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Sample records for augments chemoreflex control

  1. Circadian rhythms in the chemoreflex control of breathing.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, R; Mohan, R M; Duffin, J; Jarsky, T M

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the circadian rhythm in lung ventilation were investigated. Ten healthy male subjects were studied for 36 h using a constant routine protocol to minimize potentially confounding variables. Laboratory light, humidity, and temperature remained constant, subjects did not sleep, and their meals and activities were held to a strict schedule. Respiratory chemoreflex responses were measured every 3 h using an iso-oxic rebreathing technique incorporating prior hyperventilation. Subjects exhibited circadian rhythms in oral temperature and respiratory chemoreflex responses, but not in metabolic rate. Basal ventilation [i.e., at subthreshold end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PET(CO(2)))] did not vary with time of day, but the ventilatory response to suprathreshold PET(CO(2)) exhibited a rhythm amplitude of approximately 25%, mediated mainly by circadian variations in the CO(2) threshold for tidal volume. We conclude that the circadian rhythm in lung ventilation is not a simple consequence of circadian variations in arousal state and metabolic rate. By raising the chemoreflex threshold, the circadian timing system may increase the propensity for respiratory instability at night.

  2. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  3. Exercise training improves peripheral chemoreflex function in heart failure rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Long; Ding, Yanfeng; Agnew, Chad; Schultz, Harold D

    2008-09-01

    An enhancement of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. The enhanced chemoreflex function in CHF involves augmented carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity via upregulation of the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 (AT(1))-receptor pathway and downregulation of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the CB. Here we investigated whether exercise training (EXT) normalizes the enhanced peripheral chemoreflex function in CHF rabbits and possible mechanisms mediating this effect. EXT partially, but not fully, normalized the exaggerated baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the response of RSNA to hypoxia in CHF rabbits. EXT also decreased the baseline CB nerve single-fiber discharge (4.9 +/- 0.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 0.4 imp/s at Po(2) = 103 +/- 2.3 Torr) and the response to hypoxia (20.6 +/- 1.1 vs. 36.3 +/- 1.3 imp/s at Po(2) = 41 +/- 2.2 Torr) from CB chemoreceptors in CHF rabbits, which could be reversed by treatment of the CB with ANG II or a nNOS inhibitor. Our results also showed that NO concentration and protein expression of nNOS were increased in the CBs from EXT + CHF rabbits, compared with that in CHF rabbits. On the other hand, elevated ANG II concentration and AT(1)-receptor overexpression of the CBs in CHF state were blunted by EXT. These results indicate that EXT normalizes the CB chemoreflex in CHF by preventing an increase in afferent CB chemoreceptor activity. EXT reverses the alterations in the nNOS-NO and ANG II-AT(1)-receptor pathways in the CB responsible for chemoreceptor sensitization in CHF.

  4. Central chemoreflex activation induces sympatho-excitation without altering static or dynamic baroreflex function in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Saku, Keita; Tohyama, Takeshi; Shinoda, Masako; Kishi, Takuya; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Nishikawa, Takuya; Oga, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Central chemoreflex activation induces sympatho-excitation. However, how central chemoreflex interacts with baroreflex function remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the impact of central chemoreflex on the dynamic as well as static baroreflex functions under open-loop conditions. In 15 anesthetized, vagotomized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses and controlled intra-sinus pressure (CSP). We then recorded sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) at the celiac ganglia, and activated central chemoreflex by a gas mixture containing various concentrations of CO2 Under the baroreflex open-loop condition (CSP = 100 mmHg), central chemoreflex activation linearly increased SNA and arterial pressure (AP). To examine the static baroreflex function, we increased CSP stepwise from 60 to 170 mmHg and measured steady-state SNA responses to CSP (mechanoneural arc), and AP responses to SNA (neuromechanical arc). Central chemoreflex activation by inhaling 3% CO2 significantly increased SNA irrespective of CSP, indicating resetting of the mechanoneural arc, but did not change the neuromechanical arc. As a result, central chemoreflex activation did not change baroreflex maximum total loop gain significantly (-1.29 ± 0.27 vs. -1.68 ± 0.74, N.S.). To examine the dynamic baroreflex function, we randomly perturbed CSP and estimated transfer functions from 0.01 to 1.0 Hz. The transfer function of the mechanoneural arc approximated a high-pass filter, while those of the neuromechanical arc and total (CSP-AP relationship) arcs approximated a low-pass filter. In conclusion, central chemoreflex activation did not alter the transfer function of the mechanoneural, neuromechanical, or total arcs. Central chemoreflex modifies hemodynamics via sympatho-excitation without compromising dynamic or static baroreflex AP buffering function. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the

  5. Parasympathetic activation by pyridostigmine on chemoreflex sensitivity in heart-failure rats.

    PubMed

    Sabino, João Paulo J; da Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; Giusti, Humberto; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Salgado, Helio C; Fazan, Rubens

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of parasympathetic activation by pyridostigmine (PYR) on chemoreflex sensitivity in a rat model of heart failure (HF rats). HF rats demonstrated higher pulmonary ventilation (PV), which was not affected by PYR. When HF and control rats treated or untreated with PYR were exposed to 15% O2, all groups exhibited prompt increases in respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (TV) and PV. When HF rats were exposed to 10% O2 they showed greater PV response which was prevented by PYR. The hypercapnia triggered by either 5% CO2 or 10% CO2 promoted greater RF and PV responses in HF rats. PYR blunted the RF response in HF rats but did not affect the PV response. In conclusion, PYR prevented increased peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity, partially blunted central chemoreflex sensitivity and did not affect basal PV in HF rats. © 2013.

  6. Endurance training attenuates the increase in peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity with intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amanda J; Sauder, Charity L; Cauffman, Aimee E; Blaha, Cheryl A; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2017-02-01

    Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 yr) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent 8 wk of endurance training that included running four times/wk at 80% predicted maximum heart rate and interval training, and four control subjects did not change activity. Chemoreflex sensitivity (the slope of ventilation responses to serial oxygen desaturations), blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were assessed before and after 30 min of IH. Endurance training decreased resting systolic blood pressure (119 ± 3 to 113 ± 3 mmHg; P = 0.027) and heart rate (67 ± 3 to 61 ± 2 beats/min; P = 0.004) but did not alter respiratory parameters at rest (P > 0.2). Endurance training attenuated the IH-induced increase in chemoreflex sensitivity (pretraining: Δ 0.045 ± 0.026 vs. posttraining: Δ -0.028 ± 0.040 l·min(-1)·% O2 desaturation(-1); P = 0.045). Furthermore, IH increased mean blood pressure and MSNA burst rate before training (P < 0.05), but IH did not alter these measures after training (P > 0.2). All measurements were similar in the control subjects at both visits (P > 0.05). Endurance training attenuates chemoreflex sensitization to IH, which may partially explain the beneficial effects of exercise training in patients with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  8. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  9. Behavior sensitivities for control augmented structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, R. A.; Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years it has been recognized that combining passive structural design methods with active control techniques offers the prospect of being able to find substantially improved designs. These developments have stimulated interest in augmenting structural synthesis by adding active control system design variables to those usually considered in structural optimization. An essential step in extending the approximation concepts approach to control augmented structural synthesis is the development of a behavior sensitivity analysis capability for determining rates of change of dynamic response quantities with respect to changes in structural and control system design variables. Behavior sensitivity information is also useful for man-machine interactive design as well as in the context of system identification studies. Behavior sensitivity formulations for both steady state and transient response are presented and the quality of the resulting derivative information is evaluated.

  10. Augmented Lagrangian method for optimal laser control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hai; Dussault, Jean-Pierre; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    1994-06-01

    We use penalty methods derived from Augmented Lagrangians coupled with unitary exponential operator methods to solve the optimal control problem for molecular time-dependent Schodinger equations involving laser pulse excitations. A stable numerical algorithm is presented which propagates directly from initial states to given final states. Results are reported for an analytically solvable model for the complete inversion of a three-state system.

  11. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  12. Cardiac diastolic and autonomic dysfunction are aggravated by central chemoreflex activation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Camilo; Andrade, David C; Lucero, Claudia; Arce-Alvarez, Alexis; Díaz, Hugo S; Aliaga, Valentín; Schultz, Harold D; Marcus, Noah J; Manríquez, Mónica; Faúndez, Marcelo; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2017-04-15

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with disordered breathing patterns, and sympatho-vagal imbalance. Although it is well accepted that altered peripheral chemoreflex control plays a role in the progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying deterioration of cardiac function in HFpEF are poorly understood. We found that central chemoreflex is enhanced in HFpEF and neuronal activation is increased in pre-sympathetic regions of the brainstem. Our data showed that activation of the central chemoreflex pathway in HFpEF exacerbates diastolic dysfunction, worsens sympatho-vagal imbalance and markedly increases the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in rats with HFpEF. Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) display irregular breathing, sympatho-vagal imbalance, arrhythmias and diastolic dysfunction. It has been shown that tonic activation of the central and peripheral chemoreflex pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of HF with reduced ejection fraction. In contrast, no studies to date have addressed chemoreflex function or its effect on cardiac function in HFpEF. Therefore, we tested whether peripheral and central chemoreflexes are hyperactive in HFpEF and if chemoreflex activation exacerbates cardiac dysfunction and autonomic imbalance. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were subjected to sham or volume overload to induce HFpEF. Resting breathing variability, chemoreflex gain, cardiac function and sympatho-vagal balance, and arrhythmia incidence were studied. HFpEF rats displayed [mean ± SD; chronic heart failure (CHF) vs. Sham, respectively] a marked increase in the incidence of apnoeas/hypopnoeas (20.2 ± 4.0 vs. 9.7 ± 2.6 events h(-1) ), autonomic imbalance [0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 low/high frequency heart rate variability (LF/HFHRV )] and cardiac arrhythmias (196.0 ± 239.9 vs. 19.8 ± 21.7 events h(-1

  13. Acceleration-Augmented LQG Control of an Active Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    A linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) regulator controller design for an acceleration-augmented active magnetic bearing (AMB) is outlined. Acceleration augmentation is a key feature in providing improved dynamic performance of the controller. The optimal control formulation provides a convenient method of trading-off fast transient response and force attenuation as control objectives.

  14. Acceleration-augmented LQG control of an active magnetic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Joseph J.

    A linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) regulator controller design for an acceleration-augmented active magnetic bearing (AMB) is outlined. Acceleration augmentation is a key feature in providing improved dynamic performance of the controller. The optimal control formulation provides a convenient method of trading-off fast transient response and force attenuation as control objectives.

  15. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  16. Diet and exercise improve chemoreflex sensitivity in patients with metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Maki-Nunes, Cristiane; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Cepeda, Felipe X; Rondon, Maria Urbana P B; Alves, Maria-Janieire N N; Fraga, Raffael F; Braga, Ana Maria F W; Aguilar, Adriana M; Amaro, Aline C; Drager, Luciano F; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E; Trombetta, Ivani C

    2015-08-01

    Chemoreflex hypersensitity was caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study tested the hypothesis that hypocaloric diet and exercise training (D+ET) would improve peripheral and central chemoreflex sensitivity in patients with MetS and OSA. Patients were assigned to: (1) D+ET (n = 16) and (2) no intervention control (C, n = 8). Minute ventilation (VE, pre-calibrated pneumotachograph) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) were evaluated during peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity by inhalation of 10% O2 and 90% N2 with CO2 titrated and central chemoreflex by 7% CO2 and 93% O2 for 3 min at study entry and after 4 months. Peak VO2 was increased by D+ET; body weight, waist circumference, glucose levels, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (34 ± 5.1 vs. 18 ± 3.2 events/h, P = 0.04) were reduced by D+ET. MSNA was reduced by D+ET at rest and in response to hypoxia (8.6 ± 1.2 vs. 5.4 ± 0.6 bursts/min, P = 0.02), and VE in response to hypercapnia (14.8 ± 3.9 vs. 9.1 ± 1.2 l/min, P = 0.02). No changes were found in the C group. A positive correlation was found between AHI and MSNA absolute changes (R = 0.51, P = 0.01) and body weight and AHI absolute changes (R = 0.69, P < 0.001). Sympathetic peripheral and ventilatory central chemoreflex sensitivity was improved by D+ET in MetS+OSA patients, which may be associated with improvement in sleep pattern. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. STABILITY/CONTROL AUGMENTATION SYSTEM EVALUATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study was made to evaluate competency of pilots trained in aircraft having a stability augmentation system . This is to determine the necessity of... Augmentation System . When the students reached private pilot proficiency, they were given three flight checks. The first with the system on, the...was to train five students to required flight performance for a private pilot certificate in a Cherokee-140 equipped with the Mitchell AK-153 Stability

  18. Control-Volume Analysis Of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1990-01-01

    New method of analysis of transient flow in thrust-augmenting ejector based on control-volume formulation of governing equations. Considered as potential elements of propulsion subsystems of short-takeoff/vertical-landing airplanes.

  19. Activity of Tachykinin1-Expressing Pet1 Raphe Neurons Modulates the Respiratory Chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Morgan L; Corcoran, Andrea E; Brust, Rachael D; Chang, YoonJeung; Nattie, Eugene E; Dymecki, Susan M

    2017-02-15

    Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the serotonergic neuronal system, borne out in functional studies, for the modulation of distinct facets of homeostasis. Such functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to coexpress other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene. Here, we characterize in mice a 5-HT neuron subtype identified by expression of Tac1 and the serotonergic transcription factor gene Pet1, referred to as the Tac1-Pet1 neuron subtype. Transgenic cell labeling showed Tac1-Pet1 soma resident largely in the caudal medulla. Chemogenetic [clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)-hM4Di] perturbation of Tac1-Pet1 neuron activity blunted the ventilatory response of the respiratory CO2 chemoreflex, which normally augments ventilation in response to hypercapnic acidosis to restore normal pH and PCO2Tac1-Pet1 axonal boutons were found localized to brainstem areas implicated in respiratory modulation, with highest density in motor regions. These findings demonstrate that the activity of a Pet1 neuron subtype with the potential to release both 5-HT and substance P is necessary for normal respiratory dynamics, perhaps via motor outputs that engage muscles of respiration and maintain airway patency. These Tac1-Pet1 neurons may act downstream of Egr2-Pet1 serotonergic neurons, which were previously established in respiratory chemoreception, but do not innervate respiratory motor nuclei.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Serotonin (5-HT) neurons modulate physiological processes and behaviors as diverse as body temperature, respiration, aggression, and mood. Using genetic tools

  20. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  1. Experimental Investigations of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Stability Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A team of researchers from the Army Research Laboratory, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Bell Helicopter-Textron, Inc. have completed hover-cell and wind-tunnel testing of a 1/5-size aeroelastically-scaled tiltrotor model using a new active control system for stability augmentation. The active system is based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm originally developed at NASA LaRC in 1997 for un-known disturbance rejection. Results of these investigations show that GPC combined with an active swashplate can significantly augment the damping and stability of tiltrotors in both hover and high-speed flight.

  2. Active member bridge feedback control for damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gun-Shing; Lurie, Boris J.

    1992-01-01

    An active damping augmentation approach using active members in a structural system is described. The problem of maximizing the vibration damping in a lightly damped structural system is considered using the analogy of impedance matching between the load and source impedances in an electrical network. The proposed active damping augmentation approach therefore consists of finding the desired active member impedances that maximize the vibration damping, and designing a feedback control in order to achieve desired active member impedances. This study uses a bridge feedback concept that feeds back a combination of signals from sensors of the axial force and relative velocity across the active member to realize the desired active member impedance. The proposed active damping augmentation approach and bridge feedback concept were demonstrated on a three-longeron softly suspended truss structure.

  3. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  4. The Control Anticipation Parameter for Augmented Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-15

    time delay - sec Te2 - Pitch rate numerator time constant - sec-i V - Freestream velocity - ft/sec Z~ eZw - Normal force stability derivative due to...reference (f)) SHORT PERIOD CHARACTERISTICS CONTROL - 18.5 g/RAD "la 50 g/RAD SYSTEM V 1d 250 KT Vind350 KT CHARACTERISTICS t/;ir d - 1.25 SECI 1/t-,p

  5. Pilots Rate Augmented Generalized Predictive Control for Reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soloway, Don; Haley, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the results from the research being conducted in reconfigurable fight controls at NASA Ames. A study was conducted with three NASA Dryden test pilots to evaluate two approaches of reconfiguring an aircraft's control system when failures occur in the control surfaces and engine. NASA Ames is investigating both a Neural Generalized Predictive Control scheme and a Neural Network based Dynamic Inverse controller. This paper highlights the Predictive Control scheme where a simple augmentation to reduce zero steady-state error led to the neural network predictor model becoming redundant for the task. Instead of using a neural network predictor model, a nominal single point linear model was used and then augmented with an error corrector. This paper shows that the Generalized Predictive Controller and the Dynamic Inverse Neural Network controller perform equally well at reconfiguration, but with less rate requirements from the actuators. Also presented are the pilot ratings for each controller for various failure scenarios and two samples of the required control actuation during reconfiguration. Finally, the paper concludes by stepping through the Generalized Predictive Control's reconfiguration process for an elevator failure.

  6. Controlling coexisting attractors of an impacting system via linear augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Páez Chávez, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    This paper studies the control of coexisting attractors in an impacting system via a recently developed control law based on linear augmentation. Special attention is given to two control issues in the framework of multistable engineering systems, namely, the switching between coexisting attractors without altering the system's main parameters and the avoidance of grazing-induced chaotic responses. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is confirmed numerically for the case of a periodically excited, soft impact oscillator. Our analysis shows how path-following techniques for non-smooth systems can be used in order to determine the optimal control parameters in terms of energy expenditure due to the control signal and transient behavior of the control error, which can be applied to a broad range of engineering problems.

  7. Discrete model reference adaptive control with an augmented error signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionescu, T.; Monopoli, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method for designing discrete model reference adaptive control systems when one has access to only the plant's input and output signals is given. Controllers for single-input, single-output, nonlinear, nonautonomous plants are developed via Liapunov's second method. Anticipative values of the plant output are not required, but are replaced by signals easily obtained from a low-pass filter operating on the plant's output. The augmented error signal method is employed, ensuring finally that the normally used error signal also approaches zero asymptotically.

  8. Model reference adaptive control with an augmented error signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monopoli, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown how globally stable model reference adaptive control systems may be designed when one has access to only the plant's input and output signals. Controllers for single input-single output, nonlinear, nonautonomous plants are developed based on Lyapunov's direct method and the Meyer-Kalman-Yacubovich lemma. Derivatives of the plant output are not required, but are replaced by filtered derivative signals. An augmented error signal replaces the error normally used, which is defined as the difference between the model and plant outputs. However, global stability is assured in the sense that the normally used error signal approaches zero asymptotically.

  9. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  10. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to robustly demonstrate stable and high performance flight. On its development path to preliminary design review (PDR), the stability of the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant dynamics. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm previously presented by Orr and VanZwieten, has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies for which the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria (e.g. gain & phase margin). In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  11. Velocity vector control system augmented with direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tisdale, H. F., Sr.; Kelly, W. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pilot-controlled stability control system that employs direct lift control (spoiler control) with elevator control to control the flight path angle of an aircraft is described. A computer on the aircraft generates an elevator control signal and a spoiler control signal, using a pilot-controlled pitch control signal and pitch rate, vertical velocity, roll angle, groundspeed, engine pressure ratio and vertical acceleration signals which are generated on the aircraft. The direct lift control by the aircraft spoilers improves the response of the aircraft flight path angle and provides short term flight path stabilization against environmental disturbances.

  12. Design of a Helicopter Stability and Control Augmentation System Using Optimal Control Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    technique is described for the design of multivariable feedback controllers based upon results in optimal control theory . For a specified performance...helicopter flight envelope. The results show that optimal control theory can be used to design a helicopter stability and control augmentation system

  13. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  14. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  15. Control and Augmentation of Passive Porosity through Transpiration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for controlling pressure loading of a member caused by a fluid moving past the member or the member moving through a fluid. The device consists of a porous skin mounted over the solid surface of the member and separated from the solid surface by a plenum. Fluid from an area exerting high pressure on the member may enter the plenum through the porous surface and exit into an area exerting a lower pressure on the member, thus controlling pressure loading of the member. A transpirational control device controls the conditions within the plenum thus controlling the side force and yaw moment on the forebody.

  16. CMG-Augmented Control of a Hovering VTOL Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) can be used for stability augmentation to a thrust vectoring system for a generic Vertical Take-Off and Landing platform. The response characteristics of the platform which uses only thrust vectoring and a second configuration which includes a single-gimbal CMG array are simulated and compared for hovering flight while subject to severe air turbulence. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of a CMG array in its ability to significantly reduce the agility requirement on the thrust vectoring system. Albeit simplifying physical assumptions on a generic CMG configuration, the numerical results also suggest that reasonably sized CMGs will likely be sufficient for a small hovering vehicle.

  17. Mechanisms of carotid body chemoreflex dysfunction during heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Harold D.; Marcus, Noah J.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have drawn interest in the potential for carotid body (CB) ablation or desensitization as an effective strategy for clinical treatment and management of cardio-respiratory diseases including hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and renal failure. These disease states have in common sympathetic overactivity, which plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease and is often associated with breathing dysregulation, which in turn likely mediates or aggravates the autonomic imbalance. Evidence from both chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and animal models indicates that the CB chemoreflex is enhanced in CHF and contributes to the tonic elevation in sympathetic activity and the development of periodic breathing associated with the disease. Although this maladaptive change likely derives from altered function at all levels of the reflex arc, a tonic increase in afferent activity from CB glomus cells is likely to be a main driving force. This report will focus on our understanding of mechanisms that alter CB function in CHF and their potential translational impact on treatment of CHF. PMID:25398713

  18. Elevated body temperature enhances the laryngeal chemoreflex in decerebrate piglets.

    PubMed

    Curran, A K; Xia, L; Leiter, J C; Bartlett, D

    2005-03-01

    Hyperthermia and reflex apnea may both contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Therefore, we investigated the effect of increased body temperature on the inhibition of breathing produced by water injected into the larynx, which elicits the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR). We studied decerebrated, vagotomized, neonatal piglets aged 3-15 days. Blood pressure, end-tidal CO(2), body temperature, and phrenic nerve activity were recorded. To elicit the LCR, we infused 0.1 ml of distilled water through a polyethylene tube passed through the nose and positioned just rostral to the larynx. Three to five LCR trials were performed with the piglet at normal body temperature. The animal's core body temperature was raised by approximately 2.5 degrees C, and three to five LCR trials were performed before the animal was cooled, and three to five LCR trials were repeated. The respiratory inhibition associated with the LCR was substantially prolonged when body temperature was elevated. Thus elevated body temperature may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIDS by increasing the inhibitory effects of the LCR.

  19. Interactions between CO2 chemoreflexes and arterial baroreflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. A.; Lu, I. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied interactions between CO2 chemoreflexes and arterial baroreflexes in 10 supine healthy young men and women. We measured vagal carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes and steady-state fast Fourier transform R-R interval and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure power spectra at three arterial pressure levels (nitroprusside, saline, and phenylephrine infusions) and three end-tidal CO2 levels (3, 4, and 5%, fixed-frequency, large-tidal-volume breathing, CO2 plus O2). Our study supports three principal conclusions. First, although low levels of CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation reduce R-R intervals and R-R interval variability, statistical modeling suggests that this effect is indirect rather than direct and is mediated by reductions of arterial pressure. Second, reductions of R-R intervals during hypocapnia reflect simple shifting of vagally mediated carotid baroreflex responses on the R-R interval axis rather than changes of baroreflex gain, range, or operational point. Third, the influence of CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation on arterial pressure (and, derivatively, on R-R intervals and R-R interval variability) depends critically on baseline arterial pressure levels: chemoreceptor effects are smaller when pressure is low and larger when arterial pressure is high.

  20. Interactions between CO2 chemoreflexes and arterial baroreflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. A.; Lu, I. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied interactions between CO2 chemoreflexes and arterial baroreflexes in 10 supine healthy young men and women. We measured vagal carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes and steady-state fast Fourier transform R-R interval and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure power spectra at three arterial pressure levels (nitroprusside, saline, and phenylephrine infusions) and three end-tidal CO2 levels (3, 4, and 5%, fixed-frequency, large-tidal-volume breathing, CO2 plus O2). Our study supports three principal conclusions. First, although low levels of CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation reduce R-R intervals and R-R interval variability, statistical modeling suggests that this effect is indirect rather than direct and is mediated by reductions of arterial pressure. Second, reductions of R-R intervals during hypocapnia reflect simple shifting of vagally mediated carotid baroreflex responses on the R-R interval axis rather than changes of baroreflex gain, range, or operational point. Third, the influence of CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation on arterial pressure (and, derivatively, on R-R intervals and R-R interval variability) depends critically on baseline arterial pressure levels: chemoreceptor effects are smaller when pressure is low and larger when arterial pressure is high.

  1. An augmented reality binocular system (ARBS) for air traffic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbrook, Jim E.; Ruffner, John W.; Labbe, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The primary means by which air traffic tower controllers obtain information is through direct out-thewindow viewing, although a considerable amount of time is spent looking at electronic displays and other information sources inside the tower cab. The Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored the development of a prototype Augmented Reality Binocular System (ARBS) that enhances tower controller performance, situation awareness, and safety. The ARBS is composed of a virtual binocular (VB) that displays real-time imagery from high resolution telephoto cameras and sensors mounted on pan/tilt units (PTUs). The selected PTU tracks to the movement of the VB, which has an inertial heading and elevation sensor. Relevant airfield situation text and graphic depictions that identify airfield features are overlaid on the imagery. In addition, the display is capable of labeling and tracking vehicles on which an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system has been installed. The ARBS provides air traffic controllers and airfield security forces with the capability to orient toward, observe, and conduct continuous airfield operations and surveillance/security missions from any number of viewing aspects in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we describe the ARBS in detail, discuss the results of a Usability Test of the prototype ARBS, and discuss ideas for follow-on efforts to develop the ARBS to a fieldable level.

  2. Peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine: New insight into mechanisms of extreme apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dujic, Zeljko; Hoiland, Ryan L.; Barak, Otto F.; Madden, Dennis; Drvis, Ivan; Stembridge, Mike; MacLeod, David B.; MacLeod, Douglas M.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine on maximal apnea time, and the related hemodynamic and cerebrovascular responses in elite apnea divers. In a randomized order, participants performed a maximal apnea while receiving either intravenous 2 μg·kg−1·min−1 dopamine or volume-matched saline (placebo). The chemoreflex and hemodynamic response to dopamine was also assessed during hypoxia [arterial O2 tension, (PaO2) ∼35 mmHg] and mild hypercapnia [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) ∼46 mmHg] that mimicked the latter parts of apnea. Outcome measures included apnea duration, arterial blood gases (radial), heart rate (HR, ECG), mean arterial pressure (MAP, intra-arterial), middle (MCAv) and posterior (PCAv) cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial ultrasound), internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) artery blood flow (ultrasound), and the chemoreflex responses. Although dopamine depressed the ventilatory response by 27 ± 41% (vs. placebo; P = 0.01), the maximal apnea duration was increased by only 5 ± 8% (P = 0.02). The PaCO2 and PaO2 at apnea breakpoint were similar (P > 0.05). When compared with placebo, dopamine increased HR and decreased MAP during both apnea and chemoreflex test (P all <0.05). At rest, dopamine compared with placebo dilated the ICA (3.0 ± 4.1%, P = 0.05) and VA (6.6 ± 5.0%, P < 0.01). During apnea and chemoreflex test, conductance of the cerebral vessels (ICA, VA, MCAv, PCAv) was increased with dopamine; however, flow (ICA and VA) was similar. At least in elite apnea divers, the small increase in apnea time and similar PaO2 at breakpoint (∼31 mmHg) suggest the apnea breakpoint is more related to PaO2, rather than peripheral chemoreflex drive to breathe. PMID:26290106

  3. Chemoreflex and baroreflex alterations in Parkinsonism induced by 6-OHDA in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Deborah; Lopes, Fernanda Novi Cortegoso; Crestani, Carlos Cesar; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2015-10-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly characterized by motor signals. However, non-motor signals also affect and decrease the quality of life of PD patients. Among these non-motor signs are cardiovascular disorders as orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the involvement of both central nervous system and peripheral autonomic nervous system. In the present study we investigated the cardiovascular function, evaluating cardiovascular reflexes (chemoreflex and baroreflex), in an animal model of Parkinsonism induced by bilateral infusion of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The results showed that the animals induced to Parkinsonism had lower arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate HR) compared to control animals. We showed that after activation of the baroreceptors by phenylephrine (Phe) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the baroreflex sensitivity index was not changed between the groups. However, there was a greater increase in the AP when stimulated with Phe and greater tachycardia when stimulated with SNP in 6-OHDA animals. After activation of the peripheral chemoreceptors through KCN injection (cytotoxic hypoxia), there was a higher increase in pressor and bradycardic response in injured animals with bilateral 6-OHDA. These changes in the cardiovascular reflexes may be important adjustments mechanisms to maintain the cerebral blood flow in those animals, and may be a result of denervation supersensitivity to catecholamines in autonomic targets.

  4. Prediction of the Chemoreflex Gain by Common Clinical Variables in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mirizzi, Gianluca; Giannoni, Alberto; Ripoli, Andrea; Iudice, Giovanni; Bramanti, Francesca; Emdin, Michele; Passino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Peripheral and central chemoreflex sensitivity, assessed by the hypoxic or hypercapnic ventilatory response (HVR and HCVR, respectively), is enhanced in heart failure (HF) patients, is involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, and is under investigation as a potential therapeutic target. Chemoreflex sensitivity assessment is however demanding and, therefore, not easily applicable in the clinical setting. We aimed at evaluating whether common clinical variables, broadly obtained by routine clinical and instrumental evaluation, could predict increased HVR and HCVR. Methods and results 191 patients with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction—LVEF—<50%) underwent chemoreflex assessment by rebreathing technique to assess HVR and HCVR. All patients underwent clinical and neurohormonal evaluation, comprising: echocardiogram, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), daytime cardiorespiratory monitoring for breathing pattern evaluation. Regarding HVR, multivariate penalized logistic regression, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) logistic regression and random forest analysis identified, as predictors, the presence of periodic breathing and increased slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) during exercise. Again, the above-mentioned statistical tools identified as HCVR predictors plasma levels of N-terminal fragment of proBNP and VE/VCO2 slope. Conclusions In HF patients, the simple assessment of breathing pattern, alongside with ventilatory efficiency during exercise and natriuretic peptides levels identifies a subset of patients presenting with increased chemoreflex sensitivity to either hypoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:27099934

  5. Intra-individual variability in cerebrovascular and respiratory chemosensitivity: Can we characterize a chemoreflex "reactivity profile"?

    PubMed

    Borle, Kennedy J; Pfoh, Jamie R; Boulet, Lindsey M; Abrosimova, Maria; Tymko, Michael M; Skow, Rachel J; Varner, Amy; Day, Trevor A

    2017-03-06

    Intra-individual variability in the magnitude of human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflex responses is largely unexplored. By comparing response magnitudes of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR; middle and posterior cerebral arteries; MCA, PCA), central (CCR; CO2) and peripheral respiratory chemoreflexes (PCR; CO2 and O2), we tested the hypothesis that a within-individual reactivity magnitude profile could be characterized. The magnitudes of CVR and CCR were tested with hyperoxic rebreathing and PCR magnitudes were tested through transient respiratory tests (TT-CO2, hypercapnia; TT-N2, hypoxia). No significant intra-individual relationships were found between CCR vs. CVR (MCA and PCA), CCR vs. PCR (TT-N2 or TT-CO2) (r<0.2, P>0.3) response magnitudes. Statistically significant relationships were found between MCA vs. PCA reactivity (r=0.45, P<0.01) and PCR TT-N2 vs. PCR TT-CO2 (r=0.79, P<0.001) responses. Using qualitative and quantitative comparisons, we conclude that an intra-individual chemoreflex reactivity magnitude profile cannot be characterized. These data highlight the considerable between- and within-individual variability that exists in human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflexes.

  6. Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-28

    No. DODIG-2015-075 J A N U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 1 5 Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program...Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective To determine whether DoD was

  7. Effects of caffeine and/or nasal CPAP treatment on laryngeal chemoreflexes in preterm lambs.

    PubMed

    Boudaa, Nadia; Samson, Nathalie; Carrière, Vincent; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Bairam, Aida; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2013-03-01

    Current knowledge suggests that laryngeal chemoreflexes (LCR) are involved in the occurrence of certain neonatal apneas/bradycardias, especially in the preterm newborn. While caffeine and/or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) are the most frequent options used for treating apneas in preterm newborns, their effects on LCR-related apneas/bradycardias are virtually unknown. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine and/or nCPAP decreases LCR-related cardiorespiratory inhibition in a preterm ovine model. Seven preterm lambs were born vaginally on gestational day 133 (normal gestation: 147 days) after intramuscular injections of betamethasone and mifepristone. Five days after birth, a chronic surgical instrumentation was performed to record states of alertness, electrocardiogram, systemic arterial pressure, and electromyographic activity of a laryngeal constrictor muscle, as well as to insert a transcutaneous supraglottal catheter. LCR were induced in quiet sleep under four conditions: 1) control (without caffeine or nCPAP); 2) nCPAP (5 cmH2O, without caffeine); 3) caffeine (10 mg/kg infused intravenously for 30 min, without nCPAP); and 4) nCPAP + caffeine. Our results showed that nCPAP consistently blunted LCR-related cardiorespiratory inhibition vs. control condition, contrary to caffeine whose overall effect was nonsignificant. In addition, nCPAP condition was characterized by a more consistent and rapid arousal after HCl injection. No significant differences were observed between all tested conditions with regard to swallowing and cough. It is concluded that nCPAP should be further assessed for its usefulness in treating neonatal apneas linked to LCR.

  8. Involvement of l-glutamate and ATP in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex in the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii of awake rats and in the working heart–brainstem preparation

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Valdir A; Soriano, Renato N; Braccialli, Alex L; de Paula, Patrícia M; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Paton, Julian F R; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral chemoreflex activation with potassium cyanide (KCN) in awake rats or in the working heart–brainstem preparation (WHBP) produces: (a) a sympathoexcitatory/pressor response; (b) bradycardia; and (c) an increase in the frequency of breathing. Our main aim was to evaluate neurotransmitters involved in mediating the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In previous studies in conscious rats, the reflex bradycardia, but not the pressor response, was reduced by antagonism of either ionotropic glutamate or purinergic P2 receptors within the NTS. In the present study we evaluated a possible dual role of both P2 and NMDA receptors in the NTS for processing the sympathoexcitatory component (pressor response) of the chemoreflex in awake rats as well as in the WHBP. Simultaneous blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors and P2 receptors by sequential microinjections of kynurenic acid (KYN, 2 nmol (50 nl)−1) and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonate (PPADS, 0.25 nmol (50 nl)−1) into the commissural NTS in awake rats produced a significant reduction in both the pressor (+38 ± 3 versus +8 ± 3 mmHg) and bradycardic responses (−172 ± 18 versus −16 ± 13 beats min−1; n = 13), but no significant changes in the tachypnoea measured using plethysmography (270 ± 30 versus 240 ± 21 cycles min−1, n = 7) following chemoreflex activation in awake rats. Control microinjections of saline produced no significant changes in these reflex responses. In WHBP, microinjection of KYN (2 nmol (20 nl)−1) and PPADS (1.6 nmol (20 nl)−1) into the commissural NTS attenuated significantly both the increase in thoracic sympathetic activity (+52 ± 2% versus +17 ± 1%) and the bradycardic response (−151 ± 17 versus −21 ± 3 beats min−1) but produced no significant changes in the increase of the frequency of phrenic nerve discharge (+0.24 ± 0.02 versus +0.20 ± 0.02 Hz). The data indicate that

  9. Exercise training attenuates chemoreflex-mediated reductions of renal blood flow in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Noah J; Pügge, Carolin; Mediratta, Jai; Schiller, Alicia M; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Zucker, Irving H; Schultz, Harold D

    2015-07-15

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), carotid body chemoreceptor (CBC) activity is increased and contributes to increased tonic and hypoxia-evoked elevation in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Elevated RSNA and reduced renal perfusion may contribute to development of the cardio-renal syndrome in CHF. Exercise training (EXT) has been shown to abrogate CBC-mediated increases in RSNA in experimental heart failure; however, the effect of EXT on CBC control of renal blood flow (RBF) is undetermined. We hypothesized that CBCs contribute to tonic reductions in RBF in CHF, that stimulation of the CBC with hypoxia would result in exaggerated reductions in RBF, and that these responses would be attenuated with EXT. RBF was measured in CHF-sedentary (SED), CHF-EXT, CHF-carotid body denervation (CBD), and CHF-renal denervation (RDNX) groups. We measured RBF at rest and in response to hypoxia (FiO2 10%). All animals exhibited similar reductions in ejection fraction and fractional shortening as well as increases in ventricular systolic and diastolic volumes. Resting RBF was lower in CHF-SED (29 ± 2 ml/min) than in CHF-EXT animals (46 ± 2 ml/min, P < 0.05) or in CHF-CBD animals (42 ± 6 ml/min, P < 0.05). In CHF-SED, RBF decreased during hypoxia, and this was prevented in CHF-EXT animals. Both CBD and RDNX abolished the RBF response to hypoxia in CHF. Mean arterial pressure increased in response to hypoxia in CHF-SED, but was prevented by EXT, CBD, and RDNX. EXT is effective in attenuating chemoreflex-mediated tonic and hypoxia-evoked reductions in RBF in CHF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    08-2-0069 TITLE: A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Murray...2011Annual01-06-2011 A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD Murray Raskind Seattle Institute for Biomedical/Clinical...and tolerability of the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist, prazosin , for reducing trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance and improving global

  11. Experimental investigation of control/display augmentation effects in a compensatory tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of control/display augmentation on human performance and workload have been investigated for closed-loop, continuous-tracking tasks by a real-time, man-in-the-loop simulation study. The experimental results obtained indicate that only limited improvement in actual tracking performance is obtainable through display augmentation alone; with a very high level of display augmentation, tracking error will actually deteriorate. Tracking performance improves when status information is furnished for reasonable levels of display quickening; again, very high quickening levels lead to tracking error deterioration due to the incompatibility between the status information and the quickened signal.

  12. Singularity-free integral-augmented sliding mode control for combined energy and attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghi, Samira; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2017-01-01

    A combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is a synergized system in which flywheels are used as attitude control actuators and simultaneously as a power storage system. This paper, a subsequent to previous research on CEACS, addresses the attitude-tracking problem. Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL), a locally asymptotically stable controller, is developed to provide a robust and accurate solution for the CEACS's attitude-tracking problem. The controller alleviates the chattering phenomenon associated with the sliding mode using a boundary-layer technique. Simultaneously, it reduces the steady-state error using an integral action. This paper highlights the uncertainty of inertia matrix as a contributing factor to singularity problem. The inversion of the uncertain inertia matrix in simulation of a spacecraft dynamics is also identified as a leading factor to a singular situation. Therefore, an avoidance strategy is proposed in this paper to guarantee a singular-free dynamics behavior in faces of the uncertainties. This maiden work attempts to employ the singularity-free Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL) to provide a robust, accurate and nonsingular attitude-tracking solution for CEACS.

  13. Recruitment Maneuver in Elderly Patients with Different Peripheral Chemoreflex Sensitivity during Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a recruitment maneuver on respiratory biomechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in patients suffering from chronic heart failure with different peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity. The study was conducted in 115 elderly patients which underwent major abdominal surgery under general/epidural surgery. Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity (PCS) was evaluated with breath-holding duration (BHD) during breath-holding test. All patients were divided into two groups: group H had a high PCS (BHD = 38 seconds or less, n = 49); Group M had a middle PCS (BHD more than 38 seconds, n = 66). Recruitment maneuver improved oxygenation and respiratory biomechanics in all cases. However, cardiac output decreased by an average of 18%–31% in group H compared to 18%–28% in group M. SVR either remained unchanged or decreased by up to 14% of the initial value in group H, while, in group M, it had a tendency to increase, which was 24% of the initial value. So, recruitment maneuver is an effective method to improve oxygenation and biomechanical properties of the respiratory system but in patients with increased peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity it associates with the risk of hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:28070507

  14. Recruitment Maneuver in Elderly Patients with Different Peripheral Chemoreflex Sensitivity during Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a recruitment maneuver on respiratory biomechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in patients suffering from chronic heart failure with different peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity. The study was conducted in 115 elderly patients which underwent major abdominal surgery under general/epidural surgery. Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity (PCS) was evaluated with breath-holding duration (BHD) during breath-holding test. All patients were divided into two groups: group H had a high PCS (BHD = 38 seconds or less, n = 49); Group M had a middle PCS (BHD more than 38 seconds, n = 66). Recruitment maneuver improved oxygenation and respiratory biomechanics in all cases. However, cardiac output decreased by an average of 18%-31% in group H compared to 18%-28% in group M. SVR either remained unchanged or decreased by up to 14% of the initial value in group H, while, in group M, it had a tendency to increase, which was 24% of the initial value. So, recruitment maneuver is an effective method to improve oxygenation and biomechanical properties of the respiratory system but in patients with increased peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity it associates with the risk of hemodynamic disturbances.

  15. Multimodal user input to supervisory control systems - Voice-augmented keyboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Forren, Michelle G.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a voice-augmented keyboard input modality is evaluated in a supervisory control application. An implementation of voice recognition technology in supervisory control is proposed: voice is used to request display pages, while the keyboard is used to input system reconfiguration commands. Twenty participants controlled GT-MSOCC, a high-fidelity simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system, via a workstation equipped with either a single keyboard or a voice-augmented keyboard. Experimental results showed that in all cases where significant performance differences occurred, performance with the voice-augmented keyboard modality was inferior to and had greater variance than the keyboard-only modality. These results suggest that current moderately priced voice recognition systems are an inappropriate human-computer interaction technology in supervisory control systems.

  16. Multimodal user input to supervisory control systems - Voice-augmented keyboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Forren, Michelle G.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a voice-augmented keyboard input modality is evaluated in a supervisory control application. An implementation of voice recognition technology in supervisory control is proposed: voice is used to request display pages, while the keyboard is used to input system reconfiguration commands. Twenty participants controlled GT-MSOCC, a high-fidelity simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system, via a workstation equipped with either a single keyboard or a voice-augmented keyboard. Experimental results showed that in all cases where significant performance differences occurred, performance with the voice-augmented keyboard modality was inferior to and had greater variance than the keyboard-only modality. These results suggest that current moderately priced voice recognition systems are an inappropriate human-computer interaction technology in supervisory control systems.

  17. Impact of Release Rates on the Effectiveness of Augmentative Biological Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, David W.

    2007-01-01

    To access the effect of augmentative biological control agents, 31 articles were reviewed that investigated the impact of release rates of 35 augmentative biological control agents on the control of 42 arthropod pests. In 64% of the cases, the release rate of the biological control agent did not significantly affect the density or mortality of the pest insect. Results where similar when parasitoidsor predators were utilized as the natural enemy. Within any order of natural enemy, there were more cases where release rates did not affect augmentative biological control than cases where release rates were significant. There were more cases in which release rates did not affect augmentative biological control when pests were from the orders Hemiptera, Acari, or Diptera, but not with pests from the order Lepidoptera. In most cases, there was an optimal release rate that produced effective control of a pest species. This was especially true when predators were used as a biological control agent. Increasing the release rate above the optimal rate did not improve control of the pest and thus would be economically detrimental. Lower release rates were of ten optimal when biological control was used in conjunction with insecticides. In many cases, the timing and method of biological control applications were more significant factors impacting the effectiveness of biological control than the release rate. Additional factors that may limit the relative impact of release rates include natural enemy fecundity, establishment rates, prey availability, dispersal, and cannibalism. PMID:20307240

  18. Impact of release rates on the effectiveness of augmentative biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W

    2007-01-01

    To access the effect of augmentative biological control agents, 31 articles were reviewed that investigated the impact of release rates of 35 augmentative biological control agents on the control of 42 arthropod pests. In 64% of the cases, the release rate of the biological control agent did not significantly affect the density or mortality of the pest insect. Results where similar when parasitoids or predators were utilized as the natural enemy. Within any order of natural enemy, there were more cases where release rates did not affect augmentative biological control than cases where release rates were significant. There were more cases in which release rates did not affect augmentative biological control when pests were from the orders Hemiptera, Acari, or Diptera, but not with pests from the order Lepidoptera. In most cases, there was an optimal release rate that produced effective control of a pest species. This was especially true when predators were used as a biological control agent. Increasing the release rate above the optimal rate did not improve control of the pest and thus would be economically detrimental. Lower release rates were of ten optimal when biological control was used in conjunction with insecticides. In many cases, the timing and method of biological control applications were more significant factors impacting the effectiveness of biological control than the release rate. Additional factors that may limit the relative impact of release rates include natural enemy fecundity, establishment rates, prey availability, dispersal, and cannibalism.

  19. Analytical design of a high performance stability and control augmentation system for a hingeless rotor helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyajima, K.

    1978-01-01

    A stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) was designed based on a set of comprehensive performance criteria. Linear optimal control theory was applied to determine appropriate feedback gains for the stability augmentation system (SAS). The helicopter was represented by six-degree-of-freedom rigid body equations of motion and constant factors were used as weightings for state and control variables. The ratio of these factors was employed as a parameter for SAS analysis and values of the feedback gains were selected on this basis to satisfy three of the performance criteria for full and partial state feedback systems. A least squares design method was then applied to determine control augmentation system (CAS) cross feed gains to satisfy the remaining seven performance criteria. The SCAS gains were then evaluated by nine degree-of-freedom equations which include flapping motion and conclusions drawn concerning the necessity of including the pitch/regressing and roll/regressing modes in SCAS analyses.

  20. Eigenstructure assignment for the control of highly augmented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, Kenneth M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1988-01-01

    Eigenstructure assignment is utilized to design flight control laws for aircraft with many control effectors. It is shown that a previous eigenstructure design for the flight propulsion control coupling (FPCC) aircraft lateral dynamics with three control surfaces exhibits a lack of stability robustness because the control distribution matrix is nearly rank-deficient. A method is mapped back, reducing the control space to two dimensions by using the singular value decomposition. After the design is complete, the controller is mapped back to the original three-dimensional control space. This design approach yields a controller with both smaller gains and improved multivariable stability margins at the aircraft inputs. An interesting characteristics of the control mapping, as applied to the given example, is that the most effective inputs have the larger gains while the less effective inputs have smaller gains.

  1. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Murray Raskind, M.D...31 May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD 5b. GRANT...controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist, prazosin , for reducing trauma nightmares and sleep

  2. Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

  3. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Parasite drag reduction evaluation is composed of wind tunnel tests with a standard L-1011 tail and two reduced area tail configurations. Trim drag reduction is evaluated by rebalancing the airplane for relaxed static stability. This is accomplished by pumping water to tanks in the forward and aft of the airplane to acheive desired center of gravity location. Also, the L-1011 is modified to incorporate term and advanced augmented systems. By using advanced wings and aircraft relaxed static stability significant fuel savings can be realized. An airplane's dynamic stability becomes more sensitive for decreased tail size, relaxed static stability, and advanced wing configurations. Active control pitch augmentation will be used to acheive the required handling qualities. Flight tests will be performed to evaluate the pitch augmentation systems. The effect of elevator downrig on stabilizer/elevator hinge moments will be measured. For control system analysis, the normal acceleration feedback and pitch rate feedback are analyzed.

  4. Training augmentation device for the Air Force satellite Control Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoates, Keith B.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1960's and into the early 1980's satellite operations and control were conducted by Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), now Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), out of the Satellite Control Facility at Onizuka AFB, CA. AFSC was responsible for acquiring satellite command and control systems and conducting routine satellite operations. The daily operations, consisting of satellite health and status contacts and station keeping activities, were performed for AFSC by a Mission Control Team (MCT) staffed by civilian contractors who were responsible for providing their own technically 'qualified' personnel as satellite operators. An MCT consists of five positions: mission planner, ground controller, planner analyst, orbit analyst, and ranger controller. Most of the training consisted of On-the-Job-Training (OJT) with junior personnel apprenticed to senior personnel until they could demonstrate job proficiency. With most of the satellite operators having 15 to 25 years of experience, there was minimal risk to the mission. In the mid 1980's Air Force Space Command (AFSPACOM) assumed operational responsibility for a newly established control node at Falcon AFB (FAFB) in CO. The satellites and ground system program offices (SPO's) are organized under AFSC's Space and Missiles Systems Center (SMC) to function as a systems engineering and acquisition agency for AFSPACECOM. The collection of the satellite control nodes, ground tracking stations, computer processing equipment, and connecting communications links is referred to as the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN).

  5. A remotely augmented vehicle approach to flight testing RPV control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, D. A.; Edwards, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A remotely augmented vehicle concept for flight testing advanced control systems was developed as an outgrowth of a remotely piloted research vehicle (RPV) program in which control laws are implemented through telemetry uplink and downlink data channels using a general purpose ground based digital computer which provides the control law computations. Some advantages of this approach are that the cost of one control system facility is spread over a number of RPV programs, and control laws can be changed quickly as required, without changing the flight hardware. The remotely augmented vehicle concept is described, and flight test results from a subscale F-15 program are discussed. Suggestions of how the concept could lead to more effective testing of RPV control system concepts, and how it is applicable to a military RPV reconnaissance mission are given.

  6. Feedback linearisation control of an induction machine augmented by single-hidden layer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Abbas, Hamou; Belkheiri, Mohammed; Zegnini, Boubakeur

    2016-01-01

    We consider adaptive output feedback control methodology of highly uncertain nonlinear systems with both parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics. The approach is also applicable to systems of unknown, but bounded dimension. However, the relative degree of the regulated output is assumed to be known. This new control strategy is proposed to address the tracking problem of an induction motor based on a modified field-oriented control method. The obtained controller is then augmented by an online neural network that serves as an approximator for the neglected dynamics and modelling errors. The network weight adaptation rule is derived from the Lyapunov stability analysis, that guarantees boundedness of all the error signals of the closed-loop system. Computer simulations of an output feedback controlled induction machine, augmented via single-hidden-layer neural networks, demonstrate the practical potential of the proposed control algorithm.

  7. Analysis of Aeroheating Augmentation due to Reaction Control System Jets on Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Buck, Gregory M.; Decaro, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of effects of the reaction control system jet plumes on aftbody heating of Orion entry capsule is presented. The analysis covered hypersonic continuum part of the entry trajectory. Aerothermal environments at flight conditions were evaluated using Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) code and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) algorithm code. Results show a marked augmentation of aftbody heating due to roll, yaw and aft pitch thrusters. No significant augmentation is expected due to forward pitch thrusters. Of the conditions surveyed the maximum heat rate on the aftshell is expected when firing a pair of roll thrusters at a maximum deceleration condition.

  8. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Murray Raskind, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Seattle Institute for...Final Revised 3. DATES COVERED 1 June 2008 – 31 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma ...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Trauma content nightmares and sleep disturbance are among the most

  9. Augmentative biological control: research and methods to help make it work

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essence of augmentative biological control is to repeatedly release an appropriate number of effective natural enemies into a particular place. In practice, especially in field situations, this is complex and faces challenges such as enemy dispersal, pest refugia and deleterious interactions wit...

  10. The roles of parasitoid foraging for hosts, food and mates in the augmentative control of Tephritidae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, to the choic...

  11. Mass-rearing Bemisia parasitoids for support of classical and augmentative biological control programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of efficient mass-rearing systems for Bemisia parasitoids was crucial for the implementation of the classical and augmentative biological control programs for this exotic pest. Early work relied on adapting methods for the production of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) for the greenhouse whi...

  12. Aerodynamic Control-Augmentation Devices For Saturn-Class Launch Vehicles With Aft Centers Of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of aerodynamic flight-control-augmentation devices proposed for use in increasing payload capabilities of future launch vehicles by allowing more aft centers of gravity. Proposed all-movable devices not only provide increased control authority during ascent trajectory, but also reduce engine gimballing requirements and enhance crew safety. Report proposes various aerodynamic control surfaces mounted fore and aft on Saturn-class launch vehicle.

  13. How to reduce workload--augmented reality to ease the work of air traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; König, Christina; Bruder, Ralph; Bergner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the future the air traffic will rise--the workload of the controllers will do the same. In the BMWi research project, one of the tasks is, how to ensure safe air traffic, and a reasonable workload for the air traffic controllers. In this project it was the goal to find ways how to reduce the workload (and stress) for the controllers to allow safe air traffic, esp. at huge hub-airports by implementing augmented reality visualization and interaction.

  14. Recovery of the pulmonary chemoreflex and functional role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Chang, Yu-Shuo

    2014-11-15

    Persistent impairment of pulmonary defense reflexes is a critical factor contributing to pulmonary complications in patients with spinal cord injuries. The pulmonary chemoreflex evoked by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers has been reported to be abolished in animals with acute cervical hemisection (C2Hx). The present study examined whether the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover during the chronic injury phase and investigated the role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers on the altered breathing pattern after C2Hx. In the first protocol, bronchopulmonary C-fibers were excited by intrajugular capsaicin administration in uninjured and complete C2Hx animals 8 wk postsurgery. Capsaicin evoked pulmonary chemoreflexes in both groups, but the reflex intensity was significantly weaker in C2Hx animals. To examine whether spared spinal white matter tissue contributes to pulmonary chemoreflex recovery, the reflex was evaluated in animals with different extents of lateral injury. Linear regression analyses revealed that tidal volume significantly correlated with the extent of spared tissue; however, capsaicin-induced apnea was not related to injury severity when the ipsilateral-to-contralateral white matter ratio was <50%. In the second protocol, the influence of background bronchopulmonary C-fiber activity on respiration was investigated by blocking C-fiber conduction via perivagal capsaicin treatment. The rapid shallow breathing of C2Hx animals persisted after perivagal capsaicin treatment despite attenuation of pulmonary chemoreflexes. These results indicate that the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover to some extent following spinal injury, but remains attenuated even when there is moderate spinal tissue sparing, and that altered breathing pattern of C2Hx animals cannot be attributed to endogenous activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Excitatory amino acid-mediated chemoreflex excitation of respiratory neurones in rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, M K; Reis, D J

    1996-01-01

    1. In anaesthetized rats, extracellular and intracellular recordings were made from 119 respiratory neurones in the rostroventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) of the medulla oblongata. 2. Two types of active respiratory neurones were detected in RVL: expiratory (E) and pre-inspiratory (Pre-I), based on the relationship between their discharge and that of the phrenic nerve. Some Pre-I but none of the E neurones could be antidromically excited from the C(3)-C(4) level of the spinal cord. 3. E and Pre-I neurones of RVL were excited by stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors by a close arterial injection of sodium cyanide. The reflex excitation of RVL E neurones was preceded by increased phrenic nerve activity, while the excitation of RVL Pre-I neurones preceded the increases in phrenic nerve activity. 4. The chemoreflex excitation of the two types of RVL respiratory neurones as well as their resting discharge was abolished or significantly depressed by microionophoresis of kynurenate, a wide-spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors, while xanthurenate, an inactive analogue of kynurenate, was without effect. 5. In ventilated rats, bilateral microinjection into RVL of kynurenate, but not xanthurenate, abolished resting activity and chemoreflex excitation of phrenic nerve activity, whilst in spontaneously breathing rats, kynurenate microinjection into RVL produced apnea and silenced phrenic nerves. 6. We conclude: (a) chemoreflex excitation of the phrenic nerves is mediated by stimulating Pre-I neurones of RVL by excitatory amino acidergic inputs and (b) RVL Pre-I neurones may directly and/or indirectly excite spinal phrenic motor neurones and hence are involved in inspiratory rhythmogenesis. PMID:9019550

  16. Optimal placement of active elements in control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Jin, I. M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for structural/control synthesis is presented in which the optimal location of active members is treated in terms of (0,1) variables. Structural member sizes, control gains and (0,1) placement variables are treated simultaneously as design variables. Optimization is carried out by generating and solving a sequence of explicit approximate problems using a branch and bound strategy. Intermediate design variable and intermediate response quantity concepts are used to enhance the quality of the approximate design problems. Numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure set forth.

  17. Selected contribution: chemoreflex responses to CO2 before and after an 8-h exposure to hypoxia in humans.

    PubMed

    Fatemian, M; Robbins, P A

    2001-04-01

    The ventilatory sensitivity to CO2, in hyperoxia, is increased after an 8-h exposure to hypoxia. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this increase arises through an increase in peripheral or central chemosensitivity. Ten healthy volunteers each underwent 8-h exposures to 1) isocapnic hypoxia, with end-tidal PO2 (PET(O2)) = 55 Torr and end-tidal PCO2 (PET(CO2)) = eucapnia; 2) poikilocapnic hypoxia, with PET(O2) = 55 Torr and PET(CO2) = uncontrolled; and 3) air-breathing control. The ventilatory response to CO2 was measured before and after each exposure with the use of a multifrequency binary sequence with two levels of PET(CO2): 1.5 and 10 Torr above the normal resting value. PET(O2) was held at 250 Torr. The peripheral (Gp) and the central (Gc) sensitivities were calculated by fitting the ventilatory data to a two-compartment model. There were increases in combined Gp + Gc (26%, P < 0.05), Gp (33%, P < 0.01), and Gc (23%, P = not significant) after exposure to hypoxia. There were no significant differences between isocapnic and poikilocapnic hypoxia. We conclude that sustained hypoxia induces a significant increase in chemosensitivity to CO2 within the peripheral chemoreflex.

  18. Stability Assessment and Tuning of an Adaptively Augmented Classical Controller for Launch Vehicle Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Zhu, J. Jim; Adami, Tony; Berry, Kyle; Grammar, Alex; Orr, Jeb S.; Best, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a robust and practical adaptive control scheme for launch vehicles [ [1] has been introduced. It augments a classical controller with a real-time loop-gain adaptation, and it is therefore called Adaptive Augmentation Control (AAC). The loop-gain will be increased from the nominal design when the tracking error between the (filtered) output and the (filtered) command trajectory is large; whereas it will be decreased when excitation of flex or sloshing modes are detected. There is a need to determine the range and rate of the loop-gain adaptation in order to retain (exponential) stability, which is critical in vehicle operation, and to develop some theoretically based heuristic tuning methods for the adaptive law gain parameters. The classical launch vehicle flight controller design technics are based on gain-scheduling, whereby the launch vehicle dynamics model is linearized at selected operating points along the nominal tracking command trajectory, and Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) controller design techniques are employed to ensure asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics, typically by meeting some prescribed Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) specifications. The controller gains at the design points are then scheduled, tuned and sometimes interpolated to achieve good performance and stability robustness under external disturbances (e.g. winds) and structural perturbations (e.g. vehicle modeling errors). While the GM does give a bound for loop-gain variation without losing stability, it is for constant dispersions of the loop-gain because the GM is based on frequency-domain analysis, which is applicable only for LTI systems. The real-time adaptive loop-gain variation of the AAC effectively renders the closed-loop system a time-varying system, for which it is well-known that the LTI system stability criterion is neither necessary nor sufficient when applying to a Linear Time-Varying (LTV) system in a frozen-time fashion. Therefore, a

  19. Augmenting the efficacy of fungal and mycotoxin control via chemosensitization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimycotic chemosensitization could serve as an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. In a chemo-biological platform to enhance antimycotic susceptibility of fungi or to overcome fungal tolerance to conventional antimycotic agents, the model yeast S. cerevisiae could be a functional too...

  20. Sinus floor bone failures in maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez; Pinheiro, Lucas Rodrigues; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso; Arita, Emiko Saito; Tamimi, Faleh

    2015-04-01

    Extreme bone resorption in posterior maxilla may lead to absence of part of the sinus floor. This phenomenon has been termed sinus floor bone failure, and may compromise sinus floor augmentation. The present article aims to evaluate risk factors related to sinus floor bone failures and to evaluate the influence of these failures in sinus floor augmentation outcomes in patients with severely atrophic posterior maxilla. In this case-control study, patients were selected among those referred for sinus floor augmentation. Only patients presenting a ridge bone height of less than 3 mm were included. Cases were defined as presenting sinus floor bone failure, whereas controls did not present any interruption in the sinus floor bone. Information collected included clinical dental records and computed tomographic assessment of sinus width, septa, and schneiderian membrane. Risk estimates for sinus floor bone failures were calculated as adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analyses. A p value under 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In addition, sinus floor augmentation outcomes of both groups were also assessed. In all, 23 cases and 58 controls were included in the study. Sinus floor bone failures were significantly associated with the number of missing posterior teeth (AOR 3.67; 95% CI 0.86 to 15.63; p = .046) and a history of periodontitis (AOR 6.39; 95% CI 1.86 to 21.95; p = .002). Of the total, 15 cases and 27 controls underwent sinus floor augmentation. Schneiderian membrane perforation occurred during the surgery of two cases and of one control. No implants were lost during a mean postsurgical follow-up of 20 months. The number of missing posterior teeth and a history of periodontitis may be considered as risk factors for sinus floor bone failures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Leading edge flap system for aircraft control augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Traditional roll control systems such as ailerons, elevons or spoilers are least effective at high angles of attack due to boundary layer separation over the wing. This invention uses independently deployed leading edge flaps on the upper surfaces of vortex stabilized wings to shift the center of lift outboard. A rolling moment is created that is used to control roll in flight at high angles of attack. The effectiveness of the rolling moment increases linearly with angle of attack. No adverse yaw effects are induced. In an alternate mode of operation, both leading edge flaps are deployed together at cruise speeds to create a very effective airbrake without appreciable modification in pitching moment. Little trim change is required.

  2. Radiographic Local Control of Spinal Metastases with Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation and Vertebral Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, A N; Tomasian, A; Vaswani, D; Vyhmeister, R; Chang, R O; Jennings, J W

    2016-04-01

    Combination radiofrequency ablation and vertebral augmentation is an emerging minimally invasive therapy for patients with metastatic spine disease who have not responded to or have contraindications to radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of radiographic local control of spinal metastases treated with combination radiofrequency ablation and vertebral augmentation. We retrospectively reviewed our tumor ablation database for all patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation and vertebral augmentation of spinal metastases between April 2012 and July 2014. Tumors treated in conjunction with radiation therapy were excluded. Tumor characteristics, procedural details, and complications were recorded. Posttreatment imaging was reviewed for radiographic evidence of tumor progression. Fifty-five tumors met study inclusion criteria. Radiographic local tumor control rates were 89% (41/46) at 3 months, 74% (26/35) at 6 months, and 70% (21/30) at 1 year after treatment. Clinical follow-up was available in 93% (51/55) of cases. The median duration of clinical follow-up was 34 weeks (interquartile range, 15-89 weeks), during which no complications were reported and no patients had clinical evidence of metastatic spinal cord compression at the treated levels. Combination radiofrequency ablation and vertebral augmentation appears to be an effective treatment for achieving local control of spinal metastases. A prospective clinical trial is now needed to replicate these results. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Flight control augmentation for AFT CG launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was only the first step in achieving routine access to space. Recently, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been studying a whole spectrum of new launch vehicles (L/V's) for space transportation. Some of these could transport components of the Space Station to orbit, and some could take us to Mars and beyond to boldly expand our frontiers of knowledge. In all our future launch vehicle (L/V) designs, decreasing the structural weight will always be of great concern. This is tantamount to increased payload capability, which in turn means reduced cost-per-pound to orbit. One very significant increase in payload capability has been defined. In a L/V recently studied at MSFC it has been shown that a sizable weight savings can be realized by a rearrangement of the internal propellant tanks. Studies have been conducted both at MSFC and at Martin Marietta Corporation, maker of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) which show that a very substantial weight can be saved by inverting the relative positions of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks in a particular L/V studied. As the vehicle sits on the launch pad, in the conventional configuration the heavier LOX tank is located on top of the lighter LH2. This requires a heavy structural member between the two tanks to prevent the lighter LH2 tank from being crushed. This configuration also requires large, long, and even drag producing LOX feed lines running the length of the vehicle on the exterior fuselage. If the relative position of the propellant tanks is inverted, both the heavy structural separation member and the long LOX feed lines could be deleted. While the structures community at MSFC was elated with this finding, the LOX tank aft configuration gave the vehicle an aft center-of-gravity (cg) location which surfaced controllability concerns. In the conventional configuration the L/V is controlled in the ascent trajectory by the gimballing of its rocket

  4. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Murray Raskind, M.D. Elaine Peskind, M.D. Kris Peterson...2008 – 31 May 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD 5b...group, randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist, prazosin , for reducing trauma

  5. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  6. Exercise training attenuates the pressor response evoked by peripheral chemoreflex in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Leonardo; Mozzaquattro, Bruna B; Rossato, Douglas D; Quagliotto, Edson; Ferreira, Janaina B; Rasia-Filho, Alberto; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    The effects of exercise training (ExT) on the pressor response elicited by potassium cyanide (KCN) in the rat model of ischemia-induced heart failure (HF) are unknown. We evaluated the effects of ExT on chemoreflex sensitivity and its interaction with baroreflex in rats with HF. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham), and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). Trained animals underwent to a treadmill running protocol for 8 weeks (60 m/day, 5 days/week, 16 m/min). After ExT, arterial pressure (AP), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), peripheral chemoreflex (KCN: 100 μg/kg body mass), and cardiac function were evaluated. The results demonstrate that ExT induces an improvement in BRS and attenuates the pressor response to KCN relative to the Sed-HF group (P < 0.05). The improvement in BRS was associated with a reduction in the pressor response following ExT in HF rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, ExT induced a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary congestion compared with the Sed-HF group (P < 0.05). The pressor response to KCN in the hypotensive state is decreased in sedentary HF rats. These results suggest that ExT improves cardiac function and BRS and attenuates the pressor response evoked by KCN in HF rats.

  7. The myths and physiology surrounding intrapartum decelerations: the critical role of the peripheral chemoreflex

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Christopher A.; Galinsky, Robert; Wassink, Guido; Yamaguchi, Kyohei; Davidson, Joanne O.; Westgate, Jenny A.; Bennet, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive pattern of recurrent rapid falls in fetal heart rate, called decelerations, are commonly associated with uterine contractions during labour. These brief decelerations are mediated by vagal activation. The reflex triggering this vagal response has been variably attributed to a mechanoreceptor response to fetal head compression, to baroreflex activation following increased blood pressure during umbilical cord compression, and/or a Bezold–Jarisch reflex response to reduced venous return from the placenta. Although these complex explanations are still widespread today, there is no consistent evidence that they are common during labour. Instead, the only mechanism that has been systematically investigated, proven to be reliably active during labour and, crucially, capable of producing rapid decelerations is the peripheral chemoreflex. The peripheral chemoreflex is triggered by transient periods of asphyxia that are a normal phenomenon associated with all uterine contractions. This should not cause concern as the healthy fetus has a remarkable ability to adapt to these repeated but short periods of asphyxia. This means that the healthy fetus is typically not at risk of hypotension and injury during uncomplicated labour even during repeated brief decelerations. The physiologically incorrect theories surrounding decelerations that ignore the natural occurrence of repeated asphyxia probably gained widespread support to help explain why many babies are born healthy despite repeated decelerations during labour. We propose that a unified and physiological understanding of intrapartum decelerations that accepts the true nature of labour is critical to improve interpretation of intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns. PMID:27328617

  8. Simulator investigations of side-stick controller/stability and control augmentation systems for night nap-of-earth flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    Several night nap-of-the-earth mission tasks were evaluated using a helmet-mounted display which provided a limited field-of-view image with superimposed flight control symbology. A wide range of stability and control augmentation designs was investigated. Variations in controller force-deflection characteristics and the number of axes controlled through an integrated side-stick controller were studied. In general, a small displacement controller is preferred over a stiffstick controller particularly for maneuvering flight. Higher levels of stability augmentation were required for IMC tasks to provide handling qualities comparable to those achieved for the same tasks conducted under simulated visual flight conditions. Previously announced in STAR as N82-23216

  9. The effects of head-up and head-down tilt on central respiratory chemoreflex loop gain tested by hyperoxic rebreathing.

    PubMed

    Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; MacKay, Christina M; Steinback, Craig D; Day, Trevor A

    2014-01-01

    Central respiratory chemosensitivity is mediated via chemoreceptor neurons located throughout brain stem tissue. These receptors detect proximal CO2/[H(+)] (i.e., controller gain) and modulate breathing in a classic negative feedback loop. Loop gain (responsiveness) is the theoretical product of controller (chemoreceptors), mixing/feedback (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems), and plant (pulmonary system) gains. The level of chemoreceptor stimulation is determined by interactions between mixing and plant gains. The extent to which steady-state changes in body position may affect central chemoreflex loop gain in response to CO2 is unclear. Because of the potential effects of tilt on pulmonary mechanics, we hypothesized that plant gain would be altered by head-up and head-down tilt (HUT, HDT) during hyperoxic rebreathing, which theoretically isolates plant gain by eliminating systemic arterial-tissue gradients. Sixteen subjects (eight females) underwent hyperoxic rebreathing tests on a tilt table to quantify central chemoreflex loop gain in five steady-state positions: 90° HUT, 45° HUT, supine, 45° HDT, and 90° HDT. Respiratory responses (tidal volume, VT; frequency, fR; minute ventilation, VE) were quantified during steady-state and increases in CO2 during rebreathing by linear regression above the ventilatory recruitment threshold (VRT). Using one-factor analysis of variance, we found that there were no differences in the respiratory responses between the five positions (VRT, P=0.711; VT, P=0.290; fR, P=0.748; VE, P=0.325). Our findings suggest that during steady-state orthostatic stress, the ability of subjects to mount a normal ventilatory response to increased CO2 was unaffected, despite any potential changes in pulmonary mechanics associated with positional challenges.

  10. Accumulation of cAMP augments dynamic vagal control of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, T; Kawada, T; Sugimachi, M; Miyano, H; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Yoshimura, R; Miyashita, H; Inagaki, M; Alexander, J; Sunagawa, K

    1998-08-01

    Recent investigations in our laboratory using a Gaussian white noise perturbation technique have shown that simultaneous sympathetic stimulation augmented the gain of the transfer function from vagal stimulation frequency to heart rate response. However, the mechanism of that augmentation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined in anesthetized rabbits how three pharmacological interventions known to cause intracellular accumulation of cAMP affected the transfer function. Isoproterenol (0.3 microg . kg-1 . min-1 iv) increased the dynamic gain of transfer function from 7.12 +/- 0.67 to 12.4 +/- 1.21 beats . min-1 . Hz-1 (P < 0.05) without changing the corner frequency or the lag time. Similar augmentations were observed when forskolin (5 microg . kg-1 . min-1 iv) or theophylline (20 mg/kg iv) was administered under conditions of beta-adrenergic blockade. These results suggest that the accumulation of cAMP at postjunctional effector sites contributes, at least in part, to the sympathetic augmentation of the dynamic vagal control of heart rate.

  11. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  12. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  13. Reconfigurable Control with Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Kaneshige, John T.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Description of the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network augmentation follows. Simulation studies focus on the results with and without neural network adaptation through the use of an F-15 aircraft simulator that has been modified to include canards. Simulated control law performance with a surface failure, in addition to an aerodynamic failure, is presented. The aircraft, with adaptation, attempts to minimize the inertial cross-coupling effect of the failure (a control derivative anomaly associated with a jammed control surface). The dynamic inversion controller calculates necessary surface commands to achieve desired rates. The dynamic inversion controller uses approximate short period and roll axis dynamics. The yaw axis controller is a sideslip rate command system. Methods are described to reduce the cross-coupling effect and maintain adequate tracking errors for control surface failures. The aerodynamic failure destabilizes the pitching moment due to angle of attack. The results show that control of the aircraft with the neural networks is easier (more damped) than without the neural networks. Simulation results show neural network augmentation of the controller improves performance with aerodynamic and control surface failures in terms of tracking error and cross-coupling reduction.

  14. Adaptive Control Using Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Karneshige, J. T.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Description of the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network augmentation follows. Simulation studies focus on the results with and without neural network adaptation through the use of an F-15 aircraft simulator that has been modified to include canards. Simulated control law performance with a surface failure, in addition to an aerodynamic failure, is presented. The aircraft, with adaptation, attempts to minimize the inertial cross-coupling effect of the failure (a control derivative anomaly associated with a jammed control surface). The dynamic inversion controller calculates necessary surface commands to achieve desired rates. The dynamic inversion controller uses approximate short period and roll axis dynamics. The yaw axis controller is a sideslip rate command system. Methods are described to reduce the cross-coupling effect and maintain adequate tracking errors for control surface failures. The aerodynamic failure destabilizes the pitching moment due to angle of attack. The results show that control of the aircraft with the neural networks is easier (more damped) than without the neural networks. Simulation results show neural network augmentation of the controller improves performance with aerodynamic and control surface failures in terms of tracking error and cross-coupling reduction.

  15. Lithium augmentation in treatment-resistant depression: meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Dopfmer, S

    1999-10-01

    The addition of lithium to the treatment regimens of previously nonresponding depressed patients has been repeatedly investigated in controlled studies. The authors undertook this meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of lithium augmentation of conventional antidepressants. An attempt was made to identify all placebo-controlled trials of lithium augmentation in refractory depression. Only double-blind studies that involved participants who had been treated with lithium or placebo addition after not responding to conventional antidepressants were to be included in the meta-analysis. Further inclusion criteria were the use of accepted diagnostic criteria for depression and the use of response criteria based on the acceptable measurement of depression as an outcome variable. Studies were located by a search of the MEDLINE database, a search in the Cochrane Library, and an intensive search by hand of reviews on lithium augmentation. Nine of 11 placebo-controlled, double-blind studies were included in this meta-analysis. Aggregating three studies with a total of 110 patients that used a minimum lithium dose of 800 mg/day, or a dose sufficient to reach lithium serum levels of > or = 0.5 mEq/L, and a minimum treatment duration of 2 weeks, the authors found that the pooled odds ratio of response during lithium augmentation compared with the response during placebo treatment was 3.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-7.53). The corresponding relative response rate was 2.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.70), the absolute improvement in response rate was 27% (95% confidence interval, 9.8%-44.2%), and the number of patients needed to be treated to obtain one more responder was 3.7. Inclusion of six more studies that fulfilled inclusion criteria but which treated subjects with additional lithium for less than 2 weeks or with a lower lithium dose (total, 234 patients) resulted in even higher estimates. Lithium augmentation seems to be the treatment strategy in refractory

  16. Chemoreflex blunting of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is vagally mediated.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L B; Levitzky, M G

    1989-02-01

    We investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system in the arterial chemoreceptor attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) using anesthetized dogs. Total pulmonary blood flow (Qt) and left pulmonary blood flow (Ql) were determined using electromagnetic flow probes. Carotid body chemoreceptors were perfused using blood pumped from an extracorporeal circuit containing an oxygenator. Four groups were used: 1) prevagotomy (control), 2) bilateral vagotomy, 3) post-atropine, and 4) post-propranolol. Left lung hypoxia decreased Ql/Qt from 42.9 +/- 2.9 to 28.1 +/- 3.0%, from 41.1 +/- 5.3 to 26.7 +/- 4.2%, from 38.6 +/- 1.3 to 22.2 +/- 2.4%, and from 48.2 +/- 4.2 to 28.5 +/- 3.7% in the four groups, respectively. Chemoreceptor stimulation during unilateral hypoxia increased Ql/Qt from 28.1 +/- 3.0 to 39.1 +/- 4.9% and from 28.5 +/- 3.7 to 40.6 +/- 3.7% in the control and propranolol groups. However, chemoreceptor stimulation had no effect on Ql/Qt during left lung hypoxia after vagotomy or atropine, as Ql/Qt went from 26.7 +/- 4.2 to 29.3 +/- 5.2% and from 22.2 +/- 2.4 to 24.1 +/- 1.5% in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Because chemoreceptor stimulation did not affect HPV in groups 2 and 3, we conclude that the chemoreceptor attenuation of HPV is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system.

  17. Piloted simulation evaluation of pitch control designs for highly augmented STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, S. A.; Franklin, J. A.; Stortz, M. W.; Hardy, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses of design variations on a pitch axis stabilization and command augmentation system (SCAS) for a STOVL fighter aircraft are performed in a moving base simulation experiment. The primary goal of this study is to determine if turbulence-induced control activity could be reduced by modifying SCAS parameters while keeping the response-to-command characteristics of the baseline system that provide Level 1 flying qualities. Pilot ratings and control utilization statistics for the baseline system are in agreement with similar data gathered in a prior simulation test involving the same aircraft and control system.

  18. Role of the peripheral chemoreflex in the early stages of ventilatory acclimatization to altitude.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Peter A

    2007-09-30

    This review of ventilatory acclimatization to altitude/hypoxia (VAH) emphasizes the widely differing timescales that VAH is considered to encompass. The review concludes: (1) that early (24-48h) VAH is unlikely to arise as a reaction to the respiratory alkalosis that is normally associated with exposure to hypoxia; (2) that changes in peripheral chemoreflex function may be sufficiently rapid to explain early VAH; (3) that alterations in gene expression induced by hypoxia through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signalling pathway may underlie a major component of VAH; and (4) that compensatory adjustments to acid-base balance in response to the initial respiratory alkalosis may have more significance for the slower changes observed later in VAH.

  19. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  20. The myths and physiology surrounding intrapartum decelerations: the critical role of the peripheral chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Lear, Christopher A; Galinsky, Robert; Wassink, Guido; Yamaguchi, Kyohei; Davidson, Joanne O; Westgate, Jenny A; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2016-09-01

    A distinctive pattern of recurrent rapid falls in fetal heart rate, called decelerations, are commonly associated with uterine contractions during labour. These brief decelerations are mediated by vagal activation. The reflex triggering this vagal response has been variably attributed to a mechanoreceptor response to fetal head compression, to baroreflex activation following increased blood pressure during umbilical cord compression, and/or a Bezold-Jarisch reflex response to reduced venous return from the placenta. Although these complex explanations are still widespread today, there is no consistent evidence that they are common during labour. Instead, the only mechanism that has been systematically investigated, proven to be reliably active during labour and, crucially, capable of producing rapid decelerations is the peripheral chemoreflex. The peripheral chemoreflex is triggered by transient periods of asphyxia that are a normal phenomenon associated with all uterine contractions. This should not cause concern as the healthy fetus has a remarkable ability to adapt to these repeated but short periods of asphyxia. This means that the healthy fetus is typically not at risk of hypotension and injury during uncomplicated labour even during repeated brief decelerations. The physiologically incorrect theories surrounding decelerations that ignore the natural occurrence of repeated asphyxia probably gained widespread support to help explain why many babies are born healthy despite repeated decelerations during labour. We propose that a unified and physiological understanding of intrapartum decelerations that accepts the true nature of labour is critical to improve interpretation of intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  1. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  2. Realizable optimal control for a remotely piloted research vehicle. [stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a control system using the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) control law theory for time invariant systems in conjunction with an incremental gradient procedure is presented. The incremental gradient technique reduces the full-state feedback controller design, generated by the LQR algorithm, to a realizable design. With a realizable controller, the feedback gains are based only on the available system outputs instead of being based on the full-state outputs. The design is for a remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) stability augmentation system. The design includes methods for accounting for noisy measurements, discrete controls with zero-order-hold outputs, and computational delay errors. Results from simulation studies of the response of the RPRV to a step in the elevator and frequency analysis techniques are included to illustrate these abnormalities and their influence on the controller design.

  3. Early versus delayed oxytocin augmentation in nulliparous women with prolonged labour--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dencker, A; Berg, M; Bergqvist, L; Ladfors, L; Thorsén, L S; Lilja, H

    2009-03-01

    To study the effects of early versus delayed oxytocin augmentation on the obstetrical and neonatal outcome in nulliparous women with spontaneous but prolonged labour. Randomised controlled study. Two delivery units in Sweden. Healthy nulliparous women with normal pregnancies, spontaneous onset of active labour, a cervical dilatation of 4-9 cm and no progress in cervical dilatation for 2 hours and for an additional hour if amniotomy was performed due to slow progress. Women (n = 630) were randomly allocated either to labour augmentation by oxytocin infusion (early oxytocin group) or to postponement of oxytocin augmentation for another 3 hours (expectant group). Mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal or instrumental vaginal delivery or caesarean section) and time from randomisation to delivery. The caesarean section rate was 29 of 314 (9%) in the early oxytocin group and 34 of 316 (11%) in the expectant group (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.4), and instrumental vaginal delivery 54 of 314 (17%) in the early oxytocin versus 38 of 316 (12%) in the expectant group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.97-2.4). Early initiation of oxytocin resulted in a mean decrease of 85 minutes in the randomisation to delivery interval. Early administration of oxytocin did not change the rate of caesarean section or instrumental vaginal delivery but shortened labour duration significantly in women with a 2-hour arrest in cervical dilatation. No other clear benefits or harms were seen between early and delayed administration of oxytocin.

  4. Cooperative synthesis of control and display augmentation for a STOL aircraft in the approach and landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Application of the Cooperative methodology to synthesize control/display augmentation systems for the piloted longitudinal landing task with a modern, statically-unstable, fighter aircraft is considered. Starting with a control augmentation law which yields augmented vehicle dynamics that meet Level I handling qualities specifications, the effect of time-delay in the Head-up-display is studied using model-based criterion. This evaluation showed that even with 'good' conventional dynamics, a realistic value of display time-delay will cause significant deterioration in pilot workload and piloted-system performance. Application of the Cooperative methodology to control augmentation alone resulted in augmented vehicle dynamics which provide direct control of the flight path from the pilot stick. Analytical evaluation of these dynamics indicates that such dynamics might lead to improved pilot ratings over conventional dynamics, especially in the presence of time-delays in the system. Also, application of the methodology to simultaneous synthesis of control augmentation and flight director laws revealed that it might be advantageous to consider the control/display trade-off in the early design stages.

  5. Evaluating the Stability of NASA's Space Launch System with Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hannan, Michael R.; Wall, John H.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's baseline Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system (FCS) design includes an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) component that modifies the attitude control system response to provide the classical gain-scheduled control architecture with additional performance and robustness. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) teamed with the Space Launch System (SLS) Program to perform a comprehensive assessment of the stability and robustness of the FCS with AAC. This paper provides an overview of the approach, specific analysis techniques, and outcomes that were particularly relevant for the SLS Program. Multiple analysis techniques that specifically target the nonlinear AAC were commissioned as part of this assessment, which was completed outside of the Program's standard design analysis cycle. The following analyses were included, with each technique adding its own valuable insights: Lyapunov-based stability analysis, classical stability analysis with static AAC gain variations, circle criterion-based analysis of the FCS with a time-varying element, time-domain stability margin assessment, Monte Carlo simulations with expanded dispersions, and an extensive set of stressing cases. Several of the completed analyses focused on determining whether the inclusion of AAC introduced risk to the FCS, while others quantified the benefits of the adaptive augmentation.

  6. A control-volume method for analysis of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for predicting transient thrust augmenting ejector characteristics is presented. The analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with a control volume mixing region discretization to solicit transient effects in a new way. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region corresponds with the assumption of viscous-dominated phenomenon in the latter. Inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady analysis, justified by the assumptions that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Details of the theoretical foundation, the solution algorithm, and sample calculations are given.

  7. Optimal placement of actuators and sensors in control augmented structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A control-augmented structural synthesis methodology is presented in which actuator and sensor placement is treated in terms of (0,1) variables. Structural member sizes and control variables are treated simultaneously as design variables. A multiobjective utopian approach is used to obtain a compromise solution for inherently conflicting objective functions such as strucutal mass control effort and number of actuators. Constraints are imposed on transient displacements, natural frequencies, actuator forces and dynamic stability as well as controllability and observability of the system. The combinatorial aspects of the mixed - (0,1) continuous variable design optimization problem are made tractable by combining approximation concepts with branch and bound techniques. Some numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure set forth.

  8. Optimal placement of actuators and sensors in control augmented structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A control-augmented structural synthesis methodology is presented in which actuator and sensor placement is treated in terms of (0,1) variables. Structural member sizes and control variables are treated simultaneously as design variables. A multiobjective utopian approach is used to obtain a compromise solution for inherently conflicting objective functions such as strucutal mass control effort and number of actuators. Constraints are imposed on transient displacements, natural frequencies, actuator forces and dynamic stability as well as controllability and observability of the system. The combinatorial aspects of the mixed - (0,1) continuous variable design optimization problem are made tractable by combining approximation concepts with branch and bound techniques. Some numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure set forth.

  9. Effectiveness of basic display augmentation in vehicular control by visual field cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, A. J.; Merhav, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of different basic display augmentation concepts - fixed reticle, velocity vector, and predicted future vehicle path - for RPVs controlled by a vehicle-mounted TV camera. The task is lateral manual control of a low flying RPV along a straight reference line in the presence of random side gusts. The man-machine system and the visual interface are modeled as a linear time-invariant system. Minimization of a quadratic performance criterion is assumed to underlie the control strategy of a well-trained human operator. The solution for the optimal feedback matrix enables the explicit computation of the variances of lateral deviation and directional error of the vehicle and of the control force that are used as performance measures.

  10. Effectiveness of basic display augmentation in vehicular control by visual field cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, A. J.; Merhav, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of different basic display augmentation concepts - fixed reticle, velocity vector, and predicted future vehicle path - for RPVs controlled by a vehicle-mounted TV camera. The task is lateral manual control of a low flying RPV along a straight reference line in the presence of random side gusts. The man-machine system and the visual interface are modeled as a linear time-invariant system. Minimization of a quadratic performance criterion is assumed to underlie the control strategy of a well-trained human operator. The solution for the optimal feedback matrix enables the explicit computation of the variances of lateral deviation and directional error of the vehicle and of the control force that are used as performance measures.

  11. Presentation of flight control design and handling quality commonality by separate surface stability augmentation for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Douglas; Creighton, Thomas; Haddad, Raphael; Hendrich, Louis; Morgan, Louise; Russell, Mark; Swift, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The methodology and results for a flight control design and implementation for common handling qualities by Separate Surface Stability Augmentation (SSSA) for the family of commuter airplanes are contained. The open and closed loop dynamics and the design results of augmenting for common handling qualities are presented. The physical and technology requirements are presented for implementing the SSSA system. The conclusion of this report and recommendations for changes or improvement are discussed.

  12. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  13. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  14. A simple system for helicopter Individual-Blade-Control and its application to lag damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.; Behal, B. L.; Mckillip, R. M., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new, advanced type of active control for helicopters and its application to a system for blade lag damping augmentation is described. The system, based on previously developed M.I.T. Individual-Blade-Control hardware, employs blade-mounted accelerometers to sense blade lag motion and feeds back rate information to increase the damping of the first lag mode. A linear model of the blade and control system dynamics is used to give guidance in the design process as well as to aid in analysis of experimental results. System performance in wind tunnel tests is described, and evidence is given of the system's ability to provide substantial additional damping to blade lag motion.

  15. Riluzole augmentation in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.; Wasylink, Suzanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Simpson, Ryan; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Kelmendi, Ben; Sanacora, Gerard; Coric, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects approximately 2.5% of the population and is associated with significant morbidity. Many patients receive little benefit from the best available treatments, and even those who do respond often suffer from significant residual symptoms. Convergent evidence suggests that abnormalities in glutamate homeostasis and neurotransmission may contribute to OCD and that glutamate-modulating medications may be of benefit in patients whose symptoms are refractory to standard interventions. Small open-label trials of augmentation of SSRI pharmacotherapy with the glutamate modulator riluzole have suggested benefit in adults with refractory symptoms. We report a pilot placebo-control trial of riluzole augmentation of ongoing SRI treatment in SRI-refractory patients. Method Outpatients (n = 27) and inpatients (n = 12) with DSM-IV OCD on stable SSRI pharmacotherapy were randomized between 11/2006 and 12/2012 to receive riluzole 50 mg bid or placebo and followed for 12 weeks, after a 2-week placebo lead-in. Results Riluzole was well tolerated; one patient experienced moderate nausea, but none discontinued treatment due to side effects. While there was nominally greater Y-BOCS improvement in the riluzole group (our primary outcome), it did not reach significance in a mixed model random effects analysis, in the overall analysis or in the outpatient subsample. In the outpatient subsample there was a trend suggesting benefit from riluzole augmentation for obsessions (p = 0.056, 2-tailed, uncorrected), in a secondary analysis. Among outpatients, more achieved at least a partial response (>25% improvement) with riluzole than with placebo (p = 0.02 in a secondary analysis). Conclusions Riluzole may be of benefit to a subset of patients. Larger samples would be required to detect effects of the order suggested by the nominal improvement in our outpatient subsample. PMID:26214725

  16. Augmented Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Poststroke Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Lem, Frederik C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety poststroke. Multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Patients who had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale (HADS-D) score >7 at least 3 months poststroke (N=61). Participants were randomly allocated to either augmented CBT or computerized cognitive training (CCT). The CBT intervention was based on the principles of recognizing, registering, and altering negative thoughts and cognitions. CBT was augmented with goal-directed real-life activity training given by an occupational or movement therapist. HADS-D was the primary outcome, and measures of participation and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, immediately posttreatment, and at 4- and 8-month follow-up. Analysis was performed with linear mixed models using group (CBT vs CCT) as the between-subjects factor and time (4 assessments) as the within-subjects factor. Mixed model analyses showed a significant and persistent time effect for HADS-D (mean difference, -4.6; 95% confidence interval, -5.7 to -3.6; P<.001) and for participation and quality of life in both groups. There was no significant group × time effect for any of the outcome measures. Our augmented CBT intervention was not superior to CCT for the treatment of mood disorders after stroke. Future studies should determine whether both interventions are better than natural history. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

    PubMed Central

    Sivinski, John; Aluja, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research. PMID:26466622

  18. Ultrasound guided robotic biopsy using augmented reality and human-robot cooperative control.

    PubMed

    Freschi, C; Troia, E; Ferrari, V; Megali, G; Pietrabissa, A; Mosca, F

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided biopsy is a proficient mininvasive approach for tumors staging but requires very long training and particular manual and 3D space perception abilities of the physician, for the planning of the needle trajectory and the execution of the procedure. In order to simplify this difficult task, we have developed an integrated system that provides the clinician two types of assistance: an augmented reality visualization allows accurate and easy planning of needle trajectory and target reaching verification; a robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom force sensor allows the precise positioning of the needle holder and allows the clinician to adjust the planned trajectory (cooperative control) to overcome needle deflection and target motion. Preliminary tests have been executed on an ultrasound phantom showing high precision of the system in static conditions and the utility and usability of the cooperative control in simulated no-rigid conditions.

  19. Porcine Subintestinal Submucousal Graft Augmentation for Rectocele Repair: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Vivian W.; Rardin, Charles R.; Raker, Christina A.; LaSala, Christine A.; Myers, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of porcine subintestinal submucosal graft augmentation on improving anatomic and subjective rectocele repair outcomes compared to native tissue repair. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial at two sites, including women with at least Stage 2 symptomatic rectocele. Anatomic and subjective outcomes (vaginal bulge and defecatory) were collected 12 months postoperatively, including blinded pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) examinations. Anatomic failure was defined as points Ap or Bp ≥ −1 on POPQ. Subjective failure was defined as no improvement or worsening of symptoms. We estimated number needed to treat (NNT) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Assuming graft use is associated with 93% anatomic success, 63 women per group would be needed to detect a 20% difference at alpha=0.05 and beta=0.20. Results One-hundred sixty women were randomized; 137 had 12-month anatomic data (67 graft; 70 control). There was no difference in anatomic failure (12% versus 9%, P=0.5), vaginal bulge symptom failure (3% versus 7%, P=0.4, NNT 26) or defecatory symptom failure (44% versus 45%, P=0.9, NNT 91) for graft versus control, respectively. Both groups reported improvement in vaginal bulge and defecatory symptoms (P<.05 for all). On multiple logistic regression graft use was not associated with a decreased odds of anatomic failure (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 0.44–4.25), vaginal bulge symptoms (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.08–2.68), or defecatory symptoms (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.48–2.03). Conclusions Although rectocele repair by either approach is associated with improved symptoms, subintestinal submucosal graft augmentation was not superior to native tissue for anatomic or subjective outcomes at 12 months. PMID:22183220

  20. Stereovision and augmented reality for closed-loop control of grasping in hand prostheses.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Popovic, Dejan; Farina, Dario

    2014-08-01

    Technologically advanced assistive devices are nowadays available to restore grasping, but effective and effortless control integrating both feed-forward (commands) and feedback (sensory information) is still missing. The goal of this work was to develop a user friendly interface for the semi-automatic and closed-loop control of grasping and to test its feasibility. We developed a controller based on stereovision to automatically select grasp type and size and augmented reality (AR) to provide artificial proprioceptive feedback. The system was experimentally tested in healthy subjects using a dexterous hand prosthesis to grasp a set of daily objects. The subjects wore AR glasses with an integrated stereo-camera pair, and triggered the system via a simple myoelectric interface. The results demonstrated that the subjects got easily acquainted with the semi-autonomous control. The stereovision grasp decoder successfully estimated the grasp type and size in realistic, cluttered environments. When allowed (forced) to correct the automatic system decisions, the subjects successfully utilized the AR feedback and achieved close to ideal system performance. The new method implements a high level, low effort control of complex functions in addition to the low level closed-loop control. The latter is achieved by providing rich visual feedback, which is integrated into the real life environment. The proposed system is an effective interface applicable with small alterations for many advanced prosthetic and orthotic/therapeutic rehabilitation devices.

  1. Stereovision and augmented reality for closed-loop control of grasping in hand prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Popovic, Dejan; Farina, Dario

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Technologically advanced assistive devices are nowadays available to restore grasping, but effective and effortless control integrating both feed-forward (commands) and feedback (sensory information) is still missing. The goal of this work was to develop a user friendly interface for the semi-automatic and closed-loop control of grasping and to test its feasibility. Approach. We developed a controller based on stereovision to automatically select grasp type and size and augmented reality (AR) to provide artificial proprioceptive feedback. The system was experimentally tested in healthy subjects using a dexterous hand prosthesis to grasp a set of daily objects. The subjects wore AR glasses with an integrated stereo-camera pair, and triggered the system via a simple myoelectric interface. Main results. The results demonstrated that the subjects got easily acquainted with the semi-autonomous control. The stereovision grasp decoder successfully estimated the grasp type and size in realistic, cluttered environments. When allowed (forced) to correct the automatic system decisions, the subjects successfully utilized the AR feedback and achieved close to ideal system performance. Significance. The new method implements a high level, low effort control of complex functions in addition to the low level closed-loop control. The latter is achieved by providing rich visual feedback, which is integrated into the real life environment. The proposed system is an effective interface applicable with small alterations for many advanced prosthetic and orthotic/therapeutic rehabilitation devices.

  2. Analysis and testing of stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.; Wattman, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of stability augmentation systems for aircraft flight control were conducted. The flutter suppression system analysis of a scale supersonic transport wing model is described. Mechanization of the flutter suppression system is reported. The ride control synthesis for the B-52 aeroelastic model is discussed. Model analyses were conducted using equations of motion generated from generalized mass and stiffness data.

  3. An assessment of various side-stick controller/stability and control augmentation systems for night nap-of-Earth flight using piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Aiken, E. W.

    1982-01-01

    Several night nap-of-the-earth mission tasks were evaluated using a helmet-mounted display which provided a limited field-of-view image with superimposed flight control symbology. A wide range of stability and control augmentation designs was investigated. Variations in controller force-deflection characteristics and the number of axes controlled through an integrated side-stick controller were studied. In general, a small displacement controller is preferred over a stiffstick controller particularly for maneuvering flight. Higher levels of stability augmentation were required for IMC tasks to provide handling qualities comparable to those achieved for the same tasks conducted under simulated visual flight conditions.

  4. Mean Field Type Control with Congestion (II): An Augmented Lagrangian Method

    SciTech Connect

    Achdou, Yves Laurière, Mathieu

    2016-12-15

    This work deals with a numerical method for solving a mean-field type control problem with congestion. It is the continuation of an article by the same authors, in which suitably defined weak solutions of the system of partial differential equations arising from the model were discussed and existence and uniqueness were proved. Here, the focus is put on numerical methods: a monotone finite difference scheme is proposed and shown to have a variational interpretation. Then an Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for solving the variational problem is addressed. It is based on an augmented Lagrangian. Two kinds of boundary conditions are considered: periodic conditions and more realistic boundary conditions associated to state constrained problems. Various test cases and numerical results are presented.

  5. Interpreting the handling qualities of aircraft with stability and control augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgkinson, J.; Potsdam, E. H.; Smith, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The general process of designing an aircraft for good flying qualities is first discussed. Lessons learned are pointed out, with piloted evaluation emerging as a crucial element. Two sources of rating variability in performing these evaluations are then discussed. First, the finite endpoints of the Cooper-Harper scale do not bias parametric statistical analyses unduly. Second, the wording of the scale does introduce some scatter. Phase lags generated by augmentation systems, as represented by equivalent time delays, often cause poor flying qualities. An analysis is introduced which allows a designer to relate any level of time delay to a probability of loss of aircraft control. This view of time delays should, it is hoped, allow better visibility of the time delays in the design process.

  6. Reconfigurable Control with Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network supplementation. This 6 DOF (Degree-of-Freedom) simulation study focuses on the results with and without adaptation of neural networks using a simulation of the NASA modified F-15 which has canards. One area of interest is the performance of a simulated surface failure while attempting to minimize the inertial cross coupling effect of a [B] matrix failure (a control derivative anomaly associated with a jammed or missing control surface). Another area of interest and presented is simulated aerodynamic failures ([A] matrix) such as a canard failure. The controller uses explicit models to produce desired angular rate commands. The dynamic inversion calculates the necessary surface commands to achieve the desired rates. The simplified dynamic inversion uses approximate short period and roll axis dynamics. Initial results indicated that the transient response for a [B] matrix failure using a Neural Network (NN) improved the control behavior when compared to not using a neural network for a given failure, However, further evaluation of the controller was comparable, with objections io the cross coupling effects (after changes were made to the controller). This paper describes the methods employed to reduce the cross coupling effect and maintain adequate tracking errors. The IA] matrix failure results show that control of the aircraft without adaptation is more difficult [leas damped) than with active neural networks, Simulation results show Neural Network augmentation of the controller improves performance in terms of backing error and cross coupling reduction and improved performance with aerodynamic-type failures.

  7. Reconfigurable Control with Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network supplementation. This 6 DOF (Degree-of-Freedom) simulation study focuses on the results with and without adaptation of neural networks using a simulation of the NASA modified F-15 which has canards. One area of interest is the performance of a simulated surface failure while attempting to minimize the inertial cross coupling effect of a [B] matrix failure (a control derivative anomaly associated with a jammed or missing control surface). Another area of interest and presented is simulated aerodynamic failures ([A] matrix) such as a canard failure. The controller uses explicit models to produce desired angular rate commands. The dynamic inversion calculates the necessary surface commands to achieve the desired rates. The simplified dynamic inversion uses approximate short period and roll axis dynamics. Initial results indicated that the transient response for a [B] matrix failure using a Neural Network (NN) improved the control behavior when compared to not using a neural network for a given failure, However, further evaluation of the controller was comparable, with objections io the cross coupling effects (after changes were made to the controller). This paper describes the methods employed to reduce the cross coupling effect and maintain adequate tracking errors. The IA] matrix failure results show that control of the aircraft without adaptation is more difficult [leas damped) than with active neural networks, Simulation results show Neural Network augmentation of the controller improves performance in terms of backing error and cross coupling reduction and improved performance with aerodynamic-type failures.

  8. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  9. Effects of sensory augmentation on postural control and gait symmetry of transfemoral amputees: a case description.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Anna; Arieta, Alejandro Hernandez; Riener, Robert; Vallery, Heike

    2016-10-01

    Despite recent advances in leg prosthetics, transfemoral amputees still experience limitations in postural control and gait symmetry. It has been hypothesized that artificial sensory information might improve the integration of the prosthesis into the human sensory-motor control loops and, thus, reduce these limitations. In three transfemoral amputees, we investigated the effect of Electrotactile Moving Sensation for Sensory Augmentation (EMSSA) without training and present preliminary findings. Experimental conditions included standing with open/closed eyes on stable/unstable ground as well as treadmill walking. For standing conditions, spatiotemporal posturographic measures and sample entropy were derived from the center of pressure. For walking conditions, step length and stance duration were calculated. Conditions without feedback showed effects congruent with findings in the literature, e.g., asymmetric weight bearing and step length, and validated the collected data. During standing, with EMSSA a tendency to influence postural control in a negative way was found: Postural control was less effective and less efficient and the prosthetic leg was less involved. Sample entropy tended to decrease, suggesting that EMSSA demanded increased attention. During walking, with EMSSA no persistent positive effect was found. This contrasts the positive subjective assessment and the positive effect on one subject's step length.

  10. Augmenting psychoeducation with a mobile intervention for bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Ceglowski, Jenni; Wang, Vicki C; Yaghouti, Faraz; Mausbach, Brent T; Thompson, Wesley K; Granholm, Eric L

    2015-03-15

    Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder are frequently unavailable and resource intensive. Mobile technology may improve access to evidence-based interventions and may increase their efficacy. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of an augmentative mobile ecological momentary intervention targeting self-management of mood symptoms. This was a randomized single-blind controlled trial with 82 consumers diagnosed with bipolar disorder who completed a four-session psychoeducational intervention and were assigned to 10 weeks of either: 1) mobile device delivered interactive intervention linking patient-reported mood states with personalized self-management strategies, or 2) paper-and-pencil mood monitoring. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks (mid-point), 12 weeks (post-treatment), and 24 weeks (follow up) with clinician-rated depression and mania scales and self-reported functioning. Retention at 12 weeks was 93% and both conditions were associated with high satisfaction. Compared to the paper-and-pencil condition, participants in the augmented mobile intervention condition showed significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms at 6 and 12 weeks (Cohen׳s d for both were d=0.48). However, these effects were not maintained at 24-weeks follow up. Conditions did not differ significantly in the impact on manic symptoms or functional impairment. This was not a definitive trial and was not powered to detect moderators and mediators. Automated mobile-phone intervention is feasible, acceptable, and may enhance the impact of brief psychoeducation on depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder. However, sustainment of gains from symptom self-management mobile interventions, once stopped, may be limited. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Chemoreflex Activity Increases Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthase mRNA Expression in the Late-Gestation Fetal Sheep Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fraites, Melanie J. P.; Wood, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal sheep defend blood pressure, blood volume, and blood gases using baro- and chemoreflexes that influence autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The local generation of prostanoids within the fetal brain is also an important component in activating hormone responses to these stimuli, but the relationship between the reflexes and prostanoid biosynthesis is unclear. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the abundances of prostaglandin biosynthetic enzymes in the fetal brain are dependent upon the activity of the baro- and chemoreflex pathways. We subjected chronically catheterized fetal sheep in late gestation to a 10-minute period of brachiocephalic occlusion (BCO), a stimulus that provokes brisk cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses. We compared the central nervous system abundance of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 (PGHS-1 and PGHS-2) after BCO to (1) fetal sheep that had been subjected to BCO after chronic sinoaortic denervation plus bilateral vagotomy and (2) fetal sheep in which the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine, had been administered prior to BCO. Abundances of messenger RNA (mRNA) for PGHS-1 and of mRNA and protein for PGHS-2 in fetal hippocampus were reduced significantly by either prior denervation or ketamine administration. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 mRNA in pituitary were decreased and increased, respectively, by ketamine pretreatment. The results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that the expression of PGHS-1 and -2 in fetal hippocampus and pituitary are influenced by the baro- and/or chemoreflex pathways within the fetal brain in late gestation. PMID:21846688

  12. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  13. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. “One-session treatment” guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants’ expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  14. Analysis and testing of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of a stability augmentation system for aircraft flight control were performed. The flutter suppression system and synthesis conducted on a scale model of a supersonic wing for a transport aircraft are discussed. Mechanization and testing of the leading and trailing edge surface actuation systems are described. The ride control system analyses for a 375,000 pound gross weight B-52E aircraft are presented. Analyses of the B-52E aircraft maneuver load control system are included.

  15. Performance-oriented antiwindup for a class of linear control systems with augmented neural network controller.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Guido; Turner, Matthew C; Postlethwaite, Ian

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a conditioning scheme for a linear control system which is enhanced by a neural network (NN) controller and subjected to a control signal amplitude limit. The NN controller improves the performance of the linear control system by directly estimating an actuator-matched, unmodeled, nonlinear disturbance, in closed-loop, and compensating for it. As disturbances are generally known to be bounded, the nominal NN-control element is modified to keep its output below the disturbance bound. The linear control element is conditioned by an antiwindup (AW) compensator which ensures performance close to the nominal controller and swift recovery from saturation. For this, the AW compensator proposed is of low order, designed using convex linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) optimization.

  16. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of an augmented virtual reality and haptic control interface for psychomotor training.

    PubMed

    Kaber, David; Tupler, Larry A; Clamann, Michael; Gil, Guk-Ho; Zhu, Biwen; Swangnetr, Manida; Jeon, Wooram; Zhang, Yu; Qin, Xiaofeng; Ma, Wenqi; Lee, Yuan-Shin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the design of a virtual reality (VR) simulation integrating a haptic control interface for motor skill training. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested and trained in standardized psychomotor control tasks using native and VR forms with their nondominant hands in order to identify VR design features that might serve to accelerate motor learning. The study was also intended to make preliminary observations on the degree of specific motor skill development that can be achieved with a VR-based haptic simulation. Results revealed significant improvements in test performance following training for the VR with augmented haptic features with insignificant findings for the native task and VR with basic haptic features. Although performance during training was consistently better with the native task, a correspondence between the VR training and test task interfaces led to greater improvement in test performance as reported by a difference between baseline and post-test scores. These findings support use of VR-based haptic simulations of standardized psychomotor tests for motor skill training, including visual and haptic enhancements for effective pattern recognition and discrete movement of objects. The results may serve as an applicable guide for design of future haptic VR features.

  18. Obstacle Marking and Vehicle Guidance Science and Technology Objective (OMVG-STO) Augmented Reality for Enhanced Command and Control and Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    OBSTACLE MARKING AND VEHICLE GUIDANCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE (OMVG-STO) AUGMENTED REALITY FOR ENHANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL AND MOBILITY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Obstacle Marking and Vehicle Guidance Science and Technology Objective (OMVG-STO) Augmented Reality for Enhanced Command and Control

  19. Diesel exhaust augments allergen-induced lower airway inflammation in allergic individuals: a controlled human exposure study.

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Chris; Blomberg, Anders; Pui, Mandy; Sandstrom, Thomas; Wong, Sze Wing; Alexis, Neil; Hirota, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to augment allergy and airway disease. However, the enhancement of allergenic effects by diesel exhaust in particular is unproven in vivo in the human lung, and underlying details of this apparent synergy are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that a 2 h inhalation of diesel exhaust augments lower airway inflammation and immune cell activation following segmental allergen challenge in atopic subjects. 18 blinded atopic volunteers were exposed to filtered air or 300 µg PM(2.5)/m(3) of diesel exhaust in random fashion. 1 h post-exposure, diluent-controlled segmental allergen challenge was performed; 2 days later, samples from the challenged segments were obtained by bronchoscopic lavage. Samples were analysed for markers and modifiers of allergic inflammation (eosinophils, Th2 cytokines) and adaptive immune cell activation. Mixed effects models with ordinal contrasts compared effects of single and combined exposures on these end points. Diesel exhaust augmented the allergen-induced increase in airway eosinophils, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with the augmented IL-5 response. Diesel exhaust alone also augmented markers of non-allergic inflammation and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and suppressed activity of macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. Inhalation of diesel exhaust at environmentally relevant concentrations augments allergen-induced allergic inflammation in the lower airways of atopic individuals and the GSTT1 genotype enhances this response. Allergic individuals are a susceptible population to the deleterious airway effects of diesel exhaust. NCT01792232. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Augmentative quetiapine in partial/nonresponders with generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Serati, Marta; Buoli, Massimiliano; Dell'Osso, Bernardo

    2011-07-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose augmentative quetiapine (mean dose=50 mg/day) in patients with GAD and partial/no response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Twenty patients with GAD and partial/no response to SSRIs were randomized to quetiapine (n=10) or placebo (n=10) for 8 weeks, continuing their treatment with SSRIs. Analyses of variance with repeated measures on Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Clinical Global Impression (CGIs; severity of illness) were carried out at baseline and after 8 weeks and the number of responders/remitters was computed and compared between the groups. HAM-A scores at baseline were 15.60 (± 4.48) in the placebo group and 18.50 (± 6.59) in the quetiapine group, and at the end-point, HAM-A scores in the placebo group were 10.40 (± 4.88) and 9.20 (± 5.86) in the quetiapine group. A significant time-by-treatment effect was found on the HAM-A (F=5.19, P=0.035) and CGIs scores (F=19.60, P<0.001) in favor of the quetiapine group. The number of responders was numerically superior in the quetiapine group (60 vs. 30%) without reaching statistical significance (χ=1.82, degree of freedom=1, P=0.37, φ=0.30). Remitters were 40% for the quetiapine group versus 20% for the placebo group (χ=0.95, degree of freedom=1, P=0.63, φ=0.22). Low-dose augmentative quetiapine may be an useful treatment option for patients with GAD and partial/no response to SSRIs. The lack of double-blind conditions and the limited sample size may limit the confidence in the reported results. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these data.

  1. Vertebral Augmentation After Recent Randomized Controlled Trials: A New Rise in Kyphoplasty Volumes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Mougnyan; Levin, David C; Parker, Laurence; Morrison, William; Long, Suzanne; Rao, Vijay M

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the results of two randomized controlled trials refuting the effectiveness of vertebroplasty compared with sham procedures were published in a leading journal. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of these randomized trials on subsequent volume and utilization rates of vertebral augmentation (VA) in the United States. Using nationwide Medicare Part B databases, Current Procedural Terminology, version 4, codes for thoracic and lumbar vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were studied from 2006 to 2013 (codes 22520 to 22525). The total volumes of procedures were determined and utilization rates were calculated. Volumes and rates by provider specialty were also studied. The total volume of VA procedures peaked in 2008 at 101,807 and thereafter fell steadily to 80,940 in 2013. The utilization rates per 100,000 beneficiaries also showed a similar trend. Radiologists performed the largest number of VA procedures in 2013 (33,618 procedures [42%]), followed by orthopedic surgeons (19,886 procedures [25%]). After 2009, vertebroplasty volumes decreased sharply. Kyphoplasty volumes increased in 2011, after an initial decrease in 2010. The divergent trend in the volumes of the two procedures persisted through 2013. After the publication of the two trials' results in 2009, vertebroplasty volumes and rates decreased sharply. However, there is an emerging trend toward performing more kyphoplasty procedures, mitigating the decrease in total volume of VA procedures. Radiologists have the strongest role in performing these procedures among all medical specialties. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity of control-augmented structure obtained by a system decomposition method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanskisobieski, Jaroslaw; Bloebaum, Christina L.; Hajela, Prabhat

    1988-01-01

    The verification of a method for computing sensitivity derivatives of a coupled system is presented. The method deals with a system whose analysis can be partitioned into subsets that correspond to disciplines and/or physical subsystems that exchange input-output data with each other. The method uses the partial sensitivity derivatives of the output with respect to input obtained for each subset separately to assemble a set of linear, simultaneous, algebraic equations that are solved for the derivatives of the coupled system response. This sensitivity analysis is verified using an example of a cantilever beam augmented with an active control system to limit the beam's dynamic displacements under an excitation force. The verification shows good agreement of the method with reference data obtained by a finite difference technique involving entire system analysis. The usefulness of a system sensitivity method in optimization applications by employing a piecewise-linear approach to the same numerical example is demonstrated. The method's principal merits are its intrinsically superior accuracy in comparison with the finite difference technique, and its compatibility with the traditional division of work in complex engineering tasks among specialty groups.

  3. Topiramate augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, M R A; Bruno, A; Pandolfo, G; Micò, U; Bellinghieri, P M; Scimeca, G; Cacciola, M; Campolo, D; Settineri, S; Zoccali, R

    2011-05-01

    The persistence of psychotic, affective, cognitive, and psychosocial symptoms despite medications is commonly observed in schizophrenic patients. The present study was a 24-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial aimed to explore the efficacy of topiramate add-on pharmacotherapy on clinical symptomatology and cognitive functioning in a sample of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine. After clinical and cognitive assessments were randomly allocated to receive either up to 200 mg/day of topiramate or a placebo. A final sample of 43 patients completed the study. The results obtained indicate that topiramate appeared to be scarcely effective for reducing clinical symptomatology in schizophrenic patients who have had an incomplete clinical response to clozapine. Regarding cognitive functioning, in our sample a trend to experience cognitive impairment in the examined domains was observed, as the patients included in the topiramate groups expressed cognitive complaints partially confirmed by a mild worsening of performances on certain cognitive tasks. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with regard to pathophysiology; therefore, data reflecting the mean response of a sample of patients may fail to reveal therapeutic effects. More research is needed to better identify subgroups of patients with peculiar features which may account for responsivity to experimental medications and augmentation strategies.

  4. Randomized controlled augmentation trials in clozapine-resistant schizophrenic patients: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, Vassilis P; Ferentinos, Panayotis P; Havaki-Kontaxaki, Beata J; Roukas, Dimitris K

    2005-08-01

    Approximately 40-70% of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients fail to benefit from clozapine monotherapy or are partial responders. During the last years several clozapine adjunctive agents have come into clinical practice. This study aims to critically review all published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy and safety of adjunctive agents in clozapine-resistant schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients. A MEDLINE search for RCTs on clozapine adjunctive agents published from January 1980 to February 2004 was conducted. All identified papers were critically reviewed and examined against several methodological features as well as clinical and pharmacological parameters. Eleven trials including 270 patients, partial or non-responders to clozapine, assessed the efficacy of sulpiride, lithium, lamotrigine, fluoxetine, glycine, d-serine, d-cycloserine and ethyl-eicosapentanoate (E-EPA) as clozapine adjuncts. There were eight parallel-group and three crossover trials. The inclusion criteria varied widely. The duration as well as the dosage of clozapine monotherapy were reported adequate in only one trial. Plasma clozapine levels were assessed in only three trials. Main side-effects reported were hypersalivation, sedation, diarrhea, nausea, hyperprolactinaemia. The outcome favored clozapine augmentation with sulpiride, lamotrigine and E-EPA. Lithium was shown to benefit only schizoaffective patients. However, the methodological shortcomings of trials analyzed limit the impact of evidence provided.

  5. Possible applications of the LEAP motion controller for more interactive simulated experiments in augmented or virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Peter; Vauderwange, Oliver; Mandal, Avikarsha; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Practical exercises are a crucial part of many curricula. Even simple exercises can improve the understanding of the underlying subject. Most experimental setups require special hardware. To carry out e. g. a lens experiments the students need access to an optical bench, various lenses, light sources, apertures and a screen. In our previous publication we demonstrated the use of augmented reality visualization techniques in order to let the students prepare with a simulated experimental setup. Within the context of our intended blended learning concept we want to utilize augmented or virtual reality techniques for stationary laboratory exercises. Unlike applications running on mobile devices, stationary setups can be extended more easily with additional interfaces and thus allow for more complex interactions and simulations in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). The most significant difference is the possibility to allow interactions beyond touching a screen. The LEAP Motion controller is a small inexpensive device that allows for the tracking of the user's hands and fingers in three dimensions. It is conceivable to allow the user to interact with the simulation's virtual elements by the user's very hand position, movement and gesture. In this paper we evaluate possible applications of the LEAP Motion controller for simulated experiments in augmented and virtual reality. We pay particular attention to the devices strengths and weaknesses and want to point out useful and less useful application scenarios.

  6. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nachum, Zohar; Garmi, Gali; Kadan, Yfat; Zafran, Noah; Shalev, Eliezer; Salim, Raed

    2010-11-07

    A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1), oxytocin (group 2) or both (group 3). A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4). The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women), group 2 (72 women) and group 3 (71 women). Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08) and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001). Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03), group 2 (p = 0.001) and group 4 (p = 0.001). Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone.

  7. A piloted simulator investigation of side-stick controller/stability and control augmentation system requirements for helicopter visual flight tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Dunford, P. J.; Aiken, E. W.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    A piloted simulator experiment was conducted to assess the effects of side-stick controller characteristics and level of stability and control augmentation on handling qualities for several low-altitude control tasks. Visual flight tasks were simulated using four-window computer-generated imagery depicting either a nap-of-the-earth course or a runway with obstacles positioned to provide a slalom course. Both low speed and forward flight control laws were implemented, and a method for automatically switching control modes was developed. Variations in force-deflection characteristics and the number of axes controlled through an integrated side-stick were investigated. With high levels of stability and control augmentation, a four-axis controller with small-deflection in all four axes achieved satisfactory handling qualities for low-speed tasks.

  8. Sub-sensory vibratory noise augments the physiologic complexity of postural control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhong; Lipsitz, Lewis; Habtemariam, Daniel; Manor, Brad

    2016-05-03

    Postural control requires numerous inputs interacting across multiple temporospatial scales. This organization, evidenced by the "complexity" contained within standing postural sway fluctuations, enables diverse system functionality. Age-related reduction of foot-sole somatosensation reduces standing postural sway complexity and diminishes the functionality of the postural control system. Sub-sensory vibrations applied to the foot soles reduce the speed and magnitude of sway and improve mobility in older adults. We thus hypothesized that these vibration-induced improvements to the functionality of the postural control system are associated with an increase in the standing postural sway complexity. Twelve healthy older adults aged 74 ± 8 years completed three visits to test the effects of foot sole vibrations at 0 % (i.e., no vibration), 70 and 85 % of the sensory threshold. Postural sway was assessed during eyes-open and eyes-closed standing. The complexity of sway time-series was quantified using multiscale entropy. The timed up-and-go (TUG) was completed to assess mobility. When standing without vibration, participants with lower foot sole vibratory thresholds (better sensation) had greater mediolateral (ML) sway complexity (r (2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), and those with greater ML sway complexity had faster TUG times (better mobility) (r (2) = 0.38, p < 0.001). Foot sole vibrations at 70 and 85 % of sensory threshold increased ML sway complexity during eyes-open and eyes-closed standing (p < 0.0001). Importantly, these vibration-induced increases in complexity correlated with improvements in the TUG test of mobility (r (2) = 0.15 ~ 0.42, p < 0.001 ~ 0.03). Sub-sensory foot sole vibrations augment the postural control system functionality and such beneficial effects are reflected in an increase in the physiologic complexity of standing postural sway dynamics.

  9. Short-term intravenous citalopram augmentation in partial/nonresponders with major depression: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Bosi, Monica; Mundo, Emanuela

    2008-07-01

    Approximately 30-45% of patients with major depressive episode (MDE) do not fully respond to standard recommended treatments and further strategies of intervention, including pharmacological augmentation, have been proposed for these patients. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of short-term, low-dose (10 mg/day) intravenous (i.v.) citalopram augmentation versus placebo in a sample of patients with MDE and partial or no response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Thirty-six patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision criteria MDE and partial or no response to oral SSRIs were selected and randomly assigned to citalopram (n=18) or to placebo (n=18) i.v. augmentation. The augmentation regimen lasted 5 consecutive days during which the patients were maintained on their current treatment with oral SSRIs. Analyses of variance with repeated measures on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores, administered daily with blind-raters conditions, were done. With regard to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total scores, a significant time effect (F=42.02, P<0.0001) and timextreatment effect (F=21.17, P<0.0001) were found in favor of citalopram. Similar results were obtained from the analysis on Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores: time effect (F=50.07, P<0.0001), timextreatment effect (F=19.91, P<0.0001), and treatment effect (F=4.07, P=0.05). Even though referred to a small sample, the present findings seem to suggest that short-term, low-dose, i.v. citalopram augmentation may be effective in depressed patients with partial or no response to oral SSRIs. Further controlled studies performed with double-blind conditions are warranted to confirm the present results.

  10. Metabolic control after years of completing a clinical trial on sensor-augmented pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Carmen; Giménez, Marga; Orois, Aida; Conget, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy has been shown to be effective and safe for improving metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in a number of trials. Our objective was to assess glycemic control in a group of T1DM patients on insulin pump or SAP therapy after years of participating in the SWITCH (Sensing With Insulin pump Therapy To Control HbA1c) trial and their return to routine medical monitoring. A retrospective, observational study of 20 patients who participated in the SWITCH trial at our hospital from 2008 to 2010. HbA1c values were compared at the start, during (at the end of the periods with/without SAP use - Sensor On/Sensor Off period respectively - of the cross-over design), and 3 years after study completion. HbA1c values of patients who continued SAP therapy (n=6) or only used insulin pump (n=14) were also compared. Twenty patients with T1DM (44.4±9.3 years, 60% women, baseline HbA1c level 8.43±0.55%) were enrolled into the SWITCH study). Three years after study completion, HbA1c level was 7.79±0.77 in patients on pump alone, with no significant change from the value at the end of the Off period of the study (7.85±0.57%; p=0.961). As compared to the end of the On period, HbA1c worsened less in patients who remained on SAP than in those on pump alone (0.18±0.42 vs. 0.55±0.71%; p=0.171), despite the fact that levels were similar at study start (8.41±0.60 vs. 8.47±0.45; p=0.831) and at the end of the On period (7.24±0.48 vs. 7.38±0.61; p=0.566). Frequency of CGM use in patients who continued SAP therapy was high (61.2% of the time in the last 3 months). Our study suggests that the additional benefit of SAP therapy achieved in a clinical trial may persist in the long term in routine clinical care of patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  12. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) flight characterization experiments performed using an F/A-18 (TN 853). AAC was designed and developed specifically for launch vehicles, and is currently part of the baseline autopilot design for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The scope covered here includes a brief overview of the algorithm (covered in more detail elsewhere), motivation and benefits of flight testing, top-level SLS flight test objectives, applicability of the F/A-18 as a platform for testing a launch vehicle control design, test cases designed to fully vet the AAC algorithm, flight test results, and conclusions regarding the functionality of AAC. The AAC algorithm developed at Marshall Space Flight Center is a forward loop gain multiplicative adaptive algorithm that modifies the total attitude control system gain in response to sensed model errors or undesirable parasitic mode resonances. The AAC algorithm provides the capability to improve or decrease performance by balancing attitude tracking with the mitigation of parasitic dynamics, such as control-structure interaction or servo-actuator limit cycles. In the case of the latter, if unmodeled or mismodeled parasitic dynamics are present that would otherwise result in a closed-loop instability or near instability, the adaptive controller decreases the total loop gain to reduce the interaction between these dynamics and the controller. This is in contrast to traditional adaptive control logic, which focuses on improving performance by increasing gain. The computationally simple AAC attitude control algorithm has stability properties that are reconcilable in the context of classical frequency-domain criteria (i.e., gain and phase margin). The algorithm assumes that the baseline attitude control design is well-tuned for a nominal trajectory and is designed to adapt only when necessary. Furthermore, the adaptation is attracted to the nominal design and adapts only on an as-needed basis

  13. A piloted simulator investigation of static stability and stability/control augmentation effects on helicopter handling qualities for instrument approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Forrest, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A ground simulator experiment was conducted on the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft at Ames Research Center to investigate the influence of several static stability and stability/control augmentation design parameters on helicopter flying qualities during terminal area operations in instrument conditions. Effects of light turbulence were included. Two levels of static stability in each rotational axis (pitch, roll, yaw) were examined for a hingeless rotor configuration. The variations in pitch and roll were: (1) stable and (2) neutral static stability; in yaw there were two stable levels. Four types of stability/control augmentation were also examined for the lower level of static stability in each axis. This latter investigation covered three helicopter rotor types: hingeless, articulated, and teetering. Four pilots performed a total of 105 evaluations of these parameters for a representative VOR instrument approach task. Pilot rating results indicate the acceptability of neutral static stability longitudinally and laterally and the need for pitch-roll attitude augmentation to achieve a satisfactory system.

  14. Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Guo, Ruichen; Zhao, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) induces apnea, glottis closure, bradycardia and hypertension in young and maturing mammals. We examined the distribution of medullary nuclei that are activated by the LCR and used immunofluorescent detection of Fos protein as a cellular marker for neuronal activation to establish that the medullary catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons participate in the modulation of the LCR. The LCR was elicited by the infusion of KCl-HCl solution into the laryngeal lumen of adult rats in the experimental group, whereas the control group received the same surgery but no infusion. In comparison, the number of regions of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) that were activated by the LCR significantly increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), the loose formation of the nucleus ambiguus (AmbL), the rostral ventral respiratory group (RVRG), the ventrolateral reticular complex (VLR), the pre-Bötzinger complex (PrBöt), the Bötzinger complex (Böt), the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SP5), and the raphe obscurus nucleus (ROb) bilaterally from the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, 12.71% of neurons with FLI in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (SolDL) showed tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-ir, catecholaminergic), and 70.87% of neurons with FLI in the ROb were serotoninergic. Our data demonstrated the distribution of medullary nuclei that were activated by the LCR, and further demonstrated that catecholaminergic neurons of the SolDL and serotoninergic neurons of the ROb were activated by the LCR, indicating the potential central pathway of the LCR.

  15. Time of day affects chemoreflex sensitivity and the carbon dioxide reserve during NREM sleep in participants with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2014-11-15

    Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PET(CO2)) and minute ventilation, as well as the PET(CO2) that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PET(CO2): 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea.

  16. A flight investigation of the stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomaske, R. F.; Innis, R. C.; Swan, B. E.; Grossmith, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane are presented. The airplane is an extensively modified de Havilland Buffalo military transport. The modified airplane has two fan-jet engines which provide vectorable thrust and compressed air for the augmentor jet flap and Boundary-Layer Control (BLC). The augmentor and BLC air is cross ducted to minimize asymmetric moments produced when one engine is inoperative. The modifications incorporated in the airplane include a Stability Augmentation System (SAS), a powered elevator, and a powered lateral control system. The test gross weight of the airplane was between 165,000 and 209,000 N (37,000 and 47,000 lb). Stability, control, and handling qualities are presented for the airspeed range of 40 to 180 knots. The lateral-directional handling qualities are considered satisfactory for the normal operating range of 65 to 160 knots airspeed when the SAS is functioning. With the SAS inoperative, poor turn coordination and spiral instability are primary deficiencies contributing to marginal handling qualities in the landing approach. The powered elevator control system enhanced the controllability in pitch, particularly in the landing flare and stall recovery.

  17. Augmented neuronal death in CA3 hippocampus following hyperventilation early after controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Forbes, M L; Clark, R S; Dixon, C E; Graham, S H; Marion, D W; DeKosky, S T; Schiding, J K; Kochanek, P M

    1998-03-01

    Minimizing secondary injury after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the primary goal of cerebral resuscitation. For more than two decades, hyperventilation has been one of the most often used strategies in the management of TBI. Laboratory and clinical studies, however, have verified a post-TBI state of reduced cerebral perfusion that may increase the brain's vulnerability to secondary injury. In addition, it has been suggested in a clinical study that hyperventilation may worsen outcome after TBI. Using the controlled cortical impact model in rats, the authors tested the hypothesis that aggressive hyperventilation applied immediately after TBI would worsen functional outcome, expand the contusion, and promote neuronal death in selectively vulnerable hippocampal neurons. Twenty-six intubated, mechanically ventilated, isoflurane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact (4 m/second, 2.5-mm depth of deformation) and randomized after 10 minutes to either hyperventilation (PaCO2 = 20.3 +/- 0.7 mm Hg) or normal ventilation groups (PaCO2 = 34.9 +/- 0.3 mm Hg) containing 13 rats apiece and were treated for 5 hours. Beam balance and Morris water maze (MWM) performance latencies were measured in eight rats from each group on Days 1 to 5 and 7 to 11, respectively, after controlled cortical impact. The rats were killed at 14 days postinjury, and serial coronal sections of their brains were studied for contusion volume and hippocampal neuron counting (CA1, CA3) by an observer who was blinded to their treatment group. Mortality rates were similar in both groups (two of 13 in the normal ventilation compared with three of 13 in the hyperventilation group, not significant [NS]). There were no differences between the groups in mean arterial blood pressure, brain temperature, and serum glucose concentration. There were no differences between groups in performance latencies for both beam balance and MWM or contusion volume (27.8 +/- 5

  18. Titrated oral misoprostol solution compared with intravenous oxytocin for labor augmentation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2010-09-01

    To compare titrated oral misoprostol to intravenous oxytocin for labor augmentation among women at 36 to 42 weeks of gestation with spontaneous onset of active labor. Women meeting the general selection criteria with regular contractions and an effaced cervix dilated between 3 and 9 cm, and who had inadequate uterine contractions (two or fewer contractions every 10 minutes) during the first stage of labor, were randomly assigned to titrated oral misoprostol or intravenous oxytocin. Augmentation-to-vaginal delivery interval and vaginal delivery within 12 or 24 hours were the primary outcomes. The data were analyzed by intention to treat. Of the 231 women, 118 (51.1%) were randomized to titrated oral misoprostol and 113 (48.9%) to titrated intravenous oxytocin. The median interval from the start of augmentation to vaginal delivery was 5.22 hours (3.77-8.58 hours, 25th-75th percentile) in the misoprostol group, and 5.20 hours (3.23-6.50 hours, 25th-75th percentile) in the intravenous oxytocin group (P=.019). Complete vaginal delivery occurred within 12 hours for 92 women (78.0%) in the misoprostol group and for 97 women (85.8%) in the oxytocin group (P=.121; relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.03). There were no significant differences between the two groups who delivered vaginally within 24 hours. Side effects and neonatal outcomes also did not differ between the two groups. Labor augmentation with titrated oral misoprostol or intravenous oxytocin resulted in similar rates of vaginal delivery within 12 and 24 hours. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00695331. I.

  19. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; Vanzwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of twenty five constant pitch-rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control.

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole augmentation in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Cristina; Iovieno, Nadia; Iosifescu, Dan V; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A John; Perlis, Roy H

    2013-07-01

    Multiple treatments for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have demonstrated efficacy, but up to one-third of individuals with MDD do not achieve symptomatic remission despite various interventions. Existing augmentation or combination strategies can have substantial safety concerns that may limit their application. This study investigated the antidepressant efficacy of a flexible dose of the dopamine agonist pramipexole as an adjunct to standard antidepressant treatment in an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in a tertiary-level depression center. We randomized 60 outpatients (aged 18 to 75 years) with treatment-resistant nonpsychotic MDD (diagnosed according to DSM-IV) to either pramipexole (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30). Treatment resistance was defined as continued depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score ≥ 18) despite treatment with at least 1 prior antidepressant in the current depressive episode. Patients were recruited between September 2005 and April 2008. The primary outcome measure was the MADRS score. The analyses that used a mixed-effects linear regression model indicated a modest but statistically significant benefit for pramipexole (P = .038). The last-observation-carried-forward analyses indicated that 40% and 33% of patients randomized to augmentation with pramipexole achieved response (χ(2) = 1.2, P = .27) and remission (χ(2) = 0.74, P = .61), respectively, compared to 27% and 23% with placebo; however, those differences were not statistically significant. Augmentation with pramipexole was well-tolerated, with no serious adverse effects identified. For patients who have failed to respond to standard antidepressant therapies, pramipexole is a safe and potentially efficacious augmentation strategy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00231959. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Methods Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1), oxytocin (group 2) or both (group 3). A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4). The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. Results A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women), group 2 (72 women) and group 3 (71 women). Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08) and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001). Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03), group 2 (p = 0.001) and group 4 (p = 0.001). Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Conclusion Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone. PMID:21054896

  2. Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sam; Lucas, Nathan P.; Ellis, R. Darin; Pandya, Abhilash

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.

  3. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  4. Antidepressant Augmentation Using the NMDA-Antagonist Memantine: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric G.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Ulbricht, Christine M.; Landolin, Chelsea S.; Patel, Jayendra K.; Rothschild, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intravenous NMDA antagonists have shown promising results in rapidly ameliorating depression symptoms, but placebo-controlled trials of oral NMDA antagonists as monotherapy have not observed efficacy. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00344682) of the NMDA antagonist memantine as an augmentation treatment for patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder. Method 31 participants with partial or nonresponse to their current antidepressant were randomized (from 2006–2011) to add memantine (flexible dose 5–20 mg/day, with all memantine group participants reaching the dose of 20 mg/day) (n= 15) or placebo (n= 16) to their existing treatment for 8 weeks. The primary outcome, change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Score (MADRS), was evaluated with repeated measures mixed effects models using last-observation-carried-forward methods. Secondary outcomes included other depression and anxiety rating scales, suicidal and delusional ideation, and other adverse effects. Results Participants receiving memantine did not show a statistically or clinically significant change in MADRS scores compared to placebo, either over the entire study (β=0.133, favoring placebo, p=0.74) or at study completion (week 8 MADRS score change: −7.13 +/−6.61 (memantine); −7.25 +/−11.14 (placebo), p=0.97). A minimal-to-small effect size (comparing change to baseline variability) was observed (d=0.19), favoring placebo. Similarly, no substantial effect sizes favoring memantine, nor statistically significant between-group differences, were observed on secondary efficacy or safety outcomes. Conclusions This trial did not detect significant statistical or effect size differences between memantine and placebo augmentation among nonresponders or poor responders to conventional antidepressants. While the small number of participants is a limitation, this study suggests memantine lacks substantial efficacy as an augmentation treatment against

  5. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  6. An investigation of side-stick-controller/stability and control-augmentation system requirements for helicopter terrain flight under reduced visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Glusman, S. I.; Aiken, E. W.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of the reduced visibility tasks is effected by providing the pilot with a visually coupled, helmet-mounted display of flight-control symbols superimposed upon terrain-board imagery. Forward-flight, low-speed, and precision-hover control modes are implemented, and a method is developed for the blending of control laws between each control mode. An investigation is made of the variations in the level of integration of primary control functions on a single side-stick controller. For most of the flight tasks investigated, separated controller configurations are preferred to a single, fully integrated side-stick device. Satisfactory handling qualities over all controller configurations are attained only for a precision-hover task conducted with a high level of stability and control augmentation. For most tasks flown with the helmet-mounted display significant degradation in handling qualities occurs relative to the identical tasks flown under visual flight conditions.

  7. A double blind randomized controlled trial comparing primary suture closure with mesh augmented closure to reduce incisional hernia incidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Incisional hernia is the most frequently seen long term complication after laparotomy causing much morbidity and even mortality. The overall incidence remains 11-20%, despite studies attempting to optimize closing techniques. Two patient groups, patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and obese patients, have a risk for incisional hernia after laparotomy of more than 30%. These patients might benefit from mesh augmented midline closure as a means to reduce incisional hernia incidence. Methods/design The PRImary Mesh Closure of Abdominal Midline Wound (PRIMA) trial is a double-blinded international multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing running slowly absorbable suture closure with the same closure augmented with a sublay or onlay mesh. Primary endpoint will be incisional hernia incidence 2 years postoperatively. Secondary outcomes will be postoperative complications, pain, quality of life and cost effectiveness. A total of 460 patients will be included in three arms of the study and randomized between running suture closure, onlay mesh closure or sublay mesh closure. Follow-up will be at 1, 3, 12 and 24 months with ultrasound imaging performed at 6 and 24 months to objectify the presence of incisional hernia. Patients, investigators and radiologists will be blinded throughout the whole follow up. Disccusion The use of prosthetic mesh has proven effective and safe in incisional hernia surgery however its use in a prophylactic manner has yet to be properly investigated. The PRIMA trial will provide level 1b evidence whether mesh augmented midline abdominal closure reduces incisional hernia incidence in high risk groups. Trial registration Clinical trial.gov NCT00761475. PMID:24499111

  8. Attention bias modification treatment augmenting effects on cognitive behavioral therapy in children with anxiety: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shechner, Tomer; Rimon-Chakir, Adi; Britton, Jennifer C; Lotan, Danny; Apter, Alan; Bliese, Paul D; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2014-01-01

    Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) is a promising novel treatment for anxiety disorders, but clinical trials have focused largely on stand-alone formats among adults. This randomized controlled trial examined the augmenting effects of threat-based ABMT on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically anxious youth. Sixty-three treatment-seeking children with anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: ABMT + CBT; ABMT placebo + CBT; and CBT-alone. Participants in the 2 ABMT conditions received repeated training on dot-probe tasks either designed to shift attention away from threats (active) or designed to induce no changes in attention patterns (placebo). Primary outcome measures were frequency and severity of anxiety symptoms as determined by a clinician using a semi-structured interview. Self- and parent-rated anxiety measures and threat-related attention bias scores were also measured before and after treatment. Both the active and placebo ABMT groups showed greater reductions in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms than the CBT-alone group. Furthermore, only the active ABMT group showed significant reduction in self- or parent-rated anxiety symptoms. Finally, all groups showed a shift in attention patterns across the study, starting with a bias toward threat at baseline and shifting attention away from threat after treatment. Active and placebo ABMT might augment the clinical response to CBT for anxiety. This effect could arise from benefits associated with performing computer-based paradigms such as the dot-probe task. Given the absence of group differences in attention-bias changes during treatment, possible mechanisms and methodological issues underlying the observed findings are discussed. Clinical trial registration information-Augmenting Effects of ABMT on CBT in Anxious Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01730625. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  9. Attention Bias Modification Treatment Augmenting Effects on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children With Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shechner, Tomer; Rimon-Chakir, Adi; Britton, Jennifer C.; Lotan, Danny; Apter, Alan; Bliese, Paul D.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Objective Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) is a promising novel treatment for anxiety disorders, but clinical trials have focused largely on stand-alone formats among adults. This randomized controlled trial examined the augmenting effects of threat-based ABMT on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically anxious youth. Method Sixty-three treatment-seeking children with anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: ABMT + CBT; ABMT placebo + CBT; and CBT-alone. Participants in the 2 ABMT conditions received repeated training on dot–probe tasks either designed to shift attention away from threats (active) or designed to induce no changes in attention patterns (placebo). Primary outcome measures were frequency and severity of anxiety symptoms as determined by a clinician using a semi-structured interview. Self- and parent-rated anxiety measures and threat-related attention bias scores were also measured before and after treatment. Results Both the active and placebo ABMT groups showed greater reductions in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms than the CBT-alone group. Furthermore, only the active ABMT group showed significant reduction in self- or parentrated anxiety symptoms. Finally, all groups showed a shift in attention patterns across the study, starting with a bias toward threat at baseline and shifting attention away from threat after treatment. Conclusions Active and placebo ABMT might augment the clinical response to CBT for anxiety. This effect could arise from benefits associated with performing computer-based paradigms such as the dot–probe task. Given the absence of group differences in attention-bias changes during treatment, possible mechanisms and methodological issues underlying the observed findings are discussed. Clinical trial registration information—Augmenting Effects of ABMT on CBT in Anxious Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01730625. PMID:24342386

  10. Balance and Gait Training With Augmented Feedback Improves Balance Confidence in People With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xia; Mak, Margaret K Y

    2014-07-01

    Background Fear of falling has been identified as an important and independent fall-risk predictor in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there are inconsistent findings on the effects of balance and gait training on balance confidence. Objective To explore whether balance and gait training with augmented feedback can enhance balance confidence in PD patients immediately after treatment and at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Methods A total of 51 PD patients were randomly assigned to a balance and gait training (BAL) group or to an active control (CON) group. The BAL group received balance and gait training with augmented feedback, whereas CON participants received lower-limb strength training for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, limits-of-stability test, single-leg-stance test, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics. All tests were administered before intervention (Pre), immediately after training (Post), and at 3 months (Post3m) and 12 months (Post12m) after treatment completion. Results The ABC score improved marginally at Post and significantly at Post3m and Post12m only in the BAL group (P < .017). Both participant groups increased their end point excursion at Post, but only the BAL group maintained the improvement at Post3m. The BAL group maintained significantly longer time-to-loss-of-balance during the single-leg stance test than the CON group at Post3m and Post12m (P < .05). For gait characteristics, both participant groups increased gait velocity, but only the BAL group increased stride length at Post, Post3m, and Post12m (P < .017). Conclusions Positive findings from this study provide evidence that BAL with augmented feedback could enhance balance confidence and balance and gait performance in patients with PD.

  11. Primary ankle ligament augmentation versus modified Brostrom-Gould procedure: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mark; Shadbolt, Bruce; Stuart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    More than 20% of patients develop chronic instability following appropriate management of an 'ankle sprain'. There is little research comparing surgical techniques. 'Anatomical' procedures, such as the modified Brostrom-Gould (MBG), are generally preferred. However, not all patients are suitable for this procedure. Augmentation of a primary repair using a synthetic ligament, such as the ligament augmentation reconstruction system (LARS), is another 'anatomic' option. Our objective was to compare the clinical outcome following the MBG with that following the LARS technique using a prospective randomized clinical trial. Patients who satisfied the study criteria were randomly allocated to undergo the LARS procedure or the MBG procedure. All patients followed a similar rehabilitation programme. Patients completed the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS) before surgery, and then at 1 year and 2 years following surgery. Statistical analysis was used to compare the groups (P < 0.05). Forty-one patients took part in the study, 21 were randomized to the LARS group and 20 to the MBG group. The LARS group had a significantly better improvement in the total FAOS at both 1 year (25.5 standard error (SE) 3.8 versus 16.0 SE 3.3) and 2 years (27.1 SE 4.5 versus 15.8 SE 4.9) post-surgery. Primary repair combined with LARS results in better patient-scored clinical outcome, at 2 years post-surgery, than the MBG procedure. Although longer follow-up is required, the LARS procedure may be considered as an alternative, especially in those patients for whom the MBG is relatively contra-indicated. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Preliminary control law and hardware designs for a ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Linse, D. J.; Suikat, R.; Entz, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    The continued investigation of the design of Ride Quality Augmentation Systems (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is described. The purpose of these RQAS is the reduction of the vertical and lateral acceleration response of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The current investigations include the refinement of the sample data feedback control laws based on the control-rate-weighting and output-weighting optimal control design techniqes. These control designs were evaluated using aircraft time simulations driven by Dryden spectra turbulence. Fixed gain controllers were tested throughout the aircrft operating envelope. The preliminary design of the hardware modifications necessary to implement and test the RQAS on a commuter aircraft is included. These include a separate surface elevator and the flap modifications to provide both direct lift and roll control. A preliminary failure mode investigation was made for the proposed configuration. The results indicate that vertical acceleration reductions of 45% and lateral reductions of more than 50% are possible. A fixed gain controller appears to be feasible with only minor response degradation.

  13. Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise as an Augmentation Therapy for Inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Malach, Tal; Cooper Kazaz, Rena; Constantini, Naama; Lifschytz, Tzuri; Lerer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms when used in combination with antidepressant medication. We report a randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise compared to stretching as an augmentation strategy for hospitalized patients with major depression. Male or female patients, 18-80 years, diagnosed with a Major Depressive Episode, were randomly assigned to three weeks of augmentation therapy with aerobic (n=6) or stretching exercise (n=6). Depression was rated, at several time points using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and other scales. According to the HAM-D, there were four (out of six) responders in the aerobic group, two of whom achieved remission, and none in the stretching group. According to the BDI, there were two responders in the aerobic group who were also remitters and none in the stretching group. The results of this small study suggest that aerobic exercise significantly improves treatment outcome when added to antidepressant medication. However, due to the small sample size the results must be regarded as preliminary and further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  14. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  15. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  16. Reconfigurable Control Design with Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The viewgraphs present background information about reconfiguration control design, design methods used for paper, control failure survivability results, and results and time histories of tests. Topics examined include control reconfiguration, general information about adaptive controllers, model reference adaptive control (MRAC), the utility of neural networks, radial basis functions (RBF) neural network outputs, neurons, and results of investigations of failures.

  17. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control:In-Flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for the Space Launch System (SLS) has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of the launch vehicle's baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a potential manual steering mode were also investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority, which is the subject of this paper. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of 25 constant pitch rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control, evaluating six different nominal and off-nominal test case scenarios. Pilot comments and PIO ratings were given following each trajectory and correlated with aircraft state data and internal controller signals post-flight.

  18. Human Augmentics: augmenting human evolution.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.

  19. Naltrexone augmentation in OCD: a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Amiaz, Revital; Fostick, Leah; Gershon, Ari; Zohar, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Current treatments for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) rely primarily on serotonergic mechanisms. However, approximately 30% of patients do not respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and remain chronically ill. Given the behavioral similarities between some of the compulsive behaviors in OCD and addiction, we hypothesized that the opioid antagonist naltrexone might attenuate compulsions in OCD as well. The effect of naltrexone augmentation to SRI was compared to placebo in 10 OCD outpatients who had not responded to an adequate dose of SSRI or clomipramine for at least 2 months. Participants underwent 5 weeks of treatment with naltrexone or placebo (and 1 week of tapering) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Patients were evaluated weekly using the Y-BOCS, CGI, HAM-A, and MADRS scales. A two-way repeated measures MANOVA revealed no significant effect for Y-BOCS. However, while receiving naltrexone, patients had significantly higher scores on CGI, MADRS and HAM-A as compared to placebo. The lack of significant findings on OC symptoms could be due to either ceiling effect or alternatively, due to a non-specific exacerbation on anxiety and depression but not on OC symptoms.

  20. Spectral indices of human cerebral blood flow control: responses to augmented blood pressure oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hamner, J W; Cohen, Michael A; Mukai, Seiji; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Taylor, J Andrew

    2004-09-15

    We set out to fully examine the frequency domain relationship between arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) was used to create consistent blood pressure oscillations of varying frequency and amplitude to rigorously test for a frequency- and/or amplitude-dependent relationship between arterial pressure and cerebral flow. We also examined the predictions from OLBNP data for the cerebral flow response to the stepwise drop in pressure subsequent to deflation of ischaemic thigh cuffs. We measured spectral powers, cross-spectral coherence, and transfer function gains and phases in arterial pressure and cerebral flow during three amplitudes (0, 20, and 40 mmHg) and three frequencies (0.10, 0.05, and 0.03 Hz) of OLBNP in nine healthy young volunteers. Pressure fluctuations were directly related to OLBNP amplitude and inversely to OLBNP frequency. Although cerebral flow oscillations were increased, they did not demonstrate the same frequency dependence seen in pressure oscillations. The overall pattern of the pressure-flow relation was of decreasing coherence and gain and increasing phase with decreasing frequency, characteristic of a high-pass filter. Coherence between pressure and flow was increased at all frequencies by OLBNP, but was still significantly lower at frequencies below 0.07 Hz despite the augmented pressure input. In addition, predictions of thigh cuff data from spectral estimates were extremely inconsistent and highly variable, suggesting that cerebral autoregulation is a frequency-dependent mechanism that may not be fully characterized by linear methods.

  1. Can Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation Reduce Subsequent Treatment Failure More Effectively Among Depressed Patients with a Higher Degree of Treatment Resistance? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation was demonstrated to be efficacious in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in previous meta-analyses. We investigate whether there are differences in the effect size of atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder according to the degree of treatment resistance. Methods: A comprehensive search of four databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials. The 11 trials, which included 3 341 participants, were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy showed superior efficacy compared to antidepressant monotherapy in TRD in terms of both response and remission rates (response, risk ratio [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.53; remission, RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.85). In addition, regarding response rates in the TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation exhibited significantly different effect sizes according to the degree of treatment resistance (TRD 1: RR = 1.24; TRD 2: RR = 1.37; TRD 2–4: RR = 1.58). In non-TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation failed to show superior efficacy over antidepressant monotherapy in terms of remission rates (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.14). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy exhibits greater effect size in patients with a higher degree of treatment resistance. Conclusions: This finding strengthens the rationale for considering atypical antipsychotic augmentation among depressed patients with multiple previous treatment failures in clinical practice. The efficacy of atypical antipsychotic augmentation for non-TRD seems to be different from that for TRD and, thus, further studies of non-TRD populations are needed. PMID:25770098

  2. Can Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation Reduce Subsequent Treatment Failure More Effectively Among Depressed Patients with a Higher Degree of Treatment Resistance? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-03-13

    Atypical antipsychotic augmentation was demonstrated to be efficacious in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in previous meta-analyses. We investigate whether there are differences in the effect size of atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder according to the degree of treatment resistance. A comprehensive search of four databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials. The 11 trials, which included 3 341 participants, were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy showed superior efficacy compared to antidepressant monotherapy in TRD in terms of both response and remission rates (response, risk ratio [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.53; remission, RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.85). In addition, regarding response rates in the TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation exhibited significantly different effect sizes according to the degree of treatment resistance (TRD 1: RR = 1.24; TRD 2: RR = 1.37; TRD 2-4: RR = 1.58). In non-TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation failed to show superior efficacy over antidepressant monotherapy in terms of remission rates (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.14). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy exhibits greater effect size in patients with a higher degree of treatment resistance. This finding strengthens the rationale for considering atypical antipsychotic augmentation among depressed patients with multiple previous treatment failures in clinical practice. The efficacy of atypical antipsychotic augmentation for non-TRD seems to be different from that for TRD and, thus, further studies of non-TRD populations are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  3. Active structural control for damping augmentation and compensation of thermal distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirlin, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    A large space-based Focus Mission Interferometer is used as a testbed for the NASA Controls and Structures Interaction Program. Impedance-based adaptive structural control and control of thermal disturbances are demonstrated using an end-to-end simulation of the system's optical performance. Attention is also given to integrated optical/structural modeling and a hierarchical, layered control strategy.

  4. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michelle L; Papini, Santiago; Rosenfield, David; Roelofs, Karin; Kolb, Sarah; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-09-18

    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD were assigned to one of three conditions: power posing, submissive posing, or rest (no posing) prior to participating in an exposure therapy session. Participants were assessed for between-group differences in pre- and post-manipulation salivary hormone levels, within-session subjective experiences of fear, and pre- and 1-week post-treatment SAD severity outcome measures. Though the intervention resulted in decreased SAD symptom severity one week later, analyses revealed no significant between-group differences on any tested variables. Accordingly, this study provides no evidence to suggest that power posing impacts hormone levels or exposure therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bupivacaine Versus Liposomal Bupivacaine for Postoperative Pain Control after Augmentation Mammaplasty: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Meghan H; Saraswat, Anju; Vasko, Alexander; Elliott, John O; Vasko, Susan D

    2016-02-01

    The long-acting preparation of bupivacaine, liposomal bupivacaine (EXPAREL, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 2011 and has been shown to be safe in breast augmentation. It remains to be established if liposomal bupivacaine provides superior pain control in this setting. This study compares liposomal bupivacaine and standard bupivacaine for postoperative pain control. Thirty-four patients undergoing cosmetic primary subpectoral breast augmentation were recruited. Each patient was treated with bupivacaine in one implant pocket and liposomal bupivacaine in the other prior to closure in a randomized fashion. Both patient and surgeon were blinded. A brief pain inventory was administered by telephone every 12 h up to 72 h postoperatively. Liposomal bupivacaine demonstrated a statistically significantly lower pain score at the 12, 36, and 48 h time points in the worst pain category, at the 24, 36, 48, and 60 h time points in the least pain category, at the 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h time points in the average pain category, and at the 24, 48, and 72 h time points in the pain rated at the time of the survey. These differences, however, were small, ranging from 0.08 to 0.98 using a 10-point pain scale. When asked if the additional charge for the liposomal bupivacaine would have been worth the benefit, 70% of the patients surveyed said "no." Although there is a statistically significant decrease in postoperative pain with the use of liposomal bupivacaine, this may not translate to an appreciable clinical benefit that justifies the additional cost. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3: Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Flow Control Research at NASA Langley in Support of High-Lift Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Jones, Gregory S.; Moore, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the efforts at NASA Langley to apply active and passive flow control techniques for improved high-lift systems, and advanced vehicle concepts utilizing powered high-lift techniques. The development of simplified high-lift systems utilizing active flow control is shown to provide significant weight and drag reduction benefits based on system studies. Active flow control that focuses on separation, and the development of advanced circulation control wings (CCW) utilizing unsteady excitation techniques will be discussed. The advanced CCW airfoils can provide multifunctional controls throughout the flight envelope. Computational and experimental data are shown to illustrate the benefits and issues with implementation of the technology.

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Two Different Methods to Initiate Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Francisco Javier; Gálvez Moreno, Maria Ángeles; Castaño, Justo P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze clinical effect of a novel approach to initiate sensor-augmented insulin pumps in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients through early real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) initiation. Methods. A 26-week pilot study with T1DM subjects randomized (1 : 1) to start RT-CGM three weeks before continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM pre-CSII) or adding RT-CGM three weeks after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM post-CSII). Results. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36.6 yr. (range 19–59 yr.) and T1DM duration of 16.8 ± 10.6 yr. Higher adherence in CGM pre-CSII patients was confirmed at study end (84.6 ± 11.1% versus 64.0 ± 25.4%; P = 0.01). The two intervention groups had similar HbA1c reduction at study end of −0.6% (P = 0.9). Hypoglycemic event frequency reduction was observed from baseline to study end only in CGM pre-CSII group (mean difference in change, −6.3%; 95% confidence interval, −12.0 to −0.5; P = 0.04). Moreover, no severe hypoglycemia was detected among CGM pre-CSII subjects during the study follow-up (0.0 ± 0.0 events versus 0.63 ± 1.0 events; P = 0.03). CGM pre-CSII patients showed better satisfaction than CGM post-CSII patients at the end of the study (27.3 ± 9.3 versus 32.9 ± 7.2; P = 0.04). Conclusions. CGM pre-CSII is a novel approach to improve glycemic control and satisfaction in type 1 diabetes sensor-augmented pump treated patients. PMID:28004007

  8. Augmented Adaptive Control of a Wind Turbine in the Presence of Structural Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines operate in highly turbulent environments resulting in aerodynamic loads that can easily excite turbine structural modes, potentially causing component fatigue and failure. Two key technology drivers for turbine manufacturers are increasing turbine up time and reducing maintenance costs. Since the trend in wind turbine design is towards larger, more flexible turbines with lower frequency structural modes, manufacturers will want to develop methods to operate in the presence of these modes. Accurate models of the dynamic characteristics of new wind turbines are often not available due to the complexity and expense of the modeling task, making wind turbines ideally suited to adaptive control. In this paper, we develop theory for adaptive control with rejection of disturbances in the presence of modes that inhibit the controller. We use this method to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed wind turbine operating in Region 3. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller is to regulate generator speed, accommodate wind gusts, and reduce the interference of certain structural modes in feedback. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The adaptive pitch controller for Region 3 is compared in simulations with a baseline classical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller.

  9. An Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming-controlled Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Transient Stability Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinpu; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yu, Xiaopeng

    To enhance the stability of power system, the active power and reactive power can be absorbed from or released to Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit according to system power requirements. This paper proposes a control strategy based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programing (ADHDP) which can control SMES to improve the stability of electric power system with on-line learning ability. Based on back propagation (BP) neural network, ADHDP approximates the optimal control solution of nonlinear system through iteration step by step. This on-line learning ability improves its performance by learning from its own mistakes through reinforcement signal from external environment, so that it can adjust the neural network weights according to the back propagation error to achieve optimal control performance. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, simulation tests are carried out in Matlab/Simulink. And a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controlled method is used to compare the performance of ADHDP. Simulation results show that the proposed controller demonstrates superior damping performance on power system oscillation caused by three-phase fault and wind power fluctuation over the PI controller.

  10. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively. PMID:27271840

  11. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  12. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    PubMed

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  13. Assessment of Augmented Electronic Fuel Controls for Modular Engine Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    coutrol- fault diagnosis relative to other typen of engine controls. ’The VAW system by design Intent ill inlidio the nt’uubor of control system...accessory gearbox and one on the exhaust frame. With proper filtering and logic, fault isolation to the module and/or LRU level should be effective...34 System With Fault Isolaion (FI) - FADEC, FICA, EHR, HIT, FD, and Base Shop Diagnosis System 2, with the addition of in-flight tape recording and a

  14. Chronic caffeine intake in adult rat inhibits carotid body sensitization produced by chronic sustained hypoxia but maintains intact chemoreflex output.

    PubMed

    Conde, Silvia V; Ribeiro, Maria J; Obeso, Ana; Rigual, Ricardo; Monteiro, Emilia C; Gonzalez, Constancio

    2012-12-01

    Sustained hypoxia produces a carotid body (CB) sensitization, known as acclimatization, which leads to an increase in carotid sinus nerve (CSN) activity and ensuing hyperventilation greater than expected from the prevailing partial pressure of oxygen. Whether sustained hypoxia is physiological (high altitude) or pathological (lung disease), acclimatization has a homeostatic implication because it tends to minimize hypoxia. Caffeine, the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug and a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, alters CB function and ventilatory responses when administered acutely. Our aim was to investigate the effect of chronic caffeine intake on CB function and acclimatization using four groups of rats: normoxic, caffeine-treated normoxic, chronically hypoxic (12% O₂, 15 days), and caffeine-treated chronically hypoxic rats. Caffeine was administered in drinking water (1 mg/ml). Caffeine ameliorated ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia in normoxic animals without altering the output of the CB (CSN neural activity). Caffeine-treated chronically hypoxic rats exhibited a decrease in the CSN response to acute hypoxia tests but maintained ventilation compared with chronically hypoxic animals. The findings related to CSN neural activity combined with the ventilatory responses indicate that caffeine alters central integration of the CB input to increase the gain of the chemoreflex and that caffeine abolishes CB acclimatization. The putative mechanisms involved in sensitization and its loss were investigated: expression of adenosine receptors in CB (A(2B)) was down-regulated and that in petrosal ganglion (A(2A)) was up-regulated in caffeine-treated chronically hypoxic rats; both adenosine and dopamine release from CB chemoreceptor cells was increased in chronic hypoxia and in caffeine-treated chronic hypoxia groups.

  15. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A pitch active control system (PACS) was developed and flight tested on a wide body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer. Two dual channel digital computers and the associated software provide command signals to a dual channel series servo which controls the stabilizer power actuators. Input sensor signals to the computer are pitch rate, column trim position, and dynamic pressure. Control laws are given for the PACS and the system architecture is defined. Discussions are given regarding piloted flight simulation and vehicle system simulation and vehicle system simulation tests that are performed to verify control laws and system operation prior to installation on the aircraft. Modifications to the basic aircraft included installation of the PACS, addition of a c.g. management system to provide a c.g. range from 25 to 39% mac, and downrigging of the geared elevator to provide the required nose down control authority for aft c.g. flight test conditions. Three pilots used the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale to judge flying qualities of the aircraft with PACS on and off. The handling qualities with the c.g. at 39% mac (41% stability margin) and PACS operating were judged to be as good as the handling qualities with the c.g. at 25% mac (+15% stability margin) and PACS off.

  16. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  17. Do Resisted Temptations During Smoking Cessation Deplete or Augment Self-Control Resources?

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Kathleen A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    A resource depletion model of self-control posits that for some period following performance of a task requiring self-control, self-control will be reduced and thus less available for use in a subsequent task. Using two substantial data sets collected in real time from individuals who were trying to quit smoking (1660 and 9516 temptation episodes collected from 61 and 248 individuals), we evaluated this model by testing the hypotheses that the number, and length of resisted temptations and the intensity of the most recently reported urge during the prior four hours predict decreased self-control and increased likelihood of lapsing. Survival and multilevel regression modeling showed that contrary to the hypothesis, the number of recently resisted temptations predicted a lower risk of lapsing in both samples. Duration of resisted temptations had no significant effect in either sample. Intensity of most recently reported urge predicted lapsing in one data set, but not in the other. Overall, there was little support for the resource depletion model. The protective effect of successfully resisting temptations was an unexpected but provocative finding. PMID:19071973

  18. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  19. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small horizontal tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rising, J. J.; Kairys, A. A.; Maass, C. A.; Siegart, C. D.; Rakness, W. L.; Mijares, R. D.; King, R. W.; Peterson, R. S.; Hurley, S. R.; Wickson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A limited authority pitch active control system (PACS) was developed for a wide body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer. Two dual channel digital computers and the associated software provide command signals to a dual channel series servo which controls the stabilizer power actuators. Input sensor signals to the computer are pitch rate, column-trim position, and dynamic pressure. Control laws are given for the PACS and the system architecture is defined. The piloted flight simulation and vehicle system simulation tests performed to verify control laws and system operation prior to installation on the aircraft are discussed. Modifications to the basic aircraft are described. Flying qualities of the aircraft with the PACS on and off were evaluated. Handling qualities for cruise and high speed flight conditions with the c.g. at 39% mac ( + 1% stability margin) and PACS operating were judged to be as good as the handling qualities with the c.g. at 25% (+15% stability margin) and PACS off.

  20. Task-Based Mirror Therapy Augmenting Motor Recovery in Poststroke Hemiparesis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta; Kumar, Dharmendra; Puri, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    To establish the effect of the task-based mirror therapy (TBMT) on the upper limb recovery in stroke. A pilot, randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial was conducted in a rehabilitation institute. A convenience sample of 33 poststroke (mean duration, 12.5 months) hemiparetic subjects was randomized into 2 groups (experimental, 17; control, 16). The subjects were allocated to receive either TBMT or standard motor rehabilitation-40 sessions (5/week) for a period of 8 weeks. The TBMT group received movements using various goal-directed tasks and a mirror box. The movements were performed by the less-affected side superimposed on the affected side. The main outcome measures were Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA)-FMA of upper extremity (FMA-UE), including upper arm (FMA-UA) and wrist-hand (FMA-WH). The TBMT group exhibited highly significant improvement on mean scores of FMA-WH (P < .001) and FMA-UE (P < .001) at postassessment in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there was a 12% increase in the number of subjects at BRS stage 5 (out of synergy movement) in the experimental group as compared to a 0% rise at the same stage in the control group. This pilot trial confirmed the role of TBMT in improving the wrist-hand motor recovery in poststroke hemiparesis. MT using tasks may be used as an adjunct in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advanced Integrated Aircraft Displays and Augmented Flight Control. Volume 1. Scientific Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    qualities criteria for aircraft with tradi- tional control behavior (Cooper and Harper, 1969; Gilruth , 1943; Phillips, 1949) and to the ever increasing...Texas: Bell Helicopter Co., TR D228-421-017/NONR 1670(00), 1964. ! I 42 Gilruth , R. R. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

  2. Do resisted temptations during smoking cessation deplete or augment self-control resources?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathleen A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shiffman, Saul

    2008-12-01

    A resource depletion model of self-control posits that for some period following performance of a task requiring self-control, self-control will be reduced and thus less available for use in a subsequent task. Using 2 substantial data sets collected in real time from individuals who were trying to quit smoking (1,660 and 9,516 temptation episodes collected from 61 and 248 individuals, respectively), we evaluated this model by testing the hypotheses that the number and length of resisted temptations and the intensity of the most recently reported urge during the prior 4 hr predict decreased self-control and increased likelihood of lapsing. Survival and multilevel regression modeling showed that contrary to the hypothesis, the number of recently resisted temptations predicted a lower risk of lapsing in both samples. Duration of resisted temptations had no significant effect in either sample. Intensity of most recently reported urge predicted lapsing in 1 data set but not in the other. Overall, there was little support for the resource depletion model. The protective effect of successfully resisting temptations was an unexpected but provocative finding.

  3. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flávio R. M.; Ricalde, Marcelo P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. PMID:26466795

  4. Coaching to Augment Mentoring to Achieve Faculty Diversity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Academy for Future Science Faculty (the Academy) is a novel coaching intervention for biomedical PhD students designed to address limitations in previous efforts to promote faculty diversity. Unlike traditional research mentoring, the Academy includes both group and individual coaching, coaches have no research or evaluation roles with the students, and it is based on social science theories. The authors present a qualitative case study of one of the coaching groups and provide statistical analyses indicating whether one year in the Academy effects students’ perceptions of the achievability and desirability of an academic career. Method The authors have tested (July 2012-July 2013), with Northwestern University ethical approval, the Academy via a longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Participants were 121 latter-stage biomedical PhD students. The authors collected data via questionnaires, interviews, and meeting recordings. Results The case study shows how group career coaching can effectively supplement traditional one-to-one research mentoring; provide new role models for underrepresented minority students; and provide theory-based lenses through which to engage in open conversations about race, gender, and science careers. Repeated-measures analysis of variances showed perceived achievability increased in the Academy group from baseline to 1-year follow-up (means, 5.75 vs. 6.39), but decreased in the control group (6.58 vs. 5.81). Perceived desirability decreased significantly less (P < 0.05) in the Academy group (7.00 vs. 6.36), than in the control group (7.83 vs. 5.97). Conclusions Early results suggest that an academic career-coaching model can effectively supplement traditional research mentoring and promote persistence towards academic careers. PMID:26675187

  5. Coaching to Augment Mentoring to Achieve Faculty Diversity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The Academy for Future Science Faculty (the Academy) is a novel coaching intervention for biomedical PhD students designed to address limitations in previous efforts to promote faculty diversity. Unlike traditional research mentoring, the Academy includes both group and individual coaching, coaches have no research or evaluation roles with the students, and it is based on social science theories. The authors present a qualitative case study of one of the coaching groups and provide statistical analyses indicating whether one year in the Academy effects students' perceptions of the achievability and desirability of an academic career. The authors tested (July 2012-July 2013), with Northwestern University ethical approval, the Academy via a longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Participants were 121 latter-stage biomedical PhD students. The authors collected data via questionnaires, interviews, and meeting recordings. The case study shows how group career coaching can effectively supplement traditional one-to-one research mentoring; provide new role models for underrepresented minority students; and provide theory-based lenses through which to engage in open conversations about race, gender, and science careers. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that perceived achievability increased in the Academy group from baseline to one-year follow-up (mean, 5.75 versus 6.39) but decreased in the control group (6.58 versus 5.81). Perceived desirability decreased significantly less (P < .05) in the Academy group (7.00 versus 6.36) than in the control group (7.83 versus 5.97). Early results suggest that an academic career coaching model can effectively supplement traditional research mentoring and promote persistence toward academic careers.

  6. Controlled Cavitation to Augment SWL Stone Comminution: Mechanistic Insights In-Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been documented to result from mechanical stresses conferred directly to the stone, as well as the activity of cavitational microbubbles. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of this cavitation activity is crucial for stone subdivision; however, its exact role in the comminution process remains somewhat weakly defined, in part due to the fact that it is difficult to isolate the cavitational component from the shock waves themselves. In this study, we further explored the importance of cavitation in SWL stone comminution through the use of histotripsy ultrasound therapy. Histotripsy was utilized to target model stones designed to mimic the mid-range tensile fracture strength of naturally occurring cystine calculi with controlled cavitation at strategic time points in the SWL comminution process. All SWL was applied at a peak-positive pressure (p+) of 34 MPa and a peak-negative pressure (p−) of 8 MPa; a shock rate of 1 Hz was used. Histotripsy pulses had a p− of 33 MPa and were applied at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 100 Hz. Ten model stones were sonicated in-vitro with each of five different treatment schemes: A. 10 minutes SWL (600 shocks) with 0.7 seconds of histotripsy interleaved between successive shocks (totaling to 42,000 pulses); B. 10 minutes SWL (600 shocks) followed by 10 minutes histotripsy applied in 0.7 second bursts (1 burst per second, totaling to 42,000 pulses); C. 10 minutes histotripsy applied in 0.7 second bursts (42,000 pulses) followed by 10 minutes SWL (600 shocks); D. 10 minutes SWL-only (600 shocks); E. 10 minutes histotripsy-only applied in 0.7 second bursts (42,000 pulses). Following sonication, debris was collected and sieved through 8, 6, 4, and 2 mm filters. It was found that SWL-only generated a broad range of fragment sizes, with an average of 14.9 ± 24.1% of the original stone mass remaining >8 mm. Histotripsy-only eroded the surface of stones to tiny

  7. Folate Augmentation of Treatment – Evaluation for Depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Seren Haf; Bedson, Emma; Hughes, Dyfrig; Lloyd, Keith; Moat, Stuart; Pirmohamed, Munir; Slegg, Gary; Tranter, Richard; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Wilkinson, Clare; Russell, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background Clinical depression is common, debilitating and treatable; one in four people experience it during their lives. The majority of sufferers are treated in primary care and only half respond well to active treatment. Evidence suggests that folate may be a useful adjunct to antidepressant treatment: 1) patients with depression often have a functional folate deficiency; 2) the severity of such deficiency, indicated by elevated homocysteine, correlates with depression severity, 3) low folate is associated with poor antidepressant response, and 4) folate is required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods/Design The primary objective of this trial is to estimate the effect of folate augmentation in new or continuing treatment of depressive disorder in primary and secondary care. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of folate augmentation of antidepressant treatment, investigate how the response to antidepressant treatment depends on genetic polymorphisms relevant to folate metabolism and antidepressant response, and explore whether baseline folate status can predict response to antidepressant treatment. Seven hundred and thirty patients will be recruited from North East Wales, North West Wales and Swansea. Patients with moderate to severe depression will be referred to the trial by their GP or Psychiatrist. If patients consent they will be assessed for eligibility and baseline measures will be undertaken. Blood samples will be taken to exclude patients with folate and B12 deficiency. Some of the blood taken will be used to measure homocysteine levels and for genetic analysis (with additional consent). Eligible participants will be randomised to receive 5 mg of folic acid or placebo. Patients with B12 deficiency or folate deficiency will be given appropriate treatment and will be monitored in the 'comprehensive cohort study'. Assessments will be at screening, randomisation

  8. Visual response augmentation in cat (and macaque) LGN: potentiation by corticofugally mediated gain control in the temporal domain.

    PubMed

    Cudeiro, J; Rivadulla, C; Grieve, K L

    2000-04-01

    Visual responses of neurons are dependent on the context of a stimulus, not only in spatial terms but also temporally, although evidence for temporally separate visual influences is meagre, based mainly on studies in the higher cortex. Here we demonstrate temporally induced elevation of visual responsiveness in cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of cat and monkey following a period of high intensity (elevated contrast) stimulation. This augmentation is seen in 40-70% (monkey-cat) of cells tested and of all subtypes. Peaking at approximately 3 min following the period of intense stimulation, it can last for 10-12 min and can be repeated and summed in time. Furthermore, it is dependent on corticofugal input, is seen even when high contrast stimuli of orthogonal orientation are used and therefore results from a/any prior increase in activity in the retino-geniculo-striate pathway. We suggest that this reflects a general mechanism for control of visual responsiveness; both a flexible and dynamic means of changing effectiveness of thalamic activity as visual input changes, but also a mechanism which is an emergent property of the thalamo-cortico-thalamic loop.

  9. Application of an adaptive control grid interpolation technique to MR data set augmentation aimed at morphological vascular reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frakes, David; Sinotte, Christopher M.; Conrad, Christopher P.; Healy, Timothy M.; Shiva, Sharma; Fogel, Mark A.; Monaco, Joseph W.; Smith, Mark J. T.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2002-05-01

    The total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is a palliative surgical repair performed on children with a single ventricle (SV) physiology. Much of the power produced by the resultant single ventricle pump is consumed in the systemic circulation. Consequently the minimization of power loss in the TCPC is imperative for optimal surgical outcome. Toward this end we have developed a method of vascular morphology reconstruction based on adaptive control grid interpolation (ACGI) to function as a precursor to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis aimed at quantifying power loss. Our technique combines positive aspects of optical flow-based and block-based motion estimation algorithms to accurately augment insufficiently dense Magnetic Resonance (MR) data sets with a minimal degree of computational complexity. The resulting enhanced data sets are used to reconstruct vascular geometries, and the subsequent reconstructions can then be used in conjunction with CFD simulations to offer th pressure and velocity information necessary to quantify power loss in the TCPC. Collectively these steps form a tool that transforms conventional MR data into more powerful information allowing surgical planning aimed at producing optimal TCPC configurations for successful surgical outcomes.

  10. Mirtazapine, yohimbine or olanzapine augmentation therapy for serotonin reuptake-associated female sexual dysfunction: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Michelson, David; Kociban, Kristen; Tamura, Roy; Morrison, Mary F

    2002-01-01

    Many agents have been proposed as potential treatments for SSRI-associated sexual dysfunction, but few placebo-controlled trials have been reported. After a 1-month baseline evaluation, pre-menopausal women with moderate to severe sexual dysfunction associated with the institution of fluoxetine therapy were randomized to augmentation therapy with placebo (N=39), mirtazapine (N=36), yohimbine (N=35) or olanzapine (N=38) for a 6-week period. Outcomes were measured using a daily diary, a biweekly self-report assessment, and a computer assisted structured interview. At baseline, orgasm was most severely impaired. After 6 weeks, there was statistically significant improvement on most measures for the overall group of patients, however there were few differences between treatment groups. Isolated treatment differences were observed for the patient self-report of overall sexual function (olanzapine superior to placebo) and the structured interview sexual satisfaction item (mirtazapine inferior to placebo). No drug assessed was consistently associated with differences from placebo. The results of the study do not support uncontrolled reports of efficacy for these agents in premenopausal women.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of augmentation topiramate for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Steven E; Carlson, Eve B; Hill, Kimberly

    2007-12-01

    Topiramate, a novel anticonvulsant, has been reported to rapidly reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an open-label trial. The present study was designed as a test of topiramate's efficacy as adjunctive therapy in a 7-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty male veterans with PTSD in a residential treatment program were randomized to flexible-dose topiramate or placebo augmentation. The primary outcome measures were PTSD symptom severity and global symptom improvement. Baseline Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores were 62.1 +/- 13.9 for placebo and 61.0 +/- 22.2 for topiramate. There was a high dropout rate from the study (55% topiramate; 25% placebo), with 40% of topiramate and 10% of placebo dropping because of adverse events (AEs). No significant treatment effects of topiramate versus placebo were observed for the primary treatment outcomes. Subjects reporting central nervous system-related AEs and with higher baseline severity of depression were more likely to discontinue because of AEs. Primary outcome measures failed to demonstrate a significant effect for topiramate over placebo; however, high dropout rate in the treatment group prohibits definitive conclusions about the efficacy of topiramate in this population.

  12. Exercise augmentation compared with usual care for post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Sherrington, C; Tiedemann, A

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the impact of a 12-week exercise programme in addition to usual care for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 81 participants with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of primary PTSD. Participants were recruited after admission to an in-patient programme at a private hospital. Participants were randomized to receive either usual care (n=42), or exercise in addition to usual care (n=39). The exercise intervention involved three, 30-min resistance-training sessions/week and a pedometer-based walking programme. Usual care involved psychotherapy, pharmaceutical interventions, and group therapy. Primary outcome was PTSD symptoms assessed via the PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C). Secondary outcomes included symptoms of depression, anthropometry, physical activity, mobility, strength, and sleep quality. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 47.8 years (12.1), 84% male. PTSD symptoms in the intervention group significantly reduced compared with the usual care group (mean difference=-5.4, 95% CI -10.5 to -0.3, P=0.04, n=58). There were significant between-group differences at follow-up for depressive symptoms, waist circumference, sleep quality, and sedentary time. This study provides the first evidence that an exercise intervention is associated with reduced PTSD and depressive symptoms, reduced waist circumference, and improved sleep quality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Further studies on control synthesis of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems via augmented multi-indexed matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangpeng; Yue, Dong; Ma, Tiedong; Zhu, Xunlin

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with further studies on control synthesis of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems. To do this, a novel slack variable technique, which is homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent on both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions with arbitrary degrees, is presented by developing an efficient augmented multi-indexed matrix approach. Under the framework of homogenous matrix polynomials, the algebraic properties of both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions are collected into sets of augmented multi-indexed matrices. Thus, more information about the underlying normalized fuzzy weighting functions is involved into control synthesis. Consequently, the relaxation quality of control synthesis of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems is improved significantly. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Effect of pregabalin augmentation in treatment of patients with combat-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baniasadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Golkoo; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei Ardani, Amir; Mostafavi Toroghi, Hesam

    2014-11-01

    It has been suggested that the anticonvulsant drug pregabalin may be useful in some anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin augmentation of standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and sodium valproate) for patients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This doubleblind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Ibn-E-Sina Psychiatric Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) in 2013. Thirty-seven male patients diagnosed with combat-related PTSD based on DSM-IV-TR criteria were randomly assigned to two groups: 18 patients, the case group, received pregabalin (300 mg/day) while 19 patients, the control group, received placebo for 6 weeks. Assessments were done at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the onset of treatment, using the PTSD Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Spitzer Quality of Life Index. Pregabalin was just significantly effective in improving PCL-M scores (p=0.045) in comparison to placebo. Although depression and anxiety scores diminished significantly in both groups (p=0.001 and 0.0001, respectively), comparison of the efficacy of pregabalin and placebo did not show significant differences in depression, anxiety, and quality of life scores (p=0.614, 0.144, and 0.076, respectively). Pregabalin effectively reduced the severity of PTSD symptoms but it was not effective in improving the severity of depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Further investigations are required to confirm or refute these findings.

  15. Pindolol augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: accounting for the variability of results of placebo-controlled double-blind studies in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Segrave, Rebecca; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2005-04-01

    Co-administration of pindolol with SSRIs in patients with depression has been suggested as a way to both hasten and augment antidepressant response. Clinical trials have examined the efficacy of this treatment regime and conflicting results have been reported. The present review briefly presents the results of placebo-controlled double-blind trials of pindolol augmentation of SSRIs in patients with major depression, and focuses on factors that may account for the variability of findings. Additionally, a profile of the subset of patients who may most benefit from pindolol augmentation is outlined. Methodological factors such as qualitative differences in definitions of antidepressant response, the timing of pindolol administration and heterogeneous clinical characteristics of patient samples may contribute to the variability in the results of clinical trials to date. Similarly, individual differences in neuropathology, neurophysiology and genotype may also account for some of the inconsistencies in the findings. Finally, the results of recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the 2.5 mg t.i.d. dose of pindolol that has been used in all but one of these investigations may be suboptimal for achieving reliable and significant occupancy of 5-HT1A autoreceptors and may explain the contradictory nature of the results of investigations of pindolol augmentation. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of topiramate-augmentation therapy for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Yuji; Oya, Kazuto; Matsunaga, Shinji; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of topiramate-augmentation therapy in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic agents. Data published up to June 20, 2016 were obtained from the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Twelve randomized controlled trials comparing topiramate to placebo or antipsychotic only were included (n=676 patients). The primary outcome was change in overall symptoms. Relative risk (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD), along with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated using random effects model for each outcome. Topiramate-augmentation therapy was superior to the control for decreasing overall symptoms (SMD −0.55, 95% confidence interval −0.86 to −0.24; P=0.001; I2=55%, eight comparisons, n=380), positive symptoms (SMD −0.4), negative symptoms (SMD −0.47), and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale general subscale scores (SMD −0.67). Furthermore, topiramate-augmentation therapy decreased weight (SMD −0.69) and body mass index (SMD −0.95) compared with the control. Topiramate was similar to the control with respect to discontinuation due to all causes (RR 1.19), inefficacy (RR 1.71), and adverse events (RR 1.09). Topiramate was associated with higher incidence of paresthesia (RR 2.67) and attention difficulty (RR 8.97) compared with the control. Our results seemed to suggest that topiramate-augmentation therapy improves the psychopathology of schizophrenia with good tolerability and has the additional advantage of weight maintenance. However, because there were some limitations (numbers of studies and patients included in the meta-analysis were small, some studies used completer analysis, Chinese studies were included in the meta-analysis, and studies that had a risk of bias were included in the meta-analysis) in this study, we cannot apply the results of this study in daily clinical practice. PMID:28008259

  17. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  18. Tetraplegia is associated with enhanced peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and ventilatory long-term facilitation.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy T; Riehani, Anas; Badr, M Safwan

    2015-11-15

    Cardiorespiratory plasticity induced by acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) may contribute to recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that patients with cervical SCI would demonstrate higher minute ventilation (V̇e) following AIH compared with subjects with thoracic SCI and able-bodied subjects who served as controls. Twenty-four volunteers (8 with cervical SCI, 8 with thoracic SCI, and 8 able-bodied) underwent an AIH protocol during wakefulness. Each subject experienced 15 episodes of isocapnic hypoxia using mixed gases of 100% nitrogen (N2), 8% O2, and 40% CO2 to achieve oxygen saturation ≤90% followed by room air (RA). Measurements were obtained before, during, and 40 min after AIH to obtain ventilation and heart rate variability data [R-R interval (RRI) and low-frequency/high-frequency power (LF/HF)]. AIH results were compared with those of sham studies conducted in RA during the same time period. Individuals with cervical SCI had higher V̇e after AIH compared with able-bodied controls (117.9 ± 23.2% vs. 97.9 ± 11.2%, P < 0.05). RRI decreased during hypoxia in all individuals (those with cervical SCI, from 1,009.3 ± 65.0 ms to 750.2 ± 65.0 ms; those with thoracic SCI, from 945.2 ± 65.0 ms to 674.9 ± 65.0 ms; and those who were able-bodied, from 949 ± 75.0 to 682.2 ± 69.5 ms; P < 0.05). LH/HF increased during recovery in individuals with thoracic SCI and those who were able-bodied (0.54 ± 0.22 vs. 1.34 ± 0.22 and 0.67 ± 0.23 vs. 1.82 ± 0.23, respectively; P < 0.05) but remained unchanged in the group with cervical SCI. Our conclusion is that patients with cervical SCI demonstrate ventilatory long-term facilitation following AIH compared with able-bodied controls. Heart rate responses to hypoxia are acutely present in patients with cervical SCI but are absent during posthypoxic recovery.

  19. Prolonged leucine supplementation does not augment muscle mass or affect glycemic control in elderly type 2 diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van der Hoeven, Letty; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Hartgens, Fred; Wodzig, Will K W H; Saris, Wim H M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2011-06-01

    The loss of muscle mass with aging has been, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Leucine coingestion has been reported to stimulate postprandial insulin release and augment postprandial muscle protein accretion. We assessed the clinical benefits of 6 mo of leucine supplementation in elderly, type 2 diabetes patients. Sixty elderly males with type 2 diabetes (age, 71 ± 1 y; BMI, 27.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2)) were administered 2.5 g L-leucine (n = 30) or a placebo (n = 30) with each main meal during 6 mo of nutritional intervention (7.5 g/d leucine or placebo). Body composition, muscle fiber characteristics, muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and basal plasma amino acid and lipid concentrations were assessed prior to, during, and after intervention. Lean tissue mass did not change or differ between groups and at 0, 3, and 6 mo were 61.9 ± 1.1, 62.2 ± 1.1, and 62.0 ± 1.0 kg, respectively, in the leucine group and 62.2 ± 1.3, 62.2 ± 1.3, and 62.2 ± 1.3 kg in the placebo group. There also were no changes in body fat percentage, muscle strength, and muscle fiber type characteristics. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin did not change or differ between groups and was 7.1 ± 0.1% in the leucine group and 7.2 ± 0.2% in the placebo group. Consistent with this, oral glucose insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid concentrations did not change or differ between groups. We conclude that prolonged leucine supplementation (7.5 g/d) does not modulate body composition, muscle mass, strength, glycemic control, and/or lipidemia in elderly, type 2 diabetes patients who habitually consume adequate dietary protein.

  20. Lamotrigine Augmentation Versus Placebo in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Khalkhali, Mohammadrasoul; Aram, Setareh; Zarrabi, Homa; Kafie, Moosa; Heidarzadeh, Abtin

    2016-04-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently used in first-line treatments for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nevertheless, many of these patients do not respond well to initial therapy. The hypothesis of glutamatergic dysfunction in specific brain regions has been proposed in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the possible efficacy of lamotrigine, a glutamatergic agent in Serotonin reuptake inhibitors-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study was a 12-week, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive fixed-doses of lamotrigine (100 mg) to Serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eligible subjects who had a total Y-BOCS of 21 or above were randomly assigned to receive adjunctive treatment with either lamotrigine (n = 26), or placebo (n = 27). Response to lamotrigine was defined as clinical improvement (>25% decrease in the total Y-BOCS score), which was administered at weeks 0, 8 and 12. At the endpoint (week 12), significant differences were observed in obsession, compulsion, and total Y-BOCS scores comparing lamotrigine to placebo (P = 0.01, 0.005 and 0.007 respectively). The mean reduction in obsession, compulsion and total scores in lamotrigine group was about 4.15, 4.50 and 8.73, respectively. Similarly, the mean reductions in the placebo group were 2.52, 2.56 and 5.07. Effect sizes for efficacy measureswerecalculatedbyCohen'sd, and it was calculated as 0.54 for the total YBOCS. Our findings provide evidence that this augmentation is well tolerated and may be an effective strategy for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  1. Augmented reality telementoring (ART) platform: a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a new surgical education technology.

    PubMed

    Vera, Angelina M; Russo, Michael; Mohsin, Adnan; Tsuda, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Laparoscopic skills training has evolved over recent years. However, conveying a mentor's directions using conventional methods, without realistic on-screen visual cues, can be difficult and confusing. To facilitate laparoscopic skill transference, an augmented reality telementoring (ART) platform was designed to overlay the instruments of a mentor onto the trainee's laparoscopic monitor. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of this new teaching modality to traditional methods in novices performing an intracorporeal suturing task. Nineteen pre-medical and medical students were randomized into traditional mentoring (n = 9) and ART (n = 10) groups for a laparoscopic suturing and knot-tying task. Subjects received either traditional mentoring or ART for 1 h on the validated fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery intracorporeal suturing task. Tasks for suturing were recorded and scored for time and errors. Results were analyzed using means, standard deviation, power regression analysis, correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, and student's t test. Using Wright's cumulative average model (Y = aX (b)) the learning curve slope was significantly steeper, demonstrating faster skill acquisition, for the ART group (b = -0.567, r (2) = 0.92) than the control group (b = -0.453, r (2) = 0.74). At the end of 10 repetitions or 1 h of practice, the ART group was faster versus traditional (mean 167.4 vs. 242.4 s, p = 0.014). The ART group also had fewer fails (8) than the traditional group (13). The ART Platform may be a more effective training technique in teaching laparoscopic skills to novices compared to traditional methods. ART conferred a shorter learning curve, which was more pronounced in the first 4 trials. ART reduced the number of failed attempts and resulted in faster suture times by the end of the training session. ART may be a more effective training tool in laparoscopic surgical training for complex tasks than traditional methods.

  2. Mild central chemoreflex activation does not alter arterial baroreflex function in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Grant H; Manson, Julie M; Halliwill, John R

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that activation of peripheral chemoreceptors with isocapnic hypoxia resets arterial baroreflex control of heart rate and sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to higher pressures, without changes in baroreflex gain. We tested the hypothesis that activation of central chemoreceptors with mild hyperoxic hypercapnia also causes resetting of the arterial baroreflex, but that this resetting would not occur with matched volume and frequency hyperpnoea. Baroreflex control of heart rate (n = 16) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography; n = 11) was assessed in healthy men and women, age 20–33 years, using the modified Oxford technique during hyperoxic eucapnia, hyperoxic hyperpnoea and hyperoxic hypercapnia (end-tidal PCO2+ 5 mmHg above eucapnia). Baroreflex trials were separated by 30 min of rest. While neither hyperpnoea nor hypercapnia changed mean arterial pressure (92.0 ± 1.8 during eucapnia versus 91.0 ± 1.2 and 90.7 ± 1.4 mmHg during hyperpnoea and hypercapnia; P = 0.427) or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (2301 ± 687 during eucapnia versus 2959 ± 987 and 2272 ± 414 total integrated units min−1 during hyperpnoea and hypercapnia; P = 0.653), heart rate was increased from 59.3 ± 2.7 during eucapnia to 63.2 ± 3.0 and 62.4 ± 2.8 beats min−1 during hyperpnoea and hypercapnia (both P < 0.017). Baroreflex gain was not altered by hyperpnoea or hypercapnia. Thus, acute activation of central chemoreceptors with mild hyperoxic hypercapnia does not affect arterial pressure, sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow, or baroreflex gain. Heart rate is elevated during hyperoxic hypercapnia, but this response is not different from the increase in heart rate produced by matched volume and frequency hyperpnoea. Therefore, mild activation of central chemoreceptors does not appear to alter arterial baroreflex function. PMID:17640930

  3. Histological results after maxillary sinus augmentation with Straumann® BoneCeramic, Bio-Oss®, Puros®, and autologous bone. A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christian Martin; Doering, Hendrik; Schmidt, Thomas; Lutz, Rainer; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schlegel, Karl Andreas

    2013-05-01

    This investigation focused on a comparison of clinical and histological characteristics after sinus floor augmentation with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, Straumann BoneCeramic(®) ), anorganic bovine bone (ABB, Geistlich Bio-Oss(®) ), mineralized cancellous bone allograft (MCBA, Zimmer Puros(®) ), or autologous bone (AB). Thirty consecutive patients with a posterior edentulous maxillary situation and a vertical bone height less than or equal to 4 mm were included in this study. A two-stage procedure was carried out. After augmentation of the maxillary sinus with ABB, BCP, MCBA, or AB followed by a healing period of 5 months, biopsies were taken with simultaneous implant placement. The samples were analyzed using microradiography and histology. Ninety-four implants were placed in the augmented positions and 53 bone biopsies were taken and evaluated. The bone volume fraction of newly formed bone was measured as 30.28 ± 2.16% for BCP, 24.9 ± 5.67% for ABB, 41.74 ± 2.1% for AB, and 35.41 ± 2.78% for MCBA with significant increases in bone volume of AB vs. BCP and ABB, and MCBA vs. ABB samples. Significantly different residual bone substitute material was measured as 15.8 ± 2.1% in the BCP group and 21.36 ± 4.83% in the ABB group. As it provides the highest rate of de novo bone formation, AB can be considered to remain the gold standard in sinus floor augmentation. All tested control materials showed comparable results and are suitable for maxillary sinus augmentation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Augmented visual feedback of movement performance to enhance walking recovery after stroke: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thikey, Heather; Grealy, Madeleine; van Wijck, Frederike; Barber, Mark; Rowe, Philip

    2012-09-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that use of augmented visual feedback could be a useful approach to stroke rehabilitation. In current clinical practice, visual feedback of movement performance is often limited to the use of mirrors or video. However, neither approach is optimal since cognitive and self-image issues can distract or distress patients and their movement can be obscured by clothing or limited viewpoints. Three-dimensional motion capture has the potential to provide accurate kinematic data required for objective assessment and feedback in the clinical environment. However, such data are currently presented in numerical or graphical format, which is often impractical in a clinical setting. Our hypothesis is that presenting this kinematic data using bespoke visualisation software, which is tailored for gait rehabilitation after stroke, will provide a means whereby feedback of movement performance can be communicated in a more meaningful way to patients. This will result in increased patient understanding of their rehabilitation and will enable progress to be tracked in a more accessible way. The hypothesis will be assessed using an exploratory (phase II) randomised controlled trial. Stroke survivors eligible for this trial will be in the subacute stage of stroke and have impaired walking ability (Functional Ambulation Classification of 1 or more). Participants (n = 45) will be randomised into three groups to compare the use of the visualisation software during overground physical therapy gait training against an intensity-matched and attention-matched placebo group and a usual care control group. The primary outcome measure will be walking speed. Secondary measures will be Functional Ambulation Category, Timed Up and Go, Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale-16 and spatiotemporal parameters associated with walking. Additional qualitative measures will be used to assess the participant's experience of the visual feedback provided in the

  5. Consequences of peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Niewinski, Piotr; Tubek, Stanislaw; Banasiak, Waldemar; Paton, Julian F R; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Low-dose dopamine inhibits peripheral chemoreceptors and attenuates the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in humans. However, it is unknown: (1) whether it also modulates the haemodynamic reactions to acute hypoxia, (2) whether it also modulates cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and (3) if there is any effect of dopamine withdrawal. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 11 healthy male volunteers. At sea level over 2 days every subject was administered low-dose dopamine (2 μg kg–1 min–1) or saline infusion, during which we assessed both ventilatory and haemodynamic responses to acute hypoxia. Separately, we evaluated effects of initiation and withdrawal of each infusion and BRS. The initiation of dopamine infusion did not affect minute ventilation (MV) or mean blood pressure (MAP), but increased both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output. Concomitantly, it decreased systemic vascular resistance. Dopamine blunted the ventilatory, MAP and HR reactions (hypertension, tachycardia) to acute hypoxia. Dopamine attenuated cardiac BRS to falling blood pressure. Dopamine withdrawal evoked an increase in MV. The magnitude of the increment in MV due to dopamine withdrawal correlated with the size of the HVR and depended on the duration of dopamine administration. The ventilatory reaction to dopamine withdrawal constitutes a novel index of peripheral chemoreceptor function. PMID:24396060

  6. Exercise augmentation compared to usual care for post traumatic stress disorder: a randomised controlled trial (the REAP study: Randomised Exercise Augmentation for PTSD).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Nguyen, Dang; Lenehan, Tom; Tiedemann, Anne; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Sherrington, Catherine

    2011-07-22

    The physical wellbeing of people with mental health conditions can often be overlooked in order to treat the primary mental health condition as a priority. Exercise however, can potentially improve both the primary psychiatric condition as well as physical measures that indicate risk of other conditions such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the role of exercise as an important component of treatment for depression and anxiety, yet no randomised controlled trials (RCT's) have been conducted to evaluate the use of exercise in the treatment of people with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This RCT will investigate the effects of structured, progressive exercise on PTSD symptoms, functional ability, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. Eighty participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of PTSD will be recruited. Participants will have no contraindications to exercise and will be cognitively able to provide consent to participate in the study. The primary outcome measures will be PTSD symptoms, measured through the PTSD Checklist Civilian (PCL-C) scale. Secondary outcome measures will assess depression and anxiety, mobility and strength, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. All outcomes will be assessed by a health or exercise professional masked to group allocation at baseline and 12 weeks after randomisation. The intervention will be a 12 week individualised program, primarily involving resistance exercises with the use of exercise bands. A walking component will also be incorporated. Participants will complete one supervised session per week, and will be asked to perform at least two other non-supervised exercise sessions per week. Both intervention and control groups will receive all usual non-exercise interventions including psychotherapy, pharmaceutical interventions and group therapy. This

  7. Exercise augmentation compared to usual care for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial (The REAP study: Randomised Exercise Augmentation for PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The physical wellbeing of people with mental health conditions can often be overlooked in order to treat the primary mental health condition as a priority. Exercise however, can potentially improve both the primary psychiatric condition as well as physical measures that indicate risk of other conditions such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the role of exercise as an important component of treatment for depression and anxiety, yet no randomised controlled trials (RCT's) have been conducted to evaluate the use of exercise in the treatment of people with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This RCT will investigate the effects of structured, progressive exercise on PTSD symptoms, functional ability, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. Methods and design Eighty participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of PTSD will be recruited. Participants will have no contraindications to exercise and will be cognitively able to provide consent to participate in the study. The primary outcome measures will be PTSD symptoms, measured through the PTSD Checklist Civilian (PCL-C) scale. Secondary outcome measures will assess depression and anxiety, mobility and strength, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. All outcomes will be assessed by a health or exercise professional masked to group allocation at baseline and 12 weeks after randomisation. The intervention will be a 12 week individualised program, primarily involving resistance exercises with the use of exercise bands. A walking component will also be incorporated. Participants will complete one supervised session per week, and will be asked to perform at least two other non-supervised exercise sessions per week. Both intervention and control groups will receive all usual non-exercise interventions including psychotherapy, pharmaceutical

  8. The effect of augmentation of labour with syntocinon on the fetal CTG using objective computerised analysis: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aye, C Y L; Redman, C W G; Georgieva, A

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of syntocinon augmentation on the fetal cardiotocogram (CTG) using computerised analysis. We hypothesised that syntocinon will have no direct effects on the fetal heart rate if used correctly. A retrospective, nested case-control study. Intrapartum CTG records from the digital archive at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. 110 women with singleton pregnancies of >36 weeks gestation, no known congenital abnormality, spontaneous onset of labour and syntocinon augmentation for failure to progress, with start time of syntocinon recorded, from between August 1998 and December 1999, extensively matched to 110 controls who had normally progressing labours. Eight different CTG features were measured during four time points with OxSys, a computerised numerical analysis system. Differences in the CTG features over time in cases and controls using ANOVA and Friedman's ANOVA and at each time point between case-control pairs using Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. After administration, syntocinon increased the frequency, decreased the duration and decreased the resting time between contractions (p<0.001), resulting in no significant difference between normally progressing labours and those requiring augmentation. The case group had a significantly higher signal stability index (SSI) and fewer decelerations compared to the control group - differences which disappeared after augmentation was commenced (p=0.025 and 0.033 respectively). Syntocinon did not affect the baseline heart rate, short term variability (STV) or phase rectified signal averaging (PRSA) (p=0.518, 0.215 and 0.138) in comparison with controls. There was a significant increase in the PRSA in babies born with acidaemia (arterial pH≤7.05) 60-120min after syntocinon was commenced that was not seen with in babies with a normal pH (p=0.002). Syntocinon "normalises" ineffective uterine activity without any direct effect on the fetal heart rate. Therefore its

  9. Quetiapine augmentation of SRIs in treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study [ISRCTN83050762].

    PubMed

    Carey, Paul D; Vythilingum, Bavanisha; Seedat, Soraya; Muller, Jacqueline E; van Ameringen, Michael; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-24

    Although serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of OCD, many patients fail to respond to these agents. Growing evidence from open-label and placebo-controlled trials suggests a role for augmentation of SRIs with atypical antipsychotics in OCD. Quetiapine is generally well tolerated and previous open-label data has produced mixed results in OCD and additional controlled data is needed. We undertook a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine augmentation in subjects who had responded inadequately to open-label treatment with an SRI for 12 weeks. Following informed consent and screening, forty-two subjects were randomised to either placebo or quetiapine for six weeks. There was significant improvement from baseline to endpoint on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in both the quetiapine and placebo groups (quetiapine, n = 20, p < 0.0001; placebo, n = 21, p = 0.001) with 40% (n = 8) of quetiapine and 47.6% (n = 10) of placebo treated subjects being classified as responders. Quetiapine did not demonstrate a significant benefit over placebo at the end of the six-week treatment period (p = .636). Similarly quetiapine failed to separate from placebo in the subgroup of subjects (n = 10) with co-morbid tics. Quetiapine was generally well tolerated. In this study, quetiapine augmentation was no more effective than placebo augmentation of SRIs. A number of limitations in study design make comparisons with previous studies in this area difficult and probably contributed to our negative findings. Future work in this important clinical area should address these limitations.

  10. Risperidone Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Aggression in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenteros, Jorge L.; Lewis, John E.; Davalos, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-five children (ages 7-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and significant aggressive behaviors were randomized to risperidone or placebo for 4…

  11. Modeling the Effects of Augmentation Strategies on the Control of Dengue Fever With an Impulsive Differential Equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianghong; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A; Zhu, Huaiping

    2016-10-01

    Dengue fever has rapidly become the world's most common vector-borne viral disease. Use of endosymbiotic Wolbachia is an innovative technology to prevent vector mosquitoes from reproducing and so break the cycle of dengue transmission. However, strategies such as population eradication and replacement will only succeed if appropriate augmentations with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes that take account of a variety of factors are carried out. Here, we describe the spread of Wolbachia in mosquito populations using an impulsive differential system with four state variables, incorporating the effects of cytoplasmic incompatibility and the augmentation of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with different sex ratios. We then evaluated (a) how each parameter value contributes to the success of population replacement; (b) how different release quantities of infected mosquitoes with different sex ratios affect the success of population suppression or replacement; and (c) how the success of these two strategies can be realized to block the transmission of dengue fever. Analysis of the system's stability, bifurcations and sensitivity reveals the existence of forward and backward bifurcations, multiple attractors and the contribution of each parameter to the success of the strategies. The results indicate that the initial density of mosquitoes, the quantities of mosquitoes released in augmentations and their sex ratios have impacts on whether or not the strategies of population suppression or replacement can be achieved. Therefore, successful strategies rely on selecting suitable strains of Wolbachia and carefully designing the mosquito augmentation program.

  12. Risperidone Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Aggression in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenteros, Jorge L.; Lewis, John E.; Davalos, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-five children (ages 7-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and significant aggressive behaviors were randomized to risperidone or placebo for 4…

  13. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Heather A; Koran, Lorrin M; Jenike, Michael A; Shapira, Nathan A; Chaplin, William; Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2011-05-01

    From 40% to 60% of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients fail to tolerate or respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Preclinical and neuroimaging studies have shown abnormally high glutamatergic concentrations in OCD patients and an association between decreased caudate glutamatergic concentrations and reduced OCD symptom severity after SSRI treatment. Topiramate inhibits glutamatergic conduction. Thirty-six adult patients with DSM-IV-defined OCD were randomly assigned to topiramate (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups in this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups trial. Subjects were taking the maximum SSRI dose they could tolerate for at least 12 weeks and their current dose for at least 6 weeks, which was maintained throughout the study. Primary outcome measures were changes in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score and compulsions and obsessions subscores. Patients were recruited and followed up between April 1, 2003, and April 13, 2006. Using mixed regression models (time [weeks] × treatment), we found a significant treatment effect on the YBOCS compulsions (P = .014) subscale, but not the obsessions (P = .99) subscale or the total score (P = .11). Over the 12-week trial, the topiramate group (mean endpoint dose = 177.8 ± 134.2 mg/d; range, 50-400 mg/d) showed an average linear decrease of 5.38 points on the compulsions subscale compared to 0.6 points in the placebo group. Thirteen topiramate and 14 placebo subjects completed the study. Topiramate was not well tolerated in this trial: 28% (5/18) of the subjects discontinued the drug for adverse effects, and 39% (7/18) had a dose reduction for this reason. The results of this first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate augmentation for treatment-resistant OCD suggest that topiramate may be beneficial for compulsions, but not obsessions. Modifications in glutamatergic function may be responsible, at least in part, for the

  14. Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.

  15. Adherence to AHA Guidelines When Adapted for Augmented Reality Glasses for Assisted Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Johan N; Ehrler, Frederic; Gervaix, Alain; Haddad, Kevin; Lacroix, Laurence; Schrurs, Philippe; Sahin, Ayhan; Lovis, Christian; Manzano, Sergio

    2017-05-29

    The American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are nowadays recognized as the world's most authoritative resuscitation guidelines. Adherence to these guidelines optimizes the management of critically ill patients and increases their chances of survival after cardiac arrest. Despite their availability, suboptimal quality of CPR is still common. Currently, the median hospital survival rate after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest is 36%, whereas it falls below 10% for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Among emerging information technologies and devices able to support caregivers during resuscitation and increase adherence to AHA guidelines, augmented reality (AR) glasses have not yet been assessed. In order to assess their potential, we adapted AHA Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) guidelines for AR glasses. The study aimed to determine whether adapting AHA guidelines for AR glasses increased adherence by reducing deviation and time to initiation of critical life-saving maneuvers during pediatric CPR when compared with the use of PALS pocket reference cards. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups of voluntary pediatric residents, comparing AR glasses to PALS pocket reference cards during a simulation-based pediatric cardiac arrest scenario-pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT). The primary outcome was the elapsed time in seconds in each allocation group, from onset of pVT to the first defibrillation attempt. Secondary outcomes were time elapsed to (1) initiation of chest compression, (2) subsequent defibrillation attempts, and (3) administration of drugs, as well as the time intervals between defibrillation attempts and drug doses, shock doses, and number of shocks. All these outcomes were assessed for deviation from AHA guidelines. Twenty residents were randomized into 2 groups. Time to first defibrillation attempt (mean: 146 s) and adherence to AHA guidelines in terms of time to other

  16. Adherence to AHA Guidelines When Adapted for Augmented Reality Glasses for Assisted Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gervaix, Alain; Haddad, Kevin; Lacroix, Laurence; Schrurs, Philippe; Sahin, Ayhan; Lovis, Christian; Manzano, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are nowadays recognized as the world’s most authoritative resuscitation guidelines. Adherence to these guidelines optimizes the management of critically ill patients and increases their chances of survival after cardiac arrest. Despite their availability, suboptimal quality of CPR is still common. Currently, the median hospital survival rate after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest is 36%, whereas it falls below 10% for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Among emerging information technologies and devices able to support caregivers during resuscitation and increase adherence to AHA guidelines, augmented reality (AR) glasses have not yet been assessed. In order to assess their potential, we adapted AHA Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) guidelines for AR glasses. Objective The study aimed to determine whether adapting AHA guidelines for AR glasses increased adherence by reducing deviation and time to initiation of critical life-saving maneuvers during pediatric CPR when compared with the use of PALS pocket reference cards. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups of voluntary pediatric residents, comparing AR glasses to PALS pocket reference cards during a simulation-based pediatric cardiac arrest scenario—pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT). The primary outcome was the elapsed time in seconds in each allocation group, from onset of pVT to the first defibrillation attempt. Secondary outcomes were time elapsed to (1) initiation of chest compression, (2) subsequent defibrillation attempts, and (3) administration of drugs, as well as the time intervals between defibrillation attempts and drug doses, shock doses, and number of shocks. All these outcomes were assessed for deviation from AHA guidelines. Results Twenty residents were randomized into 2 groups. Time to first defibrillation attempt (mean: 146 s) and adherence to AHA

  17. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak

    2015-03-01

    Limited options are available for clozapine-resistant schizophrenia and intolerable side effects of clozapine. We conducted a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine for schizophrenia. Electronic databases searched included PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science. This review synthesized the data of four short-term (8-24 weeks), placebo-controlled trials (N = 347). The overall relative risk (RR, 95% confidence interval) of discontinuation rates was not significantly different between groups (RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.56). The pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs, 95% CIs) (Z-test; number of study; I(2)-index) suggested trends of aripiprazole augmentation benefits on overall psychotic [-0.40 (-0.87 to 0.07) (n = 3; Z = 1.68, p = 0.09; I(2) = 68%)], positive [-1.05 (-2.39 to 0.29) (n = 3; Z = 1.54, p = 0.12; I(2) = 94%)], and negative [-0.36 (-0.77 to 0.05) (n = 3; Z = 1.74, p = 0.08; I(2) = 54%)] symptoms. Despite of no benefit on three cardiometabolic indices (i.e., fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein), aripiprazole augmentation was superior for weight change with a mean difference (95% CI) of -1.36 kg (-2.35 to -0.36) (n = 3; Z = 2.67, p = 0.008; I(2) = 39%) and LDL-cholesterol with a mean difference of -11.06 mg/dL (-18.25 to -3.87) (n = 3; Z = 3.02, p = 0.003; I(2) = 31%). Aripiprazole augmentation was not correlated with headache and insomnia but significantly associated with agitation/akathesia (RR = 7.59, 95% CI = 1.43 to 40.18) (n = 3; Z = 2.38, p = 0.02; I(2) = 0%) and anxiety (RR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.02 to 7.15) (n = 1; Z = 2.00, p = 0.05). The limited short-term data suggested that aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine can minimize the cardiometabolic risk, causes agitation/akathesia, and may be effective in

  18. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  19. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  20. Omega-3 Augmentation of Sertraline in the Treatment of Depression In Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Robert M.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Rubin, Eugene H.; Rich, Michael W.; Steinmeyer, Brian C.; Harris, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of depressed psychiatric patients have shown that antidepressant efficacy can be increased by augmentation with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether omega-3 augmentation improves the response to sertraline in patients with major depression and documented coronary heart disease (CHD). One hundred twenty-two patients with major depression and CHD were given 50 mg/day of sertraline (Zoloft™) and randomized in double-blind fashion to 2g/day of omega-3 (Lovaza™) or to corn oil placebo capsules. Adherence to the medication regimen was 97% in both groups for both medications. The levels of omega-3 (percent DHA+EPA in red blood cells) were nearly identical between the groups at baseline; the level changed during the intervention phase in the omega-3 arm to the expected level, but it remained stable in the placebo arm. Neither weekly Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores (p = .38) nor pre-post BDI-II scores (p = .44) differed between the omega-3 and placebo groups. The rates of depression remission (BDI-II ≤ 8) and response (>50% reduction in BDI-II from baseline) were also nearly identical. In conclusion, this trial yielded no evidence that omega-3 augmentation increases the efficacy of sertraline for comorbid major depression in CHD. Whether higher doses of omega-3, longer treatment, or the use of omega-3 as a monotherapy can improve depression in patients with stable heart disease remains to be determined. PMID:19843899

  1. Assessing the association of oxytocin augmentation with obstetric anal sphincter injury in nulliparous women: a population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rygh, Astrid B; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Körner, Hartwig; Eggebø, Torbjørn M

    2014-07-24

    To assess the association of oxytocin augmentation with obstetric anal sphincter injury among nulliparous women. Population-based, case-control study. Primary and secondary teaching hospital serving a Norwegian region. 15 476 nulliparous women with spontaneous start of labour, single cephalic presentation and gestation ≥37 weeks delivering vaginally between 1999 and 2012. Based on the presence or absence of oxytocin augmentation, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery and birth weight (<4000 vs ≥4000 g), we modelled in logistic regression the best fit for prediction of anal sphincter injury. Within the modified model of main exposures, we tested for possible confounding, and interactions between maternal age, ethnicity, occiput posterior position and epidural analgaesia. Obstetric anal sphincter injury. Oxytocin augmentation was associated with a higher OR of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in women giving spontaneous birth to infants weighing <4000 g (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.2). Episiotomy was not associated with sphincter injuries in spontaneous births, but with a lower OR in operative vaginal deliveries. Spontaneous delivery of infants weighing ≥4000 g was associated with a threefold higher OR, and epidural analgaesia was associated with a 30% lower OR in comparison to no epidural analgaesia. Oxytocin augmentation was associated with a higher OR of obstetric anal sphincter injuries during spontaneous deliveries of normal-size infants. We observed a considerable effect modification between the most important factors predicting anal sphincter injuries in the active second stage of labour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Assessing the association of oxytocin augmentation with obstetric anal sphincter injury in nulliparous women: a population-based, case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Rygh, Astrid B; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Körner, Hartwig; Eggebø, Torbjørn M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of oxytocin augmentation with obstetric anal sphincter injury among nulliparous women. Design Population-based, case–control study. Setting Primary and secondary teaching hospital serving a Norwegian region. Population 15 476 nulliparous women with spontaneous start of labour, single cephalic presentation and gestation ≥37 weeks delivering vaginally between 1999 and 2012. Methods Based on the presence or absence of oxytocin augmentation, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery and birth weight (<4000 vs ≥4000 g), we modelled in logistic regression the best fit for prediction of anal sphincter injury. Within the modified model of main exposures, we tested for possible confounding, and interactions between maternal age, ethnicity, occiput posterior position and epidural analgaesia. Main outcome measure Obstetric anal sphincter injury. Results Oxytocin augmentation was associated with a higher OR of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in women giving spontaneous birth to infants weighing <4000 g (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.2). Episiotomy was not associated with sphincter injuries in spontaneous births, but with a lower OR in operative vaginal deliveries. Spontaneous delivery of infants weighing ≥4000 g was associated with a threefold higher OR, and epidural analgaesia was associated with a 30% lower OR in comparison to no epidural analgaesia. Conclusions Oxytocin augmentation was associated with a higher OR of obstetric anal sphincter injuries during spontaneous deliveries of normal-size infants. We observed a considerable effect modification between the most important factors predicting anal sphincter injuries in the active second stage of labour. PMID:25059967

  3. Effects of mobile augmented reality learning compared to textbook learning on medical students: randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Folta-Schoofs, Kristian; Behrends, Marianne; von Jan, Ute

    2013-08-20

    By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the "Profile of Mood States" questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a selectivity of RPB=0.2. For m

  4. Effects of Mobile Augmented Reality Learning Compared to Textbook Learning on Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. Objective To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). Methods A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the “Profile of Mood States” questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Results Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a

  5. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  6. The clinical value of membranes in bone augmentation procedures in oral implantology: 
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Brend P; Roeloffs, Maarten W K; Wolvius, Eppo B; Pijpe, Justin

    To determine the clinical value of membranes in bone augmentation procedures such as ridge augmentation with simultaneous (one-stage) and delayed (two-stage) implant placement, sinus augmentation surgery, ridge preservation and immediate implant placement. In April 2016, Embase, Medline (Ovid-SP), Cochrane Central, Web of Science and PubMed (as supplied by the publisher) were searched. There were no restrictions regarding language or publication date. Randomised controlled trials that reported membranes in bone augmentation procedures with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months after implant loading or that described geometrical changes of the bone graft at re-entry were included. Membrane placement had to be the only variable in the procedure. Outcomes were implant failure, complications, horizontal bone gain and resorption, graft resorption, defect height reduction, marginal bone loss around implants, aesthetic results and patient satisfaction. The results were pooled using fixed-effect models with mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes and odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous outcomes. After screening the titles and abstracts of 1843 papers, 32 potentially eligible articles were selected. Seventeen articles involving 10 trials were included in this review. These studies presented outcome data for 355 patients. Seven trials were considered to be at a high risk of bias, two at a low risk of bias and one at an unclear risk of bias. Insufficient evidence was found to determine whether there were differences in implant failure rates, marginal bone level changes, aesthetic results or patient satisfaction. For one-stage ridge augmentation (two trials; n = 52), there was evidence of more horizontal bone gain (MD: 0.84 mm, 95% CI: 0.46 to 1.21, P < 0.00001; two trials), defect height reduction (MD: 18.36%, 95% CI: 10.23 to 26.50, P < 0.00001; two trials), and prevention of graft resorption (P = 0.004; one trial) in favour of the membrane

  7. Digital integrated control of a Mach 2.5 mixed-compression supersonic inlet and an augmented mixed-flow turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.; Arpasi, D. J.; Baumbick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A digitally implemented integrated inlet-engine control system was designed and tested on a mixed-compression, axisymmetric, Mach 2.5, supersonic inlet with 45 percent internal supersonic area contraction and a TF30-P-3 augmented turbofan engine. The control matched engine airflow to available inlet airflow. By monitoring inlet terminal shock position and over-board bypass door command, the control adjusted engine speed so that in steady state, the shock would be at the desired location and the overboard bypass doors would be closed. During engine-induced transients, such as augmentor light-off and cutoff, the inlet operating point was momentarily changed to a more supercritical point to minimize unstarts. The digital control also provided automatic inlet restart. A variable inlet throat bleed control, based on throat Mach number, provided additional inlet stability margin.

  8. From Augmentation to Conservation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Trophic Cascades, Habitat Manipulation and Enhanced Biological Control of Diaprepes abbreviatus Root Weevils in Florida Citrus Groves

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, R. J.; El-Borai, F. E.; Duncan, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) for management of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, in Florida citrus groves is considered a biological control success story and typically involves augmentation in which EPN are applied inundatively as biopesticides to quickly kill the pest. However, recent evidence indicates that efficacy of EPN applications in Florida citrus depends on soil type. They are very effective in the well drained coarse sands of the Central Ridge but often less so in poorly drained fine-textured soils of the Flatwoods. Moreover, groves on the Central Ridge can harbor rich communities of endemic EPN that might often suppress weevil populations below economic thresholds, whereas Flatwoods groves tend to have few endemic EPN and frequent weevil problems. Current research is examining the ecological dynamics of EPN in Florida citrus groves, the potential impact of EPN augmentation on soil food webs, especially endemic EPN, and whether habitat manipulation and inoculation strategies might be effective for conserving and enhancing EPN communities to achieve long-term control in problem areas. Conservation biological control could extend the usefulness of EPN in Florida citrus and be especially appropriate for groves with persistent weevil problems. PMID:19259523

  9. One-year follow-up results from AUGMENT-HF: a multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of left ventricular augmentation with Algisyl in the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mann, Douglas L; Lee, Randall J; Coats, Andrew J S; Neagoe, Gheorghe; Dragomir, Dinu; Pusineri, Enrico; Piredda, Massimo; Bettari, Luca; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Dowling, Robert; Volterrani, Maurizio; Solomon, Scott D; Sabbah, Hani N; Hinson, Andy; Anker, Stefan D

    2016-03-01

    AUGMENT-HF was an international, multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled evaluation testing the hypothesis that Algisyl (injectable calcium alginate hydrogel) is superior to standard medical therapy (SMT) for improving functional capacity and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). We previously reported results following 6 months of follow-up. This report presents the results from 1 year of extended follow up for this clinical trial. We enrolled 78 patients with advanced HF, randomized (1:1), to Algisyl with SMT or SMT alone as previously reported. Patient inclusion criteria were LVEF ≤35%, peak VO2 of 9.0-14.5 mL/min/kg and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) index 30-40 mm/m(2) (LVEDD/body surface area). Patients must have been on stable, evidence-based therapy for HF. A total of 58 patients, mean age 62.3 ± 9.6 years, with ischaemic (57.7%) or non-ischaemic (42.3%) HF completed 12 months of follow-up. Treatment with Algisyl was associated with improved peak VO2 at 12 months; treatment effect vs. control of +2.10 mL/kg/min (95% confidence interval 0.96-3.24, P < 0.001). Statistically significant improvements were observed for VO2 at anaerobic threshold, 6-min walk test distance, and NYHA functional class (all P < 0.001). Through 12 months of follow-up there were 4 (10.5%) deaths in the control group and 9 (22.5%) deaths in the Algisyl group. Algisyl in addition to SMT was more effective than SMT alone for providing sustained 1-year benefits in exercise capacity, symptoms, and clinical status for patients with advanced HF. These data support larger clinical evaluations of this novel therapy. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Orthosis Augmented by Either Stretching or Stretching and Strengthening for Stage II Tibialis Posterior Tendon Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Houck, Jeff; Neville, Christopher; Tome, Josh; Flemister, Adolph

    2015-09-01

    The value of strengthening and stretching exercises combined with orthosis treatment in a home-based program has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of augmenting orthosis treatment with either stretching or a combination of stretching and strengthening in participants with stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction (TPTD). Participants included 39 patients with stage II TPTD who were recruited from a medical center and then randomly assigned to a strengthening or stretching treatment group. Excluding 3 dropouts, there were 19 participants in the strengthening group and 17 in the stretching group. The stretching treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with stretching exercises. The strengthening treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with the stretching and strengthening exercises. The main outcome measures were self-report (ie, Foot Function Index and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment) and isometric deep posterior compartment strength. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between groups at 6 and 12 weeks after starting the exercise programs. Both groups significantly improved in pain and function over the 12-week trial period. The self-report measures showed minimal differences between the treatment groups. There were no differences in isometric deep posterior compartment strength. A moderate-intensity, home-based exercise program was minimally effective in augmenting orthosis wear alone in participants with stage II TPTD. Level I, prospective randomized study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Antipsychotic Augmentation of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Update Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kasper, Siegfried

    2015-05-04

    Many patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder do not respond adequately to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Augmentation with antipsychotic drugs can be beneficial in this regard. However, since new relevant randomized controlled trials evaluating new antipsychotics were conducted, a recalculation of the effect sizes appears necessary. We meta-analyzed all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors with antipsychotics to placebo supplementation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. The primary outcome was mean change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale total score. Secondary outcomes were obsessions, compulsions, response rates, and attrition rates. The data collection process was conducted independently by 2 authors. Hedges's g and risks ratios were calculated as effect sizes. In preplanned meta-regressions, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses, we examined the robustness of the results and explored reasons for potential heterogeneity. Altogether, 14 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (n=491) investigating quetiapine (N=4, n=142), risperidone (N=4, n=132), aripiprazole (N=2, n=79), olanzapine (N=2, n=70), paliperidone (N=1, n=34), and haloperidol (N=1, n=34) were incorporated. Augmentation with antipsychotics was significantly more efficacious than placebo in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale total reduction (N=14, n=478; Hedges's g=-0.64, 95% CI: -0.87 to -0.41; P=<.01). Aripiprazole (Hedges's g=-1.35), haloperidol (Hedges's g=-0.82), and risperidone (Hedges's g=-0.59) significantly outperformed placebo. Antipsychotics were superior to placebo in treating obsessions, compulsions, and achieving response. There was no between-group difference concerning all-cause discontinuation. The nonsignificant meta-regressions suggest no influence of the antipsychotic dose or baseline symptom severity on the meta-analytic results. According to our findings

  12. Antipsychotic Augmentation of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Update Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder do not respond adequately to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Augmentation with antipsychotic drugs can be beneficial in this regard. However, since new relevant randomized controlled trials evaluating new antipsychotics were conducted, a recalculation of the effect sizes appears necessary. Methods: We meta-analyzed all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors with antipsychotics to placebo supplementation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. The primary outcome was mean change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale total score. Secondary outcomes were obsessions, compulsions, response rates, and attrition rates. The data collection process was conducted independently by 2 authors. Hedges’s g and risks ratios were calculated as effect sizes. In preplanned meta-regressions, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses, we examined the robustness of the results and explored reasons for potential heterogeneity. Results: Altogether, 14 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (n=491) investigating quetiapine (N=4, n=142), risperidone (N=4, n=132), aripiprazole (N=2, n=79), olanzapine (N=2, n=70), paliperidone (N=1, n=34), and haloperidol (N=1, n=34) were incorporated. Augmentation with antipsychotics was significantly more efficacious than placebo in Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale total reduction (N=14, n=478; Hedges’s g=-0.64, 95% CI: -0.87 to -0.41; P=<.01). Aripiprazole (Hedges’s g=-1.35), haloperidol (Hedges’s g=-0.82), and risperidone (Hedges’s g=-0.59) significantly outperformed placebo. Antipsychotics were superior to placebo in treating obsessions, compulsions, and achieving response. There was no between-group difference concerning all-cause discontinuation. The nonsignificant meta-regressions suggest no influence of the antipsychotic dose or baseline symptom severity on the meta

  13. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  14. Augmented effects of EMG biofeedback interfaced with virtual reality on neuromuscular control and movement coordination during reaching in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Dong Ryul; Cha, Young Joo; You, Sung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    when augmented by virtual reality exercise games in children with spastic CP. The augmented EMG and VR feedback produced better neuromuscular balance control in the elbow joint than the EMG biofeedback alone.

  15. Creatine Fails to Augment the Benefits from Resistance Training in Patients with HIV Infection: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Giorgos K.; Mulligan, Kathleen; DaSilva, Makani; Doyle, Julie W.; Khatami, Hootan; Schleich, Thomas; Kent-Braun, Jane A.; Schambelan, Morris

    2009-01-01

    Background Progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) improves physical functioning in patients with HIV infection. Creatine supplementation can augment the benefits derived from training in athletes and improve muscle function in patients with muscle wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation augments the effects of PRT on muscle strength, energetics, and body composition in HIV-infected patients. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical research center-based, outpatient study in San Francisco. 40 HIV–positive men (20 creatine, 20 placebo) enrolled in a 14-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive creatine monohydrate or placebo for 14 weeks. Treatment began with a loading dose of 20 g/day or an equivalent number of placebo capsules for 5 days, followed by maintenance dosing of 4.8 g/day or placebo. Beginning at week 2 and continuing to week 14, all subjects underwent thrice-weekly supervised resistance exercise while continuing on the assigned study medication (with repeated 6-week cycles of loading and maintenance). The main outcome measurements included muscle strength (one repetition maximum), energetics (31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), composition and size (magnetic resonance imaging), as well as total body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Thirty-three subjects completed the study (17 creatine, 16 placebo). Strength increased in all 8 muscle groups studied following PRT, but this increase was not augmented by creatine supplementation (average increase 44 vs. 42%, difference 2%, 95% CI −9.5% to 13.9%) in creatine and placebo, respectively). There were no differences between groups in changes in muscle energetics. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area increased following resistance exercise, with no additive effect of creatine. Lean body mass (LBM) increased to a significantly greater extent with creatine. Conclusions

  16. Intravenous augmentative citalopram versus clomipramine in partial/nonresponder depressed patients: a short-term, low dose, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Zanoni, Silvia; Mundo, Emanuela

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of short-term low-dose intravenous augmentative citalopram (10 mg/d) versus clomipramine (25 mg/d) versus placebo in a sample of patients with MDE and partial or no response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fifty-four patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, MDE and partial or no response to SSRIs per os (21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D21] score reduction, <50% or < or =25%, respectively, compared with pretreatment scores) were selected and randomized to citalopram (n = 18), clomipramine (n = 18), or placebo (n = 18) intravenous augmentation. The augmentation regimen lasted 5 days during which patients were maintained on their previous treatment with oral SSRIs. Analyses of variance with repeated measures on HAM-D(21), collected daily in blind-raters design, were performed to detect any change of depressive symptoms between the 3 groups. In addition, the number of responders and remitters was computed in the 3 groups of treatment. At end point, a significant treatment effect (F= 4.57; P = 0.015) and time-by-treatment effect (F = 11.22; P < 0.0001) were found on HAM-D21 total scores in favor of citalopram and clomipramine versus placebo, with a superiority of citalopram over clomipramine on overall symptoms (P = 0.05) as well as on anxiety-somatization symptoms (P = 0.027). The number of responders was significantly superior in the active treatment groups versus the placebo group ([chi](2)(2) = 16.36; P < 0.0001). The same result was found, considering the number of remitters ([chi](2)(2) = 13.50; P < 0.0001). Present findings suggest that both clomipramine and citalopram intravenous augmentation at low doses and for a short period are well tolerated and superior to placebo in major depressives with partial or no response to oral SSRIs with a possible superiority of citalopram over clomipramine with regard to

  17. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  18. Challenges associated with reentry maxillary sinus augmentation.

    PubMed

    Mardinger, Ofer; Moses, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Manor, Yifat; Tulchinsky, Ze'ev; Nissan, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    This study was a retrospective assessment of reentry sinus augmentation compared with sinus augmentation performed for the first time. There were 38 subjects who required sinus augmentation. The study group (17 patients, 21 sinuses) included subjects following failure of a previous sinus augmentation procedure that required reentry augmentation. The control group (21 patients, 21 sinuses) included subjects in which sinus augmentation was performed for the first time. Patients' medical files were reviewed. A preformed questionnaire was used to collect data regarding demographic parameters, medical and dental health history, habits, and intra- and postoperative data. Operative challenges in the study group included adhesions of the buccal flap to the Schneiderian membrane (62%, 13/21, P<.001), bony fenestration of the lateral wall with adhesions (71%, 15/21, P<.001), limited mobility of a clinical fibrotic Schneiderian membrane (71%, 15/21, P<.001), and increased incidence of membrane perforations (47%, 10/21, versus 9.5%, 2/21, P=.03). In the control group the Schneiderian membrane was thin and flexible. Sinus augmentation succeeded in all cases of both groups. Implant failure was significantly higher in the study group (11% versus 0%, P<.001). Clinical success of reentry sinus augmentation is predictable despite its complexity. Clinicians should be aware of anatomical changes caused by previous failure of this procedure. Patients should be informed about the lower success rate of implants when reentry sinus augmentation is required. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Jorge L; Lewis, John E; Davalos, Marisabel

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-five children (ages 7-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and significant aggressive behaviors were randomized to risperidone or placebo for 4 weeks for this double-blind study. Subjects were already in treatment with a constant dose of psychostimulant medication. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in the Children's Aggression Scale-Parent (CAS-P) and -Teacher (CAS-T) total scores. The mean risperidone dose at endpoint was 1.08 mg/day. For the CAS-P total score, a significant difference was found (chi(1)(2) = 4.30, p < .05) with 100% of risperidone subjects improving by more than 30% from baseline to endpoint, whereas only 77% of the placebo group reported a similar response. No differences were found on the CAS-T total score. For the CAS-P and CAS-T, no significant interaction was found between treatment group and time. Rates of adverse events did not differ significantly between groups. Risperidone treatment appears to be well tolerated and modestly effective when used in combination with psychostimulants for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD.

  20. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  1. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  2. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  3. Cognitive-behavioural therapy with post-session D-cycloserine augmentation for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Monzani, Benedetta; Isomura, Kayoko; Murphy, Caroline; Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    A partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, D-cycloserine, enhances fear extinction when given before or shortly after exposure to feared stimuli in animals. In this pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial (trial number: ISRCTN70977225), 27 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomised to either 50 mg D-cycloserine or placebo administered immediately after each of ten cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) sessions, primarily consisting of exposure and ritual prevention. Both groups improved significantly and maintained their gains at 1-year follow-up, with no significant advantage of D-cycloserine over placebo at any time point. The effects of CBT may not be augmented or accelerated when D-cycloserine is administered after sessions.

  4. Mobile Augmented Reality as a Feature for Self-Oriented, Blended Learning in Medicine: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Advantages of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) application-based learning versus textbook-based learning were already shown in a previous study. However, it was unclear whether the augmented reality (AR) component was responsible for the success of the self-developed app or whether this was attributable to the novelty of using mobile technology for learning. Objective The study’s aim was to test the hypothesis whether there is no difference in learning success between learners who employed the mobile AR component and those who learned without it to determine possible effects of mAR. Also, we were interested in potential emotional effects of using this technology. Methods Forty-four medical students (male: 25, female: 19, mean age: 22.25 years, standard deviation [SD]: 3.33 years) participated in this study. Baseline emotional status was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. Dermatological knowledge was ascertained using a single choice (SC) test (10 questions). The students were randomly assigned to learn 45 min with either a mobile learning method with mAR (group A) or without AR (group B). Afterwards, both groups were again asked to complete the previous questionnaires. AttrakDiff 2 questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceived usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities. For capturing longer term effects, after 14 days, all participants were again asked to complete the SC questionnaire. All evaluations were anonymous, and descriptive statistics were calculated. For hypothesis testing, an unpaired signed-rank test was applied. Results For the SC tests, there were only minor differences, with both groups gaining knowledge (average improvement group A: 3.59 [SD 1.48]; group B: 3.86 [SD 1.51]). Differences between both groups were statistically insignificant (exact Mann Whitney U, U=173.5; P=.10; r=.247). However, in the follow-up SC test after 14 days, group A had retained more knowledge (average decrease of the

  5. Mobile Augmented Reality as a Feature for Self-Oriented, Blended Learning in Medicine: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Noll, Christoph; von Jan, Ute; Raap, Ulrike; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2017-09-14

    Advantages of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) application-based learning versus textbook-based learning were already shown in a previous study. However, it was unclear whether the augmented reality (AR) component was responsible for the success of the self-developed app or whether this was attributable to the novelty of using mobile technology for learning. The study's aim was to test the hypothesis whether there is no difference in learning success between learners who employed the mobile AR component and those who learned without it to determine possible effects of mAR. Also, we were interested in potential emotional effects of using this technology. Forty-four medical students (male: 25, female: 19, mean age: 22.25 years, standard deviation [SD]: 3.33 years) participated in this study. Baseline emotional status was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. Dermatological knowledge was ascertained using a single choice (SC) test (10 questions). The students were randomly assigned to learn 45 min with either a mobile learning method with mAR (group A) or without AR (group B). Afterwards, both groups were again asked to complete the previous questionnaires. AttrakDiff 2 questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceived usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities. For capturing longer term effects, after 14 days, all participants were again asked to complete the SC questionnaire. All evaluations were anonymous, and descriptive statistics were calculated. For hypothesis testing, an unpaired signed-rank test was applied. For the SC tests, there were only minor differences, with both groups gaining knowledge (average improvement group A: 3.59 [SD 1.48]; group B: 3.86 [SD 1.51]). Differences between both groups were statistically insignificant (exact Mann Whitney U, U=173.5; P=.10; r=.247). However, in the follow-up SC test after 14 days, group A had retained more knowledge (average decrease of the number of correct answers group A: 0

  6. Experimental Investigation of Augmented Spark Ignition of a LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of nontoxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost-effective mission scenarios. One promising green alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane (LCH4) with liquid oxygen (LO2). A 100 lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development project and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Altitude Combustion Stand in a low pressure environment. High ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination; so this ignition margin test program examined ignition performance versus delivered spark energy. Sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also explored. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks. This suggests that rising pressure and flow rate increase spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to complete each spark. The reduced spark energies of such quenched deliveries resulted in more erratic ignitions, decreasing ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1 to 6 mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55 to 75 mJ were required for reliable ignition. Delayed spark application and reduced spark repetition rate both correlated with late and occasional failed ignitions. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition therefore coincides with propellant introduction to the igniter.

  7. Contrasting effects of presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic autoinhibition and pharmacologic augmentation of presynaptic inhibition on sympathetic heart rate control.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Kawada, Toru; Yanagiya, Yusuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kamiya, Atsunori; Mizuno, Masaki; Takaki, Hiroshi; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2008-11-01

    Presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic receptors are known to exert feedback inhibition on norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve terminals. To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of the inhibition, we stimulated the right cardiac sympathetic nerve according to a binary white noise signal while measuring heart rate (HR) in anesthetized rabbits (n = 6). We estimated the transfer function from cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation to HR and the corresponding step response of HR, with and without the blockade of presynaptic inhibition by yohimbine (1 mg/kg followed by 0.1 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) iv). We also examined the effect of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (0.3 and 1.5 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) iv) in different rabbits (n = 5). Yohimbine increased the maximum step response (from 7.2 +/- 0.8 to 12.2 +/- 1.7 beats/min, means +/- SE, P < 0.05) without significantly affecting the initial slope (0.93 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.22 beats.min(-1).s(-1)). Higher dose but not lower dose clonidine significantly decreased the maximum step response (from 6.3 +/- 0.8 to 6.8 +/- 1.0 and 2.8 +/- 0.5 beats/min, P < 0.05) and also reduced the initial slope (from 0.56 +/- 0.07 to 0.51 +/- 0.04 and 0.22 +/- 0.06 beats.min(-1).s(-1), P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic autoinhibition limits the maximum response without significantly compromising the rapidity of effector response. In contrast, pharmacologic augmentation of the presynaptic inhibition not only attenuates the maximum response but also results in a sluggish effector response.

  8. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  9. Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Rich, Lisa; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids and nitrates in fruits and vegetables may protect against cardiovascular disease. Dietary flavonoids and nitrates can augment nitric oxide status via distinct pathways, which may improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that the combination of flavonoids and nitrates can enhance nitric oxide production in the stomach. Their combined effect in the circulation is unclear. Here, our objective was to investigate the independent and additive effects of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, and blood pressure. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial with healthy men and women (n=30) was conducted. The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach, and apple+spinach), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols+other nitrosylated species (RXNO) and nitrite, blood pressure, and endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. Results are means and 95% CI. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher RXNO (control, 33 nmol/L, 26, 42; apple, 51 nmol/L, 40, 65; spinach, 86 nmol/L, 68, 110; apple+spinach, 69 nmol/L, 54, 88; P<0.01) and higher nitrite (control, 35 nmol/L, 27, 46; apple, 69 nmol/L, 53, 90; spinach, 99 nmol/L, 76, 129; apple+spinach, 80 nmol/L, 61, 104; P<0.01). Compared to control, all treatments resulted in higher flow-mediated dilatation (P<0.05) and lower pulse pressure (P<0.05), and apple and spinach resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). No significant effect was observed on diastolic blood pressure. The combination of apple and spinach did not result in additive effects on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, or blood pressure. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach can independently augment nitric oxide status, enhance endothelial function, and lower

  10. Cognitive behavior therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Martin E; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jennifer B; Khanna, Muniya; Compton, Scott; Almirall, Daniel; Moore, Phoebe; Choate-Summers, Molly; Garcia, Abbe; Edson, Aubrey L; Foa, Edna B; March, John S

    2011-09-21

    The extant literature on the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) indicates that partial response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is the norm and that augmentation with short-term OCD-specific cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) may provide additional benefit. To examine the effects of augmenting SRIs with CBT or a brief form of CBT, instructions in CBT delivered in the context of medication management. A 12-week randomized controlled trial conducted at 3 academic medical centers between 2004 and 2009, involving 124 pediatric outpatients between the ages of 7 and 17 years with OCD as a primary diagnosis and a Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score of 16 or higher despite an adequate SRI trial. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment strategies that included 7 sessions over 12 weeks: 42 in the medication management only, 42 in the medication management plus instructions in CBT, and 42 in the medication management plus CBT; the last included 14 concurrent CBT sessions. Whether patients responded positively to treatment by improving their baseline obsessive-compulsive scale score by 30% or more and demonstrating a change in their continuous scores over 12 weeks. The medication management plus CBT strategy was superior to the other 2 strategies on all outcome measures. In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, 68.6% (95% CI, 53.9%-83.3%) in the plus CBT group were considered responders, which was significantly better than the 34.0% (95% CI, 18.0%-50.0%) in the plus instructions in CBT group, and 30.0% (95% CI, 14.9%-45.1%) in the medication management only group. The results were similar in pairwise comparisons with the plus CBT strategy being superior to the other 2 strategies (P < .01 for both). The plus instructions in CBT strategy was not statistically superior to medication management only (P = .72). The number needed-to-treat analysis with the plus CBT vs medication management only in order to see 1

  11. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of augmentation pharmacotherapy with aripiprazole for treatment-resistant depression in late life: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Eric J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Blumberger, Daniel M.; Karp, Jordan F.; Newcomer, John W.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Stack, Jacqueline A.; Begley, Amy E.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder is common and potentially life-threatening in older persons, in whom little is known about the benefits and risks of augmentation pharmacotherapy. Methods We conducted a multi-site, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation for older adults with treatment-resistant depression. We treated 468 participants aged 60 and older with current major depressive episode with venlafaxine extended-release (ER); 96 (20.5%) did not complete this open phase, 191 (40.8%) remitted, and 181 (38.7%) did not remit and were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind augmentation with aripiprazole or placebo. The computer-generated randomization was done in blocks and stratified by site. The primary endpoint was remission, defined as Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores ≤10 (and at least two points below the score at the start of the randomized phase) at both of the final two consecutive visits. We also assessed resolution of suicidal ideation, and safety and tolerability with cardiometabolic and neurological measures. Analyses were conducted according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00892047. Findings Older adults on aripiprazole had a higher remission rate than those on placebo (44% versus 29%; odds ratio [OR]=2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.7, p=0.03; number needed to treat [NNT]=6.6 [95% CI 3.5–81.8]). Overall, remission was stable during 12 additional weeks of continuation treatment. The resolution of suicidal ideation was more marked with aripiprazole than with placebo. Akathisia was the most common adverse effect (27% of participants on aripiprazole). Compared to placebo, aripiprazole was also associated with more Parkinsonism but not with treatment-emergent suicidal ideation, QTc prolongation, or increases in adiposity, glucose, insulin, or lipids. Interpretation In older adults who fail

  12. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  13. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  14. Primary implant stability in augmented sinuslift-sites after completed bone regeneration: a randomized controlled clinical study comparing four subantrally inserted biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Troedhan, Angelo; Schlichting, Izabela; Kurrek, Andreas; Wainwright, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Implant-Insertion-Torque-Value (ITV) proved to be a significant clinical parameter to predict long term implant success-rates and to decide upon immediate loading. The study evaluated ITVs, when four different and commonly used biomaterials were used in sinuslift-procedures compared to natural subantral bone in two-stage-implant-procedures. The tHUCSL-INTRALIFT-method was chosen for sinuslifting in 155 sinuslift-sites for its minimal invasive transcrestal approach and scalable augmentation volume. Four different biomaterials were inserted randomly (easy-graft CRYSTAL n = 38, easy-graft CLASSIC n = 41, NanoBone n = 42, BioOss n = 34), 2 ccm in each case. After a mean healing period of 8,92 months uniform tapered screw Q2-implants were inserted and Drill-Torque-Values (DTV) and ITV were recorded and compared to a group of 36 subantral sites without need of sinuslifting. DTV/ITV were processed for statistics by ANOVA-tests. Mean DTV/ITV obtained in Ncm were: Control Group 10,2/22,2, Bio-Oss 12,7/26,2, NanoBone 17,5/33,3, easy-graft CLASSIC 20,3/45,9, easy-graft CRYSTAL 23,8/56,6 Ncm, significance-level of differences throughout p < 0,05. Within the limits of this study the results suggest self-hardening solid-block-like bone-graft-materials to achieve significantly better DTV/ITV than loose granulate biomaterials for its suspected improvement of vascularization and mineralization of the subantral scaffold by full immobilization of the augmentation site towards pressure changes in the human sinus at normal breathing. PMID:25073446

  15. Suitability of a calcium phosphate cement in osteoporotic vertebral body fracture augmentation: a controlled, randomized, clinical trial of balloon kyphoplasty comparing calcium phosphate versus polymethylmethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Blattert, Thomas R; Jestaedt, Leonie; Weckbach, Arnulf

    2009-01-15

    A prospective randomized controlled clinical study. To investigate the feasibility of a calcium phosphate cement (CaP) in balloon kyphoplasty if compared to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty, PMMA currently represents the standard in augmentation materials. It is characterized, however, by a lack of osseointegration and limited biocompatibility. Consequently, CaP is currently being investigated as an alternative material for vertebral augmentation. Inclusion criteria were 1 or 2 adjacent osteoporotic fractures of vertebral bodies in the thoracolumbar spine, patient age > or =65 years, and fracture age < or =4 months. Exclusion criteria were tumor lesions and additional posterior instrumentation. A total of 60 osteoporotic vertebral body fractures in 56 patients were included. CaP and PMMA were randomly applied in 30 vertebrae each with 2-fracture-patients receiving only 1 type of cement for both vertebrae. All 60 fractures were classified compression fractures (type A). Of these, 27 were classified burst fractures (type A3). 52/56 patients experienced statistically significant pain relief (7.9 +/- 1.9 to 1.8 +/- 2.1 on a Visual Analog Scale from 0 "best" to 10 "worst"). Bisegmental endplate angles were restored by 6.2 degrees +/- 5.9 degrees on average. Complications that turned out to be cement-specific were: vascular embolism (n = 2) for PMMA; subtotal cement washout (n = 1); and radiographic loss of correction (n = 9) due to cement failure in burst fractures for CaP. There was no case of cement failure, when PMMA had been used. The routine use of the CaP tested is not currently recommended for kyphoplasty. Because of its low resistance against flexural, tractive, and shear forces compared to PMMA, in certain constellations (burst fractures), there is a higher risk of cement failure and subsequent loss of correction.

  16. Primary implant stability in augmented sinuslift-sites after completed bone regeneration: a randomized controlled clinical study comparing four subantrally inserted biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Troedhan, Angelo; Schlichting, Izabela; Kurrek, Andreas; Wainwright, Marcel

    2014-07-30

    Implant-Insertion-Torque-Value (ITV) proved to be a significant clinical parameter to predict long term implant success-rates and to decide upon immediate loading. The study evaluated ITVs, when four different and commonly used biomaterials were used in sinuslift-procedures compared to natural subantral bone in two-stage-implant-procedures. The tHUCSL-INTRALIFT-method was chosen for sinuslifting in 155 sinuslift-sites for its minimal invasive transcrestal approach and scalable augmentation volume. Four different biomaterials were inserted randomly (easy-graft CRYSTAL n = 38, easy-graft CLASSIC n = 41, NanoBone n = 42, BioOss n = 34), 2 ccm in each case. After a mean healing period of 8,92 months uniform tapered screw Q2-implants were inserted and Drill-Torque-Values (DTV) and ITV were recorded and compared to a group of 36 subantral sites without need of sinuslifting. DTV/ITV were processed for statistics by ANOVA-tests. Mean DTV/ITV obtained in Ncm were: Control Group 10,2/22,2, Bio-Oss 12,7/26,2, NanoBone 17,5/33,3, easy-graft CLASSIC 20,3/45,9, easy-graft CRYSTAL 23,8/56,6 Ncm, significance-level of differences throughout p < 0,05. Within the limits of this study the results suggest self-hardening solid-block-like bone-graft-materials to achieve significantly better DTV/ITV than loose granulate biomaterials for its suspected improvement of vascularization and mineralization of the subantral scaffold by full immobilization of the augmentation site towards pressure changes in the human sinus at normal breathing.

  17. Riluzole in augmentation of fluvoxamine for moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Kamaloo, Atefeh; Paydary, Koosha; Ahmadipour, Ahmad; Zeinoddini, Arefeh; Ghaleiha, Ali; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of riluzole augmentation of fluvoxamine in treatment of patients with moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients were randomized into two parallel groups to receive fluvoxamine plus placebo or fluvoxamine plus riluzole (50 mg twice daily). All patients, regardless of their treatment group, received fluvoxamine at 100 mg/day for the initial 4 weeks of the study followed by 200 mg/day of fluvoxamine for the rest of the trial course. A total of 50 patients (25 in each group) were evaluated for response to treatment using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) at baseline and at weeks 4, 8 and 10. Side-effects were recorded using predesigned checklists in each visit. Repeated-measure analysis of variance showed a significant effect for time × treatment interaction in the Y-BOCS total score and a significant effect for time × treatment interaction in the Y-BOCS Compulsive subscale score between the two groups. Repeated-measure analysis of variance showed a significant effect for time × treatment interaction (Greenhouse-Geisser corrected: F = 4.07, d.f. = 1.22, P = 0.04) in the Y-BOCS total score and a significant effect for time × treatment interaction (Greenhouse-Geisser corrected: F = 4.45, d.f. = 1.33, P = 0.028) in the Y-BOCS Compulsive subscale score between the two groups. Riluzole augmentation therapy demonstrated higher, partial or complete treatment response according to the Y-BOCS total scores. Riluzole may be of clinical use as an adjuvant agent to fluvoxamine in treatment of moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Improvement of sustained attention and visual and movement skills, but not clinical symptoms, after dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael S; Gibel, Anatoly; Ratner, Yael; Tsinovoy, German; Strous, Rael D

    2006-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) augmentation has been reported, in a preliminary fashion, to be useful in the management of schizophrenia symptoms and side effects. In this study, the intention was to investigate the efficacy and safety of DHEA administration to ongoing antipsychotic medication in a multicenter, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Fifty-five of 62 inpatients and outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia completed the trial. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups receiving either DHEA (200 mg/d) or placebo for 6 weeks with the crossover between DHEA and placebo occurring after 6 weeks. Patients continued to receive their regular antipsychotic medication for the duration of the study. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration did not produce significant improvement in clinical symptoms, side effects, and quality-of-life scores. However, 6 weeks of DHEA administration (but not placebo) was associated with a significant improvement in Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ratings compared with baseline. Furthermore, 6 weeks of DHEA treatment was associated with significant improvement in cognitive functions of visual sustained attention and visual and movement skills compared with placebo conditions. The DHEA augmentation was associated with elevations of serum concentrations of both DHEA and its sulfate ester. The DHEA treatment was well tolerated without any serious adverse effects. This short-term study does not support DHEA's value as an effective adjunct in the treatment of symptoms, side effects, and quality-of-life impairment in schizophrenia, while suggesting that DHEA improves sustained attention and visual and movement skills. A long-term, large-scale study with a broader dose range is warranted to further investigate DHEA's role in the management of schizophrenia.

  19. Systems development of a stall/spin research facility using remotely controlled/augmented aircraft models. Volume 1: Systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Jai, A. R.; Parker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    A ground based, general purpose, real time, digital control system simulator (CSS) is specified, developed, and integrated with the existing instrumentation van of the testing facility. This CSS is built around a PDP-11/55, and its operational software was developed to meet the dual goal of providing the immediate capability to represent the F-18 drop model control laws and the flexibility for expansion to represent more complex control laws typical of control configured vehicles. Overviews of the two CSS's developed are reviewed as well as the overall system after their integration with the existing facility. Also the latest version of the F-18 drop model control laws (REV D) is described and the changes needed for its incorporation in the digital and analog CSS's are discussed.

  20. V-TIME: a treadmill training program augmented by virtual reality to decrease fall risk in older adults: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work has demonstrated that fall risk can be attributed to cognitive as well as motor deficits. Indeed, everyday walking in complex environments utilizes executive function, dual tasking, planning and scanning, all while walking forward. Pilot studies suggest that a multi-modal intervention that combines treadmill training to target motor function and a virtual reality obstacle course to address the cognitive components of fall risk may be used to successfully address the motor-cognitive interactions that are fundamental for fall risk reduction. The proposed randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effects of treadmill training augmented with virtual reality on fall risk. Methods/Design Three hundred older adults with a history of falls will be recruited to participate in this study. This will include older adults (n=100), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n=100), and patients with Parkinson’s disease (n=100). These three sub-groups will be recruited in order to evaluate the effects of the intervention in people with a range of motor and cognitive deficits. Subjects will be randomly assigned to the intervention group (treadmill training with virtual reality) or to the active-control group (treadmill training without virtual reality). Each person will participate in a training program set in an outpatient setting 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Assessments will take place before, after, and 1 month and 6 months after the completion of the training. A falls calendar will be kept by each participant for 6 months after completing the training to assess fall incidence (i.e., the number of falls, multiple falls and falls rate). In addition, we will measure gait under usual and dual task conditions, balance, community mobility, health related quality of life, user satisfaction and cognitive function. Discussion This randomized controlled trial will demonstrate the extent to which an intervention that combines treadmill training augmented

  1. V-TIME: a treadmill training program augmented by virtual reality to decrease fall risk in older adults: study design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mirelman, Anat; Rochester, Lynn; Reelick, Miriam; Nieuwhof, Freek; Pelosin, Elisa; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Dockx, Kim; Nieuwboer, Alice; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2013-02-06

    Recent work has demonstrated that fall risk can be attributed to cognitive as well as motor deficits. Indeed, everyday walking in complex environments utilizes executive function, dual tasking, planning and scanning, all while walking forward. Pilot studies suggest that a multi-modal intervention that combines treadmill training to target motor function and a virtual reality obstacle course to address the cognitive components of fall risk may be used to successfully address the motor-cognitive interactions that are fundamental for fall risk reduction. The proposed randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effects of treadmill training augmented with virtual reality on fall risk. Three hundred older adults with a history of falls will be recruited to participate in this study. This will include older adults (n=100), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n=100), and patients with Parkinson's disease (n=100). These three sub-groups will be recruited in order to evaluate the effects of the intervention in people with a range of motor and cognitive deficits. Subjects will be randomly assigned to the intervention group (treadmill training with virtual reality) or to the active-control group (treadmill training without virtual reality). Each person will participate in a training program set in an outpatient setting 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Assessments will take place before, after, and 1 month and 6 months after the completion of the training. A falls calendar will be kept by each participant for 6 months after completing the training to assess fall incidence (i.e., the number of falls, multiple falls and falls rate). In addition, we will measure gait under usual and dual task conditions, balance, community mobility, health related quality of life, user satisfaction and cognitive function. This randomized controlled trial will demonstrate the extent to which an intervention that combines treadmill training augmented by virtual reality reduces fall risk

  2. Development and Flight Test of an Augmented Thrust-Only Flight Control System on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Pappas, Drew

    1996-01-01

    An emergency flight control system using only engine thrust, called Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA), has been developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. In this thrust-only control system, pilot flight path and track commands and aircraft feedback parameters are used to control the throttles. The PCA system was installed on the MD-11 airplane using software modifications to existing computers. Flight test results show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds and altitudes. The PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any non-nal flight controls have been demonstrated, including instrument landing system-coupled hands-off landings. The PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. In addition, PCA was tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control; describes the MD-11 airplane and systems; and discusses PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  3. An Experimental Evaluation of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Aeroelastic Stability Augmentation in Airplane Mode of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Piatak, David J.; Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a joint NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter Textron wind-tunnel test to assess the potential of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in the airplane mode of flight are presented. GPC is an adaptive time-domain predictive control method that uses a linear difference equation to describe the input-output relationship of the system and to design the controller. The test was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using an unpowered 1/5-scale semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 that was modified to incorporate a GPC-based multi-input multi-output control algorithm to individually control each of the three swashplate actuators. Wing responses were used for feedback. The GPC-based control system was highly effective in increasing the stability of the critical wing mode for all of the conditions tested, without measurable degradation of the damping in the other modes. The algorithm was also robust with respect to its performance in adjusting to rapid changes in both the rotor speed and the tunnel airspeed.

  4. Informatics in radiology: Intuitive user interface for 3D image manipulation using augmented reality and a smartphone as a remote control.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Norio; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Hirai, Naoya; Miyamoto, Yukio; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    Although widely used as a pointing device on personal computers (PCs), the mouse was originally designed for control of two-dimensional (2D) cursor movement and is not suited to complex three-dimensional (3D) image manipulation. Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer science that involves combining the physical world and an interactive 3D virtual world; it represents a new 3D user interface (UI) paradigm. A system for 3D and four-dimensional (4D) image manipulation has been developed that uses optical tracking AR integrated with a smartphone remote control. The smartphone is placed in a hard case (jacket) with a 2D printed fiducial marker for AR on the back. It is connected to a conventional PC with an embedded Web camera by means of WiFi. The touch screen UI of the smartphone is then used as a remote control for 3D and 4D image manipulation. Using this system, the radiologist can easily manipulate 3D and 4D images from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in an AR environment with high-quality image resolution. Pilot assessment of this system suggests that radiologists will be able to manipulate 3D and 4D images in the reading room in the near future. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.324115086/-/DC1.

  5. Augmented feedback supports skill transfer and reduces high-risk injury landing mechanics: a double-blind, randomized controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Stroube, Benjamin W; DiCesare, Christopher A; Brent, Jensen L; Ford, Kevin R; Heidt, Robert S; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-03-01

    There is a current need to produce a simple, yet effective method for screening and targeting possible deficiencies related to increased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. Frontal plane knee angle (FPKA) during a drop vertical jump will decrease upon implementing augmented feedback into a standardized sport training program. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-seven female participants (mean ± SD: age, 14.7 ± 1.5 years; height, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm; weight, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg) were trained over 8 weeks. During each session, each participant received standardized training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped running on a treadmill at a standardized speed and performing a repeated tuck jump for 10 seconds. Study participants were randomized into 2 groups and received augmented feedback on either their jumping (AF) or sprinting (CTRL) form. Average (mean of 3 trials) and most extreme (trial with greatest knee abduction) FPKA were calculated from 2-dimensional video captured during performance of the drop vertical jump. After testing, a main effect of time was noted, with the AF group reducing their FPKA average by 37.9% over the 3 trials while the CTRL group demonstrated a 26.7% reduction average across the 3 trials (P < .05). Conversely, in the most extreme drop vertical jump trial, a significant time-by-group interaction was noted (P < .05). The AF group reduced their most extreme FPKA by 6.9° (pretest, 18.4° ± 12.3°; posttest, 11.4° ± 10.1°) on their right leg and 6.5° (pretest, 16.3° ± 14.5°; posttest, 9.8° ± 10.7°) on their left leg, which represented a 37.7% and 40.1% reduction in FPKA, respectively. In the CTRL group, no similar changes were noted in the right (pretest, 16.9° ± 14.3°; posttest, 14.0° ± 12.3°) or left leg (pretest, 9.8° ± 11.1°; posttest, 7.2° ± 9.2°) after training. Providing athletes with augmented feedback on deficits identified by the tuck jump assessment has

  6. A Piloted Simulator Investigation of Static Stability and Stability Control Augmentation Effects on Helicopter Handling Qualities for Instrument Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    category single-pilot and all transport category) damping of oscil- latory modes, depending on frequency, as per the IFR requirements of MIL-F- 8501A (refs...the control position gradient depends on angle-of- attack stability and therefore the slope is dependent on the center-of-gravity position (the static...margin). For the simplified helicopter (no tail or fuselage effects, no hinge offsets or restraints), the control gradient depends on velocity

  7. Flight Test Comparison of Different Adaptive Augmentations for Fault Tolerant Control Laws for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Lee, James A.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the improvements and enhancements to a neural network based approach for directly adapting to aerodynamic changes resulting from damage or failures. This research is a follow-on effort to flight tests performed on the NASA F-15 aircraft as part of the Intelligent Flight Control System research effort. Previous flight test results demonstrated the potential for performance improvement under destabilizing damage conditions. Little or no improvement was provided under simulated control surface failures, however, and the adaptive system was prone to pilot-induced oscillations. An improved controller was designed to reduce the occurrence of pilot-induced oscillations and increase robustness to failures in general. This report presents an analysis of the neural networks used in the previous flight test, the improved adaptive controller, and the baseline case with no adaptation. Flight test results demonstrate significant improvement in performance by using the new adaptive controller compared with the previous adaptive system and the baseline system for control surface failures.

  8. Making Self-Help More Helpful: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Augmenting Self-Help Materials with Implementation Intentions on Promoting the Effective Self-Management of Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Rachel; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effectiveness of self-help materials may be constrained by failures to undertake recommended exercises or to deploy the techniques that one has learned at the critical moment. The present randomized controlled trial investigated whether augmenting self-help materials with if-then plans (or implementation intentions) could overcome…

  9. Making Self-Help More Helpful: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Augmenting Self-Help Materials with Implementation Intentions on Promoting the Effective Self-Management of Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Rachel; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effectiveness of self-help materials may be constrained by failures to undertake recommended exercises or to deploy the techniques that one has learned at the critical moment. The present randomized controlled trial investigated whether augmenting self-help materials with if-then plans (or implementation intentions) could overcome…

  10. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Delambre, Jerome; Zilber, Sebastien; Duffiet, Pascal; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with iliac crest bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The prevalence of healing and prevention of re-tears were correlated with the number of MSCs received at the tendon-to-bone interface. Forty-five patients in the study group received concentrated bone marrow-derived MSCs as an adjunct to single-row rotator cuff repair at the time of arthroscopy. The average number of MSCs returned to the patient was 51,000 ± 25,000. Outcomes of patients receiving MSCs during their repair were compared to those of a matched control group of 45 patients who did not receive MSCs. All patients underwent imaging studies of the shoulder with iterative ultrasound performed every month from the first postoperative month to the 24th month. The rotator cuff healing or re-tear was confirmed with MRI postoperatively at three and six months, one and two years and at the most recent follow up MRI (minimum ten-year follow-up). Bone marrow-derived MSC injection as an adjunctive therapy during rotator cuff repair enhanced the healing rate and improved the quality of the repaired surface as determined by ultrasound and MRI. Forty-five (100 %) of the 45 repairs with MSC augmentation had healed by six months, versus 30 (67 %) of the 45 repairs without MSC treatment by six months. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injection also prevented further ruptures during the next ten years. At the most recent follow-up of ten years, intact rotator cuffs were found in 39 (87 %) of the 45 patients in the MSC-treated group, but just 20 (44 %) of the 45 patients in the control group. The number of transplanted MSCs was determined to be the most relevant to the outcome in the study group, since patients with a loss of tendon integrity at any time up to the ten-year follow-up milestone received fewer MSCs as compared with those who had maintained a successful repair during the same interval. This

  11. A failure effects simulation of a low authority flight control augmentation system on a UH-1H helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, L. D.; Talbot, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    A two-pilot moving base simulator experiment was conducted to assess the effects of servo failures of a flight control system on the transient dynamics of a Bell UH-1H helicopter. The flight control hardware considered was part of the V/STOLAND system built with control authorities of from 20-40%. Servo hardover and oscillatory failures were simulated in each control axis. Measurements were made to determine the adequacy of the failure monitoring system time delay and the servo center and lock time constant, the pilot reaction times, and the altitude and attitude excursions of the helicopter at hover and 60 knots. Safe recoveries were made from all failures under VFR conditions. Pilot reaction times were from 0.5 to 0.75 sec. Reduction of monitor delay times below these values resulted in significantly reduced excursion envelopes. A subsequent flight test was conducted on a UH-1H helicopter with the V/STOLAND system installed. Series servo hardovers were introduced in hover and at 60 knots straight and level. Data from these tests are included for comparison.

  12. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  13. Subfascial gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    Developing the concept of gluteal augmentation through the past 17 years has been an academic adventure. During these years my coworkers and I have progressively improved surgical technique and devised an anatomical system for gluteal augmentation that includes an ideal implant design and templates to assist in evaluating patients in the preoperative period and to identify the most appropriate implant size.

  14. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  15. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  16. The Augmentation System Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbart, Doug; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    Augmentation systems are composed of things that will add to what the human is genetically endowed with in order to extend the net capabilities that a human or human organization can apply to the problems or goals of human society. A broad brush categorization of the components of an augmentation system includes three distinct though interacting…

  17. Gender-Specific Effects of an Augmented Written Emotional Disclosure Intervention on Posttraumatic, Depressive, and HIV-Disease-Related Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, Gail; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Leserman, Jane; Stuetzle, Rick; Fordiani, Joanne; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Schneiderman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma histories and symptoms of PTSD occur at very high rates in people with HIV and are associated with poor disease management and accelerated disease progression. The authors of this study examined the efficacy of a brief written trauma disclosure intervention on posttraumatic stress, depression, HIV-related physical symptoms, and biological markers of HIV disease progression. Method HIV-infected men and women were randomized to four 30-min expressive writing sessions in either a treatment (trauma writing) or an attention control (daily events writing) condition. The disclosure intervention augmented the traditional emotional disclosure paradigm with probes to increase processing by focusing on trauma appraisals, self-worth, and problem solving. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results Hierarchical linear modeling (N = 244, intent-to-treat analyses) revealed no significant treatment effects for the group as a whole. Gender by treatment group interactions were significant such that women in the trauma-writing group had significantly reduced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (p = .017), depression (p = .009), and HIV-related symptoms (p = .022) compared with their controls. In contrast, men in the trauma-treatment condition did not improve more than controls on any outcome variables. Unexpectedly, men in the daily-event-writing control group had significantly greater reductions in depression then men in the trauma-writing group. Treatment effects were magnified in women when the analysis was restricted to those with elevated PTSD symptoms at baseline. Conclusions A brief (4-session) guided written emotional disclosure intervention resulted in significant and meaningful reductions in PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms for women with HIV, but not for men. PMID:23244367

  18. Trauma management therapy with virtual-reality augmented exposure therapy for combat-related PTSD: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Beidel, Deborah C; Frueh, B Christopher; Neer, Sandra M; Bowers, Clint A; Trachik, Benjamin; Uhde, Thomas W; Grubaugh, Anouk

    2017-08-23

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) realistically incorporates traumatic cues into exposure therapy and holds promise in the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a randomized controlled trial of 92 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans and active duty military personnel with combat-related PTSD, we compared the efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy (TMT; VRET plus a group treatment for anger, depression, and social isolation) to VRET plus a psychoeducation control condition. Efficacy was evaluated at mid- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Consistent with our hypothesis, VRET resulted in significant decreases on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist-Military version for both groups. Also consistent with our hypothesis, significant decreases in social isolation occurred only for those participants who received the TMT group component. There were significant decreases for depression and anger for both groups, although these occurred after VRET and before group treatment. All treatment gains were maintained six-months later. Although not part of the original hypotheses, sleep was not improved by either intervention and remained problematic. The results support the use of VRET as an efficacious treatment for combat-related PTSD, but suggest that VRET alone does not result in optimal treatment outcomes across domains associated with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reversible HuR-microRNA binding controls extracellular export of miR-122 and augments stress response.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kamalika; Ghoshal, Bartika; Ghosh, Souvik; Chakrabarty, Yogaditya; Shwetha, Shivaprasad; Das, Saumitra; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N

    2016-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), the tiny but stable regulatory RNAs in metazoan cells, can undergo selective turnover in presence of specific internal and external cues to control cellular response against the changing environment. We have observed reduction in cellular miR-122 content, due to their accelerated extracellular export in human hepatic cells starved for small metabolites including amino acids. In this context, a new role of human ELAV protein HuR has been identified. HuR, a negative regulator of miRNA function, accelerates extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated export of miRNAs in human cells. In stressed cells, HuR replaces miRNPs from target messages and is both necessary and sufficient for the extracellular export of corresponding miRNAs. HuR could reversibly bind miRNAs to replace them from Ago2 and subsequently itself gets freed from bound miRNAs upon ubiquitination. The ubiquitinated form of HuR is predominantly associated with multivesicular bodies (MVB) where HuR-unbound miRNAs also reside. These MVB-associated pool of miRNAs get exported out via EVs thereby delimiting cellular miR-122 level during starvation. Therefore, by modulating extracellular export of miR-122, HuR could control stress response in starved human hepatic cells.

  20. The Effect of Continuous and Discretized Presentations of Concurrent Augmented Visual Biofeedback on Postural Control in Quiet Stance

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna, Carmen; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Conforto, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous and a discretized Visual Biofeedback (VBF) on balance performance in upright stance. The coordinates of the Centre of Pressure (CoP), extracted from a force plate, were processed in real-time to implement the two VBFs, administered to two groups of 12 healthy participants. In the first group, a representation of the CoP was continuously shown, while in the second group, the discretized VBF was provided at an irregular frequency (that depended on the subject's performance) by displaying one out of a set of five different emoticons, each corresponding to a specific area covered by the current position of the CoP. In the first case, participants were asked to maintain a white spot within a given square area, whereas in the second case they were asked to keep the smiling emoticon on. Trials with no VBF were administered as control. The effect of the two VBFs on balance was studied through classical postural parameters and a subset of stabilogram diffusion coefficients. To quantify the amount of time spent in stable conditions, the percentage of time during which the CoP was inside the stability area was calculated. Both VBFs improved balance maintainance as compared to the absence of any VBF. As compared to the continuous VBF, in the discretized VBF a significant decrease of sway path, diffusion and Hurst coefficients was found. These results seem to indicate that a discretized VBF favours a more natural postural behaviour by promoting a natural intermittent postural control strategy. PMID:26196518

  1. The Effect of Continuous and Discretized Presentations of Concurrent Augmented Visual Biofeedback on Postural Control in Quiet Stance.

    PubMed

    D'Anna, Carmen; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Conforto, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous and a discretized Visual Biofeedback (VBF) on balance performance in upright stance. The coordinates of the Centre of Pressure (CoP), extracted from a force plate, were processed in real-time to implement the two VBFs, administered to two groups of 12 healthy participants. In the first group, a representation of the CoP was continuously shown, while in the second group, the discretized VBF was provided at an irregular frequency (that depended on the subject's performance) by displaying one out of a set of five different emoticons, each corresponding to a specific area covered by the current position of the CoP. In the first case, participants were asked to maintain a white spot within a given square area, whereas in the second case they were asked to keep the smiling emoticon on. Trials with no VBF were administered as control. The effect of the two VBFs on balance was studied through classical postural parameters and a subset of stabilogram diffusion coefficients. To quantify the amount of time spent in stable conditions, the percentage of time during which the CoP was inside the stability area was calculated. Both VBFs improved balance maintainance as compared to the absence of any VBF. As compared to the continuous VBF, in the discretized VBF a significant decrease of sway path, diffusion and Hurst coefficients was found. These results seem to indicate that a discretized VBF favours a more natural postural behaviour by promoting a natural intermittent postural control strategy.

  2. Concepts and analysis for Milsatcom augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Keith D.; Davis, John C.

    1992-03-01

    An account is given of the options being considered by the USAF Space Systems Division to meet emerging operational requirements; these options encompass polar coverage for intelligence-gathering and tactical-augmentation coverage, using satellites that can be launched by either existing or planned launch vehicles smaller than Titan IV. Attention is presently given to the terminal and mission-control aspects of these concepts. The augmentation options are intended to facilitate triservice, operational theater-wide services. The communications services needed for augmentation are primarily data lines trunked together. Integrated simulation is the essential means to successful system development.

  3. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  4. Augmentation of fluoxetine with lovastatin for treating major depressive disorder, a randomized double-blind placebo controlled-clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hedayati, Arvin

    2013-11-01

    There are contradictory evidence about the effect of statins on depression. This 6-week-randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of lovastatin as an adjuvant agent for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The participants were 68 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The sample was randomly allocated into fluoxetine (up to 40 mg/day) plus lovastatin (30 mg/day) group or fluoxetine plus placebo group. Hamilton Depression Rating scale was used to measure depression score at baseline, week 2, and week 6. Both groups showed a significant decrease of depression score on the Hamilton Depression scale. However, the treatment group decreased depression score more than placebo group [12.8(6.3) vs. 8.2(4.0), t = 3.4, df = 60, P < .001]. Any serious adverse effect was not found. These results suggest that lovastatin as an adjuvant treatment may be effective for treating patients with MDD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W; Sanders, Carlijn; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined the potential exposure enhancing effect of yohimbine hydrochloride in claustrophobic humans. Participants (71% undergraduate students and 29% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (n=24) were treated with 2 1-h in vivo exposure sessions. Participants were randomly allocated to take 10.8mg yohimbine hydrochloride (n=12) or placebo (n=12) prior to each exposure session. Outcome measures included peak fear during a behavioral avoidance task, the Claustrophobia Questionnaire, and the Claustrophobic Concerns Questionnaire. Results showed that both conditions improved significantly at post-treatment with no significant difference between groups. Consistent with prediction the group that took yohimbine hydrochloride prior to exposure sessions showed significantly greater improvement in peak fear at the one-week follow-up behavioral assessment (d=1.68). This was also true across other outcome measures with large to very large effect sizes. These data provide initial support for exposure enhancing effect of single-dose yohimbine hydrochloride in a clinical application.

  6. Ziprasidone Augmentation of Escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder: Efficacy Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Swee, Michaela B.; Jaeger, Adrienne; Bobo, William V.; Shelton, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with non-psychotic unipolar major depression experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. Method This was a multi-center, parallel randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at three academic medical centers in the United States. The participant pool consisted of 139 outpatients with persistent symptoms of major depressive disorder following an 8-week open label trial of escitalopram (phase 1). Subjects were randomized (1:1, n=139) to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram+ziprasidone, n=71) or adjunctive placebo (escitalopram+placebo, n=68), with 8 weekly follow-up assessments. Primary outcome was defined by clinical response according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and determined by a 50% or greater reduction in scale scores. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A) and Visual Analogue Scale for Pain were defined a priori as key secondary outcome measures. Results Rates of clinical response (35.2% vs. 20.5%, p=0.04) and mean improvement in HAMD-17 total scores (−6.4 ± 6.4 vs. −3.3 ± 6.2, p=0.04) were significantly greater for the escitalopram+ziprasidone group. Several secondary measures of antidepressant efficacy were also in favor of adjunctive ziprasidone. Escitalopram+ziprasidone also resulted in significantly greater improvement in HAM-A, but not Visual Analogue Scale for Pain scores. Ten (14%) patients discontinued escitalopram+ziprasidone due to intolerance versus none for escitalopram+placebo (p<0.01 versus placebo). Conclusions Adjunctive ziprasidone, when added to escitalopram, demonstrated antidepressant efficacy in adult patients with major depressive disorder experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. PMID:26085041

  7. Metformin to Augment Strength Training Effective Response in Seniors (MASTERS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Long, Doug E; Peck, Bailey D; Martz, Jenny L; Tuggle, S Craig; Bush, Heather M; McGwin, Gerald; Kern, Philip A; Bamman, Marcas M; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-04-26

    Muscle mass and strength are strong determinants of a person's quality of life and functional independence with advancing age. While resistance training is the most effective intervention to combat age-associated muscle atrophy (sarcopenia), the ability of older adults to increase muscle mass and strength in response to training is blunted and highly variable. Thus, finding novel ways to complement resistance training to improve muscle response and ultimately quality of life among older individuals is critical. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a commonly prescribed medication called metformin can be repurposed to improve the response to resistance exercise training by altering the muscle tissue inflammatory environment. Individuals aged 65 and older are participating in a two-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the effects of metformin or placebo on muscle size, strength, and physical function when combined with a progressive resistance training program. Participants consume 1700 mg of metformin per day or placebo for 2 weeks before engaging in a 14-week progressive resistance training regimen, with continued metformin or placebo. Participants are then monitored post-training to determine if the group taking metformin derived greater overall benefit from training in terms of muscle mass and strength gains than those on placebo. Muscle biopsies are taken from the vastus lateralis at three time points to assess individual cellular and molecular adaptations to resistance training and also changes in response to metformin. The response of aged muscles to a resistance training program does not always result in a positive outcome; some individuals even experience a loss in muscle mass following resistance training. Thus, adjuvant therapies, including pharmacological ones, are required to optimize response to training in those who do not respond and may be at increased risk of frailty. This is the first known metformin

  8. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100009.htm Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  9. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100205.htm Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Intravenous augmentation treatment and lung density in severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency (RAPID): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Burdon, Jonathan G W; Piitulainen, Eeva; Sandhaus, Robert A; Seersholm, Niels; Stocks, James M; Stoel, Berend C; Huang, Liping; Yao, Zhenling; Edelman, Jonathan M; McElvaney, Noel G

    2015-07-25

    The efficacy of α1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) augmentation treatment for α1 antitrypsin deficiency has not been substantiated by a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. CT-measured lung density is a more sensitive measure of disease progression in α1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema than spirometry is, so we aimed to assess the efficacy of augmentation treatment with this measure. The RAPID study was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of A1PI treatment in patients with α1 antitrypsin deficiency. We recruited eligible non-smokers (aged 18-65 years) in 28 international study centres in 13 countries if they had severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency (serum concentration <11 μM) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 35-70% (predicted). We excluded patients if they had undergone, or were on the waiting list to undergo, lung transplantation, lobectomy, or lung volume-reduction surgery, or had selective IgA deficiency. We randomly assigned patients (1:1; done by Accovion) using a computerised pseudorandom number generator (block size of four) with centre stratification to receive A1PI intravenously 60 mg/kg per week or placebo for 24 months. All patients and study investigators (including those assessing outcomes) were unaware of treatment allocation throughout the study. Primary endpoints were CT lung density at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) combined, and the two separately, at 0, 3, 12, 21, and 24 months, analysed by modified intention to treat (patients needed at least one evaluable lung density measurement). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00261833. A 2-year open-label extension study was also completed (NCT00670007). Between March 1, 2006, and Nov 3, 2010, we randomly allocated 93 (52%) patients A1PI and 87 (48%) placebo, analysing 92 in the A1PI group and 85 in the placebo group. The annual rate of lung density loss at TLC and FRC combined did not

  11. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  12. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  13. Role of Neurotransmitter Gases in the Control of the Carotid Body in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Harold D; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Ding, Yanfeng; Marcus, Noah J

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral arterial chemoreflex, arising primarily from the carotid body in most species, plays an important role in the control of breathing and in autonomic control of cardiovascular function. The peripheral chemoreflex is enhanced in heart failure patients and animal models of heart failure and contributes to the sympathetic hyperactivity and breathing instability that exacerbates the progression of the disease. Studies in animal models have shown that carotid body chemoreceptor activity is enhanced under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in heart failure due to disruption of local mediators that control carotid body function. This brief review highlights evidence that the alterations in the gasotransmitters, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide in the carotid body contribute to the exaggerated carotid body function observed in heart failure. PMID:22842006

  14. Making self-help more helpful: a randomized controlled trial of the impact of augmenting self-help materials with implementation intentions on promoting the effective self-management of anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Varley, Rachel; Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal

    2011-02-01

    The effectiveness of self-help materials may be constrained by failures to undertake recommended exercises or to deploy the techniques that one has learned at the critical moment. The present randomized controlled trial investigated whether augmenting self-help materials with if-then plans (or implementation intentions) could overcome these problems and enhance the self-management of anxiety symptoms. At baseline, participants who reported anxiety symptoms completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Participants were then randomized via a computer program to standard self-help (n = 86), augmented self-help (n = 90), or no-intervention (n = 86) conditions. Eight weeks later, 95% (n = 249) of the participants completed the HADS and STAI again. Findings showed a significant reduction in anxiety in the augmented self-help condition compared with both the standard self-help and no-intervention conditions (caseness rates on the HADS at follow-up were 21%, 49%, and 44%, respectively). Mediation analyses indicated that the benefits of augmented self-help materials were explained by improved detection of anxiety-related triggers and greater experienced benefits of the self-help techniques. These findings suggest that implementation intentions offer a valuable supplement to self-help materials that can enhance their impact on outcomes.

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Hwang, Jaeuk; Kim, Jieun E.; Won, Wangyoun; Bae, Sujin; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antidepressants targeting monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, despite their immediate effects at the synaptic level, usually require several weeks of administration to achieve clinical efficacy. The authors propose a strategy of adding creatine monohydrate (creatine) to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Such augmentation may lead to a more rapid onset of antidepressant effects and a greater treatment response, potentially by restoring brain bioenergetics at the cellular level. Method Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27). Efficacy was primarily assessed by changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Results In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment prematurely (creatine: N=8, 32.0%; placebo: N=5, 18.5%) or in the overall frequency of all reported adverse events (creatine: 36 events; placebo: 45 events). Conclusions The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder. PMID:22864465

  16. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of N-Acetylcysteine Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel L C; Diniz, Juliana B; Requena, Guaraci; Joaquim, Marinês A; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H; Miguel, Euripedes C; Shavitt, Roseli G

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) augmentation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamate modulator and antioxidant medication, for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week trial of NAC (3,000 mg daily) in adults (aged 18-65 years) with treatment-resistant OCD, established according to DSM-IV criteria. Forty subjects were recruited at an OCD-specialized outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital (May 2012-October 2014). The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores. To evaluate the variables group, time, and interaction effects for Y-BOCS scores at all time points, we used nonparametric analysis of variance with repeated measures. Secondary outcomes were the severity scores for anxiety, depression, specific OCD symptom dimensions, and insight. Both groups showed a significant reduction of baseline Y-BOCS scores at week 16: the NAC group had a reduction of 4.3 points (25.6 to 21.3), compared with 3.0 points (24.8 to 21.8) for the placebo group. However, there were no significant differences between groups (P = .92). Adding NAC was superior to placebo in reducing anxiety symptoms (P = .02), but not depression severity or specific OCD symptom dimensions. In general, NAC was well tolerated, despite abdominal pain being more frequently reported in the NAC group (n [%]: NAC = 9 [60.0], placebo = 2 [13.3]; P < .01). Our trial did not demonstrate a significant benefit of NAC in reducing OCD severity in treatment-resistant OCD adults. Secondary analysis suggested that NAC might have some benefit in reducing anxiety symptoms in treatment-resistant OCD patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01555970.

  17. Indocyanine green-augmented diode laser therapy vs. long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser treatment of telangiectatic leg veins: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Klein, A; Buschmann, M; Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Bäumler, W

    2013-08-01

    Telangiectatic leg veins (TLV) represent a common cosmetic problem. Near infrared lasers have been widely used in treatment because of their deeper penetration into the dermis, but with varying degrees of success, particularly because of different vessel diameters. Indocyanine green (ICG)-augmented diode laser treatment (ICG+DL) may present an alternative treatment option. This trial evaluates the efficacy of ICG+DL in the treatment of TLV and compares the safety and efficacy of therapy with the standard treatment, the long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. In a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, 29 study participants with TLV were treated with a Nd:YAG laser (λem = 1064 nm, 160-240 J cm(-2) , 65-ms pulse duration, 5-mm spot size) and ICG+DL (λem = 810 nm, 60-110 J cm(-2) , 48-87-ms pulse duration, 6-mm spot size; total ICG dose 4 mg kg(-1) ) in a side-by-side comparison in one single treatment setting that included histological examination in four participants. Two blinded investigators and the participants assessed clearance rate, cosmetic appearance and adverse events up to 3 months after treatment. According to both the investigators' and participants' assessment, clearance rates were significantly better after ICG+DL therapy than after Nd:YAG laser treatment (P < 0·05). On a 10-point scale indicating pain during treatment, participants rated ICG+DL therapy to be more painful (6·1 ± 2·0) than Nd:YAG laser (5·4 ± 2·0). ICG+DL therapy represents a new and promising treatment modality for TLV, with high clearance rates and a very good cosmetic outcome after one single treatment session. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation is a well-known technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduce by the extra conductors required. It is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1-{phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system. Additions to the electrical system are required to establish the shunt current and to control its magnitude during projectile acceleration. The relationship between muzzle shunt augmentation and conventional series augmentation is developed and various techniques is developed and various techniques for establishing and controlling the shunt current are illustrated with a practical example. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Augmentation techniques for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Zampogna, Biagio; D'Adamio, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    There is a high rate of recurrence of tear and failed healing after rotator cuff repair. Several strategies have proposed to augment rotator cuff repairs to improve postoperative outcome and shoulder performance. We systematically review the literature on clinical outcome following rotator cuff augmentation. We performed a comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Embase and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, from inception of the database to 20 June 2012, using various combinations of keywords. The reference lists of the previously selected articles were then examined by hand. Only studies focusing on clinical outcomes of human patients who had undergone augmented rotator cuff repair were selected. We then evaluated the methodological quality of each article using the Coleman methodology score (CMS), a 10 criteria scoring list assessing the methodological quality of the selected studies (CMS). Thirty-two articles were included in the present review. Two were retrospective studies, and 30 were prospective. Biologic, synthetic and cellular devices were used in 24, 7 and 1 studies, respectively. The mean modified Coleman methodology score was 64.0. Heterogeneity of the clinical outcome scores makes it difficult to compare different studies. None of the augmentation devices available is without problems, and each one presents intrinsic weaknesses. There is no dramatic increase in clinical and functional assessment after augmented procedures, especially if compared with control groups. More and better scientific evidence is necessary to use augmentation of rotator cuff repairs in routine clinical practice.

  20. Augmentation strategies for treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, André F; Machado, Juliana Raulino; Cavalcante, João L

    2009-01-01

    The majority of patients with depression fail to remit on one or more antidepressant trials. These patients have treatment-resistant depression (TRD) with high relapsing rates. Augmentation pharmacotherapy refers to the addition of drugs that are not standard antidepressants in order to enhance the effect of a classical antidepressant drug. This review highlights the current status and future research directions of augmentation treatments for TRD with a special focus on research data published within the past year. Atypical antipsychotics, stimulants, pindolol, lithium, lamotrigine and mecamylamine were tested for efficacy in clinical trials. Most of the trials were not controlled or had limited sample size. Recent data now support the use of some atypical antipsychotics to augment depression resistant to the newer, more selective, antidepressants. Lithium and triiodothyronin (T3) augmentation of tricyclic agents remains the best studied strategy. Data converge to demonstrate the efficacy of some atypical antipsychotics as augmenting agents to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Further adequately powered controlled trials on augmentation pharmacotherapy of TRD are necessary.

  1. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  2. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of augmentation pharmacotherapy with aripiprazole for treatment-resistant depression in late life: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lenze, Eric J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Blumberger, Daniel M; Karp, Jordan F; Newcomer, John W; Anderson, Stewart J; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A; Stack, Jacqueline A; Begley, Amy E; Reynolds, Charles F

    2015-12-12

    Treatment-resistant major depression is common and potentially life-threatening in elderly people, in whom little is known about the benefits and risks of augmentation pharmacotherapy. We aimed to assess whether aripiprazole is associated with a higher probability of remission than is placebo. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at three centres in the USA and Canada to test the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation for adults aged older than 60 years with treatment-resistant depression (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score of ≥15). Patients who did not achieve remission during a pre-trial with venlafaxine extended-release (150-300 mg/day) were randomly assigned (1:1) to the addition of aripiprazole (target dose 10 mg [maximum 15 mg] daily) daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The computer-generated randomisation was done in blocks and stratified by site. Only the database administrator and research pharmacists had knowledge of treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was remission, defined as an MADRS score of 10 or less (and at least 2 points below the score at the start of the randomised phase) at both of the final two consecutive visits, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00892047. From July 20, 2009, to Dec 30, 2013, we recruited 468 eligible participants, 181 (39%) of whom did not remit and were randomly assigned to aripiprazole (n=91) or placebo (n=90). A greater proportion of participants in the aripiprazole group achieved remission than did those in the placebo group (40 [44%] vs 26 [29%] participants; odds ratio [OR] 2·0 [95% CI 1·1-3·7], p=0·03; number needed to treat [NNT] 6·6 [95% CI 3·5-81·8]). Akathisia was the most common adverse effect of aripiprazole (reported in 24 [26%] of 91 participants on aripiprazole vs 11 [12%] of 90 on placebo). Compared with placebo, aripiprazole was also associated with more Parkinsonism (15 [17%] of 86 vs

  3. A Piloted Simulator Investigation of Side-Stick Controller/Stability and Control Augmentation System Requirements for Helicopter Visual Flight Tasks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Control System Concept AFC It 0 FWD UTUT COOM11111E1DWACK UBUSIMO H Figure 4. Primary Flight Control System Cne Forward path lead-lag shaping was...For the low speed tasks the pilots were simulation study --one each from Boelng-Vertol, given time to feel out the system before each NASA, the U.S...of the evaluation EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS pilots, (A, C, and D), participated in the previous ADOCS simulation study (Reference 1). Experimental results

  4. Augmentation of S-Nitrosoglutathione Controls Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammatory-Oxidative Stress and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Emphysema Pathogenesis by Restoring Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Manish; Silverberg, David; Walworth, Kyla; Brucia, Kathryn; Vij, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated acquired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dysfunction, autophagy-impairment, and resulting inflammatory-oxidative/nitrosative stress leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-emphysema pathogenesis. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) signaling regulates lung function decline, and low serum NO levels that correlates with COPD severity. Hence, we aim to evaluate here the effects and mechanism(s) of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) augmentation in regulating inflammatory-oxidative stress and COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. Our data shows that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) colocalizes with aggresome bodies in the lungs of COPD subjects with increasing emphysema severity (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] I - IV) compared to nonemphysema controls (GOLD 0). We further demonstrate that treatment with GSNO or S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR)-inhibitor (N6022) significantly inhibits cigarette smoke extract (CSE; 5%)-induced decrease in membrane CFTR expression by rescuing it from ubiquitin (Ub)-positive aggresome bodies (p < 0.05). Moreover, GSNO restoration significantly (p < 0.05) decreases CSE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation and autophagy impairment (decreased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the insoluble protein fractions and restoration of autophagy flux). In addition, GSNO augmentation inhibits protein misfolding as CSE-induced colocalization of ubiquitinated proteins and LC3B (in autophagy bodies) is significantly reduced by GSNO/N6022 treatment. We verified using the preclinical COPD-emphysema murine model that chronic CS (Ch-CS)-induced inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6/IL-1β levels), aggresome formation (perinuclear coexpression/colocalization of ubiquitinated proteins [Ub] and p62 [impaired autophagy marker], and CFTR), oxidative/nitrosative stress (p-Nrf2, inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], and 3

  5. Chinese Calligraphy Writing for Augmenting Attentional Control and Working Memory of Older Adults at Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sam C C; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Derbie, Abiot Y; Hui, Irene; Tan, Davynn G H; Pang, Marco Y C; Lau, Stephen C L; Fong, Kenneth N K

    2017-01-01

    Nonpharmacological intervention for individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) needs further investigation. Test efficacy of an eight-week Chinese calligraphy writing training course in improving attentional control and working memory. Ninety-nine participants with MCI were randomized into the eight-week calligraphy writing (n = 48) or control (tablet computer) training (n = 51). Outcomes of the interventions were attentional control, working memory, visual scan and processing speed. They were measured at baseline, post-training, and six-month follow-up. Calligraphy writing, when compared with control, significantly improved working memory as reflected from DST-Backward sequence (p = 0.009) and span scores (p = 0.002), and divided attention as reflected from CTT2 (p < 0.001), and at the post-training. The unique improvement in working memory (span: p < 0.001; sequence: p = 0.008) of the intervention group was also found at follow-up when comparing with those at baseline. Changes in the other outcome measures were not statistically significant. The findings provide support that Chinese calligraphy writing training for eight weeks using a cognitive approach would improve working memory and to a lesser extent attentional control functions of patients with early MCI. They also demonstrate the usefulness of using mind-and-body practice for improving specific cognitive functions.

  6. Differences in endplate deformation of the adjacent and augmented vertebra following cement augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, S. K.; Heini, P. F.; Ferguson, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Vertebral cement augmentation can restore the stiffness and strength of a fractured vertebra and relieve chronic pain. Previous finite element analysis, biomechanical tests and clinical studies have indirectly associated new adjacent vertebral fractures following augmentation to altered loading. The aim of this repeated measures in situ biomechanical study was to determine the changes in the adjacent and augmented endplate deformation following cement augmentation of human cadaveric functional spine units (FSU) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The surrounding soft tissue and posterior elements of 22 cadaveric human FSU were removed. FSU were assigned to two groups, control (n = 8) (loaded on day 1 and day 2) and augmented (n = 14) (loaded on day 1, augmented 20% cement fill, and loaded on day 2). The augmented group was further subdivided into a prophylactic augmentation group (n = 9), and vertebrae which spontaneously fractured during loading on day 1 (n = 5). The FSU were axially loaded (200, 1,000, 1,500–2,000 N) within a custom made radiolucent, saline filled loading device. At each loading step, FSUs were scanned using the micro-CT. Endplate heights were determined using custom software. No significant increase in endplate deformation following cement augmentation was noted for the adjacent endplate (P > 0.05). The deformation of the augmented endplate was significantly reduced following cement augmentation for both the prophylactic and fracture group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). Endplate deformation of the controls showed no statistically significant differences between loading on day 1 and day 2. A linear relationship was noted between the applied compressive load and endplate deflection (R2 = 0.58). Evidence of significant endplate deformation differences between unaugmented and augmented FSU, while evident for the augmented endplate, was not present for the adjacent endplate. This non-invasive micro-CT method may also

  7. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  8. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  9. Mavoglurant Augmentation in OCD Patients Resistant to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Proof-of-Concept, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Rutrick, Daniel; Stein, Dan J; Subramanian, Ganesan; Smith, Brian; Fava, Maurizio; Hasler, Gregor; Cha, Jang-Ho; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Donchev, Toni; Ocwieja, Magdalena; Johns, Donald; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar

    2017-02-01

    To determine if mavoglurant (modified release) as an augmentation therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could have beneficial effects reducing Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) total score in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to SSRI treatment. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 2 study. Patients remained on their SSRI treatment and mavoglurant or placebo was added on. Non-smoking men and women aged 18-65 years primarily diagnosed with OCD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria were randomized (1:1) to mavoglurant or placebo groups. After 50 patients were randomized, an interim analysis was conducted to determine whether the study should be continued. The primary outcome measure was absolute change in Y-BOCS from baseline at week 17. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). Interim analysis led to a decision to terminate the study. In total 38 (76.0%) participants completed 17 weeks of treatment and 37 (74.0%) completed the study. There was no significant difference in least squares (LS) mean change from baseline at week 17 in Y-BOCS total score for mavoglurant compared with placebo groups [-6.9 (1.75) vs. -8.0 (1.78), respectively; LS mean difference 1.1; 95% CI -3.9, 6.2; p = 0.671]. The incidence of AEs was higher in the mavoglurant compared with the placebo group (80.8% vs. 70.8%, respectively). This study of mavoglurant in OCD was terminated because of the lack of efficacy at interim analysis. The study did not support the use of an antagonist of mGluR5 receptors for OCD treatment. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01813019. This study was sponsored by Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

  10. Efficacy and safety of oxytocin augmentation therapy for schizophrenia: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Oya, Kazuto; Matsuda, Yuki; Matsunaga, Shinji; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and an updated and comprehensive meta-analysis of oxytocin augmentation therapy in patients with schizophrenia who received antipsychotic agents. Data published up to 07/11/2015 were obtained from PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of patients' data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oxytocin with placebo. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) based on the random-effects model were calculated. We included seven RCTs; the total sample size was 206 patients. Oxytocin was superior to placebo for decreasing the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) general subscale scores (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI -0.82 to -0.06, p = 0.02, I (2) = 0 %, N = 4, n = 112); however, it was not different from placebo for total symptoms (SMD = -0.46, 95 % CI -1.20 to 0.28, p = 0.22, I (2) = 80 %, N = 6, n = 162), positive symptoms (SMD = -0.18, 95 % CI -0.87 to 0.51, p = 0.60, I (2) = 81 %, N = 6, n = 192), and negative symptoms (SMD = -0.34, 95 % CI -0.76 to 0.08, p = 0.12, I (2) = 55 %, N = 7, n = 214). However, a sensitivity analysis including only oxytocin administration on consecutive days studies was superior to placebo in negative symptoms (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI -0.87 to -0.01, p = 0.04, I (2) = 51 %, N = 6 n = 192). There were no significant differences for all-cause discontinuation (RR = 1.02) and individual side effects such as headache and dizziness between oxytocin and placebo. Oxytocin may improve PANSS general subscale scores in schizophrenia and seems to be well tolerated. However, because the number of studies in the current analysis was small, further study will be required using larger sample sizes.

  11. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    PubMed Central

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST). Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy. PMID:23508724

  12. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  13. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes.

  14. Computer Augmented Video Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)

  15. Computer Augmented Video Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)

  16. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  17. Intelligent Filtering for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    1 Intelligent Filtering for Augmented Reality Sabrina Sestito*, Simon Julier, Marco Lanzagorta and Larry Rosenblum Advanced Information Technology...Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia) KEYWORDS: Augmented Reality , Intelligent Systems, Databases ABSTRACT: Recent developments in computing...hardware have begun to make mobile and wearable Augmented Reality (AR) systems a reality . With this new freedom, AR systems can now be used in a very wide

  18. Biomechanics in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Wang, X; Zeng, Y; Wu, W

    2005-01-01

    During the past 6 years, we have treated 406 patients with classical silicone augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation were examined. We have proposed that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. In order to improve our operation and prove our hypothesis, we performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 cases with satisfactory results. In order to determine scientifically which layer the silicone implant should be inserted into, we investigated the biomechanics of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation characters under uniaxial tension. Although having less failure strain, the periosteum has more tensile strength than the fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher and stiffer than the fascia, thus is more suitable for covering silicone implants.

  19. Batten augmented triangular beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.

  20. Augmented reality in surgery.

    PubMed

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the history and current knowledge of computer-augmented reality in the field of surgery and its potential goals in education, surgeon training, and patient treatment. National Library of Medicine's database and additional library searches. Only articles suited to surgical sciences with a well-defined aim of study, methodology, and precise description of outcome were included. Augmented reality is an effective tool in executing surgical procedures requiring low-performance surgical dexterity; it remains a science determined mainly by stereotactic registration and ergonomics. Strong evidence was found that it is an effective teaching tool for training residents. Weaker evidence was found to suggest a significant influence on surgical outcome, both morbidity and mortality. No evidence of cost-effectiveness was found. Augmented reality is a new approach in executing detailed surgical operations. Although its application is in a preliminary stage, further research is needed to evaluate its long-term clinical impact on patients, surgeons, and hospital administrators. Its widespread use and the universal transfer of such technology remains limited until there is a better understanding of registration and ergonomics.

  1. Simple Implant Augmentation Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh H.; Bartlett, Erica L.; Kania, Katarzyna; Bae, Sang Mo

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty among Asian patients is often performed to improve the height of the nasal dorsum. As the use of autogenous tissues poses certain limitations, alloplastic materials are a viable alternative with a long history of use in Asia. The superiority of one implant prosthesis over another for augmentation rhinoplasty is a matter of debate, with each material representing varying strengths and weaknesses, indications for use, and precautions to consider in nasal implant placement. An implant prosthesis should be used on a case-by-case basis. Augmentation rhinoplasty requires the consideration of specific anatomical preoperative factors, including the external nose, nasal length, nasofrontal angle, humps, and facial proportions. It is equally important to consider several operative guidelines to appropriately shape implants to minimize the occurrence of adverse effects and postoperative complications. The most common postoperative complications include infection, nasal height change, movement of implant prosthesis, and silicone implant protrusion. In addition, the surgeon should consider the current standards of Asian beauty aesthetics to better understand the patient's desired outcome. PMID:26648804

  2. Stability boundaries for command augmentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrivastava, P. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Stability Augmentation System (SAS) is a special case of the Command Augmentation System (CAS). Control saturation imposes bounds on achievable commands. The state equilibrium depends only on the open loop dynamics and control deflection. The control magnitude to achieve a desired command equilibrium is independent of the feedback gain. A feedback controller provides the desired response, maintains the system equilibrium under disturbances, but it does not affect the equilibrium values of states and control. The saturation boundaries change with commands, but the location of the equilibrium points in the saturated region remains unchanged. Nonzero command vectors yield saturation boundaries that are asymmetric with respect to the state equilibrium. Except for the saddle point case with MCE control law, the stability boundaries change with commands. For the cases of saddle point and unstable nodes, the region of stability decreases with increasing command magnitudes.

  3. Specific Phobias in Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing One-Session Treatment to a Parent-Augmented One-Session Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Fraire, Maria G; Austin, Kristin E.; Noguchi, Ryoichi J. P.; Lewis, Krystal M.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Cunningham, Natoshia R.; Canavera, Kristin; Allen, Kristy B.; Whitmore, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the efficacy of a parent-augmented One Session Treatment (A-OST) in treating specific phobias (SP) in youth by comparing this novel treatment to child-focused OST, a well-established treatment. Method A total of 97 youth (ages 6–15, 51.5% female, 84.5% white) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SP were randomized to either A-OST or OST. SPs were assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews, clinician improvement ratings, and parent and child improvement ratings. In addition, measures of treatment satisfaction and parental self-efficacy were obtained. Blind assessments were completed pretreatment, post-treatment, and 1-month and 6-months following treatment. Analyses were undertaken using mixed models. In addition, gender, age, internalizing/externalizing problems, parent overprotection, and parent anxiety were examined as potential predictors and moderators of treatment outcome. Results Both treatment conditions produced similar outcomes with approximately 50% of youth in both treatments diagnosis free and judged to be much or very much improved at post-treatment and 1-month follow up. At 6-month follow up, however, the treatments diverged with OST resulting in marginally superior outcomes to A-OST, contrary to predictions. Only age of child predicted treatment outcome across the two treatments (older children did better); unexpectedly, none of the variables moderated treatment outcomes. Conclusions Parent augmentation of OST produced no appreciable gains in treatment outcomes. Directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:25645164

  4. Specific phobias in youth: a randomized controlled trial comparing one-session treatment to a parent-augmented one-session treatment.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Fraire, Maria G; Austin, Kristin E; Noguchi, Ryoichi J P; Lewis, Krystal M; Jarrett, Matthew A; Cunningham, Natoshia R; Canavera, Kristin; Allen, Kristy B; Whitmore, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Examine the efficacy of a parent-augmented One-Session Treatment (A-OST) in treating specific phobias (SP) in youth by comparing this novel treatment to child-focused OST, a well-established treatment. A total of 97 youth (ages 6-15, 51.5% female, 84.5% White) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SP were randomized to either A-OST or OST. SPs were assessed with semistructured diagnostic interviews, clinician improvement ratings, and parent and child improvement ratings. In addition, measures of treatment satisfaction and parental self-efficacy were obtained. Blind assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and 1month and 6months following treatment. Analyses were undertaken using mixed models. In addition, gender, age, internalizing/externalizing problems, parent overprotection, and parent anxiety were examined as potential predictors and moderators of treatment outcome. Both treatment conditions produced similar outcomes with approximately 50% of youth in both treatments diagnosis free and judged to be much or very much improved at posttreatment and 1-month follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, however, the treatments diverged with OST resulting in marginally superior outcomes to A-OST, contrary to predictions. Only age of child predicted treatment outcome across the two treatments (older children did better); unexpectedly, none of the variables moderated treatment outcomes. Parent augmentation of OST produced no appreciable gains in treatment outcomes. Directions for future research are highlighted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and physical factors in elderly women to prevent falls: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Yoo, Ha-Na; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] To determine the effect of augmented reality (AR)-based otago exercise on muscle strength, balance, and physical factors in falls of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to AR group (AR, n=10), yoga group (yoga, n=10), and self-exercise group (self, n=10). For 12 weeks, these groups were given lessons related to AR-based otago exercise including strengthening, balance training, or yoga three times a week (60 minutes each time) and self-exercise using elastic band exercise program. [Results] Knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion strength were significantly improved in all three groups (AR, yoga, and self-exercise groups). Regarding balance, eye open center of pressure-x (EO CoP-x) was significantly decreased in AR group and yoga group. However, eye close CoP-x, eye open standard deviation-x (EO SD-x), and eye open height of ellipse (EO HoE) were only significantly decreased in AR group. AR group also showed meaningfully improved results in morse fall scale. [Conclusion] Augmented reality-based otago exercise can improve muscle strength, balance, and physical factors in elderly women to prevent falls.

  6. Control of breathing and ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in deer mice native to high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Ivy, C M; Scott, G R

    2017-06-22

    We compared the control of breathing and heart rate by hypoxia between high- and low-altitude populations of Peromyscus mice, to help elucidate the physiological specializations that help high-altitude natives cope with O2 limitation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) native to high altitude and congeneric mice native to low altitude (Peromyscus leucopus) were bred in captivity at sea level. The F1 progeny of each population were raised to adulthood and then acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (12 kPa, simulating hypoxia at ~4300 m) for 5 months. Responses to acute hypoxia were then measured during stepwise reductions in inspired O2 fraction. Lowlanders exhibited ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH), in which hypoxia acclimation enhanced the hypoxic ventilatory response, made breathing pattern more effective (higher tidal volumes and lower breathing frequencies at a given total ventilation), increased arterial O2 saturation and heart rate during acute hypoxia, augmented respiratory water loss and led to significant growth of the carotid body. In contrast, highlanders did not exhibit VAH - exhibiting a fixed increase in breathing that was similar to hypoxia-acclimated lowlanders - and they maintained even higher arterial O2 saturations in hypoxia. However, the carotid bodies of highlanders were not enlarged by hypoxia acclimation and were similar in size to those of normoxic lowlanders. Highlanders also maintained consistently higher heart rates than lowlanders during acute hypoxia. Our results suggest that highland deer mice have evolved high rates of alveolar ventilation and respiratory O2 uptake without the significant enlargement of the carotid bodies that is typical of VAH in lowlanders, possibly to adjust the hypoxic chemoreflex for life in high-altitude hypoxia. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. History of gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure.

  8. Radiative Augmented Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    PbLFICE SY 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION M.L. ENERGIA , Inc. AFOSR/NA 6r. ADDRESS (City. State. anW ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City State, and ZIPCode...27 -00 N ’fPECTED 0 6I FOREWORD This is the Final Report on research on Radiative Augmented Combustion conducted at M. L. ENERGIA , Inc. It was a...the first two annual reports prior to this one. The entire research program was performed at ENERGIA , Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, with Dr. Moshe Lavid

  9. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  10. [History of augmentation mammaplasty].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2005-10-01

    The history of breast augmentation started effectively after World War II. Until then, this surgery was almost irrelevant because the indications were considered very rare and technical possibilities limited. During about two decades after 1945, two types of procedures were proposed. The first ones used autologous tissue especially fat in the form of dermofatty grafts taken from the buttocks. The results were very bad and sometimes disastrous for both techniques. At the beginning of the sixties, under the impulse of the Dow Corning Company, two surgeons: Frank Gerow and Thomas Cronin from Houston (Texas, USA) proposed an implant with a sheath filled with silicone gel. This new prosthesis had an immediate success and the number of breast augmentations growed very quickly. After an optimistic period, it had to be admitted that the results were sometimes deceiving or frankly bad. The breasts were often too firm, sometimes hard and even deformed. Capsular contracture occurred around the implants. During the 70's and 80's both consistency and envelops of the implants were regularly modified. The incision and the positioning were changed. At the end of the 80's, the problem of capsular contracture seemed to be resolved with the implants used, meanwhile a controversy took place about silicone in USA. Some cases of autoimmune diseases were attributed to silicone. In spite of scientific studies that proved the contrary, silicone implants were prohibited in the United States, Canada and temporarily in France.

  11. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons.

  12. Advanced intellect-augmentation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbart, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    User experience in applying our augmentation tools and techniques to various normal working tasks within our center is described so as to convey a subjective impression of what it is like to work in an augmented environment. It is concluded that working-support, computer-aid systems for augmenting individuals and teams, are undoubtedly going to be widely developed and used. A very special role in this development is seen for multi-access computer networks.

  13. Six-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial Augmenting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment With Exposure and Ritual Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, Helen Blair; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Powers, Mark B.; Rosenfield, David; Cahill, Shawn P.; Campeas, Raphael; Franklin, Martin; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Schmidt, Andrew B.; Vermes, Donna; Williams, Monnica T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article describes the long-term effects of augmenting serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) with exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training in patients with DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method Between November 2000 and November 2006, 111 OCD patients from 2 academic outpatient centers with partial SRI response were randomized to the addition of exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training, delivered twice weekly for 8 weeks (acute phase); 108 began treatment. Responders (38 of 52 in the exposure and ritual prevention condition, 11 of 52 in the stress management training condition) entered a 24-week maintenance phase. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) was the primary outcome measure. Results After 24 weeks, patients randomized to and receiving exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training had significantly better outcomes (mean YBOCS scores of 14.69 and 21.37, respectively; t = 2.88, P = .005), higher response rates (decrease in YBOCS scores ≥ 25%: 40.7% vs 9.3%, Fisher exact test P < .001), and higher rates of excellent response (YBOCS score ≤ 12: 24.1% vs 5.6%, Fisher exact test P = .01). During the maintenance phase, the slope of change in YBOCS scores was not significant in either condition (all P values ≥ .55), with no difference between exposure and ritual prevention and stress management training (P > .74). Better outcome was associated with baseline variables: lower YBOCS scores, higher quality of life, fewer comorbid Axis I diagnoses, and male sex. Conclusions Augmenting SRIs with exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training leads to better outcome after acute treatment and 24 weeks later. Maintenance outcome, however, was primarily a function of OCD severity at entrance. Greater improvement during the acute phase influences how well patients maintain their gains, regardless of treatment condition. PMID:23759449

  14. Blockade of Programmed Death 1 Augments the Ability of Human T Cells Engineered to Target NY-ESO-1 to Control Tumor Growth after Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moon, Edmund K; Ranganathan, Raghuveer; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Kim, Soyeon; Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Lo, Albert; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yangbing; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-15

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) become hypofunctional, although the mechanisms are not clear. Our goal was to generate a model of human tumor-induced TIL hypofunction to study mechanisms and to test anti-human therapeutics. We transduced human T cells with a published, optimized T-cell receptor (TCR) that is directed to a peptide within the cancer testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. After demonstrating antigen-specific in vitro activity, these cells were used to target a human lung cancer line that expressed NY-ESO-1 in the appropriate HLA context growing in immunodeficient mice. The ability of anti-PD1 antibody to augment efficacy was tested. Injection of transgenic T cells had some antitumor activity, but did not eliminate the tumors. The injected T cells became profoundly hypofunctional accompanied by upregulation of PD1, Tim3, and Lag3 with coexpression of multiple inhibitory receptors in a high percentage of cells. This model allowed us to test reagents targeted specifically to human T cells. We found that injections of an anti-PD1 antibody in combination with T cells led to decreased TIL hypofunction and augmented the efficacy of the adoptively transferred T cells. This model offers a platform for preclinical testing of adjuvant immunotherapeutics targeted to human T cells prior to transition to the bedside. Because the model employs engineering of human T cells with a TCR clone instead of a CAR, it allows for study of the biology of tumor-reactive TILs that signal through an endogenous TCR. The lessons learned from TCR-engineered TILs can thus be applied to tumor-reactive TILs. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Dose-remission of pulsating electromagnetic fields as augmentation in therapy-resistant depression: a randomized, double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Straasø, Birgit; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne; Vinberg, Maj; Lindberg, Lone; Larsen, Erik Roj; Dissing, Steen; Bech, Per

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate to what extent a twice daily dose of Transcranial Pulsating ElectroMagnetic Fields (T-PEMF) was superior to once daily in patients with treatment-resistant depression as to obtaining symptom remission after 8 weeks of augmentation therapy. A self-treatment set-up of the T-PEMF device was used allowing self-administration by patients in own homes. All patients were treated for 30 min per T-PEMF session. The antidepressant medication the patients were receiving at baseline remained unchanged during the trial. The patients were randomised to either one T-PEMF dose (active dose in the morning and sham in the afternoon) or two T-PEMF doses (active dose both morning and afternoon) in a double-blind procedure. A score of 7 or less on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) was the criterion of remission. In total 34 patients received active T-PEMF once a day and 31 patients twice daily. After 5 weeks of therapy remission was obtained in 26.5% and 32.3% on one dose and two doses of T-PEMF, respectively. After 8 weeks the rate of remission was 73.5% and 67.7%, respectively. The side effects as measured by the Udvalget for Kliniske Undersøgelser scale showed a better toleration of the antidepresssive medication in both treatment groups, which was reflected by the WHO-5 well-being scale with increased scores in both groups of patients. The high remission rate obtained by the T-PEMF augmentation was not a dose effect (one versus two daily T-PEMF sessions) but was explained by the extension of the treatment period from 5 to 8 weeks.

  16. Flight Test Evaluation of the Three-Axis Mechanical Stability Augmentation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Results are presented of flight tests conducted to evaluate a three-axis mechanical stability augmentation system (MSAS), known as ’Dynagyro’, on a...UH-1 helicopter. The purpose of a stability augmentation system is to augment the stability and control characteristics of unstable or weakly stable

  17. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  18. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  19. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  20. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  1. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  2. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  3. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  4. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions.

  6. Randomised controlled clinical trial of augmentation of the alveolar ridge using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with hydroxyapatite and bovine-derived xenografts: comparison of changes in volume.

    PubMed

    Nam, J W; Khureltogtokh, S; Choi, H M; Lee, A R; Park, Y B; Kim, H J

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this randomised controlled clinical trial was to assess the early efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 with hydroxyapatite granules (BMP-2/hydroxyapatite) on augmentation of the alveolar ridge, by comparing changes in volume with those associated with the use of an inorganic bovine-derived xenograft (BDX). We studied 20 patients who were divided into two groups using a table of random numbers, and BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were applied accordingly. Computed tomographic (CT) images and panoramic radiographs were obtained immediately after operation and four months later. CT images were reconstructed in three dimensions to measure volumetric changes, and linear measurements were made on panoramic images. The mean (SD) absorption rates for BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were 13.2 (8.8)% and 13.8 (20.5)%, respectively. While the mean value did not differ significantly between the two materials, the SD was higher in the BDX group than in the BMP-2/hydroxyapatite group. No clinically important complications occurred in either group. We conclude that both BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were effective in augmenting the alveolar ridge, but BMP-2/hydroxyapatite seemed to be more useful in complicated bone defects. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Outpatient 60-hour day-and-night glucose control with dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, or sensor-augmented pump therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes: An open-label, randomised, crossover, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas reduces hypoglycaemia compared to the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas in outpatient settings during the day and night. In a randomized, three-way, crossover trial we compared the dual-hormone artificial pancreas, the single-hormone artificial pancreas and sensor-augmented pump therapy (control) in 23 adults with type 1 diabetes. Each intervention was applied from 8 AM Day 1 to 8 PM Day 3 (60 hours) in outpatient free-living conditions. The primary outcome was time spent with sensor glucose levels below 4.0 mmol/L. A P value of less than .017 was regarded as significant. The median difference between the dual-hormone system and the single-hormone system was -2.3% (P = .072) for time spent below 4.0 mmol/L, -1.3% (P = .017) for time below 3.5 mmol/L, and -0.7% (P = .031) for time below 3.3 mmol/L. Both systems reduced (P < .017) hypoglycaemia below 4.0, 3.5 and 3.3 mmol/L compared to control therapy, but reductions were larger with the dual-hormone system than with the single-hormone system (medians -4.0% vs -3.4% for 4.0 mmol/L; -2.7% vs -2.2% for 3.5 mmol/L; and -2.2% vs -1.2% for 3.3 mmol/L). There were 34 hypoglycaemic events (<3.0 mmol/L for 20 minutes) with control therapy, 14 with the single-hormone system and 6 with the dual-hormone system. These differences in hypoglycaemia were observed while mean glucose level was low and comparable in all interventions (P = NS). The dual-hormone artificial pancreas had the lowest risk of hypoglycaemia, but the differences were not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  9. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  10. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  12. Pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Rafael B; Monteiro, Rodrigo C; Souza, Thiago N S de; Aragão, Augusto J de; Burity, Camila R T; Nóbrega, Júlio C de A; Oliveira, Natália S C de; Abrantes, Ramon B; Dantas Júnior, Luiz B; Cartaxo Filho, Ricardo; Negromonte, Gustavo R P; Sampaio, Rafael da C R; Britto, Cesar A

    2014-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190 mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully.

  13. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.

  14. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  15. Extensor retinaculum augmentation reinforces anterior talofibular ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Umur; Glisson, Richard R; Nunley, James A

    2006-01-01

    Repair of the anterior talofibular ligament often is augmented with the inferior extensor retinaculum because it is thought to reinforce the primary ligament repair. The additional dissection and suturing extend the duration of surgery, and not all surgeons routinely include inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation in anterior talofibular ligament repairs. To determine whether there is a reasonable basis for this surgery, we ascertained the degree to which inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation reinforced the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair. Matched pairs of cadaveric ankles had controlled inversion while monitoring resistance to inversion, first with the anterior talofibular ligament sectioned, then with primary anterior talofibular ligament repair alone or with inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation. The resistance to ankle inversion was greater at 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees rotation in ankles that had inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation. Anterior talofibular ligament failure occurred at similar inversion angles in both treatment groups, but the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair required more torque to fail in the augmented group. With these ankle loading conditions, inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation provided protection to the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair, indicating that broader clinical use of augmentation may be warranted.

  16. Antidepressant augmentation with anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Antidepressant augmentation strategies are commonly employed to treat depressed patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in depression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found effective in animal models of depression both in monotherapy and when used to augment antidepressant drugs. However, results with NSAIDs have been mixed in human observational studies, with both better and worse depression outcomes reported. Four small (pooled N = 160) randomized controlled trials suggest that celecoxib (200-400 mg/d) augmentation of antidepressant medication improves 4-6 week outcomes in major depressive disorder. There are no data, however, to support the use of celecoxib or other NSAIDs in antidepressant-resistant depression. There are also concerns about adverse events associated with NSAID treatment, and about pharmacodynamic drug interactions between these drugs and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A reasonable conclusion for the present is that NSAID augmentation of antidepressants is, at best, a tentative approach in nonrefractory major depression.

  17. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  18. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  19. BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010892 TITLE: BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System DISTRIBUTION...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010865 thru. ADP010894 UNCLASSIFIED 27-1 BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System Simon Julier... future military operations are expected to occur overload, we have developed an intelligent filter which in urban environments. These complex, 3D

  20. Advanced Intellect-Augmentation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbart, D. C.

    This progress report covers a two-year project which is part of a program that is exploring the value of computer aids in augmenting human intellectual capability. The background and nature of the program, its resources, and the activities it has undertaken are outlined. User experience in applying augmentation tools and techniques to various…

  1. Augmentation improves human cadaveric vertebral body compression mechanics for lumbar total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jonathon H; Auerbach, Joshua D; Maurer, Philip M; Erbe, Erik M; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-04-20

    Cadaveric biomechanical study. To quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. This study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, and specimens were block-randomized by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semiconstrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted, providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6% +/- 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on the augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6 mm. The load-displacement response for all specimens was nonlinear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases, the augmented group was 2 times higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2 times and 1.3 times greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation were moderately correlated with bone density whereas the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, whereas the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and the control groups. Augmentation improved the

  2. Augmentation Improves Human Cadaveric Vertebral Body Compression Mechanics For Lumbar Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Jonathon H.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Maurer, Philip M.; Erbe, Erik M.; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A.; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric biomechanical study. Objectives Quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Summary of Background Data TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. The study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Methods Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, block randomizing specimens by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semi-constrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6 ± 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6mm. Results The load-displacement response for all specimens was non-linear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases the augmented group was 2× higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2× and 1.3× greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation was moderately correlated with bone density while the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, while the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and control groups

  3. B-52 stability augmentation system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, T. C.; Key, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    The B-52 SAS (Stability Augmentation System) was developed and retrofitted to nearly 300 aircraft. It actively controls B-52 structural bending, provides improved yaw and pitch damping through sensors and electronic control channels, and puts complete reliance on hydraulic control power for rudder and elevators. The system has experienced over 300,000 flight hours and has exhibited service reliability comparable to the results of the reliability test program. Development experience points out numerous lessons with potential application in the mechanization and development of advanced technology control systems of high reliability.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  6. Vertical ridge augmentation with autogenous bone grafts 3 years after loading: resorbable barriers versus titanium-reinforced barriers. A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Merli, Mauro; Lombardini, Francesco; Esposito, Marco

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two different techniques for vertical bone regeneration at implant placement with particulated autogenous bone at 3 years after loading: resorbable collagen barriers supported by osteosynthesis plates and nonresorbable titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barriers. Twenty-two partially edentulous patients requiring vertical bone augmentation were randomly allocated to two treatment groups, each composed of 11 patients. Prosthetic and implant failures, complications, the amount of vertically regenerated bone, and peri-implant marginal bone levels were recorded by independent and blinded assessors. The implant site requiring the most vertical bone regeneration was selected in each patient for bone level assessment. The follow-up time ranged from provisional loading to 3 years after loading. Analysis of covariance and paired t tests were conducted to compare means at the .05 level of significance. No patient dropped out or was excluded at the 3-year follow-up. No prosthetic failures and no implant failures or complications occurred after loading. There was no statistically significant difference in bone loss between the two groups at either 1 year or 3 years. Both groups had gradually lost a statistically significant amount of peri-implant bone at 1 and 3 years (P < .05). After 3 years, patients treated with resorbable barriers had lost a mean of 0.55 mm of bone; patients who had received nonresorbable barriers showed a mean of 0.53 mm of bone loss. Up to 3 years after implant loading, no failures or complications occurred and peri-implant marginal bone loss was minimal. Vertically regenerated bone can be successfully maintained after functional loading.

  7. Treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP) based on augmented reality and gaming controlled by myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study of a chronic PLP patient

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Sander, Nichlas; Kristoffersen, Morten B.; Håkansson, Bo; Brånemark, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    A variety of treatments have been historically used to alleviate phantom limb pain (PLP) with varying efficacy. Recently, virtual reality (VR) has been employed as a more sophisticated mirror therapy. Despite the advantages of VR over a conventional mirror, this approach has retained the use of the contralateral limb and is therefore restricted to unilateral amputees. Moreover, this strategy disregards the actual effort made by the patient to produce phantom motions. In this work, we investigate a treatment in which the virtual limb responds directly to myoelectric activity at the stump, while the illusion of a restored limb is enhanced through augmented reality (AR). Further, phantom motions are facilitated and encouraged through gaming. The proposed set of technologies was administered to a chronic PLP patient who has shown resistance to a variety of treatments (including mirror therapy) for 48 years. Individual and simultaneous phantom movements were predicted using myoelectric pattern recognition and were then used as input for VR and AR environments, as well as for a racing game. The sustained level of pain reported by the patient was gradually reduced to complete pain-free periods. The phantom posture initially reported as a strongly closed fist was gradually relaxed, interestingly resembling the neutral posture displayed by the virtual limb. The patient acquired the ability to freely move his phantom limb, and a telescopic effect was observed where the position of the phantom hand was restored to the anatomically correct distance. More importantly, the effect of the interventions was positively and noticeably perceived by the patient and his relatives. Despite the limitation of a single case study, the successful results of the proposed system in a patient for whom other medical and non-medical treatments have been ineffective justifies and motivates further investigation in a wider study. PMID:24616655

  8. Efficacy of hormone therapy with and without methyltestosterone augmentation of venlafaxine in the treatment of postmenopausal depression: a double-blind controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Rodrigo S; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence; Moreno, Ricardo A; Trinca, Luzia A; Pontes, Anagloria; Halbe, Hans W; Gianfaldoni, Arlete; Dalben, Ivete S

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the augmentation of venlafaxine with hormone therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal depression. The hormones evaluated were estrogen (0.625 mg) in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg) and methyltestosterone (2.5 mg). Seventy-two menopausal women (mean age: 53.6 +/- 4.27 years) diagnosed with depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] scores > or = 20) were treated with venlafaxine and one of the following hormone therapy combinations, in a double-blind regimen: estrogen + medroxyprogesterone + methyltestosterone (group 1, n = 20); estrogen + medroxyprogesterone acetate (group 2, n = 20); methyltestosterone only (group 3, n = 16); and no hormone therapy (group 4, n = 16). Study duration was 24 weeks. Primary efficacy outcome was remission according to the MADRS, whereas secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Blatt-Kupperman Index, and Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ). Forty-eight patients completed the study. All groups showed significant improvement from baseline. Group 3 demonstrated significant improvement on the MADRS compared with placebo (group 4) at weeks 20 (P = 0.048) and 24 (P = 0.030); effect size 8.04 (0.83; 15.26) (P = 0.029), but also had the highest dropout rate. Groups 1 and 3 had significant CGI improvement rates compared with placebo: 42.23% (P = 0.012) and 44.45% (P = 0.08), respectively. There were no differences in the WHQ or BKI scores among the groups. Methyltestosterone 2.5 mg had the highest effect size compared with placebo, but the high dropout rate prevented its efficacy from being determined. Estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone, combined with methyltestosterone or otherwise, demonstrated a trend toward increased efficacy of venlafaxine. Further larger-scale clinical trials are needed to elucidate the findings of this pilot study.

  9. Treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP) based on augmented reality and gaming controlled by myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study of a chronic PLP patient.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Sander, Nichlas; Kristoffersen, Morten B; Håkansson, Bo; Brånemark, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    A variety of treatments have been historically used to alleviate phantom limb pain (PLP) with varying efficacy. Recently, virtual reality (VR) has been employed as a more sophisticated mirror therapy. Despite the advantages of VR over a conventional mirror, this approach has retained the use of the contralateral limb and is therefore restricted to unilateral amputees. Moreover, this strategy disregards the actual effort made by the patient to produce phantom motions. In this work, we investigate a treatment in which the virtual limb responds directly to myoelectric activity at the stump, while the illusion of a restored limb is enhanced through augmented reality (AR). Further, phantom motions are facilitated and encouraged through gaming. The proposed set of technologies was administered to a chronic PLP patient who has shown resistance to a variety of treatments (including mirror therapy) for 48 years. Individual and simultaneous phantom movements were predicted using myoelectric pattern recognition and were then used as input for VR and AR environments, as well as for a racing game. The sustained level of pain reported by the patient was gradually reduced to complete pain-free periods. The phantom posture initially reported as a strongly closed fist was gradually relaxed, interestingly resembling the neutral posture displayed by the virtual limb. The patient acquired the ability to freely move his phantom limb, and a telescopic effect was observed where the position of the phantom hand was restored to the anatomically correct distance. More importantly, the effect of the interventions was positively and noticeably perceived by the patient and his relatives. Despite the limitation of a single case study, the successful results of the proposed system in a patient for whom other medical and non-medical treatments have been ineffective justifies and motivates further investigation in a wider study.

  10. STAR 3 Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pump Therapy with Multiple Daily Injections in the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes: Research Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Edward S.; Battelino, Tadej; Rubin, Richard R.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Tamborlane, William V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAPT) integrates real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and offers an alternative to multiple daily injections (MDI). Previous studies provide evidence that SAPT may improve clinical outcomes among people with type 1 diabetes. Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1c Reduction (STAR) 3 is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of SAPT to that of MDI in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Methods Subjects were randomized to either continue with MDI or transition to SAPT for 1 year. Subjects in the MDI cohort were allowed to transition to SAPT for 6 months after completion of the study. SAPT subjects who completed the study were also allowed to continue for 6 months. The primary end point was the difference between treatment groups in change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage from baseline to 1 year of treatment. Secondary end points included percentage of subjects with HbA1c ≤7% and without severe hypoglycemia, as well as area under the curve of time spent in normal glycemic ranges. Tertiary end points include percentage of subjects with HbA1c ≤7%, key safety end points, user satisfaction, and responses on standardized assessments. Results A total of 495 subjects were enrolled, and the baseline characteristics similar between the SAPT and MDI groups. Study completion is anticipated in June 2010. Conclusions Results of this randomized controlled trial should help establish whether an integrated RT-CGM and CSII system benefits patients with type 1 diabetes more than MDI. PMID:20210562

  11. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two-dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  12. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)

    1989-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  13. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  14. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  15. Phenobarbital Augments Hypothermic Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, p<0.05), and less ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere %Damage (mean±SD, 11±17 vs. 28±22, p<0.05). These results suggest that early post-hypoxia-ischemia administration of phenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339

  16. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  17. Bridge feedback for active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G.-S.; Lurie, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for broadband damping augmentation of a structural system in which the active members (with feedback control) were developed such that their mechanical input impedance can be electrically adjusted to maximize the energy dissipation rate in the structural system. The active member consists of sensors, an actuator, and a control scheme. A mechanical/electrical analogy is described to model the passive structures and the active members in terms of their impedance representation. As a result, the problem of maximizing dissipative power is analogous to the problem of impedance matching in the electrical network. Closed-loop performance was demonstrated for single- and multiple-active-member controlled truss structure.

  18. Augmented low-Dye tape alters foot mobility and neuromotor control of gait in individuals with and without exercise related leg pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Augmented low-Dye (ALD) tape is frequently used in the management of lower limb musculoskeletal pain and injury, yet our knowledge of its effect is incomplete, especially in regard to its neuromotor effects. Methods We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity of twelve lower limb muscles, three-dimensional kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip and pelvis, foot posture and foot mobility to determine the physiological effect of ALD tape. Fourteen females with exercise related leg pain and 14 matched asymptomatic females walked on a treadmill under three conditions: pre-tape, tape and post-tape. A series of repeated measure analysis of variance procedures were performed to investigate differences in EMG, kinematic, foot posture and mobility measurements. Results Application of ALD tape produced reductions in recruitment of tibialis anterior (7.3%) and tibialis posterior (6.9%). Large reductions in midfoot mobility (0.45 to 0.63 cm) and increases in arch height (0.58 cm), as well as moderate changes in ankle motion in the sagittal (2.0 to 5.3°) and transverse planes (4.0 to 4.3°) were observed. Reduced muscle activation (<3.0%) and increased motion (<1.7°) was observed at more proximal segments (knee, hip, pelvis) but were of smaller magnitude than at the foot and ankle. Changes in foot posture, foot mobility, ankle kinematics and leg muscle activity did not persist following the removal of ALD tape, but at more proximal segments small changes (<2.2°, <5.4% maximum) continued to be observed following the removal of tape. There were no differences between groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that ALD tape influences muscle recruitment, movement patterns, foot posture and foot mobility. These effects occur in individuals with and without pain, and are dissipated up the kinetic chain. ALD tape should be considered in the management of individuals where increased arch height, reduced foot mobility, reduced ankle abduction and plantar flexion or

  19. Augmenter of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2012-07-09

    'Augmenter of liver regeneration' (ALR) (also known as hepatic stimulatory substance or hepatopoietin) was originally found to promote growth of hepatocytes in the regenerating or injured liver. ALR is expressed ubiquitously in all organs, and exclusively in hepatocytes in the liver. ALR, a survival factor for hepatocytes, exhibits significant homology with ERV1 (essential for respiration and viability) protein that is essential for the survival of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ALR comprises 198 to 205 amino acids (approximately 22 kDa), but is post-translationally modified to three high molecular weight species (approximately 38 to 42 kDa) found in hepatocytes. ALR is present in mitochondria, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Mitochondrial ALR may be involved in oxidative phosphorylation, but also functions as sulfhydryl oxidase and cytochrome c reductase, and causes Fe/S maturation of proteins. ALR, secreted by hepatocytes, stimulates synthesis of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide in Kupffer cells via a G-protein coupled receptor. While the 22 kDa rat recombinant ALR does not stimulate DNA synthesis in hepatocytes, the short form (15 kDa) of human recombinant ALR was reported to be equipotent as or even stronger than TGF-α or HGF as a mitogen for hepatocytes. Altered serum ALR levels in certain pathological conditions suggest that it may be a diagnostic marker for liver injury/disease. Although ALR appears to have multiple functions, the knowledge of its role in various organs, including the liver, is extremely inadequate, and it is not known whether different ALR species have distinct functions. Future research should provide better understanding of the expression and functions of this enigmatic molecule.

  20. Augmentation strategies: focus on anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Joffe, R T; Levitt, A J; Sokolov, S T

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 40% of patients will fail to respond to the first antidepressant used for their current major depressive episode. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a further 20% to 30% of patients will have only a partial response. There are four main options to consider in the treatment of these patients: optimization, substitution, augmentation, and combination therapy. Several combination antidepressant treatments have been used in treatment-refractory depression. Moreover, various augmentation strategies have also proved to be successful. Although the empirical data to support these treatment options are limited, augmentation treatment has several potential advantages over the other clinical options available, particularly substitution. These data are reviewed and clinical applications discussed. Particular attention is paid to the role of anxiolytics as augmentation agents in the treatment of major depression.

  1. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Methods: Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Results: Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions. PMID:25663986

  3. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Introduction The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Human Sciences Campaign calls out the topic of Virtual /Mixed and Augmented Reality as one of the...type of virtual environment. In virtual reality (VR), the totality of the environment is computer generated. In AR, the real world is augmented by...effectively. 20 17. References Alexander T. Visualisation of geographic data in virtual environments - what is essential for virtual reality systems

  4. Design and numerical evaluation of full-authority flight control systems for conventional and thruster-augmented helicopters employed in NOE operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perri, Todd A.; Mckillip, R. M., Jr.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The development and methodology is presented for development of full-authority implicit model-following and explicit model-following optimal controllers for use on helicopters operating in the Nap-of-the Earth (NOE) environment. Pole placement, input-output frequency response, and step input response were used to evaluate handling qualities performance. The pilot was equipped with velocity-command inputs. A mathematical/computational trajectory optimization method was employed to evaluate the ability of each controller to fly NOE maneuvers. The method determines the optimal swashplate and thruster input histories from the helicopter's dynamics and the prescribed geometry and desired flying qualities of the maneuver. Three maneuvers were investigated for both the implicit and explicit controllers with and without auxiliary propulsion installed: pop-up/dash/descent, bob-up at 40 knots, and glideslope. The explicit controller proved to be superior to the implicit controller in performance and ease of design.

  5. A computational simulated control system for a high-force pneumatic muscle actuator: system definition and application as an augmented orthosis.

    PubMed

    Gerschutz, Maria J; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Repperger, Daniel W

    2009-04-01

    High-force pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are used for force assistance with minimal displacement applications. However, poor control due to dynamic nonlinearities has limited PMA applications. A simulated control system is developed consisting of: (1) a controller relating an input position angle to an output proportional pressure regulator voltage, (2) a phenomenological model of the PMA with an internal dynamic force loop (system time constant information), (3) a physical model of a human sit-to-stand task and (4) an external position angle feed-back loop. The results indicate that PMA assistance regarding the human sit-to-stand task is feasible within a specified PMA operational pressure range.

  6. Improving Situational Awareness on Submarines Using Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Control............. 66 4. Provide a Shared Contact Picture in Control ...................... 67 D. DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED DISPLAY SYSTEM...76 D. DISADVANTAGE OF AN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEM........... 77 1. AR Display Devices can be Considered Cumbersome ...... 77 2...point and the subjects’ displayed complete cooperation with me. A disadvantage of conducting the research under these conditions was that control

  7. Video-augmented feedback for procedural performance.

    PubMed

    Wittler, Mary; Hartman, Nicholas; Manthey, David; Hiestand, Brian; Askew, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Resident programs must assess residents' achievement of core competencies for clinical and procedural skills. Video-augmented feedback may facilitate procedural skill acquisition and promote more accurate self-assessment. A randomized controlled study to investigate whether video-augmented verbal feedback leads to increased procedural skill and improved accuracy of self-assessment compared to verbal only feedback. Participants were evaluated during procedural training for ultrasound guided internal jugular central venous catheter (US IJ CVC) placement. All participants received feedback based on a validated 30-point checklist for US IJ CVC placement and validated 6-point procedural global rating scale. Scores in both groups improved by a mean of 9.6 points (95% CI: 7.8-11.4) on the 30-point checklist, with no difference between groups in mean score improvement on the global rating scale. In regards to self-assessment, participant self-rating diverged from faculty scoring, increasingly so after receiving feedback. Residents rated highly by faculty underestimated their skill, while those rated more poorly demonstrated increasing overestimation. Accuracy of self-assessment was not improved by addition of video. While feedback advanced the skill of the resident, video-augmented feedback did not enhance skill acquisition or improve accuracy of resident self-assessment compared to standard feedback.

  8. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  9. Vertical Ridge Augmentation of the Atrophic Posterior Mandible with Sandwich Technique: Bone Block from the Chin Area versus Corticocancellous Bone Block Allograft—Clinical and Histological Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Laino, Luigi; Piattelli, Adriano; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the histological aspects of bone formation in atrophic posterior mandibles augmented by autologous bone block from chin area with corticocancellous bone block allograft used as inlays with the sandwich technique. Materials and Methods. Sixteen patients with bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible were selected. The residual bone height, preliminarily measured by computed tomography scans, ranged between 5 and 7 mm from the inferior alveolar nerve. All patients required regeneration procedure with autologous bone block from chin area (control group) versus bone block allograft Puros (Zimmer Dental, 1900 Aston Avenue, Carlsbad, CA, USA) (test group). Histological and histomorphometric samples were collected at the time of implant positioning in order to analyze the percentage of newly formed bone, the residual graft material, and marrow spaces/soft tissue. Results. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found regarding the percentage of newly formed bone. The percentage of residual grafted material was significantly higher in the test group, whilst the percentage of marrow spaces was higher in control group. Conclusions. In conclusion, both procedures supported good results, although the use of bone blocks allograft was less invasive and preferable than harvesting bone from the mental symphysis. PMID:24877155

  10. Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with sandwich technique: bone block from the chin area versus corticocancellous bone block allograft--clinical and histological prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Laino, Luigi; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Cicciù, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the histological aspects of bone formation in atrophic posterior mandibles augmented by autologous bone block from chin area with corticocancellous bone block allograft used as inlays with the sandwich technique. Sixteen patients with bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible were selected. The residual bone height, preliminarily measured by computed tomography scans, ranged between 5 and 7 mm from the inferior alveolar nerve. All patients required regeneration procedure with autologous bone block from chin area (control group) versus bone block allograft Puros (Zimmer Dental, 1900 Aston Avenue, Carlsbad, CA, USA) (test group). Histological and histomorphometric samples were collected at the time of implant positioning in order to analyze the percentage of newly formed bone, the residual graft material, and marrow spaces/soft tissue. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found regarding the percentage of newly formed bone. The percentage of residual grafted material was significantly higher in the test group, whilst the percentage of marrow spaces was higher in control group. In conclusion, both procedures supported good results, although the use of bone blocks allograft was less invasive and preferable than harvesting bone from the mental symphysis.

  11. Bayesian Alternation during Tactile Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar M.; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred2 = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred2 = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2 = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  12. Bayesian Alternation during Tactile Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Goeke, Caspar M; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred(2) = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred(2) = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred(2) = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred(2) = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  13. Augmenting ejector endwall effects. [V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. L.; Squyers, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Rectangular inlet ejectors which had multiple hypermixing nozzles for their primary jets were investigated for the effects of endwall blowing on thrust augmentation performance. The ejector configurations tested had both straight wall and active boundary layer control type diffusers. Endwall flows were energized and controlled by simple blowing jets suitably located in the ejector. Both the endwall and boundary layer control diffuser blowing rates were varied to determine optimum performance. High area ratio diffusers with insufficient endwall blowing showed endwall separation and rapid degradation of thrust performance. Optimized values of diffuser boundary layer control and endwall nozzle blowing rates in an ejector augmenter were shown to achieve high levels of augmentation performance for maximum compactness.

  14. Cortical Modulation of Motor Control Biofeedback among the Elderly with High Fall Risk during a Posture Perturbation Task with Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Yang, Sai-Wei; Chern, Jen-Suh

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral cortex provides sensorimotor integration and coordination during motor control of daily functional activities. Power spectrum density based on electroencephalography (EEG) has been employed as an approach that allows an investigation of the spatial-temporal characteristics of neuromuscular modulation; however, the biofeedback mechanism associated with cortical activation during motor control remains unclear among elderly individuals. Thirty one community-dwelling elderly participants were divided into low fall-risk potential (LF) and high fall-risk potential (HF) groups based upon the results obtained from a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the ellipse area of the center of pressure. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed while the participants stood on a 6-degree-of-freedom Stewart platform, which generated continuous perturbations and done either with or without the virtual reality scene. The present study showed that when there was visual stimulation and poor somatosensory coordination, a higher level of cortical response was activated in order to keep postural balance. The elderly participants in the LF group demonstrated a significant and strong correlation between postural-related cortical regions; however, the elderly individuals in the HF group did not show such a relationship. Moreover, we were able to clarify the roles of various brainwave bands functioning in motor control. Specifically, the gamma and beta bands in the parietal-occipital region facilitate the high-level cortical modulation and sensorimotor integration, whereas the theta band in the frontal-central region is responsible for mediating error detection during perceptual motor tasks. Finally, the alpha band is associated with processing visual challenges in the occipital lobe.With a variety of motor control demands, increment in brainwave band coordination is required to maintain postural stability. These investigations shed light on the cortical modulation of

  15. Cortical Modulation of Motor Control Biofeedback among the Elderly with High Fall Risk during a Posture Perturbation Task with Augmented Reality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Yang, Sai-Wei; Chern, Jen-Suh

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral cortex provides sensorimotor integration and coordination during motor control of daily functional activities. Power spectrum density based on electroencephalography (EEG) has been employed as an approach that allows an investigation of the spatial–temporal characteristics of neuromuscular modulation; however, the biofeedback mechanism associated with cortical activation during motor control remains unclear among elderly individuals. Thirty one community-dwelling elderly participants were divided into low fall-risk potential (LF) and high fall-risk potential (HF) groups based upon the results obtained from a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the ellipse area of the center of pressure. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed while the participants stood on a 6-degree-of-freedom Stewart platform, which generated continuous perturbations and done either with or without the virtual reality scene. The present study showed that when there was visual stimulation and poor somatosensory coordination, a higher level of cortical response was activated in order to keep postural balance. The elderly participants in the LF group demonstrated a significant and strong correlation between postural-related cortical regions; however, the elderly individuals in the HF group did not show such a relationship. Moreover, we were able to clarify the roles of various brainwave bands functioning in motor control. Specifically, the gamma and beta bands in the parietal–occipital region facilitate the high-level cortical modulation and sensorimotor integration, whereas the theta band in the frontal–central region is responsible for mediating error detection during perceptual motor tasks. Finally, the alpha band is associated with processing visual challenges in the occipital lobe.With a variety of motor control demands, increment in brainwave band coordination is required to maintain postural stability. These investigations shed light on the cortical modulation

  16. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  17. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  18. The Efficacy of Augment of D-Cycloserine and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy on Adolescent with one Type of Anxiety Disorders: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Soroor; Soheilimehr, Ali; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to investigating the effect of combining D-cycloserine (DCS) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on adolescent with at least one type of anxiety disorders. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 36 adolescent with anxiety disorders. Patients were assessed in two groups. In addition to 4 sessions of weekly CBT in both groups; case group, received a 50-mg DCS capsules, control group, received Placebo daily for a month. Patients received DCS capsules or placebo 1 h before sessions of CBT. Age, sex, kind of anxiety disorders “screen for child anxiety related disorders (SCARED)” and “cognitive abilities test (CATS)” scores were evaluated and compared between groups. Results: The mean age of the studied patients (29 females (80.6%) and 7 males (19.4%)) was 14.1 ± 1.8 years. The most frequent anxiety disorder among the study population was generalized social disorder (GAD) (77.7%). Age, sex and the frequency of anxiety disorders were not statistically significant between the study groups (P > 0.05). The mean score of “SCARED” and “CATS” at before starting the treatment, after treatment and three month after the treatment were not statistically significant between groups (P > 0.05). Also, decrease in values of “SCARED” and “CATS” during the evaluation time periods was not statistically significant between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that there has been no difference in symptoms improvement in adolescent with anxiety disorder who received treatment protocol including 4 sessions of CBT, weekly, together with 50 mgs of DCS compared to the patients of the control group. PMID:28299303

  19. Results of Vertebral Augmentation Treatment for Patients of Painful Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Eight Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianhua; Ren, Jixin; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Tiansheng

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2009 two RCTs were publicated to question the efficacy of vertebroplasty comparing with sham treatment (ST) in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), which provoked an academic debate on the efficacy of PVA. The purposes of our study were to compare clinical differences in pain relief, spinal functional outcomes, and overall quality of life between PVA and CT for painful osteoporotic VCFs. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Knowledge from January 1980 to June 2013 with Medical Subject Headings terms and keywords. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. In this Meta-analysis dichotomous and continuous variables were calculated using the risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD), respectively. Results Eight studies involving 987 patients met the criteria for inclusion. The VAS SMD was favoring the experimental group significantly (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis suggested that the patients performed PVA with mean fracture age less than 3 months would got pain relief earlier and more durable than the control group (P <0.05). The SMD of spinal function assessed with RDQ and Oswestry LBP data was in favor of the experimental groups. QOL outcome improvement was demonstrated statistically significant at early, middle and late-term follow-up for PVA than the control group (P <0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis, which evaluated PVA for osteoporotic VCFs, demonstrated significant improvement regarding VAS, spinal function and QOL outcomes. The optimal fracture age was less than 12 weeks. PMID:26378444

  20. Efficacy of augmenting a subacromial continuous-infusion pump with a preoperative interscalene block in outpatient arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, James R; Componovo, Roger; Barfield, William R; Liles, Laura; Nietert, Paul

    2011-05-01

    This study's purpose was to determine the effectiveness of adding a preoperative interscalene brachial plexus block to standard postoperative management, including oral narcotics and a subacromial bupivacaine infusion pump, after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. After performing a prospective power analysis and obtaining institutional board approval, we conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 53 patients separated into a preoperative interscalene brachial plexus group and a control group. Group 1 received an interscalene block with 30 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine. Group 2 received a placebo with 10 mL of saline solution. All patients postoperatively received an arthroscopically placed subacromial infusion pump catheter for 72 hours and oral narcotics. Pain scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) and narcotic pill use were recorded at 6, 12, 20, 32, 40, 52, 60, 72, and 80 hours. Preoperative pain scores between groups were not significant (P > .05). A statistically significant difference was found for decreased pain scores at 6 hours after discharge in patients receiving an interscalene block (P = .001) (VAS of 30.9 in group 1 v 61.8 in group 2). There was also a decrease in the number of narcotic pills taken at the 6-hour time interval (P = .1) (0.6 pills v 1.1 pills). Group 1 had a rebound phenomenon 20 hours after discharge. Pain scores spiked as the effects of the block wore off (P = .08) (net change in VAS score increase, 25.0 v 10.3). No other statistical or clinical differences were observed. The addition of a preoperative interscalene block to a postoperative subacromial infusion pump provided significant improvement of pain control only at 6 hours after discharge. Twelve hours after discharge, this benefit had disappeared. A rebound phenomenon of increased pain at 20 hours was seen after the interscalene block had worn off. After 20 hours, no statistically significant or clinically applicable differences were found. Level I, randomized controlled trial

  1. Augmented reality for anatomical education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhys Gethin; John, Nigel William; Delieu, John Michael

    2010-03-01

    The use of Virtual Environments has been widely reported as a method of teaching anatomy. Generally such environments only convey the shape of the anatomy to the student. We present the Bangor Augmented Reality Education Tool for Anatomy (BARETA), a system that combines Augmented Reality (AR) technology with models produced using Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology, to provide the student with stimulation for touch as well as sight. The principal aims of this work were to provide an interface more intuitive than a mouse and keyboard, and to evaluate such a system as a viable supplement to traditional cadaver based education.

  2. Combustion-augmented laser ramjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Tamada, Kazunobu; Kimura, Itsuro

    2006-05-01

    A preliminary study of combustion-augmented laser-ramjets was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in combustion-augmented operation.

  3. An overview of current Navy programs to develop thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The primary objective of Navy sponsored research in thrust augmentation is the development of an improved augmenter for V/STOL application. In support of this goal, a data base is being established to provide an accurate prediction capability for use in ejector design. A general technology development of ejectors and associated effects presently is split into the more specific areas of lift and control, since thrust augmenting ejectors may be suitable for both. Research areas examined include advanced diffuser and end wall design; advanced primary nozzles; analytic studies; augmenting reaction controls; and nozzle design.

  4. Augmentation and impulsive behaviors in restless legs syndrome: Coexistence or association?

    PubMed

    Heim, Beatrice; Djamshidian, Atbin; Heidbreder, Anna; Stefani, Ambra; Zamarian, Laura; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Delazer, Margarete; Seppi, Klaus; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2016-07-05

    To assess the frequency of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) with and without augmentation under dopaminergic therapy in a case-control study. Augmentation and ICDs are both serious complications of dopaminergic treatment of RLS but little is known about possible associations between these drug-induced disorders. In total, 58 patients with idiopathic RLS diagnosed according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group criteria were recruited. Of these, 35 patients had augmentation. The frequency of ICD symptoms was assessed using semi-structural interviews. Demographic variables did not differ between patients with RLS with and without augmentation but those with augmentation took higher dopaminergic medication than patients without augmentation. Twenty-three patients with RLS (39.7%) had ICD symptoms, with 12 patients (20.7%) having definitive ICDs. Patients with augmentation had an increased risk of expressing ICD symptoms (p = 0.007, odds ratio 5.64, 95% confidence interval 1.59-20.02). Patients with RLS with augmentation have an almost 6-fold increased risk of exhibiting ICD symptoms. This implies that augmentation and ICDs are related and may share a common pathophysiology. Moreover, our results have clinical implications, suggesting that patients with RLS with augmentation should be screened for ICD symptoms. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Protein Supplementation to Augment the Effects of High Intensity Resistance Training in Untrained Middle-Aged Males: The Randomized Controlled PUSH Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wittke, Andreas; von Stengel, Simon; Hettchen, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; Giessing, Jürgen; Scharf, Michael; Bebenek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    High intensity (resistance exercise) training (HIT) defined as a “single set resistance exercise to muscular failure” is an efficient exercise method that allows people with low time budgets to realize an adequate training stimulus. Although there is an ongoing discussion, recent meta-analysis suggests the significant superiority of multiple set (MST) methods for body composition and strength parameters. The aim of this study is to determine whether additional protein supplementation may increase the effect of a HIT-protocol on body composition and strength to an equal MST-level. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly allocated to three groups: (a) HIT, (b) HIT and protein supplementation (HIT&P), and (c) waiting-control (CG) and (after cross-over) high volume/high-intensity-training (HVHIT). HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two equal sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5–1.7 g/kg/d/body mass. Primary study endpoint was lean body mass (LBM). LBM significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.043); however only HIT&P and HVHIT differ significantly from control (p ≤ 0.002). HIT diverges significantly from HIT&P (p = 0.017) and nonsignificantly from HVHIT (p = 0.059), while no differences were observed for HIT&P versus HVHIT (p = 0.691). In conclusion, moderate to high protein supplementation significantly increases the effects of a HIT-protocol on LBM in middle-aged untrained males. PMID:28656141

  6. Protein Supplementation to Augment the Effects of High Intensity Resistance Training in Untrained Middle-Aged Males: The Randomized Controlled PUSH Trial.

    PubMed

    Wittke, Andreas; von Stengel, Simon; Hettchen, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; Giessing, Jürgen; Lell, Michael; Scharf, Michael; Bebenek, Michael; Kohl, Matthias; Kemmler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    High intensity (resistance exercise) training (HIT) defined as a "single set resistance exercise to muscular failure" is an efficient exercise method that allows people with low time budgets to realize an adequate training stimulus. Although there is an ongoing discussion, recent meta-analysis suggests the significant superiority of multiple set (MST) methods for body composition and strength parameters. The aim of this study is to determine whether additional protein supplementation may increase the effect of a HIT-protocol on body composition and strength to an equal MST-level. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30-50 years old were randomly allocated to three groups: (a) HIT, (b) HIT and protein supplementation (HIT&P), and (c) waiting-control (CG) and (after cross-over) high volume/high-intensity-training (HVHIT). HIT was defined as "single set to failure protocol" while HVHIT consistently applied two equal sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5-1.7 g/kg/d/body mass. Primary study endpoint was lean body mass (LBM). LBM significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.043); however only HIT&P and HVHIT differ significantly from control (p ≤ 0.002). HIT diverges significantly from HIT&P (p = 0.017) and nonsignificantly from HVHIT (p = 0.059), while no differences were observed for HIT&P versus HVHIT (p = 0.691). In conclusion, moderate to high protein supplementation significantly increases the effects of a HIT-protocol on LBM in middle-aged untrained males.

  7. SCUBA: The Self-Contained Unified Bass Augmenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cceres, Juan Pablo; Mysore, Gautham J.; Trevio, Jeffrey

    2005-04-01

    The Self-Contained Unified Bass Augmenter (SCUBA) is a new augmentative OSC (Open Sound Control) controller for the tuba. SCUBA allows new expressive possibilities by adding onboard continuous and discrete sensors to provide user-controlled parametric data for the processing of the instruments natural sound in Pd. SCUBA endows acoustic instruments with parametric control of virtual instruments and provides a means of integrating the output of a virtual instrument with the natural sound of the tuba. The user sends controller data from the augmented tuba interface to the virtual instrument via FSRs (Force-Sensitive Resistors) and buttons mounted on the existing instrument interface. An AVRMini microcontroller converts raw sensor data to OSC (Open Sound Control) messages, which are mapped in Pd to control virtual instrument parameters. Virtual instrument output is integrated into the solo instrument interface via satellite speakers mounted in the bell; this allows for mixing of the instruments natural sound with that of the virtual instrument to create the impression of a single instrument. This integration is the goal of the SCUBA project: by providing a flexible but unified control interface and acoustic output, traditional acoustic instrument interfaces can be augmented and paired with virtual musical instruments. [We would like to thank Michael Gurevich, Max Matthews, Bill Verplank, Pascal Stang, and classmates from Music 250 (Fall 04) for assistance in the realization of this project.

  8. The DARS (Dopamine Augmented Rehabilitation in Stroke) trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of Co-careldopa treatment in addition to routine NHS occupational and physical therapy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Bipin B; Hartley, Suzanne; Holloway, Ivana; Couzens, J Alastair; Ford, Gary A; Meads, David; Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Ruddock, Sharon P; Farrin, Amanda J

    2014-08-08

    Stroke has a huge impact, leaving more than a third of affected people with lasting disability and rehabilitation remains a cornerstone treatment in the National Health Service (NHS). Recovery of mobility and arm function post-stroke occurs through re-learning to use the affected body parts and/or learning to compensate with the lesser affected side. Promising evidence suggests that the addition of Co-careldopa to physical therapy and occupational therapy may improve the recovery of arm and leg movement and lead to improved function. Dopamine Augmented Rehabilitation in Stroke (DARS) is a multi-centre double-blind, randomised, placebo, controlled clinical trial of Co-careldopa in addition to routine NHS occupational therapy and physical therapy as part of early stroke rehabilitation. Participants will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to either Co-careldopa or placebo. The primary objective of the trial is to determine whether the addition of six weeks of Co-careldopa treatment to rehabilitation therapy can improve the proportion of patients who can walk independently eight weeks post-randomisation. The DARS trial will provide evidence as to whether Co-careldopa, in addition to routine NHS occupational and physical therapy, leads to a greater recovery of motor function, a reduction in carer dependency and advance rehabilitation treatments for people with stroke. ISRCTN99643613 assigned on 4 December 2009.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How this Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control.

    PubMed

    McEneny, Jane; Daniels, Jane-Ann; McGowan, Anne; Gunness, Anjuli; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Michael; Young, Ian S; Gibney, James

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA-) related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P = 0.088), and significantly in HDL2(P = 0.003) and HDL3(P = 0.005). When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%), serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was <8.34% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, regression analysis illustrated, that for every 1%-unit increase in HbA1c, SAA increased by 20% and 23% in HDL2 and HDL3, respectively, independent of BMI. HsCRP did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    McEneny, Jane; Daniels, Jane-Ann; McGowan, Anne; Gunness, Anjuli; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Michael; Young, Ian S.; Gibney, James

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA-) related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P = 0.088), and significantly in HDL2(P = 0.003) and HDL3(P = 0.005). When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%), serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was <8.34% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, regression analysis illustrated, that for every 1%-unit increase in HbA1c, SAA increased by 20% and 23% in HDL2 and HDL3, respectively, independent of BMI. HsCRP did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk. PMID:26557720

  11. Retrograde ejaculation after anterior lumbar interbody fusion with and without bone morphogenetic protein-2 augmentation: a 10-year cohort controlled study.

    PubMed

    Comer, Garet C; Smith, Micah W; Hurwitz, Eric L; Mitsunaga, Kyle A; Kessler, Robert; Carragee, Eugene J

    2012-10-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) is a complication of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) techniques. Most commonly, this results from mechanical or inflammatory injury to the superior hypogastric plexus near the aortic bifurcation. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been used in spinal fusions and has been associated with inflammatory and neuroinflammatory adverse reactions, which may contribute to RE development after anterior lumbar surgery. While controlling for anterior approach technique, we compared the incidence of RE with and without rhBMP-2 exposure, in large, matched cohorts of patients after ALIF. Retrospective analysis of 10 years of prospectively gathered outcomes data on consecutive-patient cohorts having the same anterior exposure technique for ALIF with and without rhBMP-2 use. All male patients without baseline sexual incapacity and having ALIF for lumbar spondylosis or spondylolisthesis of the lowest one or two lumbar levels with and without rhBMP-2, from 2002 through 2011. Diagnosis of RE as a new finding after ALIF compared against BMP-2 exposure, comorbid conditions, and other urological complications after ALIF surgery. From the comprehensive surgical database at a high volume, university practice, male subjects having ALIF at one (L5/S1) or two levels (L4/5, L5/S1) from 2002 to 2011 were identified. Baseline comorbid factors, postoperative urinary catheter/retention events, and RE events were recorded and comparative incidence compared. There were four consecutive-patient cohorts identified: one before rhBMP-2 use was adopted (n=174), two cohorts in which BMP-2 use was routine (n=88 and n=151), and one final cohort after BMP-2 use was discontinued from routine use (n=59). The cohorts with and without BMP-2 exposure were closely comparable for age, approach, levels of surgery, comorbid factors affecting RE. Of 239 patients with ALIF and exposure to BMP-2, RE was diagnosed in 15 subjects (6.3%), compared with an RE diagnosis rate of two

  12. A novel cobiotic containing a prebiotic and an antioxidant augments the glucose control and gastrointestinal tolerability of metformin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F; Wang, S; Heiman, M

    2014-03-01

    The gut microbiome plays an important role in regulation of metabolic processes, including digestion, absorption, and synthesis of bioactive molecules that signal physiological host mechanisms. Changes in the human gut microbiome are associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Water-soluble dietary fibres like inulin and beta-glucan are fermented in the colon, and beta-glucan increases viscosity. Blueberries improve insulin sensitivity through an antioxidant effect. A cobiotic, consisting of purified inulin, sugar-free blueberry pomace extract, and an oat preparation of purified beta-glucan was developed for twice a day (bid) consumption as a smoothie drink to repair the gastrointestinal dysbiosis in type 2 diabetes. A 30-year-old man presented with new onset type 2 diabetes and a fasting glucose (FBS) of 375 mg/dl. Metformin 500 mg bid was initiated and increased to 1 g bid after 1 week. During the first 9 days of metformin treatment, he developed diarrhoea, but his FBS only dropped to 325 mg/dl. The cobiotic bid was added on the 9th day of metformin treatment, and after 2 days, his FBS dropped to 175 mg/dl. After 8 weeks on metformin and the cobiotic, his blood sugar was 100 mg/dl and he lost 5.5 kg. His stools became soft and formed on the cobiotic, reverted to diarrhoea when off of it for 2 days, and returned to normal on resuming the cobiotic formulation. Metformin is a safe, effective and inexpensive generic medication favouring weight loss, recommended as initial treatment of type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association. However, a 20% incidence of diarrhoea limits its tolerability. A safe food supplement that can increase the efficacy of metformin and its tolerability, as occurred in this case report, would have significant positive public health consequences. A controlled clinical trial of the cobiotic with metformin is planned.

  13. The Design of Stability Augmentation Systems for Decoupling Aircraft Responses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    stability augmentation system which eliminates the coupling effects is demonstrated. The method is based on Gilbert’s decoupling theory which utilizes a feedback control law to obtain a set of single input, single output subsystems. The augmentation system can be designed to provide either command rate or command angle authority in the three rotational axes. Analyses is facilitated through the use of two computer programs, the first of which determines the class of control laws which will decouple a system. The second computer program determines,

  14. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.

  15. Lack of association between augmentation mammoplasty and systemic sclerosis (scleroderma).

    PubMed

    Hochberg, M C; Perlmutter, D L; Medsger, T A; Nguyen, K; Steen, V; Weisman, M H; White, B; Wigley, F M

    1996-07-01

    To examine the possible association between augmentation mammoplasty and systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Eight hundred thirty-seven women with a clinical diagnosis of SSc, recruited as a volunteer sample from 3 university-based, tertiary care scleroderma clinical research centers, and 2,507 race-matched local control women, recruited by the technique of random-digit-dialing and frequency-matched on age, completed a questionnaire providing data on history of augmentation mammoplasty, including possible complications of the procedure. The odds ratio (OR) and 95 percent confidence interval (95% CI) for the association of augmentation mammoplasty with SSc were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, race and center, and by conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age. Eleven (1.31%) of the 837 cases reported a history of augmentation mammoplasty prior to diagnosis of SSc, compared with 31 (1.24%) of the 2,507 controls. The adjusted OR from the unmatched analysis was 1.07 (95% CI 0.53-2.13), while that from the matched analysis was 1.11 (95% CI 0.55-2.24). These results fail to demonstrate a significant association between augmentation mammoplasty and SSc, and are consistent with those reported from other epidemiologic studies.

  16. Indomethacin-induced impairment of regional cerebrovascular reactivity: implications for respiratory control

    PubMed Central

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Ainslie, Philip N; Wildfong, Kevin W; Smith, Kurt J; Bain, Anthony R; Willie, Chris K; Foster, Glen; Monteleone, Brad; Day, Trevor A

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity impacts CO2–[H+] washout at the central chemoreceptors and hence has marked influence on the control of ventilation. To date, the integration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ventilation has been investigated exclusively with measures of anterior CBF, which has a differential reactivity from the vertebrobasilar system and perfuses the brainstem. We hypothesized that: (1) posterior versus anterior CBF would have a stronger relationship to central chemoreflex magnitude during hypercapnia, and (2) that higher posterior reactivity would lead to a greater hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD). End-tidal forcing was used to induce steady-state hyperoxic (300 mmHg ) hypercapnia (+3, +6 and +9 mmHg ) and isocapnic hypoxia (45 mmHg ) before and following pharmacological blunting (indomethacin; INDO; 1.45 ± 0.17 mg kg−1) of resting CBF and reactivity. In 22 young healthy volunteers, ventilation, intra-cranial arterial blood velocities and extra-cranial blood flows were measured during these challenges. INDO-induced blunting of cerebrovascular flow responsiveness (CVR) to CO2 was unrelated to variability in ventilatory sensitivity during hyperoxic hypercapnia. Further results in a sub-group of volunteers (n = 9) revealed that elevations of via end-tidal forcing reduce arterial–jugular venous gradients, attenuating the effect of CBF on chemoreflex responses. During isocapnic hypoxia, vertebral artery CVR was related to the magnitude of HVD (R2 = 0.27; P < 0.04; n = 16), suggesting that CO2–[H+] washout from central chemoreceptors modulates hypoxic ventilatory dynamics. No relationships were apparent with anterior CVR. As higher posterior, but not anterior, CVR was linked to HVD, our study highlights the importance of measuring flow in posterior vessels to investigate CBF and ventilatory integration. Key points Anterior and posterior cerebral circulations have differential reactivity to changes in arterial blood gases, but the

  17. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    PubMed

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  18. Measuring patient outcomes in breast augmentation: introducing the BREAST-Q Augmentation module.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Andrea L; Reavey, Patrick L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cano, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    The Breast-Q Augmentation module is a new and unique questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes following breast augmentation. It has undergone a rigorous development and validation process and is currently the only questionnaire for breast augmentation that meets international and federal standards for questionnaire development. The Breast-Q Augmentation module covers a comprehensive set of concerns of breast augmentation patients, including satisfaction with breasts and impact on quality of life. With its excellent psychometric properties, the Breast-Q Augmentation module can provide clinicians and researchers with a wealth of essential data to improve the field of breast augmentation from the perspectives of both surgeons and patients.

  19. Silicone implants in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanjun; Wu, Weihua; Yu, Hongmei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Guangshen

    2002-01-01

    During the past six years, we have treated 406 patients with classical silicon augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation were examined and discussed. We proposed that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. In order to improve our operation and prove our hypothesis, we performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 cases with satisfactory results. At the same time, we investigated the biomechanical properties of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation characters under uniaxial tension. Although less elastic, the periosteum has more tensile strength than fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher, and stiffer than fascia, thus more suitable for covering silicon implants.

  20. Silicone implant in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanjun; Wu, Weihua; Yu, Hongmei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Guangshen

    2002-11-01

    During the past 6 years the authors have treated 406 patients with classic silicone augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation are examined and discussed. They propose that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. To improve their operation and to prove their hypothesis, they performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 patients with satisfactory results. At the same time, they investigated the biomechanical properties of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, the stress-strain relationship, and stress relaxation characteristics under uniaxial tension. Although it has less failure strain, the periosteum has more tensile strength than fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher, and stiffer than fascia, and thus more suitable for covering silicone implants.

  1. Augmented reality building operations tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  2. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  3. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  4. Military Applications of Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    NOTES book chapter in Handbook of Augmented Reality, 2011. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...real ob- jects by simply not rendering graphics where they are computed to be hidden from view; this is a standard property of the depth buffer in...Adam Lederer, Jason Jerald, Erik Tomlin, Eric Burns, Donald Char- ity, Joshua Eliason, Jesus Arango, and Scott Frees. In addition, the authors would like

  5. Photon management for augmented photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Dinh, Cao Thang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sinton, David

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are some of nature's finest examples of solar energy conversion systems, effortlessly transforming inorganic carbon into complex molecules through photosynthesis. The efficiency of energy-dense hydrocarbon production by photosynthetic organisms is determined in part by the light collected by the microorganisms. Therefore, optical engineering has the potential to increase the productivity of algae cultivation systems used for industrial-scale biofuel synthesis. Herein, we explore and report emerging and promising material science and engineering innovations for augmenting microalgal photosynthesis.

  6. Augment railgun and sequential discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.

  7. Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.

  8. Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.

  9. Lamotrigine augmentation in unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fabio Lopes; Hara, Claudia

    2003-03-01

    A significant number of patients with unipolar depression fail to achieve remission after one or a series of antidepressants. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of the efficacy and tolerability of lamotrigine as an augmentation drug in treatment-resistant unipolar depression. A previous absence of a response was defined as the clinically significant presence of depressive symptomatology after 6 weeks of treatment with an antidepressant, with at least 3 weeks at the maximum dose tolerated by the patient. The patients were rated retrospectively using the Clinical Global Impression rating scale. Seventy-six percent of the patients improved. Gender, age, basal severity of the episode and degree of previous non response were not statistically significantly associated with response to lamotrigine augmentation. Comorbidity showed a tendency to be negatively related with response to lamotrigine. Three patients abandoned the treatment with lamotrigine due to side-effects. Complaints were excessive somnolence, headache, dizziness, nausea and malaise. Data suggest that lamotrigine is a promising drug for treatment-refractory unipolar depression. Double-blind studies are necessary to confirm its use as an augmentation agent.

  10. Posterior atrophic jaws rehabilitated with prostheses supported by 5 x 5 mm implants with a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated titanium surface or by longer implants in augmented bone. Preliminary results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Felice, Pietro; Pistilli, Roberto; Piattelli, Maurizio; Soardi, Elisa; Corvino, Valeria; Esposito, Marco

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether 5 × 5 mm dental implants with a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated titanium surface could be an alternative to at least 5 × 10 mm-long implants placed in bone augmented with bone substitutes in posterior atrophic jaws. Forty patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles having 5 to 7 mm of bone height above the mandibular canal and 40 patients with atrophic maxillae having 4 to 6 mm below the maxillary sinus, were randomised according to a parallel group design to receive one to three 5 × 5 mm implants or one to three at least 5 × 10 mm-long implants in augmented bone at two centres. Mandibles were vertically augmented with interpositional bovine bone blocks and resorbable barriers and implants were placed after 4 months. Maxillary sinuses were augmented with particulated porcine bone via a lateral window covered with resorbable barriers and implants were placed simultaneously. All implants were submerged and loaded after 4 months with provisional prostheses. Four months later, definitive screw-retained or provisionally cemented metal-ceramic or zirconia prostheses were delivered. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures as well as any complication. Patients were followed to 4 months post-loading with the exception of one patient who underwent mandibular augmentation and had multiple complications at and after grafting, and subsequent graft failure, who did not want to go ahead with the treatment. This case was considered a complete failure. There were no statistically significant differences in prosthesis and implant failures. In mandibles, apart from the complete graft failure, one 5 × 10 mm implant failed at placement of the provisional prosthesis. In maxillae, one 5 × 5 mm implant failed with its provisional crown 3 months after loading. All complications occurred before loading. Significantly more intra- and postoperative complications occurred at both mandibular and maxillary grafted sites

  11. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  12. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  13. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  14. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  15. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  16. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  17. Haste makes waste: Decision making in patients with restless legs syndrome with and without augmentation.

    PubMed

    Heim, Beatrice; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Stefani, Ambra; Delazer, Margarete; Heidbreder, Anna; Zamarian, Laura; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Seppi, Klaus; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner; Djamshidian, Atbin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate decision making in patients with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS) with and without augmentation treated with dopaminergic medication. A total of 64 non-demented RLS patients treated with dopaminergic medication with and without augmentation were included in this study. We used an information sampling task to assess how much evidence participants gather before making a decision. Performance was compared to the results of 21 healthy controls. All patients with and without augmentation gathered less information than healthy controls before making a decision (p<0.001), but there was no difference between the two patient groups (p = 1.0). Furthermore, both patient groups made more irrational decisions (e.g. decisions against the evidence they had at the time) than healthy controls (p≤0.002). In addition, RLS patients with augmentation made significantly more irrational decisions than RLS patients without augmentation (p = 0.037) and controls (p<0.001). Our results show that RLS patients treated with dopaminergic drugs, regardless of having augmentation or not, jumped to conclusions and decided significantly more often against the evidence they had at the time of their decision. However, those with augmentation performed worse than all other groups and made more often irrational decisions, a phenomenon which is also common in patients with substance abuse or behavioural addictions. Thus, jumping to conclusions and deciding with a higher degree of uncertainty as well as irrational decision making is more common in RLS patients treated with dopaminergic medication particularly in those with augmentation.

  18. Analysis of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for application to supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical and mechanization study was conducted for two flutter stability augmentation systems. One concept uses only the wing trailing edge control surface. Another concept uses leading and trailing edge control surfaces operating simultaneously. The combined use of leading and trailing edge control surfaces should improve the surface coupling (controllability) with vertical bending and torsional structural modes and decrease the coupling between bending and torsional modes. The study was directed toward stability augmentation systems characteristics for the supersonic transport aircraft.

  19. Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed.

  20. Periodic Breathing in Heart Failure Explained by Dynamic and Static Properties of Respiratory Control

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Manabe, Kou; Kawai, Eriko; Inagaki, Masashi; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The respiratory operating point is determined by the interplay between the controller and plant subsystem elements within the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This study aimed to establish the methodological basis for quantitative analysis of the open-loop dynamic properties of the human respiratory control system and to apply the results to explore detailed mechanisms of the regulation of respiration and the possible mechanism of periodic breathing in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS In healthy volunteers, we measured arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and minute ventilation (V˙E) to estimate the dynamic properties of the controller ( PaCO2→V˙E relation) and plant ( V˙E→PaCO2 relation). The dynamic properties of the controller and plant approximated first- and second-order exponential models, respectively, and were described using parameters including gain, time constant, and lag time. We then used the open-loop transfer functions to simulate the closed-loop respiratory response to an exogenous disturbance, while manipulating the parameter values to deviate from normal values but within physiological ranges. By increasing both the product of gains of the two subsystem elements (total loop gain) and the lag time, the condition of system oscillation (onset of periodic breathing) was satisfied. CONCLUSION When abnormality occurs in a part of the respiratory chemoreflex system, instability of the control system is amplified and may result in the manifestation of respiratory abnormalities such as periodic breathing. PMID:26561001

  1. Periodic Breathing in Heart Failure Explained by Dynamic and Static Properties of Respiratory Control.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Manabe, Kou; Kawai, Eriko; Inagaki, Masashi; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory operating point is determined by the interplay between the controller and plant subsystem elements within the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This study aimed to establish the methodological basis for quantitative analysis of the open-loop dynamic properties of the human respiratory control system and to apply the results to explore detailed mechanisms of the regulation of respiration and the possible mechanism of periodic breathing in chronic heart failure. In healthy volunteers, we measured arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and minute ventilation [Formula: see text] to estimate the dynamic properties of the controller ( [Formula: see text] relation) and plant ( [Formula: see text] relation). The dynamic properties of the controller and plant approximated first- and second-order exponential models, respectively, and were described using parameters including gain, time constant, and lag time. We then used the open-loop transfer functions to simulate the closed-loop respiratory response to an exogenous disturbance, while manipulating the parameter values to deviate from normal values but within physiological ranges. By increasing both the product of gains of the two subsystem elements (total loop gain) and the lag time, the condition of system oscillation (onset of periodic breathing) was satisfied. When abnormality occurs in a part of the respiratory chemoreflex system, instability of the control system is amplified and may result in the manifestation of respiratory abnormalities such as periodic breathing.

  2. Neural Control of Breathing and CO2 Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2015-09-02

    Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, central command and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation.

  3. Neural control of breathing and CO2 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, P.G.; Bayliss, D.A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state-dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, “central command” and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  4. Histologic evaluation of socket augmentation with mineralized human allograft.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Tsao, Yi-Pin

    2008-06-01

    Socket augmentation performed at the time of tooth extraction has been recommended by many authors, since successful socket augmentation may reduce or eliminate the need for future ridge grafts. An augmentation procedure is described here, along with histologic and histomorphometric findings. Five patients (three men, two women; mean age 56 years) were recruited for this pilot study, and seven sites were treated. Solvent-preserved mineralized cancellous allograft was used to fill each socket up to the bone crest (2 mm below soft tissue surface), and sites were covered with a bioabsorbable collagen wound dressing. Core biopsies were taken from the center of extraction sockets 5 to 6 months after augmentation. Histologic evaluation of the prepared biopsies showed formation and remodeling of trabecular bone in areas of mineralized cancellous allografts and no signs of inflammation. Histomorphometric analysis of the samples showed an average of 68.5% vital bone, 3.8% residual graft particles, and 27.7% of connective tissue/bone marrow. In addition, vital bone and connective tissues were seen in close contact with the remaining allograft. These data suggest that this combination of human mineralized bone and absorbable collagen wound dressing is a suitable technique for socket augmentation. Nevertheless, future controlled clinical trials with larger sample sizes are recommended to validate the findings of the current technique.

  5. Augmentation strategies for treatment-resistant depression: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Cavalcante, J L; Castelo, M S; Lima, M C O

    2007-10-01

    The large majority of depressed patients fail to remit on the first antidepressant prescribed. These patients with residual symptoms have higher relapse rates and poorer outcomes than those who remit. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a therapeutic challenge for the clinician. Augmentation pharmacotherapy refers to the addition of drugs that are not standard antidepressants in order to enhance the effect of a classical antidepressant drug. The aim of this paper was to review the available evidence on the various augmenting agents that have been tested for efficacy in TRD. Electronic databases and relevant textbooks were searched and the information retrieved was integrated in this review. Although augmentation strategies have been tested with various pharmacological agents, there are few controlled studies published. Lithium, triiodothyronine (T3), buspirone and pindolol have been most widely studied. Other agents include dopaminergic agents, atypical antipsychotics, psychostimulants, benzodiazepines/hypnotics, hormones and anticonvulsants. The augmentation therapy with the best evidence was the lithium-antidepressant combination, especially in patients not responding to tricyclic agents. However, good results have also been reported with augmentation strategies involving T3 and buspirone.

  6. Prophylactic bioactive screw fixation as an alternative augmentation for femoroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hananouchi, Takehito

    2015-04-01

    Femoroplasty is theoretically a prophylactic surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture. Although bone cement is generally used for augmentation, its distribution cannot be easily controlled. This study investigated whether a bioactive screw is feasible for femoroplasty as an alternative augmentation material. A mechanical test was done to compare the strength of four types of augmentation bioactive screw (Superfixsorb), two bioinert cements, or no intervention in a composite femoral bone. The peak load to fracture under simulated falling was compared among the four groups. The mean peak load to failure in the bioactive screw group (2667 N) was significantly higher than that in the intact group (2391 N) (p=0.028), comparable to that in the Simplex P cement group (2864 N) (p=0.11), and significantly lower than that of the cranioplastic cement group (3022 N) (p=0.006). The strength of a composite femur with the bioactive screw was higher than that of an intact bone and comparable to one cement augmentation. Thus, this bioactive screw can be potentially used as augmentation material for femoroplasty.

  7. Fluidic Servoactuators for Three-Axis Fluidic Stability Augmentation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    augmentation system (FSAS). The servoactuators, designed to the specification for a helicopter flight control system, are classified as ’experimental’ but...This report covers the developmental work accomplished on a program to furnish three fluidic servoactuators for a three-axis fluidic stability

  8. Striae distensae after breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filipe Volpe; Basile, Arthur Volpe; Basile, Antonio Roberto

    2012-08-01

    One known but not fully understood complication after breast augmentation is the new onset of stretch marks (striae distensae) on the surgically treated breast. To date, all publications on this subject have been case reports. No report has fully described the actual incidence, risk factors, or management of striae distensae after breast surgery. This study prospectively followed patients who underwent primary breast augmentation using silicone implants in a single group practice from 2007 to 2011. New-onset striae distensae were actively investigated. Time from surgery to the moment of striae onset, patient age, nulliparity, use of oral contraceptives, overweight, personal history of stretch marks, and other variables were evaluated. A total of 409 patients were included in the study. In 19 cases (4.6%), new-onset striae distensae after breast augmentation were observed. The population with striae distensae was significantly younger than the total population (29.56 vs 20.91 years; p=0.012). Striae distensae also were more common in nulliparous than in multiparous women (8.29 vs 0.52%; p=0.006), overweight women (17.77 vs 3.02%; p=0.016), women using oral contraceptives (7.89 vs 0.55%; p=0.008), and women with a personal history of stretch marks (8.97 vs 3.36%; p=0.031). No relation was shown regarding implant pocket type, size, or profile. Striae distensae may be a common but underreported complication after breast augmentation. In this series, striae distensae developed in 4.6% of the patients within 1 year after breast augmentation. Severity may vary from inconspicuous small marks (classifications 1 and 2) to wide red and active striae rubra (classifications 3 and 4). Nulliparity, use of oral contraceptives, overweight, personal history of stretch marks, and younger age were related to a higher incidence of striae distensae. The increased rates in these groups may be associated with their exposure to higher estrogen levels and the important role of this hormone

  9. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically "implanted" novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function.

  10. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  11. Pharmacotherapy augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Ipser, J C; Carey, P; Dhansay, Y; Fakier, N; Seedat, S; Stein, D J

    2006-10-18

    A large proportion of patients with anxiety disorders fail to respond to first-line medication interventions, despite evidence of the effectiveness of these agents. To assess the effects of medication versus placebo augmentation in the treatment of patients with anxiety disorders who have failed to respond adequately to first-line drug therapies. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety & Neurosis Group (CCDAN) specialised registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) were searched on 3/8/2005, MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2005) and PsycINFO (1966 to 2005, Part A). Unpublished trials were identified through the Controlled Trials database and the National Institute of Health's Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) service (1972 to 2005). Additional studies in any language were sought in reference lists of retrieved articles. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the medication augmentation of pharmacotherapy for treatment resistant anxiety disorders. Two raters independently assessed RCTs for inclusion in the review, collated trial data, and assessed trial quality. Investigators were contacted to obtain missing data. Summary statistics were stratified by class of augmentation agent and anxiety disorder. Overall effect estimates were calculated using a random-effects model, heterogeneity was assessed and subgroup/sensitivity analyses were undertaken. Twenty eight short-term (average of seven weeks) randomised controlled trials (740 participants) were included in the review, 20 of which investigated augmentation of medication for treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Summary statistics for responder status from nine trials demonstrate overall superiority of a variety of medication agents to placebo (relative risk of non-response (RR) 3.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 9.23). Similarly, symptom severity was significantly reduced in the medication groups, relative to placebo (number of trials (N) = 14, standardised mean difference

  12. Significant Effect of Valproate Augmentation Therapy in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Chung, Weilun; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Valproate is an anticonvulsant, which is also widely used for treating psychiatric disorders. Some clinical trials have demonstrated benefits of valproate augmentation therapy in schizophrenia. Previous meta-analysis showed inconsistent findings because of limited literature at that time. The aim of this study is to update the newer published data by conducting a meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of valproate augmentation therapy in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Data sources include electronic research through platform of PubMed. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were as follows: the inclusion criteria included articles discussing comparisons of the treatment effect in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic augmented with valproate and antipsychotics with/without placebo; articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were case reports or series and nonclinical trials. We compared the effect between antipsychotic treatment with valproate augmentation and antipsychotic monotherapy. Data from clinical trials were pooled by random-effects model, and possible confounding variables were examined through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Data from 11 articles including 889 patients were included into current meta-analysis. We found patients treated with antipsychotics with valproate augmentation showed significantly more improvement in total psychopathology than those treated with antipsychotics only (P = 0.02). Results from open trials, but not from randomized controlled trials (P = 0.20), showed significant improvement (P = 0.01). In addition, the significance only persisted in the studies conducted with a shorter treatment duration (P < 0.001) rather than longer treatment duration (P = 0.23). There is no difference in the dropout rate between valproate augmentation and antipsychotic treatment only (P = 0.14). We could not perform a detailed meta

  13. Impact of cost-sharing on treatment augmentation in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Teresa B; Jing, Yonghua; Bagalman, Jill E; Cao, Zhun; Bates, John A; Hebden, Tony; Forbes, Robert A; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with depression do not respond to first-line antidepressant therapy and may require augmentation with another concurrent treatment such as a second antidepressant, a stimulant, a mood stabilizer, or a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between patient cost-sharing and the use of augmentation among a sample of commercially insured patients. Retrospective observational study of adult patients diagnosed with depression and receiving antidepressant therapy (n = 48,807). Logistic regression models estimated the likelihood of augmentation as a function of patient cost-sharing amounts. An alternative-specific conditional logit model of the likelihood of each augmentation class, varying the cost-sharing prices faced for each class, was also estimated. All models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, physical and mental comorbidities, health plan type, and year of index antidepressant therapy initiation. The range of mean copayments paid by patients for augmentation therapy was from $27.05 (antidepressant) to $38.81 (SGA). A $10- higher cost-sharing index for all augmentation classes was associated with lower odds of augmentation (adjusted odds ratio = 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.79-0.91). Doubling the costsharing amount for each augmentation class was associated with a smaller percentage of patients utilizing each class of augmentation therapy. Employers and payers should consider the relationship between cost-sharing and medication utilization patterns of patients with depression.

  14. Augmented reality in intraventricular neuroendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Finger, T; Schaumann, A; Schulz, M; Thomale, Ulrich-W

    2017-06-01

    Individual planning of the entry point and the use of navigation has become more relevant in intraventricular neuroendoscopy. Navigated neuroendoscopic solutions are continuously improving. We describe experimentally measured accuracy and our first experience with augmented reality-enhanced navigated neuroendoscopy for intraventricular pathologies. Augmented reality-enhanced navigated endoscopy was tested for accuracy in an experimental setting. Therefore, a 3D-printed head model with a right parietal lesion was scanned with a thin-sliced computer tomography. Segmentation of the tumor lesion was performed using Scopis NovaPlan navigation software. An optical reference matrix is used to register the neuroendoscope's geometry and its field of view. The pre-planned ROI and trajectory are superimposed in the endoscopic image. The accuracy of the superimposed contour fitting on endoscopically visualized lesion was acquired by measuring the deviation of both midpoints to one another. The technique was subsequently used in 29 cases with CSF circulation pathologies. Navigation planning included defining the entry points, regions of interests and trajectories, superimposed as augmented reality on the endoscopic video screen during intervention. Patients were evaluated for postoperative imaging, reoperations, and possible complications. The experimental setup revealed a deviation of the ROI's midpoint from the real target by 1.2 ± 0.4 mm. The clinical study included 18 cyst fenestrations, ten biopsies, seven endoscopic third ventriculostomies, six stent placements, and two shunt implantations, being eventually combined in some patients. In cases of cyst fenestrations postoperatively, the cyst volume was significantly reduced in all patients by mean of 47%. In biopsies, the diagnostic yield was 100%. Reoperations during a follow-up period of 11.4 ± 10.2 months were necessary in two cases. Complications included one postoperative hygroma and one insufficient

  15. Augmented-plane-wave forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, José M.; Williams, Arthur R.

    1990-11-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of a calculational method of electronic-structure theory. The method combines the power (tractable basis-set size) and flexibility (transition and first-row elements) of the augmented-plane-wave method with the computational efficiency of the Car-Parrinello method of molecular dynamics and total-energy minimization. Equilibrium geometry and vibrational frequencies in agreement with experiment are presented for Si, to demonstrate agreement with existing methods and for Cu, N2, and H2O to demonstrate the broader applicability of the approach.

  16. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings.

  17. Attached gingiva: histology and surgical augmentation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Lim

    2009-01-01

    The keratinized attached gingiva provides the periodontium with increased resistance to external injury, contributes to the stabilization of the gingival margin, and aids in dissipating physiological forces exerted by the muscular fibers of the alveolar mucosa on the gingival tissues. Increasing attached gingiva should be strongly considered in cases where the patient's plaque control is compromised. The apically positioned flap, free gingival graft, and subepithelial connective tissue graft are the most common surgical procedures used for augmenting the zone of attached gingiva effectively and predictably. The newly obtained keratinized gingiva can be maintained for a long period; in addition, these periodontal procedures halt the progression of gingival recession and could lead to gaining more keratinized gingiva from creeping attachment after the surgery. This article reviews the biology of attached gingiva and presents cases related to the functional role of periodontal plastic surgery.

  18. A multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a new resorbable non-cross-linked collagen membrane for guided bone regeneration at dehisced single implant sites: interim results of a bone augmentation procedure.

    PubMed

    Wessing, Bastian; Urban, Istvan; Montero, Eduardo; Zechner, Werner; Hof, Markus; Alández Chamorro, Javier; Alández Martin, Nuria; Polizzi, Giovanni; Meloni, Silvio; Sanz, Mariano

    2016-12-18

    To compare clinical performance of a new resorbable non-cross-linked collagen membrane, creos xenoprotect (CXP), with a reference membrane (BG) for guided bone regeneration at dehisced implant sites. This randomized controlled clinical trial enrolled patients with expected dehiscence defects following implant placement to restore single teeth in the maxillary and mandibular esthetic zone and premolar area. Implants were placed using a two-stage surgical protocol with delayed loading. Bone augmentation material placed at the implant surface was immobilized with CXP or BG membrane. Soft tissue health was followed during the healing period, and the defect size was measured at reentry and 6 months after implant placement. Of the 49 included patients, 24 were treated with CXP and 25 with BG. Patient characteristics did not differ between the two arms. In the CXP arm, the defect height at implant insertion was (mean ± SD) 5.1 ± 2.1 mm (n = 24) and reduced at reentry by 81% to 1.0 ± 1.3 mm (n = 23). In the BG arm, the defect height at implant insertion was 4.9 ± 1.9 mm (n = 25) and reduced at reentry by 62% to 1.7 ± 2.1 mm (n = 24). Assuming a margin of non-inferiority of 1 mm, CXP was non-inferior to BG. Membrane exposure rate was highest at week 3 in both arms, reaching 16.7% for BG and 8.7% for CXP. The new resorbable non-cross-linked collagen membrane facilitates bone gain to support implant placement in expected dehiscence defects. The observed trend toward higher mean bone gain and lower exposure rate with CXP compared to BG should be further investigated. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Volumetric Evaluation of the Mammary Gland and Pectoralis Major Muscle following Subglandular and Submuscular Breast Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Ana Claudia Weck; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Salin, Renan; de Castro, Claudio Cardoso; Aboudib, Jose Horacio; Marques, Ruy Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Besides being a procedure with high level of patient satisfaction, one of the main causes for reoperation after breast augmentation is related to contour deformities and changes in breast volume. Few objective data are available on postoperative volumetric analysis following breast augmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate volume changes in the breast parenchyma and pectoralis major muscle after breast augmentation with the placement of silicone implants in the subglandular and submuscular planes. Fifty-eight women were randomly allocated either to the subglandular group (n = 24) or submuscular group (n = 24) and underwent breast augmentation in the subglandular or submuscular plane, respectively, or to a control group (n = 10) and received no intervention. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was performed at inclusion in all participants and either after 6 and 12 months in the control group or at 6 and 12 months after surgery in the intervention groups. Twelve months after breast augmentation, only the subglandular group had a significant reduction in glandular volume (mean, 22.8 percent), while patients in the submuscular group were the only ones showing significant reduction in muscle volume (mean, 49.80 percent). Atrophy of the breast parenchyma occurred after subglandular breast augmentation, but not following submuscular breast augmentation. In contrast, submuscular breast augmentation caused atrophy of the pectoralis major muscle. Therapeutic, II.

  20. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  1. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  2. Urban Terrain Modeling for Augmented Reality Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in wearable computers have begun to make mobile augmented reality systems a reality (Feiner, 1997; Piekarski, 1999, Julier, 2000...Augmented Reality Applications 3 Figure 1. A wearable augmented reality system. The large size of the system is the result of the fact that it is...for the light to travel out to the target and back to the LIDAR is used to determine the range of the target. LIDAR operates in the ultraviolet , visible

  3. Striae distensae after subfascial breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos; Rodopoulou, Stavroula

    2008-03-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks after breast augmentation are a rare complication. To date, 10 cases have been published. In seven of these cases, the implant was placed in a subglandular position and in the other three cases, placement was submuscular. Two cases of stretch marks in two young nulliparous women who underwent subfacial breast augmentation are presented. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of striae distensae after subfascial breast augmentation.

  4. A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality Yohan Baillot and Simon J. Julier ITT Advanced Engineering & Sciences 2560 Huntington Ave...with as few as three measurements. 1. Introduction Almost all Augmented Reality (AR) systems use a track- ing system to capture motion of objects in...DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  5. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this research, Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR), was to research the design and development of experimental... augmented reality systems for maintenance job aiding. The goal was to explore and evaluate the feasibility of developing prototype adaptive augmented ... reality systems that can be used to investigate how real time computer graphics, overlaid on and registered with the actual equipment being maintained, can

  6. Developing a New Medical Augmented Reality System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Augmented reality is a technique for combining supplementary imagery such that it appears as part of the scene and can be used for guidance, training...and locational aids. In the medical domain, augmented reality can be used to combine medical imagery to the physician’s view of a patient to help...the physician establish a direct relation between the imagery and the patient. This project report will examine medical augmented reality systems for

  7. Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams TOPIC: Information Superiority/Information Operations and Information Age... Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...by ANSI Std Z39-18 Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams Abstract The battlefield is a place of violence ruled by

  8. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    PubMed

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2015-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  9. Strategies and Challenges in Simultaneous Augmentation Mastopexy.

    PubMed

    Spring, Michelle A; Hartmann, Emily C; Stevens, W Grant

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous breast augmentation and mastopexy is a common procedure often considered to be one of the most difficult cosmetic breast surgeries. One-stage augmentation mastopexy was initially described more than 50 years ago. The challenge lies in the fact that the surgery has multiple opposing goals: to increasing the volume of a breast, enhance the shape, and simultaneously decrease the skin envelope. Successful outcomes in augmentation can be expected with proper planning, technique, and patient education. This article focuses on common indications for simultaneous augmentation mastopexy, techniques for safe and effective combined procedures, challenges of the procedure, and potential complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A systematic review assessing soft tissue augmentation techniques.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Benić, Goran I; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present review was to systematically assess the dental literature in terms of soft tissue grafting techniques. The focused question was: is one method superior over others for augmentation and stability of the augmented soft tissue in terms of increasing the width of keratinized tissue (part 1) and gain in soft tissue volume (part 2). A Medline search was performed for human studies focusing on augmentation of keratinized tissue and/or soft tissue volume, and complemented by additional hand searching. Relevant studies were identified and statistical results were reported for meta-analyses including the test minus control weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals, the I-squared statistic for tests of heterogeneity, and the number of significant studies. Twenty-five (part 1) and three (part 2) studies met the inclusion criteria; 14 studies (part 1) were eligible for comparison using meta-analyses. An apically positioned flap/vestibuloplasty (APF/V) procedure resulted in a statistically significantly greater gain in keratinized tissue than untreated controls. APF/V plus autogenous tissue revealed statistically significantly more attached gingiva compared with untreated controls and a borderline statistical significance compared with APF/V plus allogenic tissue. Statistically significantly more shrinkage was observed for the APF/V plus allogenic graft compared with the APF/V plus autogenous tissue. Patient-centered outcomes did not reveal any of the treatment methods to be superior regarding postoperative complications. The three studies reporting on soft tissue volume augmentation could not be compared due to lack of homogeneity. The use of subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) resulted in statistically significantly more soft tissue volume gain compared with free gingival grafts (FGGs). APF/V is a successful treatment concept to increase the width of keratinized tissue or attached gingiva around teeth. The addition of autogenous

  11. The Expanded Use of Auto-