describes our approach by including a combination of image tracking and GPS or Beacons to ensure orientation and precision of localisation. To communicate the information on Points of Interest (POIs), we decided to choose Augmented Reality (AR). For this concept of operations, we used besides the display also the acceleration and positions sensors as a user interface. This paper especially goes into detail on the optimization of the image tracking algorithms, the development of the video-based AR player for the Android platform and the evaluation of videos as an AR element in consideration of providing a good user experience. For setting up content for the POIs or even generate a tour we used and extended the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML).

  15. SATware: A Semantic Approach for Building Sentient Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaguer, Daniel; Mehrotra, Sharad; Vaisenberg, Ronen; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    This chapter describes the architecture of a semantic-based middleware environment for building sensor-driven sentient spaces. The proposed middleware explicitly models sentient space semantics (i.e., entities, spaces, activities) and supports mechanisms to map sensor observations to the state of the sentient space. We argue how such a semantic approach provides a powerful programming environment for building sensor spaces. In addition, the approach provides natural ways to exploit semantics for variety of purposes including scheduling under resource constraints and sensor recalibration.

  16. Automatic localization of endoscope in intraoperative CT image: A simple approach to augmented reality guidance in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Sylvain; Nicolau, Stéphane A; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Doignon, Christophe; Marescaux, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    The use of augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery has been the subject of much research for more than a decade. The endoscopic view of the surgical scene is typically augmented with a 3D model extracted from a preoperative acquisition. However, the organs of interest often present major changes in shape and location because of the pneumoperitoneum and patient displacement. There have been numerous attempts to compensate for this distortion between the pre- and intraoperative states. Some have attempted to recover the visible surface of the organ through image analysis and register it to the preoperative data, but this has proven insufficiently robust and may be problematic with large organs. A second approach is to introduce an intraoperative 3D imaging system as a transition. Hybrid operating rooms are becoming more and more popular, so this seems to be a viable solution, but current techniques require yet another external and constraining piece of apparatus such as an optical tracking system to determine the relationship between the intraoperative images and the endoscopic view. In this article, we propose a new approach to automatically register the reconstruction from an intraoperative CT acquisition with the static endoscopic view, by locating the endoscope tip in the volume data. We first describe our method to localize the endoscope orientation in the intraoperative image using standard image processing algorithms. Secondly, we highlight that the axis of the endoscope needs a specific calibration process to ensure proper registration accuracy. In the last section, we present quantitative and qualitative results proving the feasibility and the clinical potential of our approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Space vehicle approach velocity judgments under simulated visual space conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-five volunteers responded when they first perceived an increase in apparent size of a collimated, 2-D image of an Orbiter vehicle. The test variables of interest included the presence of a fixed angular reticle within the field of view (FOV); three initial Orbiter distances; three constant Orbiter approach velocities corresponding to 1.6, 0.8, and 0.4 percent of the initial distance per second; and two background starfield velocities. It was found that: (1) at each initial range, increasing approach velocity led to a larger distance between the eye and Orbiter image at threshold; (2) including the fixed reticle in the FOV produced a smaller distance between the eye and Orbiter image at threshold; and (3) increasing background star velocity during this judgment led to a smaller distance between the eye and Orbiter image at threshold. The last two findings suggest that other detail within the FOV may compete for available attention which otherwise would be available for judging image expansion; thus, the target has to approach the observer nearer than otherwise if these details were present. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and possible underlying mechanisms.

  18. A computational study of thrust augmenting ejectors based on a viscous-inviscid approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Thomas S.; Tavella, Domingo A.; Roberts, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction technique is advocated as both an efficient and accurate means of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. The flow field is subdivided into a viscous region that contains the turbulent jet and an inviscid region that contains the ambient fluid drawn into the device. The inviscid region is computed with a higher-order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. The strong viscous-inviscid interaction present within the ejector is simulated in an iterative process where the two regions influence each other en route to a converged solution. The model is applied to a variety of parametric and optimization studies involving ejectors having either one or two primary jets. The effects of nozzle placement, inlet and diffuser shape, free stream speed, and ejector length are investigated. The inlet shape for single jet ejectors is optimized for various free stream speeds and Reynolds numbers. Optimal nozzle tilt and location are identified for various dual-ejector configurations.

  19. Augmenting the thermal flux experiment: A mixed reality approach with the HoloLens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other, has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted displays, which allow one to embed virtual objects into the real surroundings, leading to a Mixed Reality (MR) experience. In such an environment, digital and real objects do not only coexist, but moreover are also able to interact with each other in real time. These concepts can be used to merge human perception of reality with digitally visualized sensor data, thereby making the invisible visible. As a first example, in this paper we introduce alongside the basic idea of this column an MR experiment in thermodynamics for a laboratory course for freshman students in physics or other science and engineering subjects that uses physical data from mobile devices for analyzing and displaying physical phenomena to students.

  20. Ginger augmented chemotherapy: A novel multitarget nontoxic approach for cancer management.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Roopali; Rida, Padmashree C G; Kucuk, Omer; Aneja, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Cancer, referred to as the 'disease of civilization', continues to haunt humanity due to its dreadful manifestations and limited success of therapeutic interventions such as chemotherapy in curing the disease. Although effective, chemotherapy has repeatedly demonstrated inadequacy in disease management due to its debilitating side effects arising from its deleterious nonspecific effects on normal healthy cells. In addition, development of chemoresistance due to mono-targeting often results in cessation of chemotherapy. This urgently demands development and implementation of multitargeted alternative therapies with mild or no side effects. One extremely promising strategy that yet remains untapped in the clinic is augmenting chemotherapy with dietary phytochemicals or extracts. Ginger, depository of numerous bioactive molecules, not only targets cancer cells but can also mitigate chemotherapy-associated side effects. Consequently, combination therapy involving ginger extract and chemotherapeutic agents may offer the advantage of being efficacious with reduced toxicity. Here we discuss the remarkable and often overlooked potential of ginger extract to manage cancer, the possibility of developing ginger-based combinational therapies, and the major roadblocks along with strategies to overcome them in clinical translation of such inventions. We are optimistic that clinical implementation of such combination regimens would be a much sought after modality in cancer management.

  1. An Augmented Reality-Based Approach for Surgical Telementoring in Austere Environments.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Dan; Popescu, Voicu; Cabrera, Maria Eugenia; Shanghavi, Aditya; Mullis, Brian; Marley, Sherri; Gomez, Gerardo; Wachs, Juan P

    2017-03-01

    Telementoring can improve treatment of combat trauma injuries by connecting remote experienced surgeons with local less-experienced surgeons in an austere environment. Current surgical telementoring systems force the local surgeon to regularly shift focus away from the operating field to receive expert guidance, which can lead to surgery delays or even errors. The System for Telementoring with Augmented Reality (STAR) integrates expert-created annotations directly into the local surgeon's field of view. The local surgeon views the operating field by looking at a tablet display suspended between the patient and the surgeon that captures video of the surgical field. The remote surgeon remotely adds graphical annotations to the video. The annotations are sent back and displayed to the local surgeon while being automatically anchored to the operating field elements they describe. A technical evaluation demonstrates that STAR robustly anchors annotations despite tablet repositioning and occlusions. In a user study, participants used either STAR or a conventional telementoring system to precisely mark locations on a surgical simulator under a remote surgeon's guidance. Participants who used STAR completed the task with fewer focus shifts and with greater accuracy. The STAR reduces the local surgeon's need to shift attention during surgery, allowing him or her to continuously work while looking "through" the tablet screen.

  2. Chemokine-Mediated Robust Augmentation of Liver Engraftment: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Meghnad; Oltean, Mihai; Patil, Pradeep B.; Hallberg, David; Kleman, Marika; Holgersson, Jan; Olausson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Effective repopulation of the liver is essential for successful clinical hepatocyte transplantation. The objective was to improve repopulation of the liver with human hepatocytes using chemokines. We used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry assays to identify commonly expressed chemokine receptors on human fetal and adult hepatocytes. The migratory capacity of the cells to various chemokines was tested. For in vivo studies, we used a nude mouse model of partial hepatectomy followed by intraparenchymal injections of chemokine ligands at various concentrations. Human fetal liver cells transformed with human telomerase reverse transcriptase were used for intrasplenic cell transplantation. Repopulation and functionality were assessed 4 weeks after transplantation. The receptor CXCR3 was commonly expressed on both fetal and adult hepatocytes. Both cell types migrated efficiently toward corresponding CXC chemokine ligands 9, 10, and 11. In vivo, animals injected with recombinant chemokines showed the highest cell engraftment compared with controls (p < .05). The engrafted cells expressed several human hepatic markers such as cytokeratin 8 and 18 and albumin as well as transferrin, UGT1A1, hepatocyte nuclear factor (1α, 1β, and 4α), cytochrome CYP3A1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (α and β), and human albumin compared with controls. No inflammatory cells were detected in the livers at 4 weeks after transplantation. The improved repopulation of transplanted cells is likely a function of the chemokines to mediate cell homing and retention in the injured liver and might be an attractive strategy to augment repopulation of transplanted hepatocytes in vivo. PMID:25473087

  3. A framework-based approach to designing simulation-augmented surgical education and training programs.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Sayra M; Moussa, Fuad; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-09-01

    The goal of simulation-based medical education and training is to help trainees acquire and refine the technical and cognitive skills necessary to perform clinical procedures. When designers incorporate simulation into programs, their efforts should be in line with training needs, rather than technology. Designers of simulation-augmented surgical training programs, however, face particular problems related to identifying a framework that guides the curricular design activity to fulfill the particular requirements of such training programs. These problems include the lack of (1) an objective identification of training needs, (2) a systematic design methodology to match training objectives with simulation resources, (3) structured assessments of performance, and (4) a research-centered view to evaluate and validate systematically the educational effectiveness of the program. In this report, we present a process called "Aim - FineTune - FollowThrough" to enable the connection of the identified problems to solutions, using frameworks from psychology, motor learning, education and experimental design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CNES reliability approach for the qualification of MEMS for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressecq, Francis; Lafontan, Xavier; Perez, Guy; Fortea, Jean-Pierre

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes the reliability approach performs at CNES to evaluate MEMS for space application. After an introduction and a detailed state of the art on the space requirements and on the use of MEMS for space, different approaches for taking into account MEMS in the qualification phases are presented. CNES proposes improvement to theses approaches in term of failure mechanisms identification. Our approach is based on a design and test phase deeply linked with a technology study. This workflow is illustrated with an example: the case of a variable capacitance processed with MUMPS process is presented.

  5. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  6. A new approach to electrophoresis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1990-01-01

    Previous electrophoresis experiments performed in space are reviewed. There is sufficient data available from the results of these experiments to show that they were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. Redesigning laboratory chambers and operating procedures developed on Earth for space without understanding both the advantages and disadvantages of the microgravity environment has yielded poor separations of both cells and proteins. However, electrophoreris is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  7. An innovative approach to space education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marton, Christine; Berinstain, Alain B.; Criswick, John

    1994-01-01

    At present, Canada does not have enough scientists to be competitive in the global economy, which is rapidly changing from a reliance on natural resources and industry to information and technology. Space is the final frontier and it is a multidisciplinary endeavor. It requires a knowledge of science and math, as well as non-science areas such as architecture and law. Thus, it can attract a large number of students with a diverse range of interests and career goals. An overview is presented of the space education program designed by Canadian Alumni of the International Space University (CAISU) to encourage students to pursue studies and careers in science and technology and to improve science literacy in Canada.

  8. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  9. Application development approach based on space technology.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the activities of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), focusing the activities of its newly established division of the Satellite Mission Application Center. The major objective of the center is to further promote the utilization of the space-based technologies and the creation of new satellite missions. The center is exploring future cooperative activities that may work with countries in Asia and the Pacific. The application of satellite communications for the field of telemedicine is one of its potential activity areas.

  10. Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA): a new systems approach to identify therapeutic targets for human genetic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, David J.; Juan, Ilona; Le, Hao; Cai, Xiaodong; Baumbach, Lisa; Beattie, Christine; D'Urso, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic interaction networks that underlie most human diseases are highly complex and poorly defined. Better-defined networks will allow identification of a greater number of therapeutic targets. Here we introduce our Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA) approach and test it with the X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene UBA1. First, we express UBA1 and a mutant variant in fission yeast and use high-throughput methods to identify fission yeast genetic modifiers of UBA1. Second, we analyze available protein-protein interaction network databases in both fission yeast and human to construct UBA1 genetic networks. Third, from these networks we identified potential therapeutic targets for SMA. Finally, we validate one of these targets in a vertebrate (zebrafish) SMA model. This study demonstrates the power of combining synthetic and chemical genetics with a simple model system to identify human disease gene networks that can be exploited for treating human diseases. PMID:25075304

  11. Suicide Note Sentiment Classification: A Supervised Approach Augmented by Web Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yue; Liu, Jiahua; Tu, Zhuowen; Sun, Jian-Tao; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To create a sentiment classification system for the Fifth i2b2/VA Challenge Track 2, which can identify thirteen subjective categories and two objective categories. Design: We developed a hybrid system using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers with augmented training data from the Internet. Our system consists of three types of classification-based systems: the first system uses spanning n-gram features for subjective categories, the second one uses bag-of-n-gram features for objective categories, and the third one uses pattern matching for infrequent or subtle emotion categories. The spanning n-gram features are selected by a feature selection algorithm that leverages emotional corpus from weblogs. Special normalization of objective sentences is generalized with shallow parsing and external web knowledge. We utilize three sources of web data: the weblog of LiveJournal which helps to improve the feature selection, the eBay List which assists in special normalization of information and instructions categories, and the suicide project web which provides unlabeled data with similar properties as suicide notes. Measurements: The performance is evaluated by the overall micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure. Result: Our system achieved an overall micro-averaged F-measure of 0.59. Happiness_peacefulness had the highest F-measure of 0.81. We were ranked as the second best out of 26 competing teams. Conclusion: Our results indicated that classifying fine-grained sentiments at sentence level is a non-trivial task. It is effective to divide categories into different groups according to their semantic properties. In addition, our system performance benefits from external knowledge extracted from publically available web data of other purposes; performance can be further enhanced when more training data is available. PMID:22879758

  12. A Concept for Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Smith, Colin L.; Shay, Richard F.; Hubbs, Clay

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing concept of operations has been previously developed to support the precise delivery of aircraft landing successively on the same runway. The high-precision and consistent delivery of inter-aircraft spacing allows for increased runway throughput and the use of energy-efficient arrivals routes such as Continuous Descent Arrivals and Optimized Profile Descents. This paper describes an extension to the Airborne Precision Spacing concept to enable dependent parallel approach operations where the spacing aircraft must manage their in-trail spacing from a leading aircraft on approach to the same runway and spacing from an aircraft on approach to a parallel runway. Functionality for supporting automation is discussed as well as procedures for pilots and controllers. An analysis is performed to identify the required information and a new ADS-B report is proposed to support these information needs. Finally, several scenarios are described in detail.

  13. Stochastic inflation: Quantum phase-space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Salman

    1992-09-01

    In this paper a quantum-mechanical phase-space picture is constructed for coarse-grained free quantum fields in an inflationary universe. The appropriate stochastic quantum Liouville equation is derived. Explicit solutions for the phase-space quantum distribution function are found for the cases of power-law and exponential expansions. The expectation values of dynamical variables with respect to these solutions are compared to the corresponding cutoff regularized field-theoretic results (we do not restrict ourselves only to <Φ2>). Fair agreement is found provided the coarse-graining scale is kept within certain limits. By focusing on the full phase-space distribution function rather than a reduced distribution it is shown that the thermodynamic interpretation of the stochastic formalism faces several difficulties (e.g., there is no fluctuation-dissipation theorem). The coarse graining does not guarantee an automatic classical limit as quantum correlations turn out to be crucial in order to get results consistent with standard quantum field theory. Therefore, the method does not by itself constitute an explanation of the quantum to classical transition in the early Universe. In particular, we argue that the stochastic equations do not lead to decoherence.

  14. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  15. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  16. Predicting core level binding energies shifts: Suitability of the projector augmented wave approach as implemented in VASP.

    PubMed

    Pueyo Bellafont, Noèlia; Viñes, Francesc; Hieringer, Wolfgang; Illas, Francesc

    2017-03-30

    Here, we assess the accuracy of various approaches implemented in Vienna ab initio simulation package code to estimate core-level binding energy shifts (ΔBEs) using a projector augmented wave method to treat core electrons. The performance of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) exchange-correlation density functionals is examined on a dataset of 68 molecules containing B→F atoms in diverse chemical environments, accounting for 185 different 1s core level binding energy shifts, for which both experimental gas-phase X-ray photoemission (XPS) data and accurate all electron ΔBEs are available. Four procedures to calculate core-level shifts are investigated. Janak-Slater transition state approach yields mean absolute errors of 0.37 (0.21) eV at PBE (TPSS) level, similar to highly accurate all electron ΔSCF approaches using same functionals, and close to XPS experimental accuracy of 0.1 eV. The study supports the use of these procedures to assign ΔBEs of molecular moieties on material surfaces of interest in surface science, nanotechnology, and heterogeneous catalysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  18. Formal Approaches to Ensuring the Safety of Space Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph describing formal approaches taken to assure the safety of space software is presented. The topics include: 1) Certifiable Program Generation; 2) Certification Framework; 3) Annotation Generation; 4) Experiments; and 5) Future Work.

  19. An approach to design knowledge capture for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, D. B.; Crouse, K. R.

    1987-01-01

    The design of NASA's space station has begun. During the design cycle, and after activation of the space station, the reoccurring need will exist to access not only designs, but also deeper knowledge about the designs, which is only hinted in the design definition. Areas benefiting from this knowledge include training, fault management, and onboard automation. NASA's Artificial Intelligence Office at Johnson Space Center and The MITRE Corporation have conceptualized an approach for capture and storage of design knowledge.

  20. An approach to design knowledge capture for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, D. B.; Crouse, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The design of NASA's space station has begun. During the design cycle, and after activation of the space station, the reoccurring need will exist to access not only designs, but also deeper knowledge about the designs, which is only hinted in the design definition. Areas benefiting from this knowledge include training, fault management, and onboard automation. NASA's Artificial Intelligence Office at Johnson Space Center and The MITRE Corporation have conceptualized an approach for capture and storage of design knowledge.

  1. The +vbar breakout during approach to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    A set of burn profiles was developed to provide bounding jet firing histories for a +vbar breakout during approaches to Space Station Freedom. The delta-v sequences were designed to place the Orbiter on a safe trajectory under worst case conditions and to try to minimize plume impingement on Space Station Freedom structure.

  2. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris removal and flame augmentation additives in scramjets for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a brief description of the USRA-sponsored design project at the University of Arizona. Approximately eighty-percent of this effort was spent pursuing a novel engineering concept for the in-situ processing of orbital debris utilizing resources available in low Earth orbit (LEO); the other twenty-percent was devoted to discovering innovative additives for the anchoring of supersonic combustion zones that find direct use in the Aerospace Plane that is expected to use scramjets. The seriousness of the orbital debris problem is briefly described. Available 'solutions' are outlined from the literature. The engineering design is briefly mentioned, with an emphasis on the positive aspects of the space environment that should be used in an economical approach. The aspects of operating in microgravity, vacuum, and in utilizing solar energy are mentioned. A quantitative computer animation was developed to provide design data. Three specific dead spacecraft were identified for an initial cleanup mission. The design concept, which includes a solar processor, remote arm manipulators, and the gradual processing of the debris, is also described. This is followed by a description of hardware construction. Operation and actual processing of simulated debris parts (aluminum, for now) are demonstrated in the NASP task, construction of the new design for measuring the radiation from the key free radicals (as enhanced by the additives) is described. Immediate (1988) and long-range (through 1992) future plans are shown to clearly indicate the full engineering design strategy in the light of the national space program thrusts.

  3. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris removal and flame augmentation additives in scramjets for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a brief description of the USRA-sponsored design project at the University of Arizona. Approximately eighty-percent of this effort was spent pursuing a novel engineering concept for the in-situ processing of orbital debris utilizing resources available in low Earth orbit (LEO); the other twenty-percent was devoted to discovering innovative additives for the anchoring of supersonic combustion zones that find direct use in the Aerospace Plane that is expected to use scramjets. The seriousness of the orbital debris problem is briefly described. Available 'solutions' are outlined from the literature. The engineering design is briefly mentioned, with an emphasis on the positive aspects of the space environment that should be used in an economical approach. The aspects of operating in microgravity, vacuum, and in utilizing solar energy are mentioned. A quantitative computer animation was developed to provide design data. Three specific dead spacecraft were identified for an initial cleanup mission. The design concept, which includes a solar processor, remote arm manipulators, and the gradual processing of the debris, is also described. This is followed by a description of hardware construction. Operation and actual processing of simulated debris parts (aluminum, for now) are demonstrated in the NASP task, construction of the new design for measuring the radiation from the key free radicals (as enhanced by the additives) is described. Immediate (1988) and long-range (through 1992) future plans are shown to clearly indicate the full engineering design strategy in the light of the national space program thrusts.

  4. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  5. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J

    1984-01-01

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem to the blood forming organs. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation effects and this will be taken into account. In 1973 a committee of the National Research Council made a separate study of HZE particle effects and it was concluded that the attendant risks did not pose a hazard for low inclination near-earth orbit missions. Since that time work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research.

  6. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation and this will be taken into account. Work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  7. Augmenting saturated LTP by broadly spaced episodes of theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal area CA1 of adult rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guan

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model system for studying cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. Recent interest in mechanisms underlying the advantage of spaced over massed learning has prompted investigation into the effects of distributed episodes of LTP induction. The amount of LTP induced in hippocampal area CA1 by one train (1T) of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in young Sprague-Dawley rats was further enhanced by additional bouts of 1T given at 1-h intervals. However, in young Long-Evans (LE) rats, 1T did not initially saturate LTP. Instead, a stronger LTP induction paradigm using eight trains of TBS (8T) induced saturated LTP in hippocampal slices from both young and adult LE rats as well as adult mice. The saturated LTP induced by 8T could be augmented by another episode of 8T following an interval of at least 90 min. The success rate across animals and slices in augmenting LTP by an additional episode of 8T increased significantly with longer intervals between the first and last episodes, ranging from 0% at 30- and 60-min intervals to 13–66% at 90- to 180-min intervals to 90–100% at 240-min intervals. Augmentation above initially saturated LTP was blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-APV). These findings suggest that the strength of induction and interval between episodes of TBS, as well as the strain and age of the animal, are important components in the augmentation of LTP. PMID:25057146

  8. Approaching threatening stimuli cause an expansion of defensive peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Bufacchi, R J

    2017-10-01

    When sudden environmental stimuli signaling threat occur in the portion of space surrounding the body (defensive peripersonal space), defensive responses are enhanced. Recently Bisio et al. (Bisio A, Garbarini F, Biggio M, Fossataro C, Ruggeri P, Bove M. J Neurosci 37: 2415-2424, 2017) showed that a marker of defensive peripersonal space, the defensive hand-blink reflex, is modulated by the motion of the eliciting threatening stimulus. These results can be parsimoniously explained by the continuous monitoring of environmental threats, resulting in an expansion of defensive peripersonal space when threatening stimuli approach. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Current status of augmentation and combination treatments for major depressive disorder: a literature review and a proposal for a novel approach to improve practice.

    PubMed

    Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A John

    2006-01-01

    Most patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not reach symptom remission. These patients with residual symptoms have worse function and worse prognosis than those who remit. Several augmentation and combination treatments are used to either increase the chances of achieving remission or to eliminate/minimize residual depressive symptoms. Evidence for these pharmacological approaches rests primarily on open, uncontrolled studies, and there are clearly not enough controlled studies. Clinicians should carefully weigh these different treatment options to increase their patients' chances of achieving and sustaining remission from depression. This paper will review the pertinent studies and will propose a novel approach to improve practice involving the use of augmentation or combination strategies at the outset of initial treatment to primarily enhance the chances of remission through synergy and/or a broader spectrum of action. This novel approach could potentially enhance retention and/or increase remission rates since the lack of response with antidepressant monotherapy may lead many depressed patients with little or no benefit to drop out of treatment, precluding the subsequent use of augmentation or combination strategies altogether. In addition, the emergence of certain side-effects (e.g., agitation, insomnia) or the persistence of some initial baseline symptoms (e.g., anxiety, insomnia) may lead to premature discontinuation from monotherapy in the absence of concomitant use of augmenting pharmacological options targeting these symptoms.

  10. Mirror contamination in space I: approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijger, J. M.; Snel, R.; van Harten, G.; Rietjens, J. H. H.; Aben, I.

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive model that can be employed to describe and correct for degradation of (scan) mirrors and diffusers in satellite instruments that suffer from changing optical UV-VIS properties during their operational lifetime. As trend studies become more important, so does the importance to understand and correct for this degradation. This is the case not only with respect to the transmission of the optical components, but also with respect to wavelength, polarisation or scan-angle-effects. Our hypothesis is that mirrors in-flight suffer from the deposition of a thin absorbing layer of contaminant, which slowly builds up over time. We describe this with the Mueller matrix formalism and Fresnel equations for thin multi-layer contamination films. Special care is taken to avoid the confusion often present in earlier publications concerning Mueller matrix calculus with out of plane reflections. The method can be applied to any UV-VIS satellite instrument, and in any orbit, both low and geostationary. We illustrate and verify our approach on the optical behaviour of the multiple scan mirrors of SCIAMACHY (on board of ENVISAT).

  11. A vector space model approach to identify genetically related diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The relationship between diseases and their causative genes can be complex, especially in the case of polygenic diseases. Further exacerbating the challenges in their study is that many genes may be causally related to multiple diseases. This study explored the relationship between diseases through the adaptation of an approach pioneered in the context of information retrieval: vector space models. Materials and Methods A vector space model approach was developed that bridges gene disease knowledge inferred across three knowledge bases: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, GenBank, and Medline. The approach was then used to identify potentially related diseases for two target diseases: Alzheimer disease and Prader-Willi Syndrome. Results In the case of both Alzheimer Disease and Prader-Willi Syndrome, a set of plausible diseases were identified that may warrant further exploration. Discussion This study furthers seminal work by Swanson, et al. that demonstrated the potential for mining literature for putative correlations. Using a vector space modeling approach, information from both biomedical literature and genomic resources (like GenBank) can be combined towards identification of putative correlations of interest. To this end, the relevance of the predicted diseases of interest in this study using the vector space modeling approach were validated based on supporting literature. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a vector space model approach may be a useful means to identify potential relationships between complex diseases, and thereby enable the coordination of gene-based findings across multiple complex diseases. PMID:22227640

  12. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-11-09

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  13. Augmenting nursing care quality and implementing change management in India: an amalgamated approach.

    PubMed

    Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta; Singh, Garima; Kaur, Ramanjeet; Chandra, Vidha; Masih, Leela; Chandra, Hem

    2013-11-01

    High dependency on nursing care in healthcare delivery systems in recent times has made the quality appraisal of nursing care even more imperative for nursing administrators. This study demonstrates the utility of a two-phase technique to identify the most significant shortcomings pertaining to nursing care delivery in general wards of a tertiary care hospital. The same could be used to set priorities. The first phase involved the use of the Delphi technique facilitating the experts to identify the major problems. The mean rank score was used for grading the problems. The second phase of the study involved getting direct feedback from the ward nurses. The sample size was 147 at a level of significance of 5%. Consensus was reached among experts on four problems that should galvanize nursing administration vis-à-vis quality improvement. The responses of ward nurses in the second phase gave a better insight into these problems. Identifying the existing problems and fostering a team spirit among all stakeholders hold the key in strategizing quality improvement in nursing care. Nursing administrators worldwide, after making suitable situation-specific customizations, may use this approach to realize both these objectives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne. PMID:27834859

  15. Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Tim N.; Chikwem, Adaeze J.; Solanki, Nehal R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals. PMID:25096367

  16. Club Cell Protein 16 (CC16) Augmentation: A Potential Disease-modifying Approach for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Polverino, Francesca; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Pilon, Aprile; Celli, Bartolome R; Owen, Caroline A

    2016-07-01

    Club cell protein 16 (CC16) is the most abundant protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CC16 has anti-inflammatory properties in smoke-exposed lungs, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with CC16 deficiency. Herein, we explored whether CC16 is a therapeutic target for COPD. We reviewed the literature on the factors that regulate airway CC16 expression, its biologic functions and its protective activities in smoke-exposed lungs using PUBMED searches. We generated hypotheses on the mechanisms by which CC16 limits COPD development, and discuss its potential as a new therapeutic approach for COPD. CC16 plasma and lung levels are reduced in smokers without airflow obstruction and COPD patients. In COPD patients, airway CC16 expression is inversely correlated with severity of airflow obstruction. CC16 deficiency increases smoke-induced lung pathologies in mice by its effects on epithelial cells, leukocytes, and fibroblasts. Experimental augmentation of CC16 levels using recombinant CC16 in cell culture systems, plasmid and adenoviral-mediated over-expression of CC16 in epithelial cells or smoke-exposed murine airways reduces inflammation and cellular injury. Additional studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of therapies aimed at restoring airway CC16 levels as a new disease-modifying therapy for COPD patients.

  17. Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging

  18. a Web Service Approach for Linking Sensors and Cellular Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isikdag, U.

    2013-09-01

    More and more devices are starting to be connected to the Internet. In the future the Internet will not only be a communication medium for people, it will in fact be a communication environment for devices. The connected devices which are also referred as Things will have an ability to interact with other devices over the Internet, i.) provide information in interoperable form and ii.) consume /utilize such information with the help of sensors embedded in them. This overall concept is known as Internet-of- Things (IoT). This requires new approaches to be investigated for system architectures to establish relations between spaces and sensors. The research presented in this paper elaborates on an architecture developed with this aim, i.e. linking spaces and sensors using a RESTful approach. The objective is making spaces aware of (sensor-embedded) devices, and making devices aware of spaces in a loosely coupled way (i.e. a state/usage/function change in the spaces would not have effect on sensors, similarly a location/state/usage/function change in sensors would not have any effect on spaces). The proposed architecture also enables the automatic assignment of sensors to spaces depending on space geometry and sensor location.

  19. Effects of ATC automation on precision approaches to closely space parallel runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, R.; Lee, K.; Sanford, B.

    1995-01-01

    Improved navigational technology (such as the Microwave Landing System and the Global Positioning System) installed in modern aircraft will enable air traffic controllers to better utilize available airspace. Consequently, arrival traffic can fly approaches to parallel runways separated by smaller distances than are currently allowed. Previous simulation studies of advanced navigation approaches have found that controller workload is increased when there is a combination of aircraft that are capable of following advanced navigation routes and aircraft that are not. Research into Air Traffic Control automation at Ames Research Center has led to the development of the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) is the component of the CTAS used in the TRACON area. The work in this paper examines, via simulation, the effects of FAST used for aircraft landing on closely spaced parallel runways. The simulation contained various combinations of aircraft, equipped and unequipped with advanced navigation systems. A set of simulations was run both manually and with an augmented set of FAST advisories to sequence aircraft, assign runways, and avoid conflicts. The results of the simulations are analyzed, measuring the airport throughput, aircraft delay, loss of separation, and controller workload.

  20. Space Network Control Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the Space Network Control (SNC) Conference. In the late 1990s, when the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is operational, Space Network communication services will be supported and controlled by the SNC. The goals of the conference were to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches, to identify solutions applicable to the Space Network, and to identify avenues of study in support of the SNC development. The conference was divided into three sessions: (1) Concepts for Space Network Allocation; (2) SNC and User Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) Human-Computer Interface Concepts; and (3) Resource Allocation Tools, Technology, and Algorithms. Key recommendations addressed approaches to achieving higher levels of automation in the scheduling process.

  1. A Version Space Approach to Learning Context-Free Grammars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-12

    Kaufman, Langley, P. & Carbonell, J. G. (1986). Language acquisition and machine learning. 35 In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition . Hillsdale...theorem has a significance outside the context of version space technology. For instance, it has been used to justify nativist approaches to language ... acquisition (Pinker. 1979). This section is written to address both the concerns of version space technology and the larger significance of this theorem

  2. Statistical Approach to the Operational Testing of Space Fence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    size of satellite tracks needed to estimate metric accuracy for individual TEARR parameters, which we calculate via chi - square hypothesis tests on...decisions. Index Terms— Analysis of variance, Operational testing , Least squares methods, Phased array radar, Satellite tracking, SATCAT, Space...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Statistical Approach to the Operational Testing of Space Fence Daniel L. Pechkis Nelson S

  3. Cooperative synthesis of control and display augmentation for a STOL aircraft in the approach and landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Application of the Cooperative methodology to synthesize control/display augmentation systems for the piloted longitudinal landing task with a modern, statically-unstable, fighter aircraft is considered. Starting with a control augmentation law which yields augmented vehicle dynamics that meet Level I handling qualities specifications, the effect of time-delay in the Head-up-display is studied using model-based criterion. This evaluation showed that even with 'good' conventional dynamics, a realistic value of display time-delay will cause significant deterioration in pilot workload and piloted-system performance. Application of the Cooperative methodology to control augmentation alone resulted in augmented vehicle dynamics which provide direct control of the flight path from the pilot stick. Analytical evaluation of these dynamics indicates that such dynamics might lead to improved pilot ratings over conventional dynamics, especially in the presence of time-delays in the system. Also, application of the methodology to simultaneous synthesis of control augmentation and flight director laws revealed that it might be advantageous to consider the control/display trade-off in the early design stages.

  4. Immune targeting of the pleural space by intercostal approach.

    PubMed

    Weber, Georg F

    2015-02-18

    Infectious diseases of the airways are a major health care problem world wide. New treatment strategies focus on employing the body's immune system to enhance its protective capacities during airway disease. One source for immune-competent cells is the pleural space, however, its immune-physiological function remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique in rodents that allows for an in vivo analysis of pleural space immune cells participating in the host defense during airway disease. I developed an easy and reliable technique that I named the "InterCostal Approach of the Pleural Space" (ICAPS) model that allows for in vivo analysis of pleural space immune cells in rodents. By injection of immune cell altering fluids into or flushing of the pleural space the immune response to airway infections can be manipulated. The results reveal that (i) the pleural space cellular environment can be altered partially or completely as well as temporarily or permanently, (ii) depletion of pleural space cells leads to increased airway inflammation during pulmonary infection, (iii) the pleural space contributes immune competent B cells during airway inflammation and (iv) inhibition of B cell function results in reduced bacterial clearance during pneumonia. As the importance for in-depth knowledge of participating immune cells during health and disease evolves, the presented technique opens new possibilities to experimentally elucidate immune cell function, trafficking and contribution of pleural space cells during airway diseases.

  5. Numerical study of the geometry of the phase space of the Augmented Hill Three-Body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrés, Ariadna; Jorba, Àngel; Mondelo, Josep-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The Augmented Hill Three-Body problem is an extension of the classical Hill problem that, among other applications, has been used to model the motion of a solar sail around an asteroid. This model is a 3 degrees of freedom (3DoF) Hamiltonian system that depends on four parameters. This paper describes the bounded motions (periodic orbits and invariant tori) in an extended neighbourhood of some of the equilibrium points of the model. An interesting feature is the existence of equilibrium points with a 1:1 resonance, whose neighbourhood we also describe. The main tools used are the computation of periodic orbits (including their stability and bifurcations), the reduction of the Hamiltonian to centre manifolds at equilibria, and the numerical approximation of invariant tori. It is remarkable how the combination of these techniques allows the description of the dynamics of a 3DoF Hamiltonian system.

  6. Human Augmentics: augmenting human evolution.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.

  7. Flight evaluation of stabilization and command augmentation system concepts and cockpit displays during approach and landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the effectiveness of manual control concepts and various cockpit displays in improving altitude (pitch, roll, and yaw) and longitudinal path control during short takeoff aircraft approaches and landings. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrared to minimum decision heights of 30 m (100 ft) for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. Precise landings at low touchdown sink rates were achieved with a gentle flare maneuver.

  8. Enabling CSPA Operations Through Pilot Involvement in Longitudinal Approach Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol (Technical Monitor); Pritchett, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Several major airports around the United States have, or plan to have, closely-spaced parallel runways. This project complemented current and previous research by examining the pilots ability to control their position longitudinally within their approach stream.This project s results considered spacing for separation from potential positions of wake vortices from the parallel approach. This preventive function could enable CSPA operations to very closely spaced runways. This work also considered how pilot involvement in longitudinal spacing could allow for more efficient traffic flow, by allowing pilots to keep their aircraft within tighter arrival slots then air traffic control (ATC) might be able to establish, and by maintaining space within the arrival stream for corresponding departure slots. To this end, this project conducted several research studies providing an analytic and computational basis for calculating appropriate aircraft spacings, experimental results from a piloted flight simulator test, and an experimental testbed for future simulator tests. The following sections summarize the results of these three efforts.

  9. Outlier Detection In Linear Regression Using Standart Parity Space Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa Durdag, Utkan; Hekimoglu, Serif

    2013-04-01

    Despite all technological advancements, outliers may occur due to some mistakes in engineering measurements. Before estimation of unknown parameters, aforementioned outliers must be detected and removed from the measurements. There are two main outlier detection methods: the conventional tests based on least square approach (e.g. Baarda, Pope etc.) and the robust tests (e.g. Huber, Hampel etc.) are used to identify outliers in a set of measurement. Standart Parity Space Approach is one of the important model-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) technique that usually uses in Control Engineering. In this study the standart parity space method is used for outlier detection in linear regression. Our main goal is to compare success of two approaches of standart parity space method and conventional tests in linear regression through the Monte Carlo simulation with each other. The least square estimation is the most common estimator as known and it minimizes the sum of squared residuals. In standart parity space approach to eliminate unknown vector, the measurement vector projected onto the left null space of the coefficient matrix. Thus, the orthogonal condition of parity vector is satisfied and only the effects of noise vector noticed. The residual vector is derived from two cases that one is absence of an outlier; the other is occurrence of an outlier. Its likelihood function is used for determining the detection decision function for global Test. Localization decision function is calculated for each column of parity matrix and the maximum one of these values is accepted as an outlier. There are some results obtained from two different intervals that one of them is between 3σ and 6σ (small outlier) the other one is between 6σ and 12σ (large outlier) for outlier generator when the number of unknown parameter is chosen 2 and 3. The measure success rates (MSR) of Baarda's method is better than the standart parity space method when the confidence intervals are

  10. An AI approach for scheduling space-station payloads at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, D.; Ihrie, D.; Mcdaniel, M.; Tilley, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Payload Processing for Space-Station Operations (PHITS) is a prototype modeling tool capable of addressing many Space Station related concerns. The system's object oriented design approach coupled with a powerful user interface provide the user with capabilities to easily define and model many applications. PHITS differs from many artificial intelligence based systems in that it couples scheduling and goal-directed simulation to ensure that on-orbit requirement dates are satisfied.

  11. Nanotechnologies and regenerative medical approaches for space and terrestrial medicine.

    PubMed

    Grattoni, Alessandro; Tasciotti, Ennio; Fine, Daniel; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Sakamoto, Jason; Hu, Ye; Weiner, Bradley; Ferrari, Mauro; Parazynski, Scott

    2012-11-01

    One purpose of the International Space Station (ISS) is to explore powerful new areas of biomedical science in microgravity. Recent advances in nanotechnology applied to medicine--what we now refer to as nano-medicine--and regenerative medicine have enormous untapped potential for future space and terrestrial medical applications. Novel means for drug delivery and nanoscale screening tools will one day benefit astronauts venturing to Mars and places beyond, while the space laboratory will foster advances in nanotechnologies for diagnostic and therapeutic tools to help our patients here on Earth. Herein we review a series of nanotechnologies and selected regenerative medical approaches and highlight key areas of ongoing and future investigation that will benefit both space and terrestrial medicine. These studies target significant areas of human disease such as osteoporosis, diabetes, radiation injury, and many others.

  12. SPX-8 SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-10

    iss047e050943 (4/10/2016) --- The SpaceX Dragon cargo spaceship begins the final approach to the International Space Station. On the left, the solar arrays of Orbital ATK’s Cygnus cargo craft can be seen. Dragon’s arrival marked the first time two commercial cargo vehicles have been docked simultaneously at the space station. Orbital ATK’s Cygnus spacecraft arrived to the station just over two weeks ago. With the arrival of Dragon, the space station ties the record for most vehicles on station at one time – six. The spacecraft is delivering about 7,000 pounds of science and research investigations, including the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module, known as BEAM.

  13. Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. PMID:17662152

  14. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  15. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  16. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  17. A multistep approach for infrared face recognition in texture space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, Moulay A.; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2013-05-01

    Face recognition is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of interest from the research community. A growing demand for robust face recognition in security applications has driven interesting advancements in this field. In this work, we introduce a new multistep approach for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. The proposed approach works in texture space using binary and ternary pattern descriptors. The approach operates in two steps. In the first step, dimensionality reduction techniques are used to classify the preprocessed infrared face image. This operation permits the selection of the highest score candidates. In the second step, a small set of these candidates are then classified using a correlation based approach. This last step permits the selection of the best matching candidate. The obtained results show a high increase in the face recognition performance when a multistep approach is used compared to dimensionality reduction face recognition techniques alone.

  18. A Proposal for the Common Safety Approach of Space Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    For all applications, business and systems related to Space programs, Quality is mandatory and is a key factor for the technical as well as the economical performances. Up to now the differences of applications (launchers, manned space-flight, sciences, telecommunications, Earth observation, planetary exploration, etc.) and the difference of technical culture and background of the leading countries (USA, Russia, Europe) have generally led to different approaches in terms of standards and processes for Quality. At a time where international cooperation is quite usual for the institutional programs and globalization is the key word for the commercial business, it is considered of prime importance to aim at common standards and approaches for Quality in Space Programs. For that reason, the International Academy of Astronautics has set up a Study Group which mandate is to "Make recommendations to improve the Quality, Reliability, Efficiency, and Safety of space programmes, taking into account the overall environment in which they operate : economical constraints, harsh environments, space weather, long life, no maintenance, autonomy, international co-operation, norms and standards, certification." The paper will introduce the activities of this Study Group, describing a first list of topics which should be addressed : Through this paper it is expected to open the discussion to update/enlarge this list of topics and to call for contributors to this Study Group.

  19. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel.

  20. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  1. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  2. Requirements and approach for a space tourism launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, Jay P.; Lindley, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Market surveys suggest that a viable space tourism industry will require flight rates about two orders of magnitude higher than those required for conventional spacelift. Although enabling round-trip cost goals for a viable space tourism business are about 240/pound (529/kg), or 72,000/passenger round-trip, goals should be about 50/pound (110/kg) or approximately 15,000 for a typical passenger and baggage. The lower price will probably open space tourism to the general population. Vehicle reliabilities must approach those of commercial aircraft as closely as possible. This paper addresses the development of spaceplanes optimized for the ultra-high flight rate and high reliability demands of the space tourism mission. It addresses the fundamental operability, reliability, and cost drivers needed to satisfy this mission need. Figures of merit similar to those used to evaluate the economic viability of conventional commercial aircraft are developed, including items such as payload/vehicle dry weight, turnaround time, propellant cost per passenger, and insurance and depreciation costs, which show that infrastructure can be developed for a viable space tourism industry. A reference spaceplane design optimized for space tourism is described. Subsystem allocations for reliability, operability, and costs are made and a route to developing such a capability is discussed. The vehicle's ability to satisfy the traditional spacelift market is also shown.

  3. Further studies on control synthesis of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems via augmented multi-indexed matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangpeng; Yue, Dong; Ma, Tiedong; Zhu, Xunlin

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with further studies on control synthesis of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems. To do this, a novel slack variable technique, which is homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent on both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions with arbitrary degrees, is presented by developing an efficient augmented multi-indexed matrix approach. Under the framework of homogenous matrix polynomials, the algebraic properties of both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions are collected into sets of augmented multi-indexed matrices. Thus, more information about the underlying normalized fuzzy weighting functions is involved into control synthesis. Consequently, the relaxation quality of control synthesis of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems is improved significantly. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  6. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  7. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  8. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomes, E. P.; Dagle, J. E.; Bamberger, J. A.; Noffsinger, K. E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  9. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  10. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

  11. State space approach to mixed boundary value problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. F.; Chen, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A state-space procedure for the formulation and solution of mixed boundary value problems is established. This procedure is a natural extension of the method used in initial value problems; however, certain special theorems and rules must be developed. The scope of the applications of the approach includes beam, arch, and axisymmetric shell problems in structural analysis, boundary layer problems in fluid mechanics, and eigenvalue problems for deformable bodies. Many classical methods in these fields developed by Holzer, Prohl, Myklestad, Thomson, Love-Meissner, and others can be either simplified or unified under new light shed by the state-variable approach. A beam problem is included as an illustration.

  12. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  13. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

  14. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  15. Nucleus-Dependent Valence-Space Approach to Nuclear Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroberg, S. R.; Calci, A.; Hergert, H.; Holt, J. D.; Bogner, S. K.; Roth, R.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a nucleus-dependent valence-space approach for calculating ground and excited states of nuclei, which generalizes the shell-model in-medium similarity renormalization group to an ensemble reference with fractionally filled orbitals. Because the ensemble is used only as a reference, and not to represent physical states, no symmetry restoration is required. This allows us to capture three-nucleon (3 N ) forces among valence nucleons with a valence-space Hamiltonian specifically targeted to each nucleus of interest. Predicted ground-state energies from carbon through nickel agree with results of other large-space ab initio methods, generally to the 1% level. In addition, we show that this new approach is required in order to obtain convergence for nuclei in the upper p and s d shells. Finally, we address the 1+/3+ inversion problem in 22Na and 46V. This approach extends the reach of ab initio nuclear structure calculations to essentially all light- and medium-mass nuclei.

  16. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  17. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  18. Artificial intelligence approaches in space power systems automation at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Various applications of AI to spacecraft electrical power systems are described. Particular attention is given to NICBES (nickel-cadmium battery expert system which is interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the SSES; the three cooperating AI systems in the Space Station module power management and distribution system test bed; and I-DARE, the intelligent data reduction expert. It is found that the utilization of AI approaches permits comprehensive fault management and dynamic rescheduling capabilities for the electrical power system.

  19. Parapharyngeal space tumours: video-assisted minimally invasive transcervical approach.

    PubMed

    Pilolli, F; Giordano, L; Galli, A; Bussi, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the advantages of a video-assisted, minimally invasive transcervical approach to benign and malignant parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours. Ten patients affected by benign and malignant PPS neoplasms underwent a combined transcervical and video-assisted minimally invasive approach, using Hopkins telescopes. We describe the operative technique and perform a review of the literature. Definitive histology revealed 3 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 schwannomas, 2 metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas, one carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, one cavernous haemangioma and one basal cell adenoma. Mean tumour size was 37.2 mm (range: 19-60). Operation time ranged from 75 min to 185 min (mean: 146.7). One case was converted to transcervical-transparotid approach. Patients were discharged on postoperative day 2-5. One patients presented hypoglossal nerve paresis. The minimally invasive video-assisted transcervical approach is safe and feasible for selected benign and malignant PPS tumours. Furthermore, it offers harmless dissection in a deep and narrow space, accurate haemostasis and continuous control of critical anatomic structures.

  20. A nonlinear state-space approach to hysteresis identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, J. P.; Esfahani, A. F.; Kerschen, G.; Schoukens, J.

    2017-02-01

    Most studies tackling hysteresis identification in the technical literature follow white-box approaches, i.e. they rely on the assumption that measured data obey a specific hysteretic model. Such an assumption may be a hard requirement to handle in real applications, since hysteresis is a highly individualistic nonlinear behaviour. The present paper adopts a black-box approach based on nonlinear state-space models to identify hysteresis dynamics. This approach is shown to provide a general framework to hysteresis identification, featuring flexibility and parsimony of representation. Nonlinear model terms are constructed as a multivariate polynomial in the state variables, and parameter estimation is performed by minimising weighted least-squares cost functions. Technical issues, including the selection of the model order and the polynomial degree, are discussed, and model validation is achieved in both broadband and sine conditions. The study is carried out numerically by exploiting synthetic data generated via the Bouc-Wen equations.

  1. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach.

    PubMed

    Borak, Thomas B; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Townsend, Lawrence W; McBeth, Rafe A; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA(Z,β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA(Z,β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA(Z,β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The revised

  2. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of nucleation in confined space: generalized Gibbs approach.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Jürn W P; Abyzov, Alexander S

    2011-02-07

    A general thermodynamic analysis of nucleation-growth processes in confined space in initially metastable states of the ambient phase is performed based on the generalized Gibbs approach to the description of heterogeneous systems. In particular, it is shown analytically how the parameters of critical clusters and clusters in stable equilibrium with the ambient phase depend on the volume of the system for initially fixed intensive state parameters of the ambient phase. Qualitatively, the results are shown to be similar independent on the boundary conditions employed. It is demonstrated further that the behavior of systems in confined space is directly related to the kinetics of phase transformation processes in spatially extended systems, when ensembles of clusters are formed. The results of the thermodynamic analysis of cluster formation and growth in a confined space are employed then, in particular, to the derivation of kinetic equations for the description of the process of coarsening or Ostwald ripening. In the analysis of both the nucleation in confined space and the description of Ostwald ripening, no specific assumptions concerning the equations of state of the system under consideration and the number of components both in the ambient and newly evolving phases are made. Consequently, the results are of very general nature and hold always as far as the necessary condition for the possibility of a phase transformation is fulfilled.

  4. Model-space approach to parity violation in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.B.

    1996-06-01

    The model-space approach is the basis of both shell model and statistical spectroscopy analyses of nuclear phenomena. The goal of this session is to bring out the main theoretical issues involved in its application to parity violation in the compound nucleus. Section 1 of the current paper sets the stage for the session, and Sect. 2 introduces and explores the model-space formulation as it underlies quantitative connections that are being made between the mean-square matrix element M{sup 2} measured in polarized neutron scattering from compound nuclei and the underlying parity violating interaction. This is followed in the paper by Tomsovic by a description of how statistical spectroscopy is applied to this problem, and in the paper by Hayes by a discussion of shell-model aspects of parity violation in the compound nucleus.

  5. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateo, A.; Iurino, A.; Settanni, G.; Andrisani, A.; Stifanelli, P. F.; Larizza, P.; Mazzia, F.; Mininni, R. M.; Tangaro, S.; Bellotti, R.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  6. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tateo, A; Iurino, A; Settanni, G; Andrisani, A; Stifanelli, P F; Larizza, P; Mazzia, F; Mininni, R M; Tangaro, S; Bellotti, R

    2016-06-07

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  7. Alternative approaches to environmental regulation: Prescription, process, incentives and space

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic, comparative analysis of several approaches to environmental regulation and planning. These include such approaches as prescription (Command-Control), process (EMS), incentives (Market Mechanisms), and space (New Urbanism). The wider analysis is timely given the attention that has been recently directed toward such new approaches as Environmental Management Systems (EMS) under ISO 14001. This paper will initially examine the aim, purpose, requirements, and outcomes of each of these alternative regimes. Doing this in terms of common considerations will facilitate a constructive analysis across all regimes. In turn, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches will be analyzed. Relevant examples will be utilized to illustrate points. Rather than emphasizing the merits or demerits of one approach vs. another, it will be shown that a more constructive strategy would be to consider contextual factors when determining which regime or combination of regimes to apply. In this way, better guidance can be provided when considering possible regulatory alternatives thereby contributing to the more effective attainment of environmental planning goals.

  8. Space charge polarization induced augmented in vitro bioactivity of piezoelectric (Na,K) NbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Yamada, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-09-01

    The present study reports the influence of chemical and electrical treatments (CET) of Li-modified sodium potassium niobate [Li0.06(Na0.5K0.5)0.94NbO3, LNKN] piezo-biomaterial on in vitro bioactivity. The chemical treatment of LNKN substrate was performed by Ti sputtering, followed by immersion in NaOH aqueous solution for various time durations and subsequently, the heat treatment. The chemically treated LNKN substrates were then corona poled. The in vitro biomineralization study suggested that the integrated effect of chemical as well as electrical treatments of LNKN piezoceramics stimulates the early stage apatite crystallization as compared to that of the mere chemical treatment. To reveal the mechanism of polarization on crystal formation, the thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC) were measured before and after the chemically as well as electrically treated substrates being soaked in simulated body fluid for various time durations. It has been observed that the release of surface charge in the low temperature region (˜60 °C) has significant effect on apatite formation and growth. The surface charge density decreases with increase in the soaking period and hence, the influence of surface charge on apatite crystallization can be realized. The dielectric relaxation in the low frequency region as well as TSDC analysis suggests that the space charge polarization is dominant polarization mechanism in the CET piezo-biomaterial.

  9. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  10. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, Matthew D.; Newman, Lauri K.; Besser, Rebecca L.; Pachura, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for conjunction assessment screening against the JSpOC high accuracy catalog and then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is the primary source of state estimate uncertainty. Drag magnitude and uncertainty is directly governed by atmospheric density and thus space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature, which do not perform well in prediction. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 (JBH09) atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag). Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of JBH09 model error on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction is likely to become riskier, less risky, or pass unaffected. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag situation for the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the range of possible effects on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, the different types of observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  11. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; McBeth, Rafe A.; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA (Z , β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA (Z , β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA (Z , β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The

  12. An Expert System Approach to Large Space Systems Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    ISPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Of appil ,k) FOSR F49620-87- C --0105 8¢. ADDRESS (CRtY, Stat...oo...0 - An Expert System Approach To Large Space Systems Control Octobe 1988Accession For NTIS R& DTIC TAB C . GartrmII Unannounced E W...4.4.1 Case A: I Newton Harmonic Wave with a Frequency of 0.14 Hz 4-12 4.4.2 Case B: 1 Newton Impulse at x = 2.5 m 4-13 4.4.3 Case C : Traveling Wave with

  13. Time adaptive variational integrators: A space-time geodesic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Sujit

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to show that the space-time geodesic approach of classical mechanics can be used to generate a time adaptive variational integration scheme. The only assumption we make is that the Lagrangian for the system is in a separable form. The geometric structure which is preserved in the integration scheme is made explicit and the algorithm is illustrated with simulation for a compact case, a non-compact case, a chaotic system which arises as a perturbation of an integrable system and the figure eight solution for a three body problem.

  14. Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 From Space: Challenge & Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Kooi, Susan; Fan, Tai-Fang; Ismail, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is the key radiative forcing for the Earth's climate and may contribute a major part of the Earth's warming during the past 150 years. Advanced knowledge on the CO2 distributions and changes can lead considerable model improvements in predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions have been found for decades owing to limited CO2 observations. To obtain precise measurements of atmospheric CO2, certain challenges have to be overcome. For an example, global annual means of the CO2 are rather stable, but, have a very small increasing trend that is significant for multi-decadal long-term climate. At short time scales (a second to a few hours), regional and subcontinental gradients in the CO2 concentration are very small and only in an order of a few parts per million (ppm) compared to the mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of about 400 ppm, which requires atmospheric CO2 space monitoring systems with extremely high accuracy and precision (about 0.5 ppm or 0.125%) in spatiotemporal scales around 75 km and 10-s. It also requires a decadal-scale system stability. Furthermore, rapid changes in high latitude environments such as melting ice, snow and frozen soil, persistent thin cirrus clouds in Amazon and other tropical areas, and harsh weather conditions over Southern Ocean all increase difficulties in satellite atmospheric CO2 observations. Space lidar approaches using Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique are considered to be capable of obtaining precise CO2 measurements and, thus, have been proposed by various studies including the 2007 Decadal Survey (DS) of the U.S. National Research Council. This study considers to use the Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar to monitor global atmospheric CO2 distribution and variability from space. Development and demonstration of space lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements have been made through joint adventure of NASA Langley Research Center and

  15. Containment and contouring (CoCoon) technique: a biologically adequate approach to less invasive autogenous preimplant augmentation of bone.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Tehranchian, Shahram; Kokemüller, Horst; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    We have analysed retrospectively whether the less invasive zygomatic buttress graft is able to meet the dimensional and biological requirements of preimplant augmentation of bone. A total of 273 patients were treated by zygomatic buttress graft, of whom 42 (12 men and 30 women) met the criteria for inclusion. Intensity of pain was judged by a visual analogue score (VAS). Complications of grafting were evaluated, and dental implants were studied on clinical and radiographic examinations. The Schneiderian membrane was perforated in 13 cases (28%). The mean (SD) postoperative VAS was 3.1 (0.9) at the donor site. The mean (SD) follow-up after implant was 17(8) months. Two grafts were lost, one from initial dehiscence and later infection, and the other from infection. The mean (SD) marginal resorption of bone graft was 0.5 (0.7) mm. No implant was lost during the observation period. The zygomatic buttress graft meets the biological and dimensional requirements of augmentation of bone before implant that allows the dental implants to survive with satisfactory prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical risk management approach for long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gary W; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Davis, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    In the process of crewmember evaluation and certification for long-duration orbital missions, the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) encounters a surprisingly wide spectrum of clinical problems. Some of these conditions are identified within the ISS Medical Standards as requiring special consideration, or as falling outside the consensus Medical Standards promulgated for the ISS program. To assess the suitability for long-duration missions on ISS for individuals with medical problems that fall outside of standards or are otherwise of significant concern, the MSMB has developed a risk matrix approach to assess the risks to the individual, the mission, and the program. The goal of this risk assessment is to provide a more objective, evidence- and risk-based approach for aeromedical disposition. Using a 4 x 4 risk matrix, the probability of an event is plotted against the potential impact. Event probability is derived from a detailed review of clinical and aerospace literature, and based on the best available evidence. The event impact (consequences) is assessed and assigned within the matrix. The result has been a refinement of MSMB case assessment based on evidence-based data incorporated into a risk stratification process. This has encouraged an objective assessment of risk and, in some cases, has resulted in recertification of crewmembers with medical conditions which hitherto would likely have been disqualifying. This paper describes a risk matrix approach developed for MSMB disposition decisions. Such an approach promotes objective, evidence-based decision-making and is broadly applicable within the aerospace medicine community.

  17. Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.

  18. Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.

    1992-05-01

    As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.

  19. Compositional Space Parameterization Approach for Reservoir Flow Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskov, D.

    2011-12-01

    Phase equilibrium calculations are the most challenging part of a compositional flow simulation. For every gridblock and at every time step, the number of phases and their compositions must be computed for the given overall composition, temperature, and pressure conditions. The conventional approach used in petroleum industry is based on performing a phase-stability test, and solving the fugacity constraints together with the coupled nonlinear flow equations when the gridblock has more than one phase. The multi-phase compositional space can be parameterized in terms of tie-simplexes. For example, a tie-triangle can be used such that its interior encloses the three-phase region, and the edges represent the boundary with specific two-phase regions. The tie-simplex parameterization can be performed for pressure, temperature, and overall composition. The challenge is that all of these parameters can change considerably during the course of a simulation. It is possible to prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously with respect to pressure, temperature, and overall composition. The continuity of the tie-simplex parameterization allows for interpolation using discrete representations of the tie-simplex space. For variations of composition, a projection to the nearest tie-simplex is used, and if the tie-simplex is within a predefined tolerance, it can be used directly to identify the phase-state of this composition. In general, our parameterization approach can be seen as the generalization of negative flash idea for systems with two or more phases. Theory of dispersion-free compositional displacements, as well as computational experience of general-purpose compositional flow simulation indicates that the displacement path in compositional space is determined by a limited number of tie-simplexes. Therefore, only few tie-simplex tables are required to parameterize the entire displacement. The small number of tie-simplexes needed in a course of a simulation motivates

  20. A Mellin space approach to the conformal bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopakumar, Rajesh; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda

    2017-05-01

    We describe in more detail our approach to the conformal bootstrap which uses the Mellin representation of CFT d four point functions and expands them in terms of crossing symmetric combinations of AdS d+1 Witten exchange functions. We consider arbitrary external scalar operators and set up the conditions for consistency with the operator product expansion. Namely, we demand cancellation of spurious powers (of the cross ratios, in position space) which translate into spurious poles in Mellin space. We discuss two contexts in which we can immediately apply this method by imposing the simplest set of constraint equations. The first is the epsilon expansion. We mostly focus on the Wilson-Fisher fixed point as studied in an epsilon expansion about d = 4. We reproduce Feynman diagram results for operator dimensions to O( ɛ 3) rather straightforwardly. This approach also yields new analytic predictions for OPE coefficients to the same order which fit nicely with recent numerical estimates for the Ising model (at ɛ = 1). We will also mention some leading order results for scalar theories near three and six dimensions. The second context is a large spin expansion, in any dimension, where we are able to reproduce and go a bit beyond some of the results recently obtained using the (double) light cone expansion. We also have a preliminary discussion about numerical implementation of the above bootstrap scheme in the absence of a small parameter.

  1. New Approaches to Waterproofing of Space Shuttle Insulating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Chen, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable space vehicles will be in service much more frequently than current space shuttles. Therefore, rapid reconditioning of spacecraft will be required. Currently, the waterproofing of space shuttles after each re-entry takes 72 hours and requires substantial labor. In addition, the currently used waterproofing reagent, DiMethylEthoxySilane (DMES), is considered toxic, and ethanol fumes are released during its hydrolytic activation. Consequently, a long time period, which is not acceptable for future operations, is needed to ensure that 0 the excess volatile compounds are removed before further maintenance of the space vehicle can be performed. The objective of this project was to assist NASA Ames in finding improved waterproofing systems by identifying suitable waterproofing agents that can be applied by vapor phase deposition and will be less toxic, bond more rapidly to the insulation material surface, and potentially have higher thermal stability than the DMES system. Several approaches to achieve faster waterproofing with less toxicity were assessed using the following alternatives: Reactive volatile compounds that are rapidly deposited by chemical bonding at the surface and leave no toxic volatiles. Reactive reagents that are the least toxic. Nonvolatile reagents that are very reactive and bond strongly to the insulating material surface. Three specific types of potential reagents were chosen for evaluation in this project: 1. Volatile reagents with Si-Cl functional groups for vapor deposition 2. Volatile reagents with Si-H functional groups for vapor deposition 3. Nonvolatile oligomeric or polymeric reactive siloxanes that are assumed to have higher thermal stability and/or strong bonding to the insulating material. The chemistry involved in the project was targeted at the generation of intermediates having reactive Si-OH bonds for the formation of either volatile species or polymeric species that bond rapidly to the surface and also cure rapidly

  2. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  3. An innovative approach of risk planning for space programs.

    PubMed

    Ray, P

    2000-07-01

    According to the current rule-based risk management approach at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the effort is directed to contain all identified risks of a program. The identification of hazards and mitigation effort proceeds along with the development of the system hardware, till all the tradable resources for a program is exhausted. In this process, no conscious effort is made to evaluate risks and associated cost, and the final design is likely to have undesirable residual risks. This approach also results in allocating a significant amount of resources to gain only marginal mitigation of hazard and leave some undesirable hazards in the system due to the budget limitation. The approach in the proposed knowledge-based risk planning system makes a conscious attempt to trade risk with other resources, e.g., schedule, cost, reliability, performance, and others in a judicious and cost-effective way. A knowledge of the feasible option sets requiring high incremental cost for a marginal gain in hazard reduction helps the management to make decision for residual risk that falls within an acceptable range for an option set.

  4. Strain uncertainties from two digital volume correlation approaches in prophylactically augmented vertebrae: Local analysis on bone and cement-bone microstructures.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Gianluca; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Palanca, Marco; Curto, Marco; Innocente, Federica; Cristofolini, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Combination of micro-focus computed tomography (micro-CT) in conjunction with in situ mechanical testing and digital volume correlation (DVC) can be used to access the internal deformation of materials and structures. DVC has been exploited over the past decade to measure complex deformation fields within biological tissues and bone-biomaterial systems. However, before adopting it in a clinically-relevant context (i.e. bone augmentation in vertebroplasty), the research community should focus on understanding the reliability of such method in different orthopaedic applications involving the use of biomaterials. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic and random errors affecting the strain computed with two different DVC approaches (a global one, "ShIRT-FE", and a local one, "DaVis-DC") in different microstructures within augmented vertebrae, such as trabecular bone, cortical bone and cement-bone interdigitation. The results showed that systematic error was insensitive to the size of the computation sub-volume used for the DVC correlation. Conversely, the random error (which was generally the largest component of error) was lower for a 48-voxel (1872micrometer) sub-volume (64-221 microstrain for ShIRT-FE, 88-274 microstrain for DaVis-DC), than for a 16-voxel (624micrometer) sub-volume (359-1203 microstrain for ShIRT-FE, 960-1771 microstrain for DaVis-DC) for the trabecular and cement regions. Overall, the local random error did not appear to be influenced by either bone microarchitecture or presence of biomaterial. For the 48-voxel sub-volume the global approach was less sensitive to the gradients in grey-values at the cortical surface (random error below 200 microstrain), while the local approach showed errors up to 770 microstrain. Mean absolute error (MAER) and standard deviation of error (SDER) were also calculated and substantially improved when compared to recent literature for the cement-bone interface. The multipass approach for DaVis-DC further

  5. Deterring and Dissuading in Space: A Systems Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    to guide U.S. space programs. The 2006 National Space Policy addresses the rights of passage through and operations in space in much the same way...makes clear the U.S. considers “space systems to have the rights of passage through and operations in space without interference” and states that

  6. 14 CFR 117.17 - Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew. 117.17 Section 117.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: Augmented flightcrew. (a) For flight operations conducted with an acclimated augmented flightcrew,...

  7. 14 CFR 117.17 - Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew. 117.17 Section 117.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... period: Augmented flightcrew. (a) For flight operations conducted with an acclimated augmented...

  8. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  9. Developing a space network interface simulator: The NTS approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrzak, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used to redevelop the Network Control Center (NCC) Test System (NTS), a hardware and software facility designed to make testing of the NCC Data System (NCCDS) software efficient, effective, and as rigorous as possible prior to operational use. The NTS transmits and receives network message traffic in real-time. Data transfer rates and message content are strictly controlled and are identical to that of the operational systems. NTS minimizes the need for costly and time-consuming testing with the actual external entities (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and the White Sands Ground Terminal). Discussed are activities associated with the development of the NTS, lessons learned throughout the project's lifecycle, and resulting productivity and quality increases.

  10. State space approach to single molecule localization in fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vahid, Milad R.; Chao, Jerry; Kim, Dongyoung; Ward, E. Sally; Ober, Raimund J.

    2017-01-01

    Single molecule super-resolution microscopy enables imaging at sub-diffraction-limit resolution by producing images of subsets of stochastically photoactivated fluorophores over a sequence of frames. In each frame of the sequence, the fluorophores are accurately localized, and the estimated locations are used to construct a high-resolution image of the cellular structures labeled by the fluorophores. Many methods have been developed for localizing fluorophores from the images. The majority of these methods comprise two separate steps: detection and estimation. In the detection step, fluorophores are identified. In the estimation step, the locations of the identified fluorophores are estimated through an iterative approach. Here, we propose a non-iterative state space-based localization method which combines the detection and estimation steps. We demonstrate that the estimated locations obtained from the proposed method can be used as initial conditions in an estimation routine to potentially obtain improved location estimates. The proposed method models the given image as the frequency response of a multi-order system obtained with a balanced state space realization algorithm based on the singular value decomposition of a Hankel matrix. The locations of the poles of the resulting system determine the peak locations in the frequency domain, and the locations of the most significant peaks correspond to the single molecule locations in the original image. The performance of the method is validated using both simulated and experimental data. PMID:28663832

  11. State space approach to single molecule localization in fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vahid, Milad R; Chao, Jerry; Kim, Dongyoung; Ward, E Sally; Ober, Raimund J

    2017-03-01

    Single molecule super-resolution microscopy enables imaging at sub-diffraction-limit resolution by producing images of subsets of stochastically photoactivated fluorophores over a sequence of frames. In each frame of the sequence, the fluorophores are accurately localized, and the estimated locations are used to construct a high-resolution image of the cellular structures labeled by the fluorophores. Many methods have been developed for localizing fluorophores from the images. The majority of these methods comprise two separate steps: detection and estimation. In the detection step, fluorophores are identified. In the estimation step, the locations of the identified fluorophores are estimated through an iterative approach. Here, we propose a non-iterative state space-based localization method which combines the detection and estimation steps. We demonstrate that the estimated locations obtained from the proposed method can be used as initial conditions in an estimation routine to potentially obtain improved location estimates. The proposed method models the given image as the frequency response of a multi-order system obtained with a balanced state space realization algorithm based on the singular value decomposition of a Hankel matrix. The locations of the poles of the resulting system determine the peak locations in the frequency domain, and the locations of the most significant peaks correspond to the single molecule locations in the original image. The performance of the method is validated using both simulated and experimental data.

  12. A hierarchical state space approach to affective dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lodewyckx, Tom; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kuppens, Peter; Allen, Nicholas; Sheeber, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Linear dynamical system theory is a broad theoretical framework that has been applied in various research areas such as engineering, econometrics and recently in psychology. It quantifies the relations between observed inputs and outputs that are connected through a set of latent state variables. State space models are used to investigate the dynamical properties of these latent quantities. These models are especially of interest in the study of emotion dynamics, with the system representing the evolving emotion components of an individual. However, for simultaneous modeling of individual and population differences, a hierarchical extension of the basic state space model is necessary. Therefore, we introduce a Bayesian hierarchical model with random effects for the system parameters. Further, we apply our model to data that were collected using the Oregon adolescent interaction task: 66 normal and 67 depressed adolescents engaged in a conflict interaction with their parents and second-to-second physiological and behavioral measures were obtained. System parameters in normal and depressed adolescents were compared, which led to interesting discussions in the light of findings in recent literature on the links between cardiovascular processes, emotion dynamics and depression. We illustrate that our approach is flexible and general: The model can be applied to any time series for multiple systems (where a system can represent any entity) and moreover, one is free to focus on whatever component of the versatile model. PMID:21516216

  13. The development of the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST): A cooperative controller-engineer design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Davis, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, the development of advanced automation for air traffic control in the United States has excluded the input of the air traffic controller until the need of the development process. In contrast, the development of the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), for the terminal area controller, has incorporated the end-user in early, iterative testing. This paper describes a cooperative between the controller and the developer to create a tool which incorporates the complexity of the air traffic controller's job. This approach to software development has enhanced the usability of FAST and has helped smooth the introduction of FAST into the operational environment.

  14. On position-space renormalization group approach to percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahimi, Muhammad; Rassamdana, Hossein

    1995-02-01

    In a position-space renormalization group (PSRG) approach to percolation one calculates the probability R(p,b) that a finite lattice of linear size b percolates, where p is the occupation probability of a site or bond. A sequence of percolation thresholds p c (b) is then estimated from R(p c , b)=p c (b) and extrapolated to the limit b→∞ to obtain p c = p c (∞). Recently, it was shown that for a certain spanning rule and boundary condition, R(p c , ∞)=R c is universal, and since p c is not universal, the validity of PSRG approaches was questioned. We suggest that the equation R(p c , b)=α, where α is any number in (0,1), provides a sequence of p c (b)'s that always converges to p c as b→∞. Thus, there is an envelope from any point inside of which one can converge to p c . However, the convergence is optimal if α= R c . By calculating the fractal dimension of the sample-spanning cluster at p c , we show that the same is true about any critical exponent of percolation that is calculated by a PSRG method. Thus PSRG methods are still a useful tool for investigating percolation properties of disordered systems.

  15. The Liquid Droplet Radiator in Space: A Parametric Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    space mission must have a source of electrical power whether the mission is manned, unmanned, scientific, or nationally strategic. The generation of this electric power will require the rejection of waste heat. For example, the Strategic Defense Initiative will have space based systems generating large amounts of electrical energy with much waste heat energy to be radiated to space. Other space applications requiring from 100 kilowatts to over 100 megawatts include: Space Based Radars, Nuclear/Electric Orbital Transfer Vehicles, Space Based Weapon Systems, and the Space

  16. Novel Approaches to Cellular Transplantation from the US Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research in the treatment of type I diabetes is entering a new era that takes advantage of our knowledge in an ever increasing variety of scientific disciplines. Some may originate from very diverse sources, one of which is the Space Program at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Space Program contributes to diabetes-related research in several treatment modalities. As an ongoing effort for medical monitoring of personnel involved in space exploration activities NASA and the extramural scientific community investigate strategies for noninvasive estimation of blood glucose levels. Part of the effort in the space protein crystal growth program is high-resolution structural analysis insulin as a means to better understand the interaction with its receptor and with host immune components and as a basis for rational design of a "better" insulin molecule. The Space Program is also developing laser technology for potential early cataract detection as well as a noninvasive analyses for addressing preclinical diabetic retinopathy. Finally, NASA developed an exciting cell culture system that affords some unique advantages in the propagation and maintenance of mammalian cells in vitro. The cell culture system was originally designed to maintain cell suspensions with a minimum of hydrodynamic and mechanical sheer while awaiting launch into microgravity. Currently the commercially available NASA bioreactor (Synthecon, Inc., Houston, TX) is used as a research tool in basic and applied cell biology. In recent years there is continued strong interest in cellular transplantation as treatment for type I diabetes. The advantages are the potential for successful long-term amelioration and a minimum risk for morbidity in the event of rejection of the transplanted cells. The pathway to successful application of this strategy is accompanied by several substantial hurdles: (1) isolation and propagation of a suitable uniform donor cell population; (2) management of

  17. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerla, F.

    2002-01-01

    , who can use it to prepare their lessons, retrieve information and organize the didactic material in order to support their lessons. We think it important to use a user centered "psychology" based on UM: we have to know the needs and expectations of the students. Our intent is to use usability tests not just to prove the site effectiveness and clearness, but also to investigate aesthetical preferences of children and young people. Physics, mathematics, chemistry are just some of the difficult learning fields connected with space technologies. Space culture is a potentially never-ending field, and our scope will be to lead students by hand in this universe of knowledge. This paper will present MARS activities in the framework of the above methodologies aimed at implementing a web based approach to integrate space culture and education. The activities are already in progress and some results will be presented in the final paper.

  18. Novel Approaches to Cellular Transplantation from the US Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research in the treatment of type I diabetes is entering a new era that takes advantage of our knowledge in an ever increasing variety of scientific disciplines. Some may originate from very diverse sources, one of which is the Space Program at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Space Program contributes to diabetes-related research in several treatment modalities. As an ongoing effort for medical monitoring of personnel involved in space exploration activities NASA and the extramural scientific community investigate strategies for noninvasive estimation of blood glucose levels. Part of the effort in the space protein crystal growth program is high-resolution structural analysis insulin as a means to better understand the interaction with its receptor and with host immune components and as a basis for rational design of a "better" insulin molecule. The Space Program is also developing laser technology for potential early cataract detection as well as a noninvasive analyses for addressing preclinical diabetic retinopathy. Finally, NASA developed an exciting cell culture system that affords some unique advantages in the propagation and maintenance of mammalian cells in vitro. The cell culture system was originally designed to maintain cell suspensions with a minimum of hydrodynamic and mechanical sheer while awaiting launch into microgravity. Currently the commercially available NASA bioreactor (Synthecon, Inc., Houston, TX) is used as a research tool in basic and applied cell biology. In recent years there is continued strong interest in cellular transplantation as treatment for type I diabetes. The advantages are the potential for successful long-term amelioration and a minimum risk for morbidity in the event of rejection of the transplanted cells. The pathway to successful application of this strategy is accompanied by several substantial hurdles: (1) isolation and propagation of a suitable uniform donor cell population; (2) management of

  19. Motion simulator study of longitudinal stability requirements for large delta wing transport airplanes during approach and landing with stability augmentation systems failed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Fry, E. B.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Forrest, R. D.; Scott, B. C.; Benefield, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A ground-based simulator investigation was conducted in preparation for and correlation with an-flight simulator program. The objective of these studies was to define minimum acceptable levels of static longitudinal stability for landing approach following stability augmentation systems failures. The airworthiness authorities are presently attempting to establish the requirements for civil transports with only the backup flight control system operating. Using a baseline configuration representative of a large delta wing transport, 20 different configurations, many representing negative static margins, were assessed by three research test pilots in 33 hours of piloted operation. Verification of the baseline model to be used in the TIFS experiment was provided by computed and piloted comparisons with a well-validated reference airplane simulation. Pilot comments and ratings are included, as well as preliminary tracking performance and workload data.

  20. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  1. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  2. System analysis approach to deriving design criteria (loads) for Space Shuttle and its payloads. Volume 1: General statement of approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Bullock, T.; Holland, W. B.; Kross, D. A.; Kiefling, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Space shuttle, the most complex transportation system designed to date, illustrates the requirement for an analysis approach that considers all major disciplines simultaneously. Its unique cross coupling and high sensitivity to aerodynamic uncertainties and high performance requirements dictated a less conservative approach than those taken in programs. Analyses performed for the space shuttle and certain payloads, Space Telescope and Spacelab, are used a examples. These illustrate the requirements for system analysis approaches and criteria, including dynamic modeling requirements, test requirements control requirements and the resulting design verification approaches. A survey of the problem, potential approaches available as solutions, implications for future systems, and projected technology development areas are addressed.

  3. Modified endoscopic transnasal-transmaxillary-transpterygoid approach to parapharyngeal space tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Wasano, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Sayuri; Tomisato, Shuta; Kawasaki, Taiji; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-06-01

    Conventional approaches for removing parapharyngeal space tumors require a cervical skin incision and resection of soft tissues between the skin and parapharyngeal space. The surgical visual field for this conventional approach is limited. To decrease invasiveness during removal of benign parapharyngeal space tumors and to enhance the visual field, we devised a new approach called the modified endoscopic transnasal-transmaxillary-transpterygoid approach (MENMAP). The "surgical corridor" to the parapharyngeal space consists of the maxillary sinus, submucous tunnel under the lateral nasal wall, and the space created by removing the pterygoid process. We successfully performed en bloc removal of a parapharyngeal space tumor using the MENMAP approach. The only surgical complication was hypoesthesia of the right hard palate and maxillary gingiva, which gradually improved. The MENMAP approach is a viable alternative for removing parapharyngeal space tumors, as it is safe, feasible, and less invasive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 933-938, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. State Space Approach to Extraction of Genuine Strain Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanami, T.; Hirata, N.; Kitagawa, G.; Kamigaichi, O.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    The earth's surface is under the continuous influence of a variety of natural forces such as earthquakes, wave, wind, tide, air pressure, precipitation and a variety of human induced sources, which create noise when monitoring geodetic strain. Eliminating these noise inputs from the raw strain data requires proper statistical modeling, for automatic processing of geodetic strain data. In the area of the next anticipated Tokai earthquake, the Japan Meteorological Agency continuously monitors strain data by the real time automated processing. As an example, the network of strainmeters has been monitoring short-term slow slip events (SSE) synchronized with nearby low frequency earthquakes or tremors since 2005 (Kobayashi et al., 2006). It is desirable to apply the state space method to noisy Tokai strain data in order to detect precursors of the expected Tokai earthquake. The method is based on the general state space method, recursive filtering and smoothing algorithms (Kitagawa and Matsumoto, 1996). The first attempt to apply this method to actual strain data was made using data from the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (M8.0) recorded by the Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, which has been operating since 1982 at Urakawa Seismological Observatory (KMU) of Hokkaido University in the southern part of the Hidaka Mountains (Takanami, et al., 2009). KMU is 105 km NW of the epicenter of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake. After the earthquake, the data showed a clear episode of contraction for 4 days followed by expansion for 23 days. These signals correlate with increased aftershock seismicity for M≧4 events. The strain changes, together with surface displacements detected by the GPS network, are indicative of propagation of slow slip at depth (e.g. Geographical Survey Institute, 2004). We here review the computational approach to state space method and the results of its application to the strain data from the 2009 earthquakes (M6.5) occurred off Sagami in the Tokai area

  5. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  6. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  7. Augmented reality in surgery.

    PubMed

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the history and current knowledge of computer-augmented reality in the field of surgery and its potential goals in education, surgeon training, and patient treatment. National Library of Medicine's database and additional library searches. Only articles suited to surgical sciences with a well-defined aim of study, methodology, and precise description of outcome were included. Augmented reality is an effective tool in executing surgical procedures requiring low-performance surgical dexterity; it remains a science determined mainly by stereotactic registration and ergonomics. Strong evidence was found that it is an effective teaching tool for training residents. Weaker evidence was found to suggest a significant influence on surgical outcome, both morbidity and mortality. No evidence of cost-effectiveness was found. Augmented reality is a new approach in executing detailed surgical operations. Although its application is in a preliminary stage, further research is needed to evaluate its long-term clinical impact on patients, surgeons, and hospital administrators. Its widespread use and the universal transfer of such technology remains limited until there is a better understanding of registration and ergonomics.

  8. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  9. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-06

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact.

  10. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Amor A.; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m3 six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of ‘space synthetic biology’, and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

  11. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  12. NASA's approach to the commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1984-01-01

    NASA planning activities in the area of commercial development of space resources are reviewed. Examples of specific types of commercial space ventures are given, according to three different categories: new commercial high-technology ventures; new commercial application of existing space technology, and commercial ventures resulting from the transfer of existing space programs to the private sector. Basic objectives for reducing technical, financial and institutional risks for commercial space operations are considered. Attention is given to the cooperative working environment encouraged by Joint Endeavor Agreements (JEAs) and Technical Exchange Agreements (TEAs) between industrial organizations in the development of space systems. Benefits of the commercial development of space resources include the production of purer pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancers, kidney diseases, and diabetes; and the development of ultra-pure semiconductor crystals for use in next generation electronic equipment.

  13. Image-guided transorbital procedures with endoscopic video augmentation

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Mawn, Louise A.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical interventions to the orbital space behind the eyeball are limited to highly invasive procedures due to the confined nature of the region along with the presence of several intricate soft tissue structures. A minimally invasive approach to orbital surgery would enable several therapeutic options, particularly new treatment protocols for optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. The authors have developed an image-guided system for the purpose of navigating a thin flexible endoscope to a specified target region behind the eyeball. Navigation within the orbit is particularly challenging despite its small volume, as the presence of fat tissue occludes the endoscopic visual field while the surgeon must constantly be aware of optic nerve position. This research investigates the impact of endoscopic video augmentation to targeted image-guided navigation in a series of anthropomorphic phantom experiments. Methods: A group of 16 surgeons performed a target identification task within the orbits of four skull phantoms. The task consisted of identifying the correct target, indicated by the augmented video and the preoperative imaging frames, out of four possibilities. For each skull, one orbital intervention was performed with video augmentation, while the other was done with the standard image guidance technique, in random order. Results: The authors measured a target identification accuracy of 95.3% and 85.9% for the augmented and standard cases, respectively, with statistically significant improvement in procedure time (Z = −2.044, p = 0.041) and intraoperator mean procedure time (Z = 2.456, p = 0.014) when augmentation was used. Conclusions: Improvements in both target identification accuracy and interventional procedure time suggest that endoscopic video augmentation provides valuable additional orientation and trajectory information in an image-guided procedure. Utilization of video augmentation in transorbital interventions could further minimize

  14. Image-guided transorbital procedures with endoscopic video augmentation.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Michael P; Mawn, Louise A; Galloway, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Surgical interventions to the orbital space behind the eyeball are limited to highly invasive procedures due to the confined nature of the region along with the presence of several intricate soft tissue structures. A minimally invasive approach to orbital surgery would enable several therapeutic options, particularly new treatment protocols for optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. The authors have developed an image-guided system for the purpose of navigating a thin flexible endoscope to a specified target region behind the eyeball. Navigation within the orbit is particularly challenging despite its small volume, as the presence of fat tissue occludes the endoscopic visual field while the surgeon must constantly be aware of optic nerve position. This research investigates the impact of endoscopic video augmentation to targeted image-guided navigation in a series of anthropomorphic phantom experiments. A group of 16 surgeons performed a target identification task within the orbits of four skull phantoms. The task consisted of identifying the correct target, indicated by the augmented video and the preoperative imaging frames, out of four possibilities. For each skull, one orbital intervention was performed with video augmentation, while the other was done with the standard image guidance technique, in random order. The authors measured a target identification accuracy of 95.3% and 85.9% for the augmented and standard cases, respectively, with statistically significant improvement in procedure time (Z=-2.044, p=0.041) and intraoperator mean procedure time (Z=2.456, p=0.014) when augmentation was used. Improvements in both target identification accuracy and interventional procedure time suggest that endoscopic video augmentation provides valuable additional orientation and trajectory information in an image-guided procedure. Utilization of video augmentation in transorbital interventions could further minimize complication risk and enhance surgeon comfort and

  15. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  16. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    PubMed

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  17. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  18. Space-Wise approach for airborne gravity data modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampietro, D.; Capponi, M.; Mansi, A. H.; Gatti, A.; Marchetti, P.; Sansò, F.

    2016-12-01

    Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove-compute-restore procedure is nowadays widely applied in different contexts: it is the most used technique for regional gravimetric geoid determination, and it is also used in exploration geophysics to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.), which are useful to understand and map geological structures in a specific region. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are usually adopted. However, due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc., airborne data are usually contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations in both the low and high frequencies should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a software to filter and grid raw airborne observations is presented: the proposed solution consists in a combination of an along-track Wiener filter and a classical Least Squares Collocation technique. Basically, the proposed procedure is an adaptation to airborne gravimetry of the Space-Wise approach, developed by Politecnico di Milano to process data coming from the ESA satellite mission GOCE. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of this approach, there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. The presented solution is suited for airborne data analysis in order to be able to quickly filter and grid gravity observations in an easy way. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too

  19. Space-Wise approach for airborne gravity data modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampietro, D.; Capponi, M.; Mansi, A. H.; Gatti, A.; Marchetti, P.; Sansò, F.

    2017-05-01

    Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove-compute-restore procedure is nowadays widely applied in different contexts: it is the most used technique for regional gravimetric geoid determination, and it is also used in exploration geophysics to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.), which are useful to understand and map geological structures in a specific region. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are usually adopted. However, due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc., airborne data are usually contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations in both the low and high frequencies should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a software to filter and grid raw airborne observations is presented: the proposed solution consists in a combination of an along-track Wiener filter and a classical Least Squares Collocation technique. Basically, the proposed procedure is an adaptation to airborne gravimetry of the Space-Wise approach, developed by Politecnico di Milano to process data coming from the ESA satellite mission GOCE. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of this approach, there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. The presented solution is suited for airborne data analysis in order to be able to quickly filter and grid gravity observations in an easy way. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too

  20. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  1. Basic approaches to and tasks of space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okhotin, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The high vacuum and weightlessness of outer space offer great possibilities for the new field of space technology. To take advantage of this, it is necessary to study such physical and chemical phenomena as diffusion, surface tension, heat exchange, and crystallization. The research shows the possibility of obtaining materials with a more perfect structure. Methods of treating materials can be used in space which are impossible on earth. Achievements in material science in outer space will have a large impact on the national economy.

  2. Mobile-health approach: a critical look on its capacity to augment health system of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Singh, Jai Vir

    2014-07-01

    The mobile-health approach is currently knocking the doors of public health to make use of this rapidly advancing technology in developing countries; therefore, it needs a critical look on its capacity in improving health system of developing countries. A systematic review of studies in literature published till 31(st) October 2013 of last 10 years on key search word: Capacity of mobile-health in improving health system of developing countries was done from medical search engines abstracting databases such as Pub-med, WHO, Cochrane database, Google scholar, and Bio-med Central. Both types of studies elucidating utility and no benefit of mobile-health in developing countries were included as main criteria for deciding the capacity of mobile-health approach in health system of developing countries. M-health studies on areas of impact, effectiveness, and evaluation and previous reviews, conferences data, and exploratory studies were the main study designs incorporated. Studies on m-health in developed world, Indian studies as well data from thesis or dissertation were excluded in this review. Multi-faceted mobile-health applications, strategies, and approaches currently lack proper regulation and standardization from health care authorities, and currently their results also vary from good to no beneficial effects as found in this review. Umbrella of mobile-health approaches must be used intelligently, keeping in mind the fact that, it can provide a greater access and quality health care to larger segments of a rural population and its potential to improve the capacity of health system in developing countries.

  3. Space commerce in a global economy - Comparison of international approaches to commercial space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Kleber, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective, current status, and comparison of national government/commercial space industry relationships in the United States and Europe are presented. It is noted that space technology has been developed and used primarily to meet the needs of civil and military government initiatives. Two future trends of space technology development include new space enterprises, and the national drive to achieve a more competitive global economic position.

  4. Space commerce in a global economy - Comparison of international approaches to commercial space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Kleber, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective, current status, and comparison of national government/commercial space industry relationships in the United States and Europe are presented. It is noted that space technology has been developed and used primarily to meet the needs of civil and military government initiatives. Two future trends of space technology development include new space enterprises, and the national drive to achieve a more competitive global economic position.

  5. Visions for Space Exploration: ILS Issues and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the logistic issues that the Vision for Space Exploration will entail. There is a review of the vision and the timeline for the return to the moon that will lead to the first human exploration of Mars. The lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and other such missions are also reviewed.

  6. A new conceptual design approach for habitative space modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, C.; Bisegna, F.; Gugliermetti, F.; Marchetti, M.

    2014-04-01

    Existing Space modules were designed to meet the standards established by NASA, basically oriented to functionality. In future Space environments a high level of habitability in long duration missions will become a priority: besides comfort and ergonomics, these habitats will require the application of criteria to address human needs for living in confined environments.

  7. Stacks Management: An Organic Approach to Growing Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jackie L.; Ingram, Marion Thorp

    2006-01-01

    Most library buildings were built thirty or more years ago. As a result libraries are sharing a common situation. There is little or no room to add more books onto the shelves, and there are odd spaces throughout the stacks which are not being used. Jackson Library, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, faced this challenge and grew space by…

  8. View of the approach of the International Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-20

    S96-E-5036 (29 May 1999) --- The International Space Station (ISS) is only moments away from its docking with the Space Shuttle Discovery in this electronic still camera's view from Discovery's flight deck. The image was photographed at 03:34:23 GMT, May 29, 1999.

  9. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  10. The liquid droplet radiator in space: A parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Gerald L.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) consists of a column or sheet of liquid droplets moving through space from a droplet generator to a collector. The droplets carry the waste heat generated by a space power system and radiate this waste heat directly to space during their flight. The liquid droplets are collected at a lower temperature, reheated and pumped to the generator and reused to remove waste heat from the thermodynamic power cycle. A parametric analysis is given of a cylindrical LDR to estimate its performance and operating characteristics using a new pump specific mass term.

  11. An automated, integrated approach to Space Station structural modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmoyer, Alan J.; Habermeyer, John A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA and its contractors have developed an integrated, interdisciplinary CAD/analysis system designated IDEAS(double asterisk)2 in order to conduct evaluations of alternative Space Station concepts' performance over the projected course of the Station's evolution in orbit. Attention is presently given to the requirements associated with automated FEM-building methods applicable to Space Station system-level structural dynamic analysis, and the ways in which IDEAS(double asterisk)2 addresses these requirements. Advantage is taken of the interactive capabilities of the SUPERTAB FEM preprocessor system for Space Station model manipulation and modification.

  12. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  13. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  14. PA Approach for the Use of COTS in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restagno, F.; Foltran, D.

    2007-08-01

    The interest in COTS (Commercial Off-the-Shelf) equipment in the space business has increased in the last years for different reasons such as demands of reduction of schedule, limitation in mass and power consumption, reduction of development costs, extension of reuse concept and demand of state of art performances reachable with the actual "commercial" technologies. On the other hand, space systems require high-reliability in performing the specified functions in extremely severe operating conditions and environments and in assuring mission success in all scenarios including the long-term missions. The paper identifies the main implications in utilising COTS in space flight missions, analyses the impacts on risk and defines a process for COTS assessment in space projects.

  15. The XML approach to implementing space link extension service management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, W.; Welz, G. A.; Theis, G.; Yamada, T.

    2001-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted at JPL, ESOC, and ISAS to assess the possible applications of the eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) capabilities to the implementation of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Service Management function.

  16. A geometric approach to quantum control in projective hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, Davide

    2017-02-01

    A quantum theory in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space can be formulated as a proper geometric Hamiltonian theory as explained in [2, 3, 7, 9]. From this point of view a quantum system can be described within a classical-like framework where quantum dynamics is represented by a Hamiltonian flow in the phase space given by a projective Hilbert space. This paper is devoted to investigating how the notion of an accessibility algebra from classical control theory can be applied within the geometric Hamiltonian formulation of quantum mechanics to study controllability of a quantum system. A new characterization of quantum controllability in terms of Killing vector fields w.r.t. the Fubini-Study metric on projective space is also discussed.

  17. Approaches to the utilization of space for CO2 research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P.; Aronson, J.; Brecher, A.; Csigi, K.; Mcarthur, R.

    1985-01-01

    A system study of the potential of space technology to monitor climate changes and improve the understanding of the coupling beteen CO2 and cloud cover is summarized. The basis for the study is scientific data requirements pertinent to the U.S. Department of Energy's CO2 Research Program. The capabilities of space-based sensor systems are matched to meet these requirements. New sensor system concepts are identified, including a Space Shuttle-launched recalibration package to provide for continuity of measurement and recalibration between satellites, a high-orbit radiation budget satellite, or parallax sensor to measure cloud altitude, a passive method for the direct measurements of CO2 and a high-altitude powered platform to monitor select regional parameters. Space-based sensor systems that could be the development focus for the time frames of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 years are recommended.

  18. Space Physics for Graduate Students: An Activities-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Arge, N.; Bruntz, R.; Burns, A. G.; Hughes, W. J.; Knipp, D.; Lyon, J.; McGregor, S.; Owens, M.; Siscoe, G.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The geospace environment is controlled largely by events on the Sun, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which generate significant geomagnetic and upper atmospheric disturbances. The study of this Sun-Earth system, which has become known as space weather, has both intrinsic scientific interest and practical applications. Adverse conditions in space can damage satellites and disrupt communications, navigation, and electric power grids, as well as endanger astronauts. The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center (STC) funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (see http://www.bu.edu/cism/), is developing a suite of integrated physics-based computer models that describe the space environment from the Sun to the Earth for use in both research and operations [Hughes and Hudson, 2004, p. 1241]. To further this mission, advanced education and training programs sponsored by CISM encourage students to view space weather as a system that encompasses the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the ionosphere/thermosphere. This holds especially true for participants in the CISM space weather summer school [Simpson, 2004].

  19. Challenges in Individualizing Drug Dosage for Intensive Care Unit Patients: Is Augmented Renal Clearance What We Really Want to Know? Some Suggested Management Approaches and Clinical Software Tools.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Acutely ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients often have large apparent volumes of distribution of drugs and, because of this, their drug clearance (CL) is usually also increased. 'Augmented renal Cl' is a current issue in the management of drug therapy for acutely ill and unstable ICU patients; however, Cl, the product of volume and the rate constant for excretion, describes only a theoretical volume of drug cleared per unit of time. Information of the actual rate of movement of the drug itself is obscured. It is suggested that the most useful clinical information is given by describing drug volume and elimination rate constant separately. This also permits better understanding of the patient's separate issues of fluid balance and drug elimination, especially when dialysis, renal replacement therapy, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be used, and facilitates management of these two important separate clinical issues. Optimal management of drug therapy also requires optimal methods embodied in clinical software to describe drug behavior in these highly unstable patients, and considerably more data than for ordinary patients. The interacting multiple model (IMM) clinical software facilitates management of both fluid balance and drug therapy in these unstable patients. Illustrative cases are discussed, and new monitoring and management strategies are suggested. Like other ICU skills, physicians need to learn optimal tools for managing drug therapy in the ICU. Further work should help evaluate these new approaches.

  20. Colombia an approach to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales, O.

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  1. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  2. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  3. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  4. An MDO augmented value-based systems engineering approach to holistic design decision-making: A satellite system case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Hanumanthrao

    The design of large scale complex engineered systems (LSCES) involves hundreds or thousands of designers making decisions at different levels of an organizational hierarchy. Traditionally, these LSCES are designed using systems engineering methods and processes, where the preferences of the stakeholder are flowed down the hierarchy using requirements that act as surrogates for preference. Current processes do not provide a system level guidance to subsystem designers. Value-Driven Design (VDD) offers a new perspective on complex system design, where the value preferences of the stakeholder are communicated directly through a decomposable value function, thereby providing a mechanism for improved system consistency. Requirements-based systems engineering approaches do not offer a mathematically rigorous way to capture the couplings present in the system. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) was specifically developed to address couplings in both analysis and optimization thereby enabling physics-based consistency. MDO uses an objective function with constraints but does not provide a way to formulate the objective function. Current systems engineering processes do not provide a mathematically sound way to make design decisions when designers are faced with uncertainties. Designers tend to choose designs based on their preferences towards risky/uncertain designs, and past research has shown that there needs to be a consistency in risk preferences to enable design decisions that are consistent with stakeholder's desires. This research exploits the complimentary nature of VDD, MDO and Decision Analysis (DA) to enable consistency in communication of system preferences, consistency in physics and consistency in risk preferences. The role of VDD in this research is in formulating a value function for true preferences, whereas the role of MDO is to capture couplings and enable optimization using the value function, and the role of DA is to enable consistent design

  5. New Approaches for DC Balanced SpaceWire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisin, Alex; Rakow, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Direct Current (DC) line balanced SpaceWire is attractive for a number of reasons. Firstly, a DC line balanced interface provides the ability to isolate the physical layer with either a transformer or capacitor to achieve higher common mode voltage rejection and/or the complete galvanic isolation in the case of a transformer. Secondly, it provides the possibility to reduce the number of conductors and transceivers in the classical SpaceWire interface by half by eliminating the Strobe line. Depending on the modulator scheme - the clock data recovery frequency requirements may be only twice that of the transmit clock, or even match the transmit clock: depending on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) decoder design. In this paper, several different implementation scenarios will be discussed. Two of these scenarios are backward compatible with the existing SpaceWire hardware standards except for changes at the character level. Three other scenarios, while decreasing by half the standard SpaceWire hardware components, will require changes at both the character and signal levels and work with fixed rates. Other scenarios with variable data rates will require an additional SpaceWire interface handshake initialization sequence.

  6. New Approaches for Direct Current (DC) Balanced SpaceWire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisin, Alex; Rakow, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Direct Current (DC) line balanced SpaceWire is attractive for a number of reasons. Firstly, a DC line balanced interface provides the ability to isolate the physical layer with either a transformer or capacitor to achieve higher common mode voltage rejection and or the complete galvanic isolation in the case of a transformer. And secondly, it provides the possibility to reduce the number of conductors and transceivers in the classical SpaceWire interface by half by eliminating the Strobe line. Depending on the modulator scheme the clock data recovery frequency requirements may be only twice that of the transmit clock, or even match the transmit clock: depending on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) decoder design. In this paper, several different implementation scenarios will be discussed. Two of these scenarios are backward compatible with the existing SpaceWire hardware standards except for changes at the character level. Three other scenarios, while decreasing by half the standard SpaceWire hardware components, will require changes at both the character and signal levels and work with fixed rates. Other scenarios with variable data rates will require an additional SpaceWire interface handshake initialization sequence.

  7. ULISSE -a new approach of archiving space experiment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Enno; Hauan, Tore Martin; Karoliussen, Irene; Fossum, Knut R.

    The evaluation of Space experiments is usually completed by a scientific publication. The re-maining sample material might be re-assessed by new techniques or with reference to other experiments, which might be difficult due to lacking of a common flight data archive. A new way of archiving Space experiment data has been initiated by the European Commission in the ULISSE Project ("USOCs KnowLedge Integration and dissemination for Space Science Experimentation") which is built around the User Support Operation Centers (USOCs) and their industrial partners. ULISSE will be a collaborative open network able to allow informa-tion and knowledge exchange. Due to the vast amount of data in this network, Web based interfaces need to be implemented. Therefore, each experiment will be described in a topic map containing experimental methods, the experiment environment, hardware and software methods and products, biological processes, and the experimental results. Each topic needs to have an identifier, i.e. a link to a Web based thesaurus where the definition of this topic is described. Existing databases (e.g. ontologies for genetic information) have been used to define recent Space experiments, but the range of topics needs to be extended in ULISSE to cover the specific features of Space experiments. Credits: European Commission (FP7/2007-2013, grant agreement n218815).

  8. Space fusion energy conversion using a field reversed configuration reactor: A new technical approach for space propulsion and power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Miley, George H.; Santarius, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion energy conversion design approach, the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) - when burning deuterium and helium-3, offers a new method and concept for space transportation with high energy demanding programs, like the Manned Mars Mission and planetary science outpost missions require. FRC's will increase safety, reduce costs, and enable new missions by providing a high specific power propulsion system from a high performance fusion engine system that can be optimally designed. By using spacecraft powered by FRC's the space program can fulfill High Energy Space Missions (HESM) in a manner not otherwise possible. FRC's can potentially enable the attainment of high payload mass fractions while doing so within shorter flight times.

  9. Phase-space approach to continuous variable quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Masashi

    2004-05-01

    The phase-space method is applied for considering continuous variable quantum teleportation. It is found that the continuous variable quantum teleportation transforms the s-parametrized phase-space function of an input state into the (s+{delta})-parametrized phase-space function, where the parameter {delta} is determined by the shared quantum entanglement. It is shown from this result that the Wigner function of the teleported state is always non-negative for F{sub c}{<=}2/3 and the Glauber-Sudarshan P function non-negative for F{sub c}{<=}1/2, where F{sub c} is the fidelity of the coherent-state teleportation. Furthermore the fidelity between input and output states is calculated when Gaussian states are teleported.

  10. Cavity approach to sphere packing in Hamming space.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we study the hard sphere packing problem in the Hamming space by the cavity method. We show that both the replica symmetric and the replica symmetry breaking approximations give maximum rates of packing that are asymptotically the same as the lower bound of Gilbert and Varshamov. Consistently with known numerical results, the replica symmetric equations also suggest a crystalline solution, where for even diameters the spheres are more likely to be found in one of the subspaces (even or odd) of the Hamming space. These crystalline packings can be generated by a recursive algorithm which finds maximum packings in an ultrametric space. Finally, we design a message passing algorithm based on the cavity equations to find dense packings of hard spheres. Known maximum packings are reproduced efficiently in nontrivial ranges of dimensions and number of spheres. © 2012 American Physical Society

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging on the International Space Station: An Innovative Approach to Commercial Development of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Space Partnership Division (SPD) was established to promote the commercial development of space by providing access to space ai opportunity to perform commercial research in the microgravity environment. NASA, through SPD, has established Research Partnership Centers (RPC s) that bring the government, universities at private industry together to perform research in space for commercial applica!.!lons. The SPD Office has fostered a re!ationship between an RPC and an aerospace company to perform hyperspectral imaging on the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) on board the International Space Station (ISS). As a result of this relationship and M the capabilities of the WORF, the ISS will serve the private sector with platform to conduct hyperspectral imaging for commercial research.

  12. Hyperspectral Imaging on the International Space Station: An Innovative Approach to Commercial Development of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Space Partnership Division (SPD) was established to promote the commercial development of space by providing access to space ai opportunity to perform commercial research in the microgravity environment. NASA, through SPD, has established Research Partnership Centers (RPC s) that bring the government, universities at private industry together to perform research in space for commercial applica!.!lons. The SPD Office has fostered a re!ationship between an RPC and an aerospace company to perform hyperspectral imaging on the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) on board the International Space Station (ISS). As a result of this relationship and M the capabilities of the WORF, the ISS will serve the private sector with platform to conduct hyperspectral imaging for commercial research.

  13. Decomposing Large Inverse Problems with an Augmented Lagrangian Approach: Application to Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Travel Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, D. T.; Rodi, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Constructing 3D Earth models through the joint inversion of large geophysical data sets presents numerous theoretical and practical challenges, especially when diverse types of data and model parameters are involved. Among the challenges are the computational complexity associated with large data and model vectors and the need to unify differing model parameterizations, forward modeling methods and regularization schemes within a common inversion framework. The challenges can be addressed in part by decomposing the inverse problem into smaller, simpler inverse problems that can be solved separately, providing one knows how to merge the separate inversion results into an optimal solution of the full problem. We have formulated an approach to the decomposition of large inverse problems based on the augmented Lagrangian technique from optimization theory. As commonly done, we define a solution to the full inverse problem as the Earth model minimizing an objective function motivated, for example, by a Bayesian inference formulation. Our decomposition approach recasts the minimization problem equivalently as the minimization of component objective functions, corresponding to specified data subsets, subject to the constraints that the minimizing models be equal. A standard optimization algorithm solves the resulting constrained minimization problems by alternating between the separate solution of the component problems and the updating of Lagrange multipliers that serve to steer the individual solution models toward a common model solving the full problem. We are applying our inversion method to the reconstruction of the·crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure across Eurasia.· Data for the inversion comprise a large set of P and S body-wave travel times·and fundamental and first-higher mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities.

  14. Phase-space representation of quantum state vectors: The relative-state approach and the displacement-operator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Masashi

    1999-08-01

    Phase-space representation of quantum state vectors has been recently formulated by means of the relative-state method developed by the present author [J. Math. Phys. 39, 1744 (1998)]. It is, however, pointed out by Mo/ller that the displacement-operator method provides another basis of phase-space representation of quantum state vectors [J. Math. Phys. (to appear)]. Hence the relation between the relative-state approach and the displacement-operator approach is discussed, both of which yield equivalent phase-space representations.

  15. Enterprise Information Space: User's View, Developer's View, and Market Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishik, Claire; Farquhar, Adam; Smith, Reid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses experiences of Schlumberger IT Sourcing (Austin, Texas) in designing and deploying knowledge management (KM) systems and outlines the empathic design approach. The new "market" approach in Schlumberger which leads to the simplification of intranet systems and interfaces, creation of a new classification system, and better…

  16. Neural Networks Based Approach to Enhance Space Hardware Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Thakoor, Anilkumar; Lu, Thomas; Franco, Lauro; Lin, Tsung Han; McClure, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of Neural Networks as a device modeling tool to increase the reliability analysis accuracy of circuits targeted for space applications. The paper tackles a number of case studies of relevance to the design of Flight hardware. The results show that the proposed technique generates more accurate models than the ones regularly used to model circuits.

  17. Reflective pattern-based approach to collaborative media space management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Wayne; Georganas, Nicolas D.

    1998-12-01

    The role of traditional multimedia systems has been to disseminate information. The advent of media spaces, however, offers an increased potential in terms of presentation as well as facilitating a natural and intuitive environment for interpersonal communication. Combined with Computer Supported Cooperative Work technologies, these shared, media-rich environments offer a natural basis for distributed collaboration through a seamless blend of presentational, conversational and interactive multimedia. The resulting notion underlies the definition of a collaborative media space in which users interact with each other through the experience and manipulation of shared media. The integration of such a diverse array of entities presents many challenges, ranging from the need to support a variety of media types to managing how objects in such a system interact. Indeed, a primary consideration with such system is the coordination (including both causal and temporal synchronization) of entities within the space. This work addresses how to facilitate media space design by employing a pattern-based meta-level architecture and management infrastructure in which reflection is used to isolate system-level issues such as behavioral coordination from low-level, media-specific computation. The architectural framework and its underlying topology are illustrated along with the model's application to a distance education system.

  18. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  19. Neural Networks Based Approach to Enhance Space Hardware Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Thakoor, Anilkumar; Lu, Thomas; Franco, Lauro; Lin, Tsung Han; McClure, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of Neural Networks as a device modeling tool to increase the reliability analysis accuracy of circuits targeted for space applications. The paper tackles a number of case studies of relevance to the design of Flight hardware. The results show that the proposed technique generates more accurate models than the ones regularly used to model circuits.

  20. A Regression Design Approach to Optimal and Robust Spacing Selection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    release and sale; its distribution is unlimited Acceso For NTIS GRA&I DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS DTIC TAB Unannounced Southern Methodist University F...such as the Cauchy where A is a constant multiple of the identity. In fact, for the Cauchy distribution asymptotically optimal spacing sequences for

  1. New theory of space-time and gravitation: Yilmaz's approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mizobuchi, Y.

    1985-07-01

    Space-time under the influence of a gravitational field is dealt with in accordance with the theory of Huseyin Yilmaz. The space-time structure is defined with the concept of local operational procedure of measurement as in the special theory of relativity. The local signal velocity of light is equal to the constant c as it is measured. In static cases, this new theory of space-time physics gives an exponential form for the metric. It is an exponential function of the gravitational potential difference. This functional structure shows a transitive group property of the metric, which is preserved in general cases. The gravitational field is quite analogous to other familiar fields in physics except for the curved space-time structure; it obeys a general Poisson equation and has a stress-energy tensor. The existence of the stress-energy tensor ensures the conservation law of energy-momentum and gives rise to the field-theoretic equation of motion. Thus the new theory has both relativistic and field-theoretic aspects.

  2. An approach to developing user interfaces for space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackelford, Keith; McKinney, Karen

    1993-08-01

    Inherent weakness in the traditional waterfall model of software development has led to the definition of the spiral model. The spiral model software development lifecycle model, however, has not been applied to NASA projects. This paper describes its use in developing real time user interface software for an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Process Control Prototype at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  4. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching Space Weather to Undergraduate Non-Science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, W. B., III

    2016-12-01

    Undergraduate Space Weather education is an important component of creating a society that is knowledgeable about space weather and its societal impacts. The space physics community has made great strides in providing academic education for students, typically physics and engineering majors, who are interested in pursuing a career in the space sciences or space weather. What is rarely addressed, however, is providing a broader space weather education to undergraduate students as a whole. To help address this gap, I have created an introductory space weather course for non-science majors, with the idea of expanding exposure to space weather beyond the typical physics and engineering students. The philosophy and methodologies used in this course will be presented, as well as the results of the first attempts to teach it. Using an approach more tailored to the non-scientist, courses such as this can be an effective means of broadening space weather education and outreach.

  5. A Computationally Efficient State Space Approach to Estimating Multilevel Regression Models and Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Models.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J; Wu, Wei; Yung, Yiu-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Although the state space approach for estimating multilevel regression models has been well established for decades in the time series literature, it does not receive much attention from educational and psychological researchers. In this article, we (a) introduce the state space approach for estimating multilevel regression models and (b) extend the state space approach for estimating multilevel factor models. A brief outline of the state space formulation is provided and then state space forms for univariate and multivariate multilevel regression models, and a multilevel confirmatory factor model, are illustrated. The utility of the state space approach is demonstrated with either a simulated or real example for each multilevel model. It is concluded that the results from the state space approach are essentially identical to those from specialized multilevel regression modeling and structural equation modeling software. More importantly, the state space approach offers researchers a computationally more efficient alternative to fit multilevel regression models with a large number of Level 1 units within each Level 2 unit or a large number of observations on each subject in a longitudinal study.

  6. Embodied Space: a Sensorial Approach to Spatial Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durão, Maria João

    2009-03-01

    A reflection is presented on the significance of the role of the body in the interpretation and future creation of spatial living structures. The paper draws on the body as cartography of sensorial meaning that includes vision, touch, smell, hearing, orientation and movement to discuss possible relationships with psychological and sociological parameters of 'sensorial space'. The complex dynamics of body-space is further explored from the standpoint of perceptual variables such as color, light, materialities, texture and their connections with design, technology, culture and symbology. Finally, the paper discusses the integration of knowledge and experimentation in the design of future habitats where body-sensitive frameworks encompass flexibility, communication, interaction and cognitive-driven solutions.

  7. A systematic-heuristic approach for space trajectory design.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Massimiliano

    2004-05-01

    In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed for space trajectory design that combines a systematic and a heuristic method for global optimization. For the systematic part of the algorithm a branching technique is used, whereas a particular implementation of evolution programming forms the core of the heuristic part. The idea is to use a limited population evolving for a small number of generations, according to specific evolution rules, in subregions of the solution space defined by a branching procedure. On the other hand the branching rules are functions of the outcome from the evolution optimization. The proposed combined systematic-heuristic global optimization performs quite well on the cases analyzed in this paper, suggesting the possibility of more complex applications.

  8. A multi-spacecraft formation approach to space debris surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicetti, Leonard; Emami, M. Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a new mission concept devoted to the identification and tracking of space debris through observations made by multiple spacecraft. Specifically, a formation of spacecraft has been designed taking into account the characteristics and requirements of the utilized optical sensors as well as the constraints imposed by sun illumination and visibility conditions. The debris observations are then shared among the team of spacecraft, and processed onboard of a "hosting leader" to estimate the debris motion by means of Kalman filtering techniques. The primary contribution of this paper resides on the application of a distributed coordination architecture, which provides an autonomous and robust ability to dynamically form spacecraft teams once the target has been detected, and to dynamically build a processing network for the orbit determination of space debris. The team performance, in terms of accuracy, readiness and number of the detected objects, is discussed through numerical simulations.

  9. Investigating a New Approach to Space-Based Information Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    mission payloads including remote sensing imaging sensors, an experiment demonstrating GNSS reflectometry, and a water resistojet propulsion system...power, is transmitter to antenna line loss , the gain of the transmit antenna, is space loss , is the loss due to the transmission path, , k is...reaches the receiver is significantly weaker than that which is transmitted due to the various losses the signal must endure. By far the most

  10. The STEREO Mission: A New Approach to Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, michael L.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of the twin STEREO spacecraft in July 2006, a new capability will exist for both real-time space weather predictions and for advances in space weather research. Whereas previous spacecraft monitors of the sun such as ACE and SOH0 have been essentially on the sun-Earth line, the STEREO spacecraft will be in 1 AU orbits around the sun on either side of Earth and will be viewing the solar activity from distinctly different vantage points. As seen from the sun, the two spacecraft will separate at a rate of 45 degrees per year, with Earth bisecting the angle. The instrument complement on the two spacecraft will consist of a package of optical instruments capable of imaging the sun in the visible and ultraviolet from essentially the surface to 1 AU and beyond, a radio burst receiver capable of tracking solar eruptive events from an altitude of 2-3 Rs to 1 AU, and a comprehensive set of fields and particles instruments capable of measuring in situ solar events such as interplanetary magnetic clouds. In addition to normal daily recorded data transmissions, each spacecraft is equipped with a real-time beacon that will provide 1 to 5 minute snapshots or averages of the data from the various instruments. This beacon data will be received by NOAA and NASA tracking stations and then relayed to the STEREO Science Center located at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland where the data will be processed and made available within a goal of 5 minutes of receipt on the ground. With STEREO's instrumentation and unique view geometry, we believe considerable improvement can be made in space weather prediction capability as well as improved understanding of the three dimensional structure of solar transient events.

  11. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  12. A unique approach to fabricating precision space structures elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohan, H.; Johnson, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure of fabricating graphite epoxy columns used in the assembly of large space platforms is described. The requirement for precise dimensional control led to a unique hot resin injection process. Dry, high modulus fiber is wound over a vertically mounted steam-heated mandrel. A steam-heated sleeve or caul is slipped over the wound mandrel and resin is injected and cured in place. Approximately 200 column elements have been fabricated using this efficient process.

  13. Pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Rafael B; Monteiro, Rodrigo C; Souza, Thiago N S de; Aragão, Augusto J de; Burity, Camila R T; Nóbrega, Júlio C de A; Oliveira, Natália S C de; Abrantes, Ramon B; Dantas Júnior, Luiz B; Cartaxo Filho, Ricardo; Negromonte, Gustavo R P; Sampaio, Rafael da C R; Britto, Cesar A

    2014-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190 mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully.

  14. A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-03

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Jan 13 – 29 Apr 14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and...01-2013 to 29-04-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and Identification 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-13...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and Indentification Ba-Ngu Vo1, Ba-Tuong Vo1, 1Department of

  15. Learning the Task Management Space of an Aircraft Approach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krall, Joseph; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty

    2014-01-01

    Validating models of airspace operations is a particular challenge. These models are often aimed at finding and exploring safety violations, and aim to be accurate representations of real-world behavior. However, the rules governing the behavior are quite complex: nonlinear physics, operational modes, human behavior, and stochastic environmental concerns all determine the responses of the system. In this paper, we present a study on aircraft runway approaches as modeled in Georgia Tech's Work Models that Compute (WMC) simulation. We use a new learner, Genetic-Active Learning for Search-Based Software Engineering (GALE) to discover the Pareto frontiers defined by cognitive structures. These cognitive structures organize the prioritization and assignment of tasks of each pilot during approaches. We discuss the benefits of our approach, and also discuss future work necessary to enable uncertainty quantification.

  16. Deep space network resource scheduling approach and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggemeyer, William C.; Bowling, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) resource scheduling is the process of distributing ground-based facilities to track multiple spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has carried out extensive research to find ways of automating this process in an effort to reduce time and manpower costs. This paper presents a resource-scheduling system entitled PLAN-IT with a description of its design philosophy. The PLAN-IT's current on-line usage and limitations in scheduling the resources of the DSN are discussed, along with potential enhancements for DSN application.

  17. View of Space Shuttle Atlantis during approach and docking to Mir Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-28

    NM21-401-012 (28 March 1996) --- The Space Shuttle Atlantis is backdropped over the darkness of space, and partially over clouds and open ocean waters on Earth, as it and Russia’s Mir Space Station begin their relative separation following several days of joint operations. This 35mm film was exposed by astronaut Shannon W. Lucid as she was beginning her record-setting stay aboard Mir, as a cosmonaut guest researcher. Onboard with Lucid were her Mir-21 crew mates, cosmonauts Yuriy I. Onufriyenko, commander; and Yuriy V. Usachov, flight engineer. Onboard Atlantis were Kevin P. Chilton, STS-76 mission commander; Richard A. Searfoss, pilot; along with Linda M. Godwin, Ronald M. Sega and Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, mission specialists.

  18. Concepts and analysis for Milsatcom augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Keith D.; Davis, John C.

    1992-03-01

    An account is given of the options being considered by the USAF Space Systems Division to meet emerging operational requirements; these options encompass polar coverage for intelligence-gathering and tactical-augmentation coverage, using satellites that can be launched by either existing or planned launch vehicles smaller than Titan IV. Attention is presently given to the terminal and mission-control aspects of these concepts. The augmentation options are intended to facilitate triservice, operational theater-wide services. The communications services needed for augmentation are primarily data lines trunked together. Integrated simulation is the essential means to successful system development.

  19. View of Space Shuttle Atlantis during approach and docking to Mir Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-23

    NM21-727-030 (23 March 1996) --- This view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis was taken by the two Mir-21 cosmonaut crew members onboard Russia's Mir Space Station, during rendezvous and docking operations on March 23, 1996. The Orbiter Docking System (ODS), the connective tunnel and the Spacehab Module can be seen in Atlantis' cargo bay. With the subsequent delivery of astronaut Shannon W. Lucid to the Mir, the Mir-21 crew grew to three, as the mission specialist quickly become a cosmonaut guest researcher. She will spend approximately 140 days on Mir before returning to Earth.

  20. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  1. First Approach to Lightweight Solar Panel Using Space Solar Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masato; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Ito, Takehiko; Nozaki, Yukishige

    2008-09-01

    Development of a lightweight solar panel using space solar sheets is underway. Space solar sheets consist of paper-like thin-film InGaP/GaAs solar cells, which generate higher electrical power than a-Si and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells. The objective of this work is to develop a lightweight solar panel with specific power greater than 100 W/kg using the solar sheet. The panel employs a simple frame-type structure. The architecture is inherently modular and scalable. In this study, a breadboard model was manufactured. The dimensions of the 1.0-cm-thick panel were about 55 cm × 70 cm. Each panel weighs approximately 0.68 kg. The breadboard panel is a small prototype model, but it achieves the high specific power of about 88 W/kg. Higher specific power (> 100 W/kg) can be realized by increasing the solar sheet efficiency, optimizing its structural design and scaling up the module.

  2. Ion beam figuring approach for thermally sensitive space optics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaolin; Deng, Weijie; Tang, Wa; Zhang, Binzhi; Xue, Donglin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    During the ion beam figuring (IBF) of a space mirror, thermal radiation of the neutral filament and particle collisions will heat the mirror. The adhesive layer used to bond the metal parts and the mirror is very sensitive to temperature rise. When the temperature exceeds the designed value, the mirror surface shape will change markedly because of the thermal deformation and stress release of the adhesive layer, thereby reducing the IBF accuracy. To suppress the thermal effect, we analyzed the heat generation mechanism. By using thermal radiation theory, we established a thermal radiation model of the neutral filament. Additionally, we acquired a surface-type Gaussian heat source model of the ion beam sputtering based on the removal function and Faraday scan result. Using the finite-element-method software ABAQUS, we developed a method that can simulate the thermal effect of the IBF for the full path and all dwell times. Based on the thermal model, which was experimentally confirmed, we simulated the thermal effects for a 675  mm×374  mm rectangular SiC space mirror. By optimizing the dwell time distribution, the peak temperature value of the adhesive layer during the figuring process was reduced under the designed value. After one round of figuring, the RMS value of the surface error changed from 0.094 to 0.015λ (λ=632.8  nm), which proved the effectiveness of the thermal analysis and suppression method.

  3. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  4. A multidisciplinary approach to optimization of controlled space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Padula, Sharon L.; Graves, Philip C.; James, Benjamin B.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental problem facing controls-structures analysts is a means of determining the trade-offs between structural design parameters and control design parameters in meeting some particular performance criteria. Developing a general optimization-based design methodology integrating the disciplines of structural dynamics and controls is a logical approach. The objective of this study is to develop such a method. Classical design methodology involves three phases. The first is structural optimization, wherein structural member sizes are varied to minimize structural mass, subject to open-loop frequency constraints. The next phase integrates control and structure design with control gains as additional design variables. The final phase is analysis of the 'optimal' integrated design phase considering 'real' actuators and 'standard' member sizes. The control gains could be further optimized for fixed structure, and actuator saturation constraints could be imposed. However, such an approach does not take full advantage of opportunities to tailor the structure and control system design as one system.

  5. Real-space renormalization group approach to the Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Eamonn

    Many of the most interesting electronic behaviours currently being studied are associated with strong correlations. In addition, many of these materials are disordered either intrinsically or due to doping. Solving interacting systems exactly is extremely computationally expensive, and approximate techniques developed for strongly correlated systems are not easily adapted to include disorder. As a non-interacting disordered model, it makes sense to consider the Anderson model as a first step in developing an approximate method of solution to the interacting and disordered Anderson-Hubbard model. Our renormalization group (RG) approach is modeled on that proposed by Johri and Bhatt [23]. We found an error in their work which we have corrected in our procedure. After testing the execution of the RG, we benchmarked the density of states and inverse participation ratio results against exact diagonalization. Our approach is significantly faster than exact diagonalization and is most accurate in the limit of strong disorder.

  6. Space Shuttle Program Orbiter Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbiter approach and landing test (ALT) reports are published to provide senior NASA management with timely information on ALT program plans and accomplishments. The ALT reports will be comprised of this pre-ALT report, ALT pre-flight memoranda, and an ALT post-flight report following each flight. The purpose of this pre-ALT report is to provide an overview of the ALT program, describing the flight vehicles involved and summarizing the planned flights.

  7. Raw Data Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Common Principal Component Models: A State Space Approach.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fei; Wu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The specifications of state space model for some principal component-related models are described, including the independent-group common principal component (CPC) model, the dependent-group CPC model, and principal component-based multivariate analysis of variance. Some derivations are provided to show the equivalence of the state space approach and the existing Wishart-likelihood approach. For each model, a numeric example is used to illustrate the state space approach. In addition, a simulation study is conducted to evaluate the standard error estimates under the normality and nonnormality conditions. In order to cope with the nonnormality conditions, the robust standard errors are also computed. Finally, other possible applications of the state space approach are discussed at the end.

  8. A Long Term Approach on Quantum Computing for Deep Space Explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, A. R. K.

    2017-02-01

    A long term approach to effectively develop and use quantum algorithms in order to replace classic computation usage and to attack certain optimization areas in space exploration and replace with a far better alternative of quantum computation.

  9. The twistor approach to space-time structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penrose, Roger

    2005-11-01

    An outline of twistor theory is presented. Initial motivations (from 1963) are given for this type of non-local geometry, as an intended scheme for unifying quantum theory and space-time structure. Basic twistor geometry and algebra is exhibited, and it is shown that this provides a complex-manifold description of classical (spinning) massless particles. Simple quantum commutation rules lead to a concise representation of massless particle wavefunctions, in terms of contour integrals or (more profoundly) holomorphic 1st cohomology. Non-linear versions give elegant representations of anti-self-dual Einstein (or Yang-Mills) fields, describing left-handed non-linear gravitons (or Yang-Mills particles). A brief outline of the current status of the "googly problem" is provided, whereby the right-handed particles would also be incorporated.

  10. NASA's Approach to Critical Risks for Extended Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration Humans are exposed to a great variety of hazards in the space environment. These include the effects of weightlessness, radiation, isolation and confinement, altered day-night cycles, and others. These inherent hazards have both physiological and behavioral consequences. The adaptive capabilities of humans in these situations is remarkable, and often exceed our expectations. However, the demanding environment and challenging operational pace can push some of these adaptive processes to their limits. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with mitigating the most serious of these effects on human health, safety, and performance, in long-duration space flight. This can involve the development and deployment of physiological countermeasures, better understanding of the physiological alterations and avoidance of exacerbating situations, inputs to the design of future spacecraft to minimize risks, and in some cases the awareness that some level of risk might have to be accepted based on the resulting consequences and their likelihood. HRP has identified a few areas that are of special concern due to their severity, lack of understanding of underlying causes, or potential for negative impact on health or performance. Some of these areas are visual impairment possibly due to increased intracranial pressure, behavioral and performance problems due to sleep deficits and isolation, and acute and chronic effects of radiation. These problems can, if not addressed, be expected to increase on longer and more distant missions. The evidence from spaceflight, laboratory, and analog studies that supports the selection of the most critical risks will be discussed. Current and planned research programs that address these risks, and their anticipated outcomes, will also be described.

  11. Trajectories and causal phase-space approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, P.R.; Kyprianidis, A.; Vigier, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    The authors analyze phase-space approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of the causal interpretation. In particular, they discuss the canonical phase space associated with stochastic quantization, its relation to Hilbert space, and the Wigner-Moyal formalism. They then consider the nature of Feynman paths, and the problem of nonlocality, and conclude that a perfectly consistent relativistically covariant interpretation of quantum mechanics which retains the notion of particle trajectory is possible.

  12. View of Space Shuttle Atlantis during approach and docking to Mir Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-23

    NM21-724-042 (23 March 1996) --- Backdropped against a "floor" of clouds, this view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis was taken by the two Mir-21 cosmonaut crew members onboard Russia's Mir Space Station, during rendezvous and docking operations on March 23, 1996. Part of a solar array panel connected to the Mir is seen in the foreground. The Orbiter Docking System (ODS), the connective tunnel and the Spacehab Module can be seen in Atlantis' cargo bay. With the subsequent delivery of astronaut Shannon W. Lucid to the Mir, the Mir-21 crew grew to three, as the mission specialist quickly becomes a cosmonaut guest researcher. She will spend approximately 140 days on Mir before returning to Earth.

  13. Earth based approaches to enhancing the health and safety of space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koller, A. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of our earth based knowledge of space safety hazards; identification of several key areas of concern for space operations; and proposed approaches to providing technology enhancement and information needed to improve the health and safety to those conducting space operations. Included are a review of the identified hazards for space oeprations by hazard classification; a summarization of the information currently available on space experiences and an assessment of potential hazards for long duration spaceflight; a discussion of potential failure modes and their significance for Space Station work: and an assessment of current work which indicates additional research and experimentation which can only be accomplished in actual space missions.

  14. An approach towards problem-based learning in virtual space

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, Lutz S.; Bockisch, Andreas; Beyer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established and efficient approach to sustainable teaching. Here, we describe translation of PBL into the virtual classroom thereby offering novel teaching aspects in the field of Nuclear Medicine. Our teaching approach is implemented on a "moodle" platform and consists of 2 modules: complementary seminar teaching materials and a virtual PBL-classroom, which can be attended via Skype. Over the course of 4 semesters 539 students have accessed our teaching platform. 21 students have participated in the PBL seminar (module 2). After resolving some minor technical difficulties our virtual seminars have evolved into a forum of intense studies, whereby the participating students have learned to become more independent along the workup of the teaching cases. This was reflected in the results of the intra-group presentations and discussions. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of our moodle-based PBL platform indicates an increasing level of acceptance and enthusiasm by the students. This has initiated discussions about opening our PBL concept to a wider audience within the university and beyond the Nuclear Medicine specialty. PMID:21818218

  15. Freedom Space for Rivers: A Sustainable Management Approach to Enhance River Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Pascale M.; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Larocque, Marie; Choné, Guénolé; Cloutier, Claude-André; Ouellet, Marie-Audray; Demers, Sylvio; Olsen, Taylor; Desjarlais, Claude; Eyquem, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    River systems are increasingly under stress and pressure from agriculture and urbanization in riparian zones, resulting in frequent engineering interventions such as bank stabilization or flood protection. This study provides guidelines for a more sustainable approach to river management based on hydrogeomorphology concepts applied to three contrasted rivers in Quebec (Canada). Mobility and flooding spaces are determined for the three rivers, and three levels of "freedom space" are subsequently defined based on the combination of the two spaces. The first level of freedom space includes very frequently flooded and highly mobile zones over the next 50 years, as well as riparian wetlands. It provides the minimum space for both fluvial and ecological functionality of the river system. On average for the three studied sites, this minimum space was approximately 1.7 times the channel width, but this minimum space corresponds to a highly variable width which must be determined from a thorough hydrogeomorphic assessment and cannot be predicted using a representative average. The second level includes space for floods of larger magnitude and provides for meanders to migrate freely over a longer time period. The last level of freedom space represents exceptional flood zones. We propose the freedom space concept to be implemented in current river management legislation because it promotes a sustainable way to manage river systems, and it increases their resilience to climate and land use changes in comparison with traditional river management approaches which are based on frequent and spatially restricted interventions.

  16. Freedom space for rivers: a sustainable management approach to enhance river resilience.

    PubMed

    Biron, Pascale M; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Larocque, Marie; Choné, Guénolé; Cloutier, Claude-André; Ouellet, Marie-Audray; Demers, Sylvio; Olsen, Taylor; Desjarlais, Claude; Eyquem, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    River systems are increasingly under stress and pressure from agriculture and urbanization in riparian zones, resulting in frequent engineering interventions such as bank stabilization or flood protection. This study provides guidelines for a more sustainable approach to river management based on hydrogeomorphology concepts applied to three contrasted rivers in Quebec (Canada). Mobility and flooding spaces are determined for the three rivers, and three levels of "freedom space" are subsequently defined based on the combination of the two spaces. The first level of freedom space includes very frequently flooded and highly mobile zones over the next 50 years, as well as riparian wetlands. It provides the minimum space for both fluvial and ecological functionality of the river system. On average for the three studied sites, this minimum space was approximately 1.7 times the channel width, but this minimum space corresponds to a highly variable width which must be determined from a thorough hydrogeomorphic assessment and cannot be predicted using a representative average. The second level includes space for floods of larger magnitude and provides for meanders to migrate freely over a longer time period. The last level of freedom space represents exceptional flood zones. We propose the freedom space concept to be implemented in current river management legislation because it promotes a sustainable way to manage river systems, and it increases their resilience to climate and land use changes in comparison with traditional river management approaches which are based on frequent and spatially restricted interventions.

  17. Integrated approach to free space optical communications in strong turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jason A.

    The propagation of a free space optical communication signal through atmospheric turbulence experiences random fluctuations in intensity, including signal fades which negatively impact the communications link performance. This research develops an analytical probability density function (PDF) to model the best case scenario of using multiple independent beams to reduce the intensity fluctuations. The PDF was further developed to account for partially correlated beams, such as would be experienced by beams having finite separation. The PDF was validated with results obtained from digital simulations as well as lab experiments. The research showed that as the number of transmitted beams increases the probability of fade decreases. While fade probability is reduced by adding more beams, using more than four transmitters does little to improve the overall performance. Additionally, the use of pulse position modulation (PPM) provided significant improvement over traditional fixed threshold on/off keying with the impact of signal fading reduced. Combining PPM with multiple transmitters produced the best overall bit error rate results.

  18. PET image reconstruction: a robust state space approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huafeng; Tian, Yi; Shi, Pengcheng

    2005-01-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms have shown improved image quality over conventional nonstatistical methods in PET by using accurate system response models and measurement noise models. Strictly speaking, however, PET measurements, pre-corrected for accidental coincidences, are neither Poisson nor Gaussian distributed and thus do not meet basic assumptions of these algorithms. In addition, the difficulty in determining the proper system response model also greatly affects the quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we explore the usage of state space principles for the estimation of activity map in tomographic PET imaging. The proposed strategy formulates the organ activity distribution through tracer kinetics models, and the photon-counting measurements through observation equations, thus makes it possible to unify the dynamic reconstruction problem and static reconstruction problem into a general framework. Further, it coherently treats the uncertainties of the statistical model of the imaging system and the noisy nature of measurement data. Since H(infinity) filter seeks minimummaximum-error estimates without any assumptions on the system and data noise statistics, it is particular suited for PET image reconstruction where the statistical properties of measurement data and the system model are very complicated. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated using Shepp-Logan simulated phantom data and real phantom data with favorable results.

  19. Momentum space approach to microscopic effects in elastic proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.; Wolfe, D. H.

    1984-12-01

    The microscopic nonrelativistic first-order optical potential for proton-nucleus scattering is studied in some detail. Momentum-space calculations have been performed for a number of different target nuclei at proton energies above ~100 MeV and these microscopic predictions are compared with experimental cross section, analyzing power, and spin-rotation function data. The input to these calculations consists of the free on-shell nucleon-nucleon t matrix, its nonlocal and off-shell structure, the treatment of the full-folding integral, and target densities obtained from electron scattering. Off-shell and nonlocal effects, as well as various factorization approximations, are studied. The sensitivity to uncertainties in the off-shell extension of the t matrix, within the context of the Love-Franey model, is explicity displayed. Similarly, uncertainties due to nonlocalities and incomplete knowledge of nuclear densities are shown. Explicit calculations using the t matrix of Love and Franey indicate that these effects play significant roles only for relatively large angles (θ<~60°) and/or lower energies (~150 MeV). These studies reinforce the conclusion that the lack of agreement between such first-order predictions and the data for spin observables at small angles arises from a physical effect not included in the nonrelativistic first-order theory, rather than from any uncertainty in the calculation or in its input.

  20. Outcomes of labours augmented with oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bugg, George J; Stanley, Eleanor; Baker, Philip N; Taggart, Michael J; Johnston, Tracey A

    2006-01-01

    To highlight the differences in mode of delivery between women augmented with intravenous oxytocin because of failure to progress in labour with those who labour without the need for augmentation. An incidence study over a 5-year-period in a tertiary referral hospital comparing 1097 nulliparous women who were augmented in labour with 2745 nulliparous women who did not need augmentation. Only labours of spontaneous onset in the pregnancies of women at term were studied. The incidence of pregnancy outcomes were assessed by presenting estimates of relative risk (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Only 51.1% of women who received augmentation achieved a normal vaginal delivery compared with 76.5% of women who did not need augmentation (RR 0.67; CI 0.63-0.71). Contributory factors to this disparity included a greater number of Caesarean sections (14.4% versus 6.6%; RR 2.18 CI 1.74-2.67), forcep deliveries (12.8% versus 5.3%; RR 2.41 CI 1.93-3.01) and ventouse deliveries (21.7% versus 11.5%; RR 1.89 CI 1.62-2.21) being performed among augmented labours as compared to normal progressive labours. Significant improvements in the management of labours which fail to progress are needed if normal vaginal delivery rates are to approach those seen in labours which progress without the need for augmentation.

  1. Access to the parapharyngeal space: an anatomical study comparing the endoscopic and open approaches.

    PubMed

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2013-10-01

    A subtemporal preauricular approach to the infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal space has been the traditional path to tumors of this region. The morbidity associated with this procedure has lead to the pursuit of less invasive techniques. Endoscopic access using a minimally invasive transmaxillary/transpterygoid approach potentially may obviate the drawbacks associated with open surgery. The anatomy of the parapharyngeal space is complex and critical; therefore, a comparison of the anatomy exposed by these different approaches could aid in the decision making toward a minimally invasive surgical corridor. Technical Note. The parapharyngeal space was accessed endonasally by removal of the medial and posterior walls of the maxillary sinus. To allow better visualization and increased triangulation of a bimanual dissection technique, a sublabial canine fossa antrostomy was created. The medial and lateral pterygoid plates were removed. Further lateral dissection exposed the relevant anatomy of the parapharyngeal space. A subtemporal preauricular infratemporal approach was also completed. The endoscopic approach provided sufficient access to the superior portion of the parapharyngeal space. The open approach also provided adequate access; however, it required a larger surgical window, causing greater injury. A significant advantage of the subtemporal approach is the improved access to the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery. Conversely, the endonasal approach provided improved access to the anterior and medial portions of the superior parapharyngeal space. Endoscopic endonasal access utilizing a transmaxillary/transpterygoid approach provides a sufficient surgical window for tumor extirpation. Utilization of this approach obviates some of the morbidity associated with an open procedure. 5. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. A tailored approach to electromagnetic compatibility requirements in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, Ken; Nave, Mark

    1991-01-01

    An approach is outlined which defines the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between NASA and military technologies with attention given to electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements. In order to minimize the cost and weight impact of the changes needed for compatibility the plan emphasizes the incorporation of off-the-shelf technology with current nonstandard methods. NASA designs are structured to meet EMI requirements rather than processing waivers against military-type specifications. The NASA-wide EMI requirements can be documented in three sections: requirements, test methods, and tailoring guidelines. It is shown that a NASA-wide EMC specification would decrease the costs of achieving compatibility by increasing efficiency and optimizing the relationship between EMC design and performance and cost.

  3. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.

  4. Airborne LaCoste & Romberg gravimetry: a space domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Barriot, J. P.; Verdun, J.

    2007-04-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to reduce the airborne gravity data acquired by a LaCoste & Romberg (L&R) air/sea gravimeter, or other similar gravimeters. The acceleration exerted on the gravimeter is the sum of gravity and the vertical and Eötvös accelerations of the aircraft. The L&R gravimeter outputs are: (1) the beam position, (2) the spring tension and (3) the cross coupling. Vertical and Eötvös accelerations are computed from GPS-derived aircraft positions. However, the vertical perturbing acceleration sensed by the gravimeter is not the same as the one sensed by the aircraft (via GPS). A determination of the aircraft-to-sensor transfer function is necessary. The second-order differential equation of the motion of the gravimeter’s beam mixes all the input and output parameters of the gravimeter. Conventionally, low-pass filtering in the frequency domain is used to extract the gravity signal, the filter being applied to each flight-line individually. By transforming the differential equation into an integral equation and by introducing related covariance matrices, we develop a new filtering method based on a least-squares approach that is able to take into account, in one stage, the data corresponding to all flight-lines. The a posteriori covariance matrix of the estimated gravity signal is an internal criterion of the precision of the method. As an example, we estimate the gravity values along the flight-lines from an airborne gravity survey over the Alps and introduce an a priori covariance matrix of the gravity disturbances from a global geopotential model. This matrix is used to regularize the ill-posed Fredholm integral equation introduced in this paper.

  5. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  6. The ABC7 regimen: a new approach to metastatic breast cancer using seven common drugs to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and augment capecitabine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Kast, Richard E; Skuli, Nicolas; Cos, Samuel; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Goshen, Ran; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer metastatic to bone has a poor prognosis despite recent advances in our understanding of the biology of both bone and breast cancer. This article presents a new approach, the ABC7 regimen (Adjuvant for Breast Cancer treatment using seven repurposed drugs), to metastatic breast cancer. ABC7 aims to defeat aspects of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that lead to dissemination of breast cancer to bone. As add-on to current standard treatment with capecitabine, ABC7 uses ancillary attributes of seven already-marketed noncancer treatment drugs to stop both the natural EMT process inherent to breast cancer and the added EMT occurring as a response to current treatment modalities. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery provoke EMT in cancer generally and in breast cancer specifically. ABC7 uses standard doses of capecitabine as used in treating breast cancer today. In addition, ABC7 uses 1) an older psychiatric drug, quetiapine, to block RANK signaling; 2) pirfenidone, an anti-fibrosis drug to block TGF-beta signaling; 3) rifabutin, an antibiotic to block beta-catenin signaling; 4) metformin, a first-line antidiabetic drug to stimulate AMPK and inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin, (mTOR); 5) propranolol, a beta-blocker to block beta-adrenergic signaling; 6) agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant to stimulate M1 and M2 melatonergic receptors; and 7) ribavirin, an antiviral drug to prevent eIF4E phosphorylation. All these block the signaling pathways – RANK, TGF-beta, mTOR, beta-adrenergic receptors, and phosphorylated eIF4E – that have been shown to trigger EMT and enhance breast cancer growth and so are worthwhile targets to inhibit. Agonism at MT1 and MT2 melatonergic receptors has been shown to inhibit both breast cancer EMT and growth. This ensemble was designed to be safe and augment capecitabine efficacy. Given the expected outcome of metastatic breast cancer as it stands today, ABC7 warrants a cautious trial. PMID:28744157

  7. Unified Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Space Communication Networks and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barritt, Brian; Bhasin, Kul; Eddy, Wesley; Matthews, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Network simulator software tools are often used to model the behaviors and interactions of applications, protocols, packets, and data links in terrestrial communication networks. Other software tools that model the physics, orbital dynamics, and RF characteristics of space systems have matured to allow for rapid, detailed analysis of space communication links. However, the absence of a unified toolset that integrates the two modeling approaches has encumbered the systems engineers tasked with the design, architecture, and analysis of complex space communication networks and systems. This paper presents the unified approach and describes the motivation, challenges, and our solution - the customization of the network simulator to integrate with astronautical analysis software tools for high-fidelity end-to-end simulation. Keywords space; communication; systems; networking; simulation; modeling; QualNet; STK; integration; space networks

  8. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocera, A.; Alvarez, G.

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  9. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors

    DOE PAGES

    None, None

    2016-11-21

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. Our paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper also studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases we studied indicate that themore » Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.« less

  10. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-11-21

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. Our paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper also studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases we studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  11. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors.

    PubMed

    Nocera, A; Alvarez, G

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  12. An alternate approach to space missions involving a long tether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, Ehud

    1992-07-01

    Uses of tethers for a variety of purposes in space have been investigated extensively for many years. Currently, interest is focused on two NASA missions, TSS-1 and TSS-2, in which, a satellite is to be deployed, by means of a tether, from the Shuttle, and performs a series of experiments. The tethers to be used in TSS-1 and TSS-2 are very long, namely 20 km and 100 km, respectively. Hence, significant problems of dynamics and control arise in connection with all mission phases, and it is not yet clear that all of these problems possess satisfactory solutions. This must be a source of concern, given the fact that TSS-1 and TSS-2 are manned missions involving the very valuable Shuttle. It is the purpose of this dissertation to propose alternative means to accomplish the goals of missions such as those of TSS-1 and TSS-2, a way that involves the Shuttle and astronauts either minimally or not at all. Stated most simply, the proposal is this: replace the Shuttle with an unmanned spacecraft. Although this idea was mentioned in early papers on tethered systems, its feasibility remained to be investigated. A comprehensive study of such a system is the topic of the present dissertation. The system is composed of a primary satellite, a tether, and a secondary satellite. The primary satellite carries scientific instruments, whereas the secondary one is equipped with a set of thrusters for purposes of control. First, a 3D model, in which the tether is represented by two segments, is analyzed. Thereafter, multi-segment models for the tether are considered; only part of the system states are measured, and the other states are estimated by means of a reduced order estimator. To optimize the deployment and retrieval phases, a multi-controller, MATLAB based algorithm, is employed. The result is improved performance and a significant reduction in fuel consumption. Finally, to use electrodynamic forces for orbit transfer without exciting tether bending motions, the notion of

  13. The Epistemic, the Cognitive, the Human: A Commentary on the Mathematical Working Space Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the mathematical working space (MWS) approach and draws on the articles contained in this "ZDM" issue. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part I discuss the place of the MWS approach among the French theories of didactique des mathématiques. In the second part I outline what I think are…

  14. Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Approach and Its Outlook for Refinement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the major elements of a lifespan, life-space approach to career development. Looks at the origins of these elements and briefly describes their evolution. Suggests five categories of possible future refinements in this approach so as to enhance theory building, testing, and synthesizing this model's applicability. (RJM)

  15. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    DOE PAGES

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally,more » these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.« less

  16. Coherence spectroscopy in dissipative media: a Liouville space pathway approach.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, S; Seideman, Tamar

    2005-02-22

    We address the possibility of using coherent control tools to extract useful information about the interaction of a system with a dissipative environment. To that end we extend previous work, which developed a coherence spectroscopy based on two-pathway excitation phase control, from the isolated molecule limit to dense media. Specifically, we explore the properties of the channel phase, an observable of energy-domain two-pathway excitation experiments that was shown in the isolated molecule limit to carry information about the phase properties of the material system. Our analysis is based on the combination of steady state and time-dependent analytical perturbative approaches within the density matrix formalism, complemented by nonperturbative numerical simulations. We find that the channel phase carries significantly richer information in the presence of decoherence mechanisms than in their absence. In particular, rescattering events in the structured continuum introduce new features in the channel phase spectrum, whose structure conveys information about both the molecular continuum and the system bath interaction.

  17. Wake Encounter Analysis for a Closely Spaced Parallel Runway Paired Approach Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissick,Burnell T.; Rico-Cusi, Fernando J.; Murdoch, Jennifer; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Stough, Harry P, III; O'Connor, Cornelius J.; Syed, Hazari I.

    2009-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of simultaneous approaches performed by two transport category aircraft from the final approach fix to a pair of closely spaced parallel runways was conducted to explore the aft boundary of the safe zone in which separation assurance and wake avoidance are provided. The simulation included variations in runway centerline separation, initial longitudinal spacing of the aircraft, crosswind speed, and aircraft speed during the approach. The data from the simulation showed that the majority of the wake encounters occurred near or over the runway and the aft boundaries of the safe zones were identified for all simulation conditions.

  18. Treatment algorithm of galactorrhea after augmentation mammoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Lee, Kyeong Tae; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2012-09-01

    Galactorrhea is a known complication of breast surgery, particularly reduction mammoplasty. However, in augmentation mammoplasty, it is a rare event. There are only a few case reports concerning galactorrhea after augmentation mammoplasty. In this report, we present a case of galactorrhea that occurred at 2 weeks postoperatively in a 34-year-old woman who had undergone augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implants via a transaxillary approach. Endocrinologic tests including serum prolactin level, routine blood work, and breast ultrasonography were all normal. The authors decided to manage conservatively with close observation. After 1 month, the symptom resolved without sequelae, and no recurrence has been reported.

  19. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual's environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. "When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct - whichever emphasis you prefer - only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level."Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141)."…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size."Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18)"A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not look in the right

  20. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  1. Automating an orbiter approach to Space Station Freedom to minimize plume impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spehar, Peter T.; Le, Thomas Quan

    1991-01-01

    The Space shuttle orbiter Reaction Control System's (RCS) plume impingement during proximity operations with Space Station Freedom (SSF) is a structural design driver for the SSF solar panels and radiators. A study underway at JSC is investigating whether the use of an automated approach controller could result in the reduction of plume impingement induced loads during orbiter approach to SSF. Ongoing real time person-in-the-loop (PIL) simulations of an orbiter approaching the SSF show that orbiter trajectory control can vary significantly from one pilot to the next. This variation is a cause for concern since current analyses predict that plume impingement loads resulting from PIL orbiter approaches may exceed the solar panel and radiator load limits. The use of an automated approach controller is expected to reduce peak loads by both minimizing orbiter translational jet firings in certain directions and controlling the frequency at which they occur during various phases of the approach.

  2. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  3. Subfascial gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    Developing the concept of gluteal augmentation through the past 17 years has been an academic adventure. During these years my coworkers and I have progressively improved surgical technique and devised an anatomical system for gluteal augmentation that includes an ideal implant design and templates to assist in evaluating patients in the preoperative period and to identify the most appropriate implant size.

  4. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  5. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  6. The Augmentation System Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbart, Doug; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    Augmentation systems are composed of things that will add to what the human is genetically endowed with in order to extend the net capabilities that a human or human organization can apply to the problems or goals of human society. A broad brush categorization of the components of an augmentation system includes three distinct though interacting…

  7. Navigation and Control Based on LOS Angle of Space Robot to Approach the Target Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Masayuki; Masutani, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Fumio

    This paper presents a method of navigation and control for a space robot (chaser) flying around a troubled satellite (target) on a circular orbit around the earth to approach the target satellite. Orbital dynamics of the chaser is represented by the Hill’s equation. The technique based on LOS angle of approaching the target is proposed. We prove the validity of the technique on the situation that the chaser approach the target satellite after the circular trajectory, which is periodically free motion.

  8. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.

  9. An approach for autonomous space object identification based on normalized AMI and illumination invariant MSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hao; Li, Xudong; Zhao, Huijie

    2013-03-01

    The space environment is becoming more and more severe and crowded because of the rapid growth of space objects, which reveals an urgent demand to protect active satellites and other space assets. To accomplish such missions, e.g. the collision warning, the identification of space objects is important. In this paper, a three-stage approach for autonomous space object identification based on optical images is proposed. Firstly, on the basis of the approximate perspective imaging model, a scale and illumination invariant descriptor, composed of the normalized affine moment invariants (AMI) and the illumination invariant multiscale autoconvolution (MSA) transform, is developed to characterize the space object. Secondly, a multi-view modeling method is applied to construct multi-view databases of space objects for handling the viewpoint change. Finally, considering the extensibility of the databases, a K-nearest neighbor classifier is employed, and a K-means clustering is adopted to boost the search speed. Furthermore, to test the performance, a novel system based on the proposed approach is built and evaluated. The experimental evidence suggests that the system is stable and works well when the scale of a space object, the phase angle and the viewpoint change.

  10. Space ecosynthesis: An approach to the design of closed ecosystems for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Averner, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of closed ecological systems for the regeneration of wastes, air, and water is discussed. It is concluded that such systems, if they are to be used for the support of humans in space, will require extensive mechanical and physico-chemical support. The reason for this is that the buffering capacity available in small systems is inadequate, and that natural biological and physical regulatory mechanisms rapidly become inoperative. It is proposed that mathematical models of the dynamics of a closed ecological system may provide the best means of studying the initial problems of ecosystem closure. A conceptual and mathematical model of a closed ecosystem is described which treats the biological components as a farm, calculates the rates of flow of elements through the system by mass-balance techniques and control theory postulates, and can evaluate the requirements for mechanical buffering activities. It is suggested that study of the closure of ecosystems can significantly aid in the establishment of general principles of ecological systems.

  11. Performance evaluation for full three-dimensional projector calibration methods in spatial augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, Michael

    Spatial Augment Reality (SAR) has presented itself to be an interesting tool for not only interesting ways to visualize information but to develop creative works in performance arts. The main challenge is to determine accurate geometry of a projection space and determine an efficient and effective way to project digital media and information to create an augmented space. In our previous implementation of SAR, we developed a projector-camera calibration approach using infrared markers. However, the projection suffers severe distortion due to the lack of depth information in the projection space. For this research, we propose to develop a RGBD sensor - projector system to replace our current projector-camera SAR system. Proper calibration between the camera or sensor and projector links vision to projection, answering the question of which point in camera space maps to what point in the space of projection. Calibration will resolve the problem of capturing the geometry of the space and allow us to accurately augment the surfaces of volumetric objects and features. In this work three calibration methods are examined for performance and accuracy. Two of these methods are existing adaptations of 2D camera - projector calibrations (calibration using arbitrary planes and ray-plane intersection) with our third proposed novel technique which utilizes point cloud information from the RGBD sensor directly. Through analysis and evaluation using re-projection error, results are presented, identifying the proposed method as practical and robust.

  12. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  13. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  14. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  15. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  16. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  17. Approaches to dealing with meteoroid and orbital debris protection on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on approaches to dealing with meteoroid and orbital debris protection on the space station are presented. The National Space Policy of February, 1988, included the following: 'All sectors will seek to minimize the creation of space debris. Design and operations of space tests, experiments, and systems will strive to minimize or reduce accumulation of space debris consistent with mission requirements and cost effectiveness.' The policy also tasked the National Security Council, which established an Interagency Group, which in turn produced an Interagency Report. NASA and DoD tasks to establish a joint plan to determine techniques to measure the environment, and techniques to reduce the environment are addressed. Topics covered include: orbital debris environment, meteoroids, orbital debris population, cataloged earth satellite population, USSPACECOM cataloged objects, and orbital debris radar program.

  18. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  19. CCSDS - An approach to the definition of common standards for space data and information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Edward P.; Honvault, Claude

    1990-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) was formed in 1982 to develop common space system data structures, protocols, and interfaces which would facilitate mutual international support and interoperability. It soon emerged that CCSDS's activities exerted synergistic forces on systems development efforts. Currently, CCSDS is composed of both member-status and observer-status agencies; while only one member agency is admitted from any one country, multiple additional agencies may participate as observers. CCSDS recommendations to date have identified a common architectural approach for the handling and processing of space data.

  20. An Approach to Integrate a Space-Time GIS Data Model with High Performance Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Zhao, Ziliang; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach to integrate a Space-Time GIS data model on a high performance computing platform. The Space-Time GIS data model has been developed on a desktop computing environment. We use the Space-Time GIS data model to generate GIS module, which organizes a series of remote sensing data. We are in the process of porting the GIS module into an HPC environment, in which the GIS modules handle large dataset directly via parallel file system. Although it is an ongoing project, authors hope this effort can inspire further discussions on the integration of GIS on high performance computing platforms.

  1. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joe

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes, in viewgraph form, the faster, better, cheaper approach to space missions. The topics include: 1) What drives "Faster, Better, Cheaper"? 2) Why Space Programs are Costly; 3) Background; 4) Aerospace Project Management (Old Culture); 5) Aerospace Project Management (New Culture); 6) Scope of Analysis Limited to Engineering Management Culture; 7) Qualitative Analysis; 8) Some Basic Principles of the New Culture; 9) Cause and Effect; 10) "New Ways of Doing Business" Survey Results; 11) Quantitative Analysis; 12) Recent Space System Cost Trends; 13) Spacecraft Dry Weight Trend; 14) Complexity Factor Trends; 15) Cost Normalization; 16) Cost Normalization Algorithm; 17) Unnormalized Cost vs. Normalized Cost; and 18) Concluding Observations.

  2. Open for business: A New Approach to Commercialisation of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master Of Space Studies 1998-1999 (Mss4) Class

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the result of collaboration between fifteen countries (IGA, 1998). Originally planned as a scientific facility, a shift in policy of the partners has recently occurred towards commercialisation of the Station. Open for Business: A New Approach to Commercialisation of the International Space Station is written in response to this policy shift. It sets out to identify the major constraints in which the potential commercial user must operate and proposes solutions for both commercial user and the partner space agencies to facilitate this commercialisation process. In a time when space-faring nations face reduced fiscal resources and increasing pressure from their constituencies to justify the huge costs of the ISS, commercialising utilisation seems a logical solution. Clearly, successful commercialisation can help recover some of the development and operating costs of the ISS. The structure of Open for Business is divided into two main parts. Part One is entitled ``Constraint and Solutions.'' It proposes new solutions to existing constraint to ISS commercialisation in areas of policy, law, technology and business. The conclusions of Part One are integrated and unified into A New Approach towards ISS commercialisation. This approach is then applied in Part Two to two case studies: the International Space Satellite Servicing Station (I4S) and protein crystallization. Open for Business then concludes with a recommended approach to the future of ISS commercialisation. .

  3. The promise of the state space approach to time series analysis for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Levy, Janet A; Elser, Heather E; Knobel, Robin B

    2012-01-01

    Nursing research, particularly related to physiological development, often depends on the collection of time series data. The state space approach to time series analysis has great potential to answer exploratory questions relevant to physiological development but has not been used extensively in nursing. The aim of the study was to introduce the state space approach to time series analysis and demonstrate potential applicability to neonatal monitoring and physiology. We present a set of univariate state space models; each one describing a process that generates a variable of interest over time. Each model is presented algebraically and a realization of the process is presented graphically from simulated data. This is followed by a discussion of how the model has been or may be used in two nursing projects on neonatal physiological development. The defining feature of the state space approach is the decomposition of the series into components that are functions of time; specifically, slowly varying level, faster varying periodic, and irregular components. State space models potentially simulate developmental processes where a phenomenon emerges and disappears before stabilizing, where the periodic component may become more regular with time, or where the developmental trajectory of a phenomenon is irregular. The ultimate contribution of this approach to nursing science will require close collaboration and cross-disciplinary education between nurses and statisticians.

  4. A Scalable Approach to Probabilistic Latent Space Inference of Large-Scale Networks.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junming; Ho, Qirong; Xing, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scalable approach for making inference about latent spaces of large networks. With a succinct representation of networks as a bag of triangular motifs, a parsimonious statistical model, and an efficient stochastic variational inference algorithm, we are able to analyze real networks with over a million vertices and hundreds of latent roles on a single machine in a matter of hours, a setting that is out of reach for many existing methods. When compared to the state-of-the-art probabilistic approaches, our method is several orders of magnitude faster, with competitive or improved accuracy for latent space recovery and link prediction.

  5. Parapharyngeal space tumor surgery using a modified cervical-parotid approach.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Isaku; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-05

    The cervical approach to parapharyngeal space tumors is blind in cases involving an approach to the vicinity of the skull base from below. We therefore devised a procedure to improve the safety of surgery in the vicinity of the skull base. With this surgical technique, the temporal branch from the main trunk is first identified, as in the case of parotid gland tumor surgery. We then approach the skull base by entering the posterior aspect of the parotid gland tissue from above the temporal branch and anterior auricular space, allowing clear visual confirmation of the upper part of the tumor. Combining this approach with the conventional cervical approach, which is used for the lower part, the tumor can be separated from top to bottom. We have applied this combined approach in eight patients to date, and post-operative courses have been good, with no cases of facial paralysis. This modified cervical-parotid approach offers a very useful surgical procedure for parapharyngeal space tumors with respect to preservation of the facial nerve and tumor separation in the vicinity of the skull base.

  6. Spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches in software-defined elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bowen; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the architecture of elastic optical network (EON) has been proposed as a candidate solution to accommodate both huge bandwidth requirements and flexible connections in next generation optical networks. In order to improve the spectrum efficiency, we propose different spectrum-space-divided approaches and develop two integer linear programming (ILP) models and several spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection in software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs). Simulation results show that the ILP models achieve better performance in terms of the number of frequency slots and hop counts than the proposed spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection under the static scenario of connection requests. Furthermore, we apply the spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection to reduce the blocking probability and to improve spectrum efficiency under the dynamic connection requests compared to the traditional first-fit spectrum allocation approach in SD-EONs.

  7. Endoscopic transconjunctival surgical approach to intraconal space of the orbit: first clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tomasz; Sieskiewicz, Andrzej; Rogowski, Marek; Proniewska-Skretek, Ewa; Mariak, Zofia; Turek, Grzegorz; Mariak, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a transconjunctival, endoscope-assisted (TEA) approach to the medial intra-orbital space was developed based on cadaver preparations, with an ultimate goal of minimizing disturbances of the anatomic structures of the orbit. However, no report on clinical validation of this promising technique was published thus far. We present our experiences with the TEA approach in two patients. In emergency conditions, we approached the lateral retrobulbar space of a 42-year-old male through a 180° incision close to the corneal limbus; a scrap of metal, which had perforated the globe and resided at its posterior wall, was removed endoscopically. Moreover, we used the TEA approach to remove a tumor from the upper intraconal space in a 63-year-old woman. In both patients the surgical goal was achieved with no muscle transection and without additional morbidity and complications. Our experiences with TEA approach suggest that the procedure is clinically feasible, produces no co-morbidity and yields good functional and cosmetic results. As a result, the whole circumference of the retrobulbar space can be conveniently explored. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Augmenting Plasticity Induction in Human Motor Cortex by Disinhibition Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cash, Robin F H; Murakami, Takenobu; Chen, Robert; Thickbroom, Gary W; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular studies showed that disinhibition, evoked pharmacologically or by a suitably timed priming stimulus, can augment long-term plasticity (LTP) induction. We demonstrated previously that transcranial magnetic stimulation evokes a period of presumably GABA(B)ergic late cortical disinhibition (LCD) in human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we hypothesized that, in keeping with cellular studies, LCD can augment LTP-like plasticity in humans. In Experiment 1, patterned repetitive TMS was applied to left M1, consisting of 6 trains (intertrain interval, 8 s) of 4 doublets (interpulse interval equal to individual peak I-wave facilitation, 1.3-1.5 ms) spaced by the individual peak LCD (interdoublet interval (IDI), 200-250 ms). This intervention (total of 48 pulses applied over ∼45 s) increased motor-evoked potential amplitude, a marker of corticospinal excitability, in a right hand muscle by 147% ± 4%. Control experiments showed that IDIs shorter or longer than LCD did not result in LTP-like plasticity. Experiment 2 indicated topographic specificity to the M1 hand region stimulated by TMS and duration of the LTP-like plasticity of 60 min. In conclusion, GABA(B)ergic LCD offers a powerful new approach for augmenting LTP-like plasticity induction in human cortex. We refer to this protocol as disinhibition stimulation (DIS).

  9. Augmenting Plasticity Induction in Human Motor Cortex by Disinhibition Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Robin F.H.; Murakami, Takenobu; Chen, Robert; Thickbroom, Gary W.; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular studies showed that disinhibition, evoked pharmacologically or by a suitably timed priming stimulus, can augment long-term plasticity (LTP) induction. We demonstrated previously that transcranial magnetic stimulation evokes a period of presumably GABABergic late cortical disinhibition (LCD) in human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we hypothesized that, in keeping with cellular studies, LCD can augment LTP-like plasticity in humans. In Experiment 1, patterned repetitive TMS was applied to left M1, consisting of 6 trains (intertrain interval, 8 s) of 4 doublets (interpulse interval equal to individual peak I-wave facilitation, 1.3–1.5 ms) spaced by the individual peak LCD (interdoublet interval (IDI), 200–250 ms). This intervention (total of 48 pulses applied over ∼45 s) increased motor-evoked potential amplitude, a marker of corticospinal excitability, in a right hand muscle by 147% ± 4%. Control experiments showed that IDIs shorter or longer than LCD did not result in LTP-like plasticity. Experiment 2 indicated topographic specificity to the M1 hand region stimulated by TMS and duration of the LTP-like plasticity of 60 min. In conclusion, GABABergic LCD offers a powerful new approach for augmenting LTP-like plasticity induction in human cortex. We refer to this protocol as disinhibition stimulation (DIS). PMID:25100853

  10. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100009.htm Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  11. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100205.htm Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  12. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  13. Urban Multisensory Laboratory, AN Approach to Model Urban Space Human Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, T.; Sol, D.; Saenz, J.; Clavijo, D.; García, H.

    2017-09-01

    An urban sensory lab (USL or LUS an acronym in Spanish) is a new and avant-garde approach for studying and analyzing a city. The construction of this approach allows the development of new methodologies to identify the emotional response of public space users. The laboratory combines qualitative analysis proposed by urbanists and quantitative measures managed by data analysis applications. USL is a new approach to go beyond the borders of urban knowledge. The design thinking strategy allows us to implement methods to understand the results provided by our technique. In this first approach, the interpretation is made by hand. However, our goal is to combine design thinking and machine learning in order to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data automatically. Now, the results are being used by students from the Urbanism and Architecture courses in order to get a better understanding of public spaces in Puebla, Mexico and its interaction with people.

  14. An Integrated Optimal Estimation Approach to Spitzer Space Telescope Focal Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an accurate and efficient method for focal plane survey that was used for the Spitzer Space Telescope. The approach is based on using a high-order 37-state Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter that combines both engineering parameters and science parameters into a single filter formulation. In this approach, engineering parameters such as pointing alignments, thermomechanical drift and gyro drifts are estimated along with science parameters such as plate scales and optical distortions. This integrated approach has many advantages compared to estimating the engineering and science parameters separately. The resulting focal plane survey approach is applicable to a diverse range of science instruments such as imaging cameras, spectroscopy slits, and scanning-type arrays alike. The paper will summarize results from applying the IPF Kalman Filter to calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane, containing the MIPS, IRAC, and the IRS science Instrument arrays.

  15. An Integrated Optimal Estimation Approach to Spitzer Space Telescope Focal Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an accurate and efficient method for focal plane survey that was used for the Spitzer Space Telescope. The approach is based on using a high-order 37-state Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter that combines both engineering parameters and science parameters into a single filter formulation. In this approach, engineering parameters such as pointing alignments, thermomechanical drift and gyro drifts are estimated along with science parameters such as plate scales and optical distortions. This integrated approach has many advantages compared to estimating the engineering and science parameters separately. The resulting focal plane survey approach is applicable to a diverse range of science instruments such as imaging cameras, spectroscopy slits, and scanning-type arrays alike. The paper will summarize results from applying the IPF Kalman Filter to calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane, containing the MIPS, IRAC, and the IRS science Instrument arrays.

  16. A Bayesian approach to the ICH Q8 definition of design space.

    PubMed

    Peterson, John J

    2008-01-01

    Manufacturers of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals are facing increased regulatory pressure to understand how their manufacturing processes work and to be able to quantify the reliability and robustness of their manufacturing processes. In particular, the ICH Q8 guidance has introduced the concept of design space. The ICH Q8 defines design space as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality." However, relatively little has been put forth to date on how to construct a design space from data composed of such variables. This study presents a Bayesian approach to design space based upon a type of credible region first appearing in Peterson's work.This study considers the issues of constructing a Bayesian design space, design space reliability, the inclusion of process noise variables, and utilization of prior information, as well as an outline for organizing information about a design space so that manufacturing engineers can make informed changes as may be needed within the design space.

  17. Possibility of a new approach to processing space pulse radio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocharov, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    A approach to the processing of space pulse radio signals, which makes it possible to achieve a high level of time resolution is proposed. The approach is based on the utilization of the Fourier transform of a radio pulse envelope in the interstellar medium effect. The conditions of applicability of the proposed method and the requirements for recording equipment are substantiated. Also indicated is the possibility of obtaining superresolution with the utilization of the given method of signal processing.

  18. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight...

  1. Multi-atlas and unsupervised learning approach to perirectal space segmentation in CT images.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Soumya; Denham, James W; Ebert, Martin A; Kennedy, Angel; Mitra, Jhimli; Dowling, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Perirectal space segmentation in computed tomography images aids in quantifying radiation dose received by healthy tissues and toxicity during the course of radiation therapy treatment of the prostate. Radiation dose normalised by tissue volume facilitates predicting outcomes or possible harmful side effects of radiation therapy treatment. Manual segmentation of the perirectal space is time consuming and challenging in the presence of inter-patient anatomical variability and may suffer from inter- and intra-observer variabilities. However automatic or semi-automatic segmentation of the perirectal space in CT images is a challenging task due to inter patient anatomical variability, contrast variability and imaging artifacts. In the model presented here, a volume of interest is obtained in a multi-atlas based segmentation approach. Un-supervised learning in the volume of interest with a Gaussian-mixture-modeling based clustering approach is adopted to achieve a soft segmentation of the perirectal space. Probabilities from soft clustering are further refined by rigid registration of the multi-atlas mask in a probabilistic domain. A maximum a posteriori approach is adopted to achieve a binary segmentation from the refined probabilities. A mean volume similarity value of 97% and a mean surface difference of 3.06 ± 0.51 mm is achieved in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework with a subset of a clinical trial dataset. Qualitative results show a good approximation of the perirectal space volume compared to the ground truth.

  2. A novel approach to establishing the design space for the oral formulation manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Norioka, Tadashi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Onuki, Yoshinori; Andou, Hirotaka; Tsunashima, Daisuke; Yamashita, Kazunari; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to establishing the design space for the oral formulation manufacturing process was investigated. A response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation was applied to overcome the nonlinear problem, which is always problematic in pharmaceutical development studies, and a bootstrap resampling technique, polynomial approximation technique, and 95% confidence intervals based on a nonparametric approach were applied to estimate the reliability of the established design space derived from the nonlinear response surface model. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) of intermediate material rather than the critical process parameters (CPPs) were chosen as the causal factors for the response variables, which were CQAs of the final product to avoid scale-gap and equipment-gap. This enabled the effective use of data sets accumulated during all pharmaceutical development studies. It was confirmed that a conservative border as well as an optimistic border of the design space for practical use was obtained considering the variability of the border of the design spaces on nonlinear response surfaces. Furthermore, the nonlinear response surface model using CQAs of intermediate material derived from data sets of a laboratory scale study and pilot scale studies could predict the CQA of the final product (2.5 h dissolution of commercial-scale study) with high accuracy. Consequently, the proposed novel approach overcame all of the difficulties for the manufacturing process development of oral formulations and this is the first study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design space using CQA of intermediate material for the oral formulation manufacturing process.

  3. Perturbation theory approach for the power spectrum: from dark matter in real space to massive haloes in redshift space

    SciTech Connect

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Porciani, Cristiano E-mail: cwagner@icc.ub.edu E-mail: porciani@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the accuracy of Eulerian perturbation theory for describing the matter and galaxy power spectra in real and redshift space in light of future observational probes for precision cosmology. Comparing the analytical results with a large suite of N-body simulations (160 independent boxes of 13.8 (Gpc/h){sup 3} volume each, which are publicly available), we find that re-summing terms in the standard perturbative approach predicts the real-space matter power spectrum with an accuracy of ∼<2% for k ≤ 0.20 h/Mpc at redshifts z∼<1.5. This is obtained following the widespread technique of writing the resummed propagator in terms of 1-loop contributions. We show that the accuracy of this scheme increases by considering higher-order terms in the resummed propagator. By combining resummed perturbation theories with several models for the mappings from real to redshift space discussed in the literature, the multipoles of the dark-matter power spectrum can be described with sub-percent deviations from N-body results for k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<1. As a consequence, the logarithmic growth rate, f, can be recovered with sub-percent accuracy on these scales. Extending the models to massive dark-matter haloes in redshift space, our results describe the monopole term from N-body data within 2% accuracy for scales k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<0.5; here f can be recovered within < 5% when the halo bias is known. We conclude that these techniques are suitable to extract cosmological information from future galaxy surveys.

  4. A low cost commercial approach to space systems development and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, T. F.; Faget, M. A.; Allen, J. P.; Langstaff, D. H.

    In recent years a number of factors have led to increased attention to the lowering of costs for space flight systems and the operation of those systems. To that end Space Industries Inc. (SII), a small commercial space company based in Houston, Tex., is employing proven methods derived from over three decades of space flight development and space operations. These methods are based on a philosophy that is cost-sensitive focused with a primary objective to drive the cost of space systems and their operations down to the lowest level practical, consistent with the mission objectives, acceptable risk and safety considerations. This approach involves a process of: (1) addressing the basic requirements in the simplest and most cost effective manner, i.e. limit new development wherever possible, maximize use of proven and existing technology and eliminate non-essential requirements; (2) incorporation of proven industrial practices where possible, i.e. focus on performance envelopes (not on restrictive, specific and detailed specifications) and streamline program management, documentation, testing and other procedures; and (3) delivery of the "best" price, i.e. maximum customer utility at minimum cost with emphasis on customer service. The overriding factor, and indeed the most important aspect of the low cost commercial approach, is the willingness to accept greater risks to achieve all of the user's objectives. Our development approach is customer focused with emphasis on fully understanding the customer needs while striving constantly to limit new development requirements and, consequently, additional costs. This approach involves a process of designing for operations, i.e. low operation and life-cycle costs, while ensuring a reliability level consistent with customer budget constraints, mission objectives and safety consideration. In executing this low cost, customer-focused approach, we strive to maintain minimal overheads, simple interfaces, reduced documentation

  5. Learning in Earth and Space Science: A Review of Conceptual Change Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…

  6. Investigation of velocity-space coupling approach in DSMC for tail-driven processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tzu-Jung; Stephani, Kelly A.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a velocity-space coupling approach is investigated to improve the poor statistics of tail-driven processes in DSMC. The velocity distribution function is separated into bulk and tail regions in velocity space according to the location of a velocity space interface. The highly-populated bulk distribution, fbulk, is evolved in DSMC through selective particle collisions where there are suffcient particles to resolve the distribution with relatively low stochastic noise. The distribution tail, ftail, is computed based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation through discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in a reduced region of velocity space, which provides a statistically smooth, kinetic "correction" to the DSMC tail. The spatially homogeneous relaxation problem is solved to test the DSMC/DG coupling approach and the results are compared with the standard DSMC solver. The result shows that the coupling approach successfully computes the correct relaxation rate and the evolution of entropy agrees with the DSMC result. Furthermore, using the same initial number of simulation particles, the coupling approach achieves better resolution of the tail velocity bins than DSMC and the results are in good agreement with the DG solution.

  7. Perturbative Approaching for Boson Fields' System in a Lewis-Papapetrou Space-Time

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, G.; Dariescu, M. A.; Dariescu, C.

    2010-08-04

    In this paper the first order solutions of a Klein--Gordon--Maxwell--Einstein coupled system equations were derived for boson fields in a Lewis Papapetrou space time. The results expand the previous static solutions obtained in literature. A main goal is represented by the symbolic script built for such approach.

  8. Diversifying Our Perspectives on Mathematics about Space and Geometry: An Ecocultural Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2014-01-01

    School mathematics tends to have developed from the major cultures of Asia, the Mediterranean and Europe. However, indigenous cultures in particular may have distinctly different systematic ways of referring to space and thinking mathematically about spatial activity. Their approaches are based on the close link between the environment and…

  9. Learning in the Liminal Space: A Semiotic Approach to Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Ray; Rattray, Julie; Vivian, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The threshold concepts approach to student learning and curriculum design now informs an empirical research base comprising over 170 disciplinary and professional contexts. It draws extensively on the notion of troublesomeness in a "liminal" space of learning. The latter is a transformative state in the process of learning in which there…

  10. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Pilot non-conformance to alerting system commands has been noted in general and to a TCAS-like collision avoidance system in a previous experiment. This paper details two experiments studying collision avoidance during closely-spaced parallel approaches in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), and specifically examining possible causal factors of, and design solutions to, pilot non-conformance.

  11. Learning in Earth and Space Science: A Review of Conceptual Change Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…

  12. A phase-space reconstruction approach to prediction of suspended sediment concentration in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, B.

    2002-02-01

    The use of phase-space reconstruction approach for understanding and predicting suspended sediment concentration dynamics in rivers is investigated. According to this approach, the dynamic changes of the suspended sediment concentration phenomenon are represented by reconstructing (or embedding) the single-dimensional (or variable) suspended sediment concentration series in a multi-dimensional phase-space. After representing the dynamics in the phase-space, a local approximation method is employed for making predictions. The approach is employed for representing and predicting the dynamics of the daily suspended sediment concentration observed in the Mississippi River basin (at St. Louis, MO) in the United States of America. The predicted suspended sediment concentrations are found to be in very good agreement with the observed ones; not only are the major trends well captured but the minor (noisy) fluctuations reasonably preserved as well. The near-accurate predictions indicate the appropriateness of the phase-space reconstruction approach for understanding the suspended sediment concentration phenomenon. The results (i.e. optimal embedding dimension) also reveal that the suspended sediment concentration dynamics are dominantly influenced by three variables, suggesting that the suspended sediment concentration (and other sediment transport related) phenomena could be viewed from a low-dimensional chaotic dynamic perspective.

  13. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.

  14. Diversifying Our Perspectives on Mathematics about Space and Geometry: An Ecocultural Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2014-01-01

    School mathematics tends to have developed from the major cultures of Asia, the Mediterranean and Europe. However, indigenous cultures in particular may have distinctly different systematic ways of referring to space and thinking mathematically about spatial activity. Their approaches are based on the close link between the environment and…

  15. An Augmented Lagrangian Method for a Class of Inverse Quadratic Programming Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianzhong; Zhang Liwei

    2010-02-15

    We consider an inverse quadratic programming (QP) problem in which the parameters in the objective function of a given QP problem are adjusted as little as possible so that a known feasible solution becomes the optimal one. We formulate this problem as a minimization problem with a positive semidefinite cone constraint and its dual is a linearly constrained semismoothly differentiable (SC{sup 1}) convex programming problem with fewer variables than the original one. We demonstrate the global convergence of the augmented Lagrangian method for the dual problem and prove that the convergence rate of primal iterates, generated by the augmented Lagrange method, is proportional to 1/r, and the rate of multiplier iterates is proportional to 1/{radical}r, where r is the penalty parameter in the augmented Lagrangian. As the objective function of the dual problem is a SC{sup 1} function involving the projection operator onto the cone of symmetrically semi-definite matrices, the analysis requires extensive tools such as the singular value decomposition of matrices, an implicit function theorem for semismooth functions, and properties of the projection operator in the symmetric-matrix space. Furthermore, the semismooth Newton method with Armijo line search is applied to solve the subproblems in the augmented Lagrange approach, which is proven to have global convergence and local quadratic rate. Finally numerical results, implemented by the augmented Lagrangian method, are reported.

  16. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1990-10-01

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earth in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as return on investment'' and commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E. )

    1991-01-05

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as return on investment'' and commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed.

  18. Strategies and Innovative Approaches for the Future of Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The real and potential impacts of space weather have been well documented, yet neither the required research and operations programs, nor the data, modeling and analysis infrastructure necessary to develop and sustain a reliable space weather forecasting capability for a society are in place. The recently published decadal survey "Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society" presents a vision for the coming decade and calls for a renewed national commitment to a comprehensive program in space weather and climatology. New resources are imperative. Particularly in the current fiscal environment, implementing a responsible strategy to address these needs will require broad participation across agencies and innovative approaches to make the most of existing resources, capitalize on current knowledge, span gaps in capabilities and observations, and focus resources on overcoming immediate roadblocks.

  19. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  20. TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  1. Service Areas of Local Urban Green Spaces: AN Explorative Approach in Arroios, Lisbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R.; Gonçalves, A. B.; Ramos, I. L.

    2016-09-01

    The identification of service areas of urban green spaces and areas with lack of these is increasingly necessary within city planning and management, as it translates into important indicators for the assessment of quality of life. In this setting, it is important to evaluate the attractiveness and accessibility dynamics through a set of attributes, taking into account the local reality of the territory under study. This work presents an operational methodology associated with these dynamics in local urban green spaces, assisting in the planning and management of this type of facilities. The methodology is supported firstly on questionnaire surveys and then on network analysis, processing spatial data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. In the case study, two local green spaces in Lisbon were selected, on a local perspective explorative approach. Through field data, it was possible to identify service areas for both spaces, and compare the results with references in the literature. It was also possible to recognise areas with lack of these spaces. The difficulty to evaluate the dynamics of real individuals in their choices of urban green spaces and the respective route is a major challenge to the application of the methodology. In this sense it becomes imperative to develop different instruments and adapt them to other types of urban green spaces.

  2. Asteroid Redirect Mission Concept: A Bold Approach for Utilizing Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavour from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid 2020's using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  3. Asteroid Redirect Mission concept: A bold approach for utilizing space resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavor from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid-2020s using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of Impact of Wake Vortices on Closely-Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Gordon H.; Rossow, Vernon J.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity of its largest airports. Many airports with closely spaced parallel runways suffer a severe runway acceptance rate when the weather conditions do not allow full utilization of these parallel runways. The present requirement for simultaneous independent landings in Instrument Meteorological Conditions, IMC, is at least 4300 feet of lateral runway spacing (as close as 3000 feet for runways with a Precision Runway Monitor). Operations in Visual Meteorological Conditions, VMC, to Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches only require a lateral runway spacing greater than 750 feet. A study by Hardy and Lewis integrated and extended earlier studies and concepts in lateral traffic separation, longitudinal station keeping, wake prediction, wake display, and the concepts of R N P into a preliminary system concept for Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches in IMC. This system allows IMC airport acceptance rates to approach those for VMC. The system concept that was developed, presented traffic and wake information on the NAVigation Display, NAV, and developed operational procedures for a mix of conventional and Runway Independent Aircraft with different approach speeds to Closely Spaced Parallel Runways. This paper first describes some improvements made on the technology needed to better predict and formulate a probabilistic representation for the time-dependent motion and spreading of the hazardous region associated with the lift-generated vortex wakes of preceding aircraft. In this way, the time at which the vortex wakes of leading aircraft intrude into the airspace of adjacent flight-corridor/runway combinations can be more reliably predicted. Such a prediction is needed because it determines restraints to be placed on in-trail separation distances; or, the allowable time intervals between aircraft executing nearly simultaneous landings or takeoffs on very closely-spaced

  5. Leadership for long-duration space missions: A shift toward a collective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, Tyler; McIntosh, Tristan; Gibson, Carter; Mumford, Michael D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Connelly, Shane; Day, Eric Anthony; Vessey, Brandon

    2016-12-01

    For many years, leadership operations within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have utilized a primarily hierarchical approach. In the present effort, we investigated the leadership needs and considerations given the increased interest in and potential for long-duration space exploration. Specifically, it is argued that a collective leadership approach in which leadership is shared and distributed based on expertise would be beneficial for these types of missions. Interviews were conducted with eleven subject matter experts with wide-ranging experience in NASA and its missions. A mixed-methods analytic approach applied to these interviews provided support for the viability of a collective leadership framework. Implications for NASA and other similar organizational contexts are discussed.

  6. Predictive filtering-based fast reacquisition approach for space-borne acquisition, tracking, and pointing systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuai; Wang, Jianyu; Qiang, Jia; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Juanjuan

    2014-11-03

    We propose a novel approach for recapturing targets as quickly as possible after the space-borne ATP (Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing) system target loss in free-space laser communication. The approach uses past angular information to predict the target trajectory. An optimized finite memory filter is designed as the prediction algorithm. To obtain optimal prediction performance, the designed filter determines the filter parameters of different curve parts during offline training, and the parameters are adjusted according to the curve characteristics during predictive filtering. Simulation results indicate prediction accuracy above 0.1 degrees within 5 seconds. An experimental system was constructed in the lab to simulate the reacquisition process using a dynamic target and a real ATP system. Experimental results show that, compared with the classical orbit prediction method, this approach can effectively yield shorter acquisition times.

  7. An integrated mission approach to the Space Exploration Initiative will ensure success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomes, Edmund P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Noffsinger, Kent E.

    The paper addresses the need for an integrated mission approach to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to provide the logistic support infrastructure that would allow permanent human presence in space to be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resulting horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI, while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing U.S. international technical competitiveness. Careful consideration must be given to the return on investment and commercial product potential of the technologies developed. A mission planning approach based on providing energy by power beaming gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives and reduces the concessions mission planners must make.

  8. Augmented-plane-wave forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, José M.; Williams, Arthur R.

    1990-11-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of a calculational method of electronic-structure theory. The method combines the power (tractable basis-set size) and flexibility (transition and first-row elements) of the augmented-plane-wave method with the computational efficiency of the Car-Parrinello method of molecular dynamics and total-energy minimization. Equilibrium geometry and vibrational frequencies in agreement with experiment are presented for Si, to demonstrate agreement with existing methods and for Cu, N2, and H2O to demonstrate the broader applicability of the approach.

  9. Person Re-Identification by Camera Correlation Aware Feature Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Cong; Zhu, Xiatian; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2017-02-09

    The challenge of person re-identification (re-id) is to match individual images of the same person captured by different non-overlapping camera views against significant and unknown cross-view feature distortion. While a large number of distance metric/subspace learning models have been developed for re-id, the cross-view transformations they learned are view-generic and thus potentially less effective in quantifying the feature distortion inherent to each camera view. Learning view-specific feature transformations for re-id (i.e., view-specific re-id), an under-studied approach, becomes an alternative resort for this problem. In this work, we formulate a novel view-specific person re-identification framework from the feature augmentation point of view, called Camera coRrelation Aware Feature augmenTation (CRAFT). Specifically, CRAFT performs cross-view adaptation by automatically measuring camera correlation from cross-view visual data distribution and adaptively conducting feature augmentation to transform the original features into a new adaptive space. Through our augmentation framework, view-generic learning algorithms can be readily generalized to learn and optimize view-specific sub-models whilst simultaneously modelling view-generic discrimination information. Therefore, our framework not only inherits the strength of view-generic model learning but also provides an effective way to take into account view specific characteristics. Our CRAFT framework can be extended to jointly learn view-specific feature transformations for person re-id across a large network with more than two cameras, a largely under-investigated but realistic re-id setting. Additionally, we present a domain-generic deep person appearance representation which is designed particularly to be towards view invariant for facilitating cross-view adaptation by CRAFT. We conducted extensively comparative experiments to validate the superiority and advantages of our proposed framework over state

  10. A Declarative Design Approach to Modeling Traditional and Non-Traditional Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoag, Lucy M.

    The space system design process is known to be laborious, complex, and computationally demanding. It is highly multi-disciplinary, involving several interdependent subsystems that must be both highly optimized and reliable due to the high cost of launch. Satellites must also be capable of operating in harsh and unpredictable environments, so integrating high-fidelity analysis is important. To address each of these concerns, a holistic design approach is necessary. However, while the sophistication of space systems has evolved significantly in the last 60 years, improvements in the design process have been comparatively stagnant. Space systems continue to be designed using a procedural, subsystem-by-subsystem approach. This method is inadequate since it generally requires extensive iteration and limited or heuristic-based search, which can be slow, labor-intensive, and inaccurate. The use of a declarative design approach can potentially address these inadequacies. In the declarative programming style, the focus of a problem is placed on what the objective is, and not necessarily how it should be achieved. In the context of design, this entails knowledge expressed as a declaration of statements that are true about the desired artifact instead of explicit instructions on how to implement it. A well-known technique is through constraint-based reasoning, where a design problem is represented as a network of rules and constraints that are reasoned across by a solver to dynamically discover the optimal candidate(s). This enables implicit instantiation of the tradespace and allows for automatic generation of all feasible design candidates. As such, this approach also appears to be well-suited to modeling adaptable space systems, which generally have large tradespaces and possess configurations that are not well-known a priori. This research applied a declarative design approach to holistic satellite design and to tradespace exploration for adaptable space systems. The

  11. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza R.; Wood, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9:5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hyper- sonic protuberances (k/delta < 0.33) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  12. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  13. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    environment and methodology, with associated laboratories that uses lean development methods and creativity-enhancing processes to invent and develop new solutions for space exploration. This paper will discuss the Swamp Works approach to developing space mining and resource extraction systems and the vision of space development it serves. The ultimate goal of the Swamp Works is to expand human civilization into the solar system via the use of local resources utilization. By mining and using the local resources in situ, it is conceivable that one day the logistics supply train from Earth can be eliminated and Earth independence of a space-based community will be enabled.

  14. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  15. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  16. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  17. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Beck, Thomas L

    2015-12-21

    The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

  18. What Is the Standard Volume to Increase a Cup Size for Breast Augmentation Surgery? A Novel Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Approach.

    PubMed

    King, Nina-Marie; Lovric, Vedran; Parr, William C H; Walsh, W R; Moradi, Pouria

    2017-05-01

    Breast augmentation surgery poses many challenges, and meeting the patient's expectations is one of the most important. Previous reports equate 100 cc to a one-cup-size increase; however, no studies have confirmed this between commercially available bras. The aim of this study was to identify the volume increase between cup sizes across different brands and the relationship with implant selection. Five bra cup sizes from three different companies were analyzed for their volume capacity. Three methods were used to calculate the volume of the bras: (1) linear measurements; (2) volume measurement by means of water displacement; and (3) volume calculation after three-dimensional reconstruction of serial radiographic data (computed tomography). The clinical arm consisted of 79 patients who underwent breast augmentation surgery from February 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Answers from a short questionnaire in combination with the implant volume were analyzed. Across all three brands, the interval volume increase varied between sizes, but not all were above 100 cc. There was some variation in the volume capacity of the same cup size among the different brands. The average incremental increase in bra cup size across all three brands in the laboratory arm was 135 cc. The mean volume increase per cup size was 138.23 cc in the clinical arm. This article confirms that there is no standardization within the bra manufacturing industry. On the basis of this study, patients should be advised that 130 to 150 cc equates to a one-cup-size increase. Bras with narrower band widths need 130 cc and wider band widths require 150 cc to increase one cup size.

  19. Maxillary Sinus Augmentation for Dental Implant Rehabilitation of the Edentulous Ridge: A Comprehensive Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Ting, Miriam; Rice, Jeremy G; Braid, Stanton M; Lee, Cameron Y S; Suzuki, Jon B

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this systemic review was to perform a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the maxillary sinus augmentation procedure for implant rehabilitation in humans. The following were evaluated in this overview: (1) anatomic variables affecting sinus augmentation, (2) histomorphometric analysis of the grafted sinus, (3) volumetric changes after sinus grafting, and (4) implant survival beyond 1 year. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of implant-related sinus augmentation published from 1976 to September 2015. The studies selected must identify itself as a systemic review or meta-analysis in the title or abstract and must pertain to sinus augmentation. Thirty-three publications fulfilled the review criteria. The AMSTAR ratings for the 33 chosen reviews scored greater than 3 of 11, with 8 reviews scoring greater or equal to 8 of 11. The outcome of this overview suggested that the following will increase the success of sinus augmentation and survival of implants placed in the grafted sinus: (1) the use of barrier membranes over the lateral window when using a lateral approach to graft the sinus, (2) the use of particulate autogenous bone with or without other substitute graft materials, (3) sinus augmentation without the use of grafting materials may be considered provided that the space between the sinus membrane and floor can be maintained, (4) the use of rough-surfaced implants, (5) simultaneous implant placement with residual bone height greater than 4 mm, and (6) the cessation of smoking.

  20. Evolution of classical and quantum phase-space distributions: A new trajectory approach for phase space hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, Corey J.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Donoso and Martens described a method for evolving both classical and quantum phase-space distribution functions, W(q,p,t), that involves the propagation of an ensemble of correlated trajectories. The trajectories are linked into a unified whole by spatial and momentum derivatives of density dependent terms in the equations of motion. On each time step, these nonlocal terms were evaluated by fitting the density around each trajectory to an assumed functional form. In the present study, we develop a different trajectory method for propagating phase-space distribution functions. A hierarchy of coupled analytic equations of motion are derived for the q and p derivatives of the density and a truncated set of these are integrated along each trajectory concurrently with the equation of motion for the density. The advantage of this approach is that individual trajectories can be propagated, one at a time, and function fitting is not required to evaluate the nonlocal terms. Regional nonlocality can be incorporated at various levels of approximation to "dress" what would otherwise be "thin" locally propagating trajectories. This derivative propagation method is used to obtain trajectory solutions for the Klein-Kramers equation, the Husimi equation, and for a smoothed version of the Caldeira-Leggett equation derived by the Diosi. Trajectory solutions are obtained for the relaxation of an oscillator in contact with a thermal bath and for the decay of a metastable state.

  1. Approaches to optimum selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Natalya; Minaev, Nikolay; Filushina, Kristina; Gusakov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the development of approaches to optimum selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings for different kinds of territories. The aim of the study is to develop a system of criteria that influence the choice of optimum space-planning and structural solutions of buildings and structures aimed at enhancement of capital investment efficiency, energy and resource efficiency and creating comfortable living conditions for people. Developed solutions can be applied during implementation of investment construction projects of low-rise housing at different kinds of territories based on the local building materials.

  2. Space Network Control (SNC) Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In session 1 of the conference, Concepts for space network resource allocation was the main topic. In session 2, Space Network Control and user payload operations and control center human-computer interface, was the topic of discussion. The topic of session 3 was Resource allocation tools, technology, and algorithms. Some of the stated goals for the conference are as follows: to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches; to identify solutions applicable to the SN problem; to identify fruitful avenues of study in support of SNC development; and to capture knowledge in proceedings and make available to bidders on the SNC concept definition procurement.

  3. Innovative Approaches to Space-Based Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deploy large habitable structures, construct, and service exploration vehicles in low earth orbit will be an enabling capability for continued human exploration of the solar system. It is evident that advanced manufacturing methods to fabricate replacement parts and re-utilize launch vehicle structural mass by converting it to different uses will be necessary to minimize costs and allow flexibility to remote crews engaged in space travel. Recent conceptual developments and the combination of inter-related approaches to low-cost manufacturing of composite materials and structures are described in context leading to the possibility of on-orbit and space-based manufacturing.

  4. Composite breast augmentation: soft-tissue planning using implants and fat.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Eric; Blondeel, Phillip; Del Vecchio, Daniel Alexander

    2013-09-01

    A variety of suboptimal results arise in breast augmentation due to failure of the overlying soft tissue to adequately cover the implant. The authors describe a new concept of composite breast augmentation surgery that combines the core volume projection of breast implants with the natural look and feel of overlying fat. A total of 197 patients were treated over a 3-year period. This new approach was used when the overlying soft tissue was thin or insufficient to adequately cover the underlying prosthesis, in both breast implant revision and primary breast augmentation. In a subset of cases, quantitative three-dimensional breast imaging evaluated transplanted fat volume in the subcutaneous space of the breast. In primary cosmetic augmentation cases, preexpansion was not performed. In revision cases, preexpansion was performed to support the desired volume of fat required to achieve the aesthetic result. In a second subset of patients, preoperative and 1-year postoperative mammograms were evaluated by breast radiologists. Fifty-seven percent of the volume of graft injected persisted at 1 year. Because fat provided soft-tissue implant coverage, there was less need to place the prosthesis beneath the muscle; many implants were placed in the subfascial plane. Evaluation revealed no cysts, masses, or fat necrosis, presumably because the recipient site was not overloaded with fat. Breast augmentation with simultaneous implants and fat affords a more powerful and versatile approach, and achieves a synergistic outcome. Composite breast augmentation should be added to the list of applications where fat grafting to the breasts may have clinical utility beyond simple core volume enhancement.

  5. Combined Endonasal-Transcervical Approach to a Metastatic Parapharyngeal Space Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benet, Arnau; El-Sayed, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases to the parapharyngeal space are rare, the high amount of fat tissue allows tumors to grow clinically undetectable until they invade most of the parapharyngeal space. We describe for the first time a combined endonasal and transcervical approach for a parapharyngeal metastasis from a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: A 51-year-old male with a previous history of papillary thyroid carcinoma presented with left ear fullness and left-sided facial numbness. Imaging revealed a 4x3 cm pre-styloid parapharyngeal space mass invading the foramen ovale and extending below the palate. Needle biopsy confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results: The lesion was resected with a combined endoscopic endonasal and transcervical approach. Postoperative MRI revealed gross total resection, and the patient recovered from his symptoms. Conclusion: This novel approach provides access to pre-styloid parapharyngeal tumors with superior extension to the skull base, avoiding more extensive traditional open approaches. PMID:26203403

  6. Emotion-inducing approaching sounds shape the boundaries of multisensory peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Francesca; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Vastano, Roberta; Costantini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    In order to survive in a complex environment, inhabited by potentially threatening and noxious objects or living beings, we need to constantly monitor our surrounding space, especially in the vicinity of our body. Such a space has been commonly referred to as one's 'peripersonal space' (PPS). In this study we investigated whether emotion-inducing approaching sound sources impact the boundaries of PPS. Previous studies have indeed showed that the boundaries of PPS are not fixed but modulate according to properties of stimuli in the surrounding environment. In Experiment 1, participants performed a simple tactile detection task of targets presented to their right hand. Concurrently, they were presented with intensity-changing task-irrelevant artificial sound sources perceived as approaching toward their body. The physical properties of the sound elicited emotional responses of either neutral or negative valence. Results showed larger PPS when the approaching stimulus had negative as compared to neutral emotional valence. In Experiment 2, we used ecological sounds which content (i.e., psychological associations to the sound producing source), rather than physical properties, elicited emotional responses of negative, positive or neutral valence. In agreement with results from experiment 1, we found larger PPS when the approaching stimuli had negative emotional valence as compared to both neutral and positive ones. Results are discussed within the theoretical framework that conceives PPS as a safety zone around one's body.

  7. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  8. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  9. A hybrid space approach for ensemble-based 4-D variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Aimei; Xi, Shuang; Qiu, Chongjian; Xu, Qin

    2009-09-01

    A new scheme is developed to improve the ensemble-based 4-D variational data assimilation (En4DVar). In this scheme, leading singular vectors are extracted from 4-D ensemble perturbations in a hybrid space and then used to construct the analysis increment to fit the 4-D innovation (observation minus background) data. The hybrid space combines the 4-D observation space with only a gridded 3-D subspace at the end of each assimilation cycle, so its dimension can be much smaller than the dimension of the fully gridded 4-D space used in the original En4DVar. This improves the computational efficiency. With this hybrid space approach, the analysis increment can fit the 4-D innovation data in the observation space directly and also provide the necessary initial condition in the gridded 3-D subspace exclusively for the model integration into the next assimilation cycle, so the background covariance matrix can be and only needs to be constructed by the ensemble perturbations in the 3-D subspace. This reduces the rank deficiency of the ensemble-constructed covariance matrix and improves analysis accuracy as long as the observations are not too sparse. The potential merits of the new scheme are demonstrated by assimilation experiments performed with an imperfect shallow-water equation model and simulated observations.

  10. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with <= 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpch <= s <= 180Mpc/h. Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  11. NASA's New Approach for Evaluating Risk Reduction Due to Space Shuttle Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Belyeu, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASA's intensive effort to incorporate quantitative risk assessment (QRA) tools in the Agency's decision-making process concerning Space Shuttle risk, NASA has developed a powerful risk assessment tool called the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS). The QRAS is a tool designed to estimate Space Shuttle risk and evaluate Space Shuttle upgrades. This paper presents an overview of the QRAS with focus on its application for evaluating the risk reduction due to proposed Space Shuttle upgrades. The application includes a case study from the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME). The QRAS overview section of the paper includes the QRAS development process, the technical approach to model development, the QRA quantification methods and techniques, and observations concerning the complex modeling involved in QRAS. The application section of the paper describes a practical case study using QRAS models for evaluating critical Space Shuttle Program upgrades, specifically a proposed SSME nozzle upgrade. This paper presents the method for evaluating the proposed upgrade by comparing the current nozzle (old design with well-established probabilistic models) to the channel wall nozzle (new design at the preliminary design level).

  12. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  13. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  14. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  15. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  16. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  17. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Subfascial Calf Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Andjelkov, Katarina; Sforza, Marcos; Husein, Rodwan; Atanasijevic, Tatjana C; Popovic, Vesna M

    2017-03-01

    Calf augmentation surgery is one of the least popular procedures among plastic surgeons; in contrast, it is by far one of the most gratifying procedures among patients. In this article, the authors present a retrospective analysis of a surgeon's extensive experience with calf implants. The authors retrospectively analyzed 134 patients having calf augmentation for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in their practice from 2003 to 2015. All patients were divided into two groups: primary cases and patients who had previously been operated on and who were referred to our service as patients who had complications after calf augmentation surgery. The subfascial approach was the preferred approach by authors for all primary cases. The authors analyzed indications, complication rates, results, and pitfalls. Secondary cases were further divided into three groups according to the origin of the problem and some possible solutions. Subfascial calf augmentation surgery is safe and easy to reproduce, with a short recovery period and a low complication rate (<1 percent). To achieve the best aesthetic results, surgeons should choose appropriate implants for each case. In secondary cases, fat grafting is a powerful tool and can be used alone or in combination with calf implants. There are several groups of patients seeking calf augmentation surgery (e.g., bodybuilders, women, those with reconstructive problems). Therefore, treatment should be planned individually. The development of a new implant is necessary and should be based on detailed anatomical findings and in accordance with surgical techniques. The process is intriguing and rewarding. Therapeutic, V.

  19. DMS augmented monitoring and diganosis application (DMS AMDA) prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Boyd, Mark A.; Iverson, David L.; Donnell, Brian; Lauritsen, Janet; Doubek, Sharon; Gibson, Jim; Monahan, Christine; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The Data Management System Augmented Monitoring and Diagnosis Application (DMS AMDA) is currently under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). It will provide automated monitoring and diagnosis capabilities for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) in the Control Center Complex (CCC) at NASA Johnson Space Center. Several advanced automation applications are under development for use in the CCC for other SSF subsystems. The DMS AMDA, however, is the first application to utilize digraph failure analysis techniques and the Extended Realtime FEAT (ERF) application as the core of its diagnostic system design, since the other projects were begun before the digraph tools were available. Model-based diagnosis and expert systems techniques will provide additional capabilities and augment ERF where appropriate. Utilization of system knowledge captured in the design phase of a system in digraphs should result in both a cost savings and a technical advantage during implementation of the diagnostic software. This paper addresses both the programmatic and technical considerations of this approach, and describes the software design and initial prototyping effort.

  20. DMS augmented monitoring and diganosis application (DMS AMDA) prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Boyd, Mark A.; Iverson, David L.; Donnell, Brian; Lauritsen, Janet; Doubek, Sharon; Gibson, Jim; Monahan, Christine; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The Data Management System Augmented Monitoring and Diagnosis Application (DMS AMDA) is currently under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). It will provide automated monitoring and diagnosis capabilities for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) in the Control Center Complex (CCC) at NASA Johnson Space Center. Several advanced automation applications are under development for use in the CCC for other SSF subsystems. The DMS AMDA, however, is the first application to utilize digraph failure analysis techniques and the Extended Realtime FEAT (ERF) application as the core of its diagnostic system design, since the other projects were begun before the digraph tools were available. Model-based diagnosis and expert systems techniques will provide additional capabilities and augment ERF where appropriate. Utilization of system knowledge captured in the design phase of a system in digraphs should result in both a cost savings and a technical advantage during implementation of the diagnostic software. This paper addresses both the programmatic and technical considerations of this approach, and describes the software design and initial prototyping effort.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Thrust Augmentation of NEP Based Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Gilbert; Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Chiroux, Robert; Pervan, Sherry; Rauwolf, Gerald A.; White, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), with support from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has conducted a preliminary study to compare options for augmenting the thrust of a conventional nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system. These options include a novel nuclear propulsion system concept known as Hybrid Indirect Nuclear Propulsion (HINP) and conventional chemical propulsion. The utility and technical feasibility of the HINP concept are assessed, and features and potential of this new in-space propulsion system concept are identified. As part of the study, SAIC developed top-level design tools to model the size and performance of an HINP system, as well as for several chemical propulsion options, including liquid and gelled propellants. A mission trade study was performed to compare a representative HINP system with chemical propulsion options for thrust augmentation of NEP systems for a mission to Saturn's moon Titan. Details pertaining to the approach, features, initial demonstration results for HINP model development, and the mission trade study are presented. Key technology and design issues associated with the HINP concept and future work recommendations are also identified.

  2. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  3. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  4. Autonomous space target recognition and tracking approach using star sensors based on a Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Zhou, Fuqiang

    2015-04-10

    When imaged by detectors, space targets (including satellites and debris) and background stars have similar point-spread functions, and both objects appear to change as detectors track targets. Therefore, traditional tracking methods cannot separate targets from stars and cannot directly recognize targets in 2D images. Consequently, we propose an autonomous space target recognition and tracking approach using a star sensor technique and a Kalman filter (KF). A two-step method for subpixel-scale detection of star objects (including stars and targets) is developed, and the combination of the star sensor technique and a KF is used to track targets. The experimental results show that the proposed method is adequate for autonomously recognizing and tracking space targets.

  5. The NASA Space Launch System Program Systems Engineering Approach for Affordability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, John J.; Whitehead, Josh; Hanson, John

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently developing the Space Launch System to provide the United States with a capability to launch large Payloads into Low Earth orbit and deep space. One of the development tenets of the SLS Program is affordability. One initiative to enhance affordability is the SLS approach to requirements definition, verification and system certification. The key aspects of this initiative include: 1) Minimizing the number of requirements, 2) Elimination of explicit verification requirements, 3) Use of certified models of subsystem capability in lieu of requirements when appropriate and 4) Certification of capability beyond minimum required capability. Implementation of each aspect is described and compared to a "typical" systems engineering implementation, including a discussion of relative risk. Examples of each implementation within the SLS Program are provided.

  6. Approaches in the Determination of Plant Nutrient Uptake and Distribution in Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which may impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the nuclides Ca45 and Fe59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  7. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  8. Approaches in the Determination of Plant Nutrient Uptake and Distribution in Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which may impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the nuclides Ca45 and Fe59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  9. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Heyenga, A G; Forsman, A; Stodieck, L S; Hoehn, A; Kliss, M

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  10. Analytic halo approach to the bispectrum of galaxies in redshift space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nan, Yue; Hikage, Chiaki

    2017-02-01

    We present an analytic formula for the galaxy bispectrum in redshift space on the basis of the halo approach description with the halo occupation distribution of central galaxies and satellite galaxies. This work is an extension of a previous work on the galaxy power spectrum, which illuminated the significant contribution of satellite galaxies to the higher multipole spectrum through the nonlinear redshift space distortions of their random motions. Behaviors of the multipoles of the bispectrum are compared with results of numerical simulations assuming a halo occupation distribution of the low-redshift (LOWZ) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey (BOSS) survey. Also presented are analytic approximate formulas for the multipoles of the bispectrum, which is useful to understanding their characteristic properties. We demonstrate that the Fingers of God effect is quite important for the higher multipoles of the bispectrum in redshift space, depending on the halo occupation distribution parameters.

  11. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  12. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomes, Edmund P.; Dagle, Jefferey E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Noffsinger, Kent E.

    1991-01-01

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as ``return on investment'' and ``commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed. This integrated approach will win the Congressional support needed to secure the financial backing necessary to assure

  13. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part IV: perturbation theory applied to dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Baldauf, Tobias; McDonald, Patrick; Okumura, Teppei E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr

    2012-11-01

    We develop a perturbative approach to redshift space distortions (RSD) using the phase space distribution function approach and apply it to the dark matter redshift space power spectrum and its moments. RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moments correlators, with the lowest order being density, momentum density and stress energy density. We use standard and extended perturbation theory (PT) to determine their auto and cross correlators, comparing them to N-body simulations. We show which of the terms can be modeled well with the standard PT and which need additional terms that include higher order corrections which cannot be modeled in PT. Most of these additional terms are related to the small scale velocity dispersion effects, the so called finger of god (FoG) effects, which affect some, but not all, of the terms in this expansion, and which can be approximately modeled using a simple physically motivated ansatz such as the halo model. We point out that there are several velocity dispersions that enter into the detailed RSD analysis with very different amplitudes, which can be approximately predicted by the halo model. In contrast to previous models our approach systematically includes all of the terms at a given order in PT and provides a physical interpretation for the small scale dispersion values. We investigate RSD power spectrum as a function of μ, the cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, focusing on the lowest order powers of μ and multipole moments which dominate the observable RSD power spectrum. Overall we find considerable success in modeling many, but not all, of the terms in this expansion. This is similar to the situation in real space, but predicting power spectrum in redshift space is more difficult because of the explicit influence of small scale dispersion type effects in RSD, which extend to very large scales.

  14. New pharmacologic approaches to the prevention of space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Macdonald, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental approaches used in the selection of new agents for the evaluation in the prevention of space-motion sickness (SMS) are reviewed, with emphasis on drugs under investigation at the Johnson Space Center. These approaches are: (1) the selection of agents from drug classes that possess pharmacologic properties of established antimotion sickness agents, (2) the selection of drugs that are used to prevent emesis caused by means other than the exposure to motion, and (3) basic research that characterizes individual differences in susceptibility to SMS. In the latter type of studies, it was found that subjects who were more resistant to SMS had higher plasma AVP after severe nausea than subjects with lower resistance. The review details the experimental data collected on AVP and adrenocorticotropin. It is noted that data support interrelated roles for AVP and opioid peptides in SMS.

  15. Surgical technique: The intercostal space approach to the internal mammary vessels in 463 microvascular breast reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Catharine M; Smit, Jeroen M; Audolfsson, Thorir; Acosta, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The internal mammary vessels are one of the most frequently used recipient sites for microsurgical free-flap breast reconstruction, and an accepted technique to expose these vessels involves removal of a segment of costal cartilage of the rib. However, in some patients, cartilage removal may result in a visible medial chest-wall depression that requires corrective procedures. We, therefore, use an intercostal space approach to the internal mammary vessels, as there is minimal disturbance of the costal cartilage with this technique. We have developed and performed our technique over an 8-year period in 463 microvascular breast reconstructions, and present it here as it contains modifications not previously described that may be of interest to other surgeons. There was no serious morbidity associated with the intercostal space approach, the internal mammary vessels were reliably and safely exposed in all these cases and the flap success rate was 95.8%. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A Scale-Space Approach for Image Registration of Vessel Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Stefan; Papenberg, Nils

    We present a multi-scale approach for non-rigid image registration of tubular tree-like structures such as vessels. Therefore, we consider a Gaussian and a combined morphological and Gaussian scale-space. Similar to a multi-level framework, we solve a sequence of registration problems on several scale-space levels using a standard variational approach for non-liner volumetric image registration. The overall idea is to avoid locally ambiguous mappings between parts of the images by removing morphological details but also finding a global optimal solution by spreading remaining local information using Gaussian scaling. We successfully tested our method on registration of 3D CT and ultrasound images of hepatic vessels.

  17. New pharmacologic approaches to the prevention of space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Macdonald, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental approaches used in the selection of new agents for the evaluation in the prevention of space-motion sickness (SMS) are reviewed, with emphasis on drugs under investigation at the Johnson Space Center. These approaches are: (1) the selection of agents from drug classes that possess pharmacologic properties of established antimotion sickness agents, (2) the selection of drugs that are used to prevent emesis caused by means other than the exposure to motion, and (3) basic research that characterizes individual differences in susceptibility to SMS. In the latter type of studies, it was found that subjects who were more resistant to SMS had higher plasma AVP after severe nausea than subjects with lower resistance. The review details the experimental data collected on AVP and adrenocorticotropin. It is noted that data support interrelated roles for AVP and opioid peptides in SMS.

  18. Design of a final approach spacing tool for TRACON air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz; Bergeron, Hugh

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an automation tool that assists air traffic controllers in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Facilities in providing safe and efficient sequencing and spacing of arrival traffic. The automation tool, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), allows the controller to interactively choose various levels of automation and advisory information ranging from predicted time errors to speed and heading advisories for controlling time error. FAST also uses a timeline to display current scheduling and sequencing information for all aircraft in the TRACON airspace. FAST combines accurate predictive algorithms and state-of-the-art mouse and graphical interface technology to present advisory information to the controller. Furthermore, FAST exchanges various types of traffic information and communicates with automation tools being developed for the Air Route Traffic Control Center. Thus it is part of an integrated traffic management system for arrival traffic at major terminal areas.

  19. The Opportunity in Commercial Approaches for Future NASA Deep Space Exploration Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, NASA released a report assessing the market for commercial crew and cargo services to low Earth orbit (LEO). The report stated that NASA had spent a few hundred million dollars in the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program on the portion related to the development of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle. Yet a NASA cost model predicted the cost would have been significantly more with a non-commercial cost-plus contracting approach. By 2016 a NASA request for information stated it must "maximize the efficiency and sustainability of the Exploration Systems development programs", as "critical to free resources for reinvestment...such as other required deep space exploration capabilities." This work joins the previous two events, showing the potential for commercial, public private partnerships, modeled on programs like COTS, to reduce the cost to NASA significantly for "...other required deep space exploration capabilities." These other capabilities include landers, stages and more. We mature the concept of "costed baseball cards", adding cost estimates to NASA's space systems "baseball cards." We show some potential costs, including analysis, the basis of estimates, data sources and caveats to address a critical question - based on initial assessment, are significant agency resources justified for more detailed analysis and due diligence to understand and invest in public private partnerships for human deep space exploration systems? The cost analysis spans commercial to cost-plus contracting approaches, for smaller elements vs. larger, with some variation for lunar or Mars. By extension, we delve briefly into the potentially much broader significance of the individual cost estimates if taken together as a NASA investment portfolio where public private partnership are stitched together for deep space exploration. How might multiple improvements in individual systems add up to NASA human deep space exploration achievements, realistically, affordably

  20. Experimental Studies Of Pilot Performance At Collision Avoidance During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Efforts to increase airport capacity include studies of aircraft systems that would enable simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runway in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The time-critical nature of a parallel approach results in key design issues for current and future collision avoidance systems. Two part-task flight simulator studies have examined the procedural and display issues inherent in such a time-critical task, the interaction of the pilot with a collision avoidance system, and the alerting criteria and avoidance maneuvers preferred by subjects.

  1. A new approach to long-life noncontacting electromechanical devices. [for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devine, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    Brushless dc motors are finding increasing application in space. Likewise, with the advent of the light emitting diode, noncontacting encoders are gradually replacing sliding contact types. The direct drive concept has proved its merit and is now the preferred approach for tape recorders and low to moderate torque instrument drives. The final step in this evolution is the magnetic bearing, which now appears feasible for several applications. Where it can be applied in a totally noncontacting system, life and reliability will be a function of the electronic controls, where redundancy, derating, and quality assurance approaches virtually assure the desired lifetime and failure rate.

  2. A Principled Approach to the Specification of System Architectures for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L. Jr.; Castillo, Robert; Bonanne, Kevin; Bonnici, Michael; Cox, Brian; Gibson, Corrina; Leon, Juan P.; Gomez-Mustafa, Jose; Jimenez, Alejandro; Madni, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Modern space systems are increasing in complexity and scale at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, innovative methods, processes, and tools are needed to cope with the increasing complexity of architecting these systems. A key systems challenge in practice is the ability to scale processes, methods, and tools used to architect complex space systems. Traditionally, the process for specifying space system architectures has largely relied on capturing the system architecture in informal descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled design documents and domain expertise. Such informal descriptions often lead to misunderstandings between design teams, ambiguous specifications, difficulty in maintaining consistency as the architecture evolves throughout the system development life cycle, and costly design iterations. Therefore, traditional methods are becoming increasingly inefficient to cope with ever-increasing system complexity. We apply the principles of component-based design and platform-based design to the development of the system architecture for a practical space system to demonstrate feasibility of our approach using SysML. Our results show that we are able to apply a systematic design method to manage system complexity, thus enabling effective data management, semantic coherence and traceability across different levels of abstraction in the design chain. Just as important, our approach enables interoperability among heterogeneous tools in a concurrent engineering model based design environment.

  3. Space-time adaptive approach to variational data assimilation using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souopgui, Innocent; Wieland, Scott A.; Yousuff Hussaini, M.; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on one of the main challenges of 4-dimensional variational data assimilation, namely the requirement to have a forward solution available when solving the adjoint problem. The issue is addressed by considering the time in the same fashion as the space variables, reformulating the mathematical model in the entire space-time domain, and solving the problem on a near optimal computational mesh that automatically adapts to spatio-temporal structures of the solution. The compressed form of the solution eliminates the need to save or recompute data for every time slice as it is typically done in traditional time marching approaches to 4-dimensional variational data assimilation. The reduction of the required computational degrees of freedom is achieved using the compression properties of multi-dimensional second generation wavelets. The simultaneous space-time discretization of both the forward and the adjoint models makes it possible to solve both models either concurrently or sequentially. In addition, the grid adaptation reduces the amount of saved data to the strict minimum for a given a priori controlled accuracy of the solution. The proposed approach is demonstrated for the advection diffusion problem in two space-time dimensions.

  4. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  5. Practical approaches to handle the singularities of a wrist-partitioned space manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. However, the control methods based on the inverse kinematics are affected by singularities. In this paper, practical approaches are proposed to solve the problems of a wrist-partitioned space manipulator. For spacecraft-referenced end-point motion control, we presented the singularity separation plus damped reciprocal (SSPDR) method, which separates the singularity parameters from the inverse of the Jacobian, and replaces their reciprocals using the damped reciprocals. For another control strategy, i.e. inertially referenced end-point motion control, including spacecraft attitude-controlled mode and free-floating mode, the linear momentum equation is used to eliminate three independent variables. With modifying some expressions, the SSPDR method is utilized to solve the singularities of spacecraft attitude-controlled space robot. When the space robot is free-floating, the singularities, i.e. the so-called dynamic singularities, cannot be predicted according to its kinematic structure. Combining with the measured angular velocity of the base, the dynamic singularity handling problem is transformed into real-time kinematic singularity avoiding problem, which can be solved by the SSPDR method. Since the SVD decomposition, the estimation of the minimum singularity value, and the calculation of the generalized Jacobian matrix are not required, the algorithm has lower computation load. Another advantage is that, only the accuracy of part velocity components is reduced by adding the damped coefficients. Simulation results verify the proposed approaches.

  6. Approaching the new reality. [changes in NASA space programs due to US economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Al V.

    1993-01-01

    The focus on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions, and on NASA's role as a source of technological advance within the U.S. economy is discussed. The Pluto fast flyby mission is examined as an illustration of this approach. Testbeds are to be developed to survive individual programs, becoming permanent facilities, to allow for technological upgrades on an ongoing basis.

  7. Approaching the new reality. [changes in NASA space programs due to US economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Al V.

    1993-01-01

    The focus on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions, and on NASA's role as a source of technological advance within the U.S. economy is discussed. The Pluto fast flyby mission is examined as an illustration of this approach. Testbeds are to be developed to survive individual programs, becoming permanent facilities, to allow for technological upgrades on an ongoing basis.

  8. Charge density wave depinning transition: a real space renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglioti, E.; Celino, M.

    1993-01-01

    We study analytically and numerically the depinning transition of a pinned charge density wave. We introduce a real space renormalization group approach with the method of decimation, which allows to determine the threshold both in the strong and weak pinning limit. We also perform a numerical renormalization of the system that allows to avoid the difficulties due to the large fluctuations in the weak pinning limit. The analytical results turn out to be in good agreement with the simulations.

  9. Kinetic Rate Kernels via Hierarchical Liouville-Space Projection Operator Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-05-19

    Kinetic rate kernels in general multisite systems are formulated on the basis of a nonperturbative quantum dissipation theory, the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) formalism, together with the Nakajima-Zwanzig projection operator technique. The present approach exploits the HEOM-space linear algebra. The quantum non-Markovian site-to-site transfer rate can be faithfully evaluated via projected HEOM dynamics. The developed method is exact, as evident by the comparison to the direct HEOM evaluation results on the population evolution.

  10. Control structure interactions in large space structures Analysis using energy approach. [for constant and pulsed thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrivastava, S. K.; Ried, R. C.; Manoharan, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    A simple energy approach to study the problem of control structure interactions in large space structures is presented. For the illustrative cases of free-free beam and free rectangular plate, the vibrational energy imparted during operation of constant and pulsed thrusters is found in a nondimensional form. Then based on a parametric study, suggestions are made on the choice of the thruster location and parameters to minimize the control structure interactions.

  11. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  12. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes.

  13. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  14. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  15. Computer Augmented Video Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)

  16. Computer Augmented Video Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)

  17. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  18. Using a Space Filling Curve Approach for the Management of Dynamic Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psomadaki, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Tijssen, T. P. M.; Baart, F.

    2016-10-01

    Point cloud usage has increased over the years. The development of low-cost sensors makes it now possible to acquire frequent point cloud measurements on a short time period (day, hour, second). Based on the requirements coming from the coastal monitoring domain, we have developed, implemented and benchmarked a spatio-temporal point cloud data management solution. For this reason, we make use of the flat model approach (one point per row) in an Index Organised Table within a RDBMS and an improved spatio-temporal organisation using a Space Filling Curve approach. Two variants coming from two extremes of the space-time continuum are also taken into account, along with two treatments of the z dimension: as attribute or as part of the space filling curve. Through executing a benchmark we elaborate on the performance - loading and querying time -, and storage required by those different approaches. Finally, we validate the correctness and suitability of our method, through an out-of-the-box way of managing dynamic point clouds.

  19. State-Space Approach to Structural Representation of Perturbed Pitch Period Sequences in Voice Signals.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Gabriel A; Schlotthauer, Gastón; Torres, María E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a state space-based approach to model perturbed pitch period sequences (PPSs), extracted from real sustained vowels, combining the principal features of disturbed real PPSs with structural analysis of stochastic time series and state space methods. The PPSs were obtained from a database composed of 53 healthy subjects. State space models were developed taking into account different structures and complexity levels. PPS features such as trend, cycle, and irregular structures were considered. Model parameters were calculated using optimization procedures. For each PPS, state estimates were obtained combining the developed models and diffuse initialization with filtering and smoothing methods. Statistical tests were applied to objectively evaluate the performance of this method. Statistical tests demonstrated that the proposed approach correctly represented more than the 75% of the database with a significance value of 0.05. In the analysis, structural estimates suitably characterized the dynamics of the PPSs. Trend estimates proved to properly represent slow long-term dynamics, whereas cycle estimates captured short-term autoregressive dependencies. The present study demonstrated that the proposed approach is suitable for representing and analyzing real perturbed PPSs, also allowing to extract further information related to the phonation process. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.