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Sample records for augments particle-dependent systemic

  1. The Augmentation System Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbart, Doug; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    Augmentation systems are composed of things that will add to what the human is genetically endowed with in order to extend the net capabilities that a human or human organization can apply to the problems or goals of human society. A broad brush categorization of the components of an augmentation system includes three distinct though interacting…

  2. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  3. BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010892 TITLE: BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System DISTRIBUTION...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010865 thru. ADP010894 UNCLASSIFIED 27-1 BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System Simon Julier... future military operations are expected to occur overload, we have developed an intelligent filter which in urban environments. These complex, 3D

  4. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  5. Developing a New Medical Augmented Reality System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Augmented reality is a technique for combining supplementary imagery such that it appears as part of the scene and can be used for guidance, training...and locational aids. In the medical domain, augmented reality can be used to combine medical imagery to the physician’s view of a patient to help...the physician establish a direct relation between the imagery and the patient. This project report will examine medical augmented reality systems for

  6. STABILITY/CONTROL AUGMENTATION SYSTEM EVALUATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study was made to evaluate competency of pilots trained in aircraft having a stability augmentation system . This is to determine the necessity of... Augmentation System . When the students reached private pilot proficiency, they were given three flight checks. The first with the system on, the...was to train five students to required flight performance for a private pilot certificate in a Cherokee-140 equipped with the Mitchell AK-153 Stability

  7. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  8. Wireless augmented reality communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  9. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  10. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  11. Stability boundaries for command augmentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrivastava, P. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Stability Augmentation System (SAS) is a special case of the Command Augmentation System (CAS). Control saturation imposes bounds on achievable commands. The state equilibrium depends only on the open loop dynamics and control deflection. The control magnitude to achieve a desired command equilibrium is independent of the feedback gain. A feedback controller provides the desired response, maintains the system equilibrium under disturbances, but it does not affect the equilibrium values of states and control. The saturation boundaries change with commands, but the location of the equilibrium points in the saturated region remains unchanged. Nonzero command vectors yield saturation boundaries that are asymmetric with respect to the state equilibrium. Except for the saddle point case with MCE control law, the stability boundaries change with commands. For the cases of saddle point and unstable nodes, the region of stability decreases with increasing command magnitudes.

  12. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    A ugmented reality (AR) has been part of computergraphics methodology for decades. A number of prototype AR systems have shown the possibilities this...and predicting what might happen in the near future in your environment. We per- formed a domain analysis to determine which AR capa- bilities most...user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality

  13. Vision-based augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yongtian; Shi, Qi; Yan, Dayuan

    2003-04-01

    The most promising aspect of augmented reality lies in its ability to integrate the virtual world of the computer with the real world of the user. Namely, users can interact with the real world subjects and objects directly. This paper presents an experimental augmented reality system with a video see-through head-mounted device to display visual objects, as if they were lying on the table together with real objects. In order to overlay virtual objects on the real world at the right position and orientation, the accurate calibration and registration are most important. A vision-based method is used to estimate CCD external parameters by tracking 4 known points with different colors. It achieves sufficient accuracy for non-critical applications such as gaming, annotation and so on.

  14. B-52 stability augmentation system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, T. C.; Key, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    The B-52 SAS (Stability Augmentation System) was developed and retrofitted to nearly 300 aircraft. It actively controls B-52 structural bending, provides improved yaw and pitch damping through sensors and electronic control channels, and puts complete reliance on hydraulic control power for rudder and elevators. The system has experienced over 300,000 flight hours and has exhibited service reliability comparable to the results of the reliability test program. Development experience points out numerous lessons with potential application in the mechanization and development of advanced technology control systems of high reliability.

  15. Usability Engineering: Domain Analysis Activities for Augmented Reality Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured...management principals and techniques, formal and semiformal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system...originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented

  16. Augmented reality based surgery navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaojun; Yang, Jian; Weng, Dongdong; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Yue

    2009-11-01

    A surgery navigation system based on augmented reality is presented. The system is based on 3D visualization and 3D registration techniques with an infrared tracking device and a 3D scanner. After reconstructing the 3D model of the patient's organs and scanning the surface of the patient's face, the system uses Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to calculate the transformation between the 3D model of patient and the three-dimensional scanner. During the surgery navigation, 3D model can be overlaid onto the image of the real patient. The proposed system doesn't require the attachment of markers because of the adoption of 3D scanner. Experimental result shows that the tracking accuracy of the system is appropriate for the requirements of actual surgery and can bring down the risk of endoscopic surgery.

  17. Augmenting system reliability analyses with observation priors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl; Anderson-cook, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Occasionally, a system may fail a test without an obvious component being at fault. Instead, experts may know that at least one of a set of components has failed, but there is uncertainty about which members in the set were the actual failures. When no further information is available, this missing data may be imputed using standard data augmentation (DA). This process is already used in the current implementation of the JMP complex-system reliability modeling codes. In some cases when this situation arises, there may be some supplemental information about the nature of the failure that suggests which subset of components are more likely to have failed. the behavior of the system during the failure may make certain components more likely candidates, and lead the engineering experts to have certain prior beliefs about what occurred. In this case, it is still known that at least one of a set of components failed, but the experts have some idea that certain failure scenarios are more likely than others. This white paper addresses this situation by modifying the imputation process of data augmentation through the use of an observation prior. This prior is specific to particular observations, and a given outcome which is repeated several times could potentially have different observation priors associated with each occurrence.

  18. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  19. Optimal Constellation Design for Satellite Based Augmentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Isao

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely utilized in daily life, for instance car navigation. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) are proposed so as to provide GPS better navigation accuracy and integrity capability. Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is a kind of WAAS and Multi-functional Transportation Satellite (MTSAT) has been developed in Japan. To improve navigation accuracy most efficiently, augmentation satellites should be so placed that minimize Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) of constellation. In this paper the result of optimal constellation design for SBAS is shown.

  20. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  1. Multimodal augmented reality system for surgical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Giraldez, Jaime; Talib, Haydar; Caversaccio, Marco; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A.

    2006-03-01

    Image-guided, computer-assisted neurosurgery has emerged to improve localization and targeting, to provide a better anatomic definition of the surgical field, and to decrease invasiveness. Usually, in image-guided surgery, a computer displays the surgical field in a CT/MR environment, using axial, coronal or sagittal views, or even a 3D representation of the patient. Such a system forces the surgeon to look away from the surgical scene to the computer screen. Moreover, this kind of information, being pre-operative imaging, can not be modified during the operation, so it remains valid for guidance in the first stage of the surgical procedure, and mainly for rigid structures like bones. In order to solve the two constraints mentioned before, we are developing an ultrasoundguided surgical microscope. Such a system takes the advantage that surgical microscopy and ultrasound systems are already used in neurosurgery, so it does not add more complexity to the surgical procedure. We have integrated an optical tracking device in the microscope and an augmented reality overlay system with which we avoid the need to look away from the scene, providing correctly aligned surgical images with sub-millimeter accuracy. In addition to the standard CT and 3D views, we are able to track an ultrasound probe, and using a previous calibration and registration of the imaging, the image obtained is correctly projected to the overlay system, so the surgeon can always localize the target and verify the effects of the intervention. Several tests of the system have been already performed to evaluate the accuracy, and clinical experiments are currently in progress in order to validate the clinical usefulness of the system.

  2. Design Concept for an Augmented Relational Intelligence Analysis System (ARIAS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Intelligence Analysis System (ARIAS).Final technical rept.,FSable,Jerome ;Forst,Stanley ;AUER-2022-TR-2F30602-72-C-0273AF-4594459401RADCTR-73-342*Military intelligence, *Data processing, *Information processing, Predictions, Computer programming, Mathematical logic, Bayes theorem, GraphicsBIAS(Basic Level Intelligence Analysis System), Basic level intelligence analysis system, ARIAS(Augmented Relational Intelligence Analysis System), Predicate calculus, Augmented relational intelligence

  3. Space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Mohinder S

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Space-based augmentations increase the accuracy and integrity of the GNSS, thereby enhancing users' safety. The corrections for ephemeris, ionospheric delay, and clocks are calculated from reference station measurements of GNSS data in wide-area master stations and broadcast via geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. This paper discusses the clock models, satellite orbit determination, ionospheric delay estimation, multipath mitigation, and GEO uplink subsystem (GUS) as used in the Wide Area Augmentation System developed by the FAA.

  4. Augmented Reality System for E-maintenance Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.; Malek, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present in this paper an Augmented Reality platform for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. With this platform we identify all possible scenarios which allow the technician to intervene on a machine breakdown using distant expert if necessary. Each scenario depends on the machine parameters and the technician competences. To implement a configuration of Augmented Reality system, we chose a case study of maintenance scenario for machine breakdown. Then we represent this scenario by an interaction model which allows establishing Augmented Reality configuration.

  5. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  6. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  7. Vision-based augmented reality computer assisted surgery navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Kebin; Li, Xin; Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    A vision-based Augmented Reality computer assisted surgery navigation system is presented in this paper. It applies the Augmented Reality technique to surgery navigation system, so the surgeon's vision of the real world is enhanced. In the system, the camera calibration is adopted to calculate the cameras projection matrix, and then make the virtual-real registration by using the transformation relation. The merging of synthetic 3D information into user's vision is realized by texture technique. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the system we have designed.

  8. The Design of Stability Augmentation Systems for Decoupling Aircraft Responses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    stability augmentation system which eliminates the coupling effects is demonstrated. The method is based on Gilbert’s decoupling theory which utilizes a feedback control law to obtain a set of single input, single output subsystems. The augmentation system can be designed to provide either command rate or command angle authority in the three rotational axes. Analyses is facilitated through the use of two computer programs, the first of which determines the class of control laws which will decouple a system. The second computer program determines,

  9. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  10. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  11. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  12. Fluidic Servoactuators for Three-Axis Fluidic Stability Augmentation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    augmentation system (FSAS). The servoactuators, designed to the specification for a helicopter flight control system, are classified as ’experimental’ but...This report covers the developmental work accomplished on a program to furnish three fluidic servoactuators for a three-axis fluidic stability

  13. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  14. Wide area augmentation of the Global Positioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, P.; Walter, T.; Pullen, S.; Kee, C.; Chao, Y.C.; Tsai, Y.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is being deployed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS). The WAAS will aid GPS with the following three services. First, it will broadcast spread-spectrum ranging signals from communication satellites. The airborne WAAS receiver will add these new ranging signals to the GPS constellation of measurements. By so doing, the augmented position fix will be less sensitive to the failure of individual system components, thus improving time availability and continuity of service. Second, the WAAS will use a nationwide ground network to monitor the health of all satellites over the airspace and flag situations which threaten flight safety. This data will be modulated on to the WAAS ranging signals and broadcast to the users, thereby guaranteeing the integrity of the airborne position fix. Third, the WAAS will use the ground network to develop corrections for the errors which currently limit the accuracy of unaugmented GPS. This data will also be included on the WAAS broadcast and will improve position accuracy from approximately 100 m to 8 m. When complete, the augmented system will provide an accurate position fix from satellites to an unlimited number of aircraft across the nation. It will be the primary navigation system for aircraft in oceanic routes, enroute over domestic airspace, in crowded metropolitan airspaces, and on airport approach.

  15. Lack of association between augmentation mammoplasty and systemic sclerosis (scleroderma).

    PubMed

    Hochberg, M C; Perlmutter, D L; Medsger, T A; Nguyen, K; Steen, V; Weisman, M H; White, B; Wigley, F M

    1996-07-01

    To examine the possible association between augmentation mammoplasty and systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Eight hundred thirty-seven women with a clinical diagnosis of SSc, recruited as a volunteer sample from 3 university-based, tertiary care scleroderma clinical research centers, and 2,507 race-matched local control women, recruited by the technique of random-digit-dialing and frequency-matched on age, completed a questionnaire providing data on history of augmentation mammoplasty, including possible complications of the procedure. The odds ratio (OR) and 95 percent confidence interval (95% CI) for the association of augmentation mammoplasty with SSc were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, race and center, and by conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age. Eleven (1.31%) of the 837 cases reported a history of augmentation mammoplasty prior to diagnosis of SSc, compared with 31 (1.24%) of the 2,507 controls. The adjusted OR from the unmatched analysis was 1.07 (95% CI 0.53-2.13), while that from the matched analysis was 1.11 (95% CI 0.55-2.24). These results fail to demonstrate a significant association between augmentation mammoplasty and SSc, and are consistent with those reported from other epidemiologic studies.

  16. An Argument Against Augmenting the Lagrangean for Nonholonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is known that correct dynamical equations of motion for a nonholonomic system cannot be obtained from a Lagrangean that has been augmented with a sum of the nonholonomic constraint equations weighted with multipliers, previous publications suggest otherwise. An example has been proposed in support of augmentation and purportedly demonstrates that an accepted method fails to produce correct equations of motion whereas augmentation leads to correct equations; this paper shows that in fact the opposite is true. The correct equations, previously discounted on the basis of a flawed application of the Newton-Euler method, are verified by using Kane's method and a new approach to determining the directions of constraint forces. A correct application of the Newton-Euler method reproduces valid equations.

  17. Bayesian Hierarchical Models to Augment the Mediterranean Forecast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Bayesian Hierarchical Models to Augment the Mediterranean Forecast System Ralph F. Milliff Colorado Research Associates Division NorthWest...last year. Our goal is to develop an ensemble ocean forecast methodology, using Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling (BHM) tools. The ocean ensemble...geostrophy model introduced by Royle et al. (1998). The second objective involves the accurate representation of forecast error covariance evolution in

  18. Topological augmentation to infer hidden processes in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Sunnåker, Mikael; Zamora-Sillero, Elias; López García de Lomana, Adrián; Rudroff, Florian; Sauer, Uwe; Stelling, Joerg; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: A common problem in understanding a biochemical system is to infer its correct structure or topology. This topology consists of all relevant state variables—usually molecules and their interactions. Here we present a method called topological augmentation to infer this structure in a statistically rigorous and systematic way from prior knowledge and experimental data. Results: Topological augmentation starts from a simple model that is unable to explain the experimental data and augments its topology by adding new terms that capture the experimental behavior. This process is guided by representing the uncertainty in the model topology through stochastic differential equations whose trajectories contain information about missing model parts. We first apply this semiautomatic procedure to a pharmacokinetic model. This example illustrates that a global sampling of the parameter space is critical for inferring a correct model structure. We also use our method to improve our understanding of glutamine transport in yeast. This analysis shows that transport dynamics is determined by glutamine permeases with two different kinds of kinetics. Topological augmentation can not only be applied to biochemical systems, but also to any system that can be described by ordinary differential equations. Availability and implementation: Matlab code and examples are available at: http://www.csb.ethz.ch/tools/index. Contact: mikael.sunnaker@bsse.ethz.ch; andreas.wagner@ieu.uzh.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24297519

  19. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid rocket motors and liquid engines is a complication that continues to plague designers and engineers. Many rocket systems experience violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. During sever cases of combustion instability fluctuation amplitudes can reach values equal to or greater than the average chamber pressure. Large amplitude oscillations lead to damaged injectors, loss of rocket performance, damaged payloads, and in some cases breach of case/loss of mission. Historic difficulties in modeling and predicting combustion instability has reduced most rocket systems experiencing instability into a costly fix through testing paradigm or to scrap the system entirely.

  20. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  1. An Augmented Computerized Readability Editing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    comprehensibility %. problems. Altnough neither artificial intelligence nor cognitive modelling has yet arrived at a truly comprehensive language processing system...network grammars. In L. Bolc (Ed.), Natural language communication with computers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. . Forgy, C. L. (1979). On the efficient...USARCRO-RS Ft. Sheridan. IL 6C037 I Chief, ARI Field Unit P. 0. Box 5787 Presidio of Monterey Monterey, CA 93944 I Dr. Milton S. Katz U.S. Army

  2. Signal quality monitoring for GPS augmentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitelman, Alexander Michael

    Civilian applications of the Global Positioning System have grown rapidly over the past decade. One of the most significant examples is guidance for aviation. In conjunction with specially designed equipment on the ground, GPS can provide precision approach and landing capability for aircraft. As with other safety-critical aviation applications, GPS-based landing systems must meet stringent accuracy, safety, and availability requirements set by the Federal Aviation Administration. Currently, compliance with FAA requirements is ensured by a host of monitors including the Signal Quality Monitor, a module specifically tasked with continuously observing raw GPS signals for interference and distortion. This dissertation focuses on several theoretical and practical aspects of SQM design. The discussion begins with in-depth analysis of the seminal event in SQM, a significant anomaly on GPS space vehicle 19 initially observed in 1993. At the time, a tenfold increase in vertical position error was reported when this satellite was in view. Little consensus was initially reached about the exact origin, nature, or magnitude of the distortion; this section considers these effects in detail. The analysis is then extended to compute a rigorous upper bound for differential error. Starting with the architecture of a basic landing system, a theoretical worst-case is derived that maximizes user error while defying detection by the ground station. A simplified distortion model, adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization in response to the worst-case analysis, is also described. The discussion then describes the design and construction of an arbitrary GPS generator. Essential features include architecture, shielding, independent signal and noise levels, and fast switching between two input channels. Two example applications are presented to illustrate the instrument's utility. A theoretical analysis of the ICAO model is validated by measuring the spectra of generated

  3. Clinical ICT systems: augmenting case management.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Lynne P; Clarke, Malcolm; Jones, Russell

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the diagnosis and subsequent care given to patients, health-care workers involved in the management of their care, as well as the treatment itself, are increasingly looking at the role that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play in supporting the complex interactions between patient, doctor or nurse, consultant and medical equipment. Effective communication both amongst health-care workers and between health-care workers and their patients in both primary and secondary care is vital; ICTs can play an important role in this. In this paper possible interpretations given to the term "telemedicine" are discussed, and then attention is turned to the challenges involved in human interaction and the role of ICTs. An example of a clinical ICT system (AIDMAN) is used to illustrate how face-to-face interaction has usefully been supported by way of a "virtual" consultation, which facilitates remote medical diagnosis and can provide improved case management.

  4. An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation and to alleviate motor impairments. In this paper, an adaptive brain-computer interface system intended for application to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device is developed as an experimental test bed for augmenting rehabilitation with a brain-computer interface. The system's performance is improved throughout rehabilitation by passive user feedback and reinforcement learning. By continuously adapting to the user's brain activity, similar adaptive systems could be used to support clinical brain-computer interface neurorehabilitation over multiple days. PMID:25565945

  5. Methods and systems relating to an augmented virtuality environment

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Anderson, Matthew O; McKay, Mark D; Wadsworth, Derek C; Boyce, Jodie R; Hruska, Ryan C; Koudelka, John A; Whetten, Jonathan; Bruemmer, David J

    2014-05-20

    Systems and methods relating to an augmented virtuality system are disclosed. A method of operating an augmented virtuality system may comprise displaying imagery of a real-world environment in an operating picture. The method may further include displaying a plurality of virtual icons in the operating picture representing at least some assets of a plurality of assets positioned in the real-world environment. Additionally, the method may include displaying at least one virtual item in the operating picture representing data sensed by one or more of the assets of the plurality of assets and remotely controlling at least one asset of the plurality of assets by interacting with a virtual icon associated with the at least one asset.

  6. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. Recent advances in energy based modeling of combustion instabilities require accurate determination of acoustic frequencies and mode shapes. Of particular interest is the acoustic mean flow interactions within the converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients of pressure, density, and velocity become large. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The present study aims to implement the French model within the COMSOL Multiphysiscs framework and analyzes one of the author's presented test cases.

  7. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  8. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  9. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  10. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  11. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  12. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  13. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design and application to nonlinear uncertain systems.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Cao, Huiliang; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) based on sigmoid function is developed to calculate the noise-less time derivative under noisy measurement condition. The essential philosophy of proposed AND in achieving high attenuation of noise effect is established by expanding the signal dynamics with extra state variable representing the integrated noisy measurement, then with the integral of measurement as input, the augmented differentiator is formulated to improve the estimation quality. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the improved methodology can be readily extended to construct augmented high-order differentiator to obtain multiple derivatives. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, the robust control problems of nonlinear uncertain systems, including a numerical example and a mass spring system, are addressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of AND in precisely estimating the disturbance and providing the unavailable differential estimate to implement output feedback based controller.

  14. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aĺvaro; Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez de Gorostiza; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-07-03

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human-robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human-robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications.

  15. Navigational Heads-Up Display: Will a Shipboard Augmented Electronic Navigation System Sink or Swim?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    of a working display platform onboard Navy warships 14. SUBJECT TERl"\\IS Conning, virtual reality , augmented reality , cognitive tunneling, ship 15...11 1. Virtual Reality ....................................................................................11 2. Augmented Reality ... Virtual Reality Systems ......18 D. SUMMARY ....................................................................................................20 III

  16. Flight Test Evaluation of the Three-Axis Mechanical Stability Augmentation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Results are presented of flight tests conducted to evaluate a three-axis mechanical stability augmentation system (MSAS), known as ’Dynagyro’, on a...UH-1 helicopter. The purpose of a stability augmentation system is to augment the stability and control characteristics of unstable or weakly stable

  17. Noise measurements of model jet-augmented lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    Noise measurements were obtained on models of jet-augmented lift systems which are currently being considered for use on proposed short takeoff and landing vehicles. These configurations included a conventional internally blown flap, an augmenter wing, an externally blown flap, and modifications of these basic concepts. The tests were conducted in the Langley anechoic noise facility at zero forward speed with cold air jets. The conventional internally blown flap exhibited lower noise levels than the augmenter wing and the externally blown flap at the same pressure ratios, being of the order of 8 dB or more at the lowest pressure ratio and of the order of 20 dB at the highest pressure ratio of the tests. The data also indicated that for the conventional internally blown flap, there may be an optimum gap size (other than zero) between the turning lip and the flap leading edge from the standpoint of minimum noise generation or admittance. Increasing the trailing-edge thickness of the plain internally blown flap produced no appreciable change in the overall sound pressure level or frequency spectral content in the range of the tests. The data indicated that at a position on the ground directly under the jet exit, the externally blown flap and the augmeter-wing overall noise levels are comparable to each other throughout the pressure range of the tests.

  18. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  19. Savonius rotor using swinging blades as an augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldos, T. K.

    The power output from a Savonius rotor can be improved by reducing the drag force on the up-wind blades. A new method of doing this is experimentally investigated in the present work. The method depends on allowing the rotor blades to swing back when they are on the upwind stroke. A high and real power augmentation may be achieved by the new system at an optimum angle of swing. The system is independent of wind direction, is simple to construct, and requires no additional accessories.

  20. Development of microprojection system of mixed and augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakova, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    The paper deals with the problems of development and designing of microprojection system of mixed and augmented reality designed so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding space as the background at the same time. The combiner on planar waveguides screens based on the composite structure of the prism elements was developed. In this work different results of the simulation with the TracePro software are considered and also the main problems encountered in the development of such systems are considered.

  1. Augmented tracking and acquisition system for GBL satellite illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Aaron; Goodrich, Alan; Lawson, David G.; Holm, Richard W.

    1991-08-01

    The Augmented Tracking and Acquisition System (ATAS) provides the tracking acquisition aids, line-of-sight stabilization, and active closed-loop beam centering functions at two ground-based laser tracking sites for the Relay Mirror Experiment (RME). Simultaneous, steady illumination of the RME spacecraft with both ground beacons allows for successful beam relay between the two sites off of the orbiting mirror. Described in this paper is an overview of the functions, control system architectures, major subsystem components (steering mirrors and sensors), and mission operation of the ATAS subsystems. A brief discussion of ATAS evolution is included to show that versatility is needed for success.

  2. Augmented reality to enhance an active telepresence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Alison; Pretlove, John R. G.; Parker, Graham A.

    1996-12-01

    Tasks carried out remotely via a telerobotic system are typically complex, occur in hazardous environments and require fine control of the robot's movements. Telepresence systems provide the teleoperator with a feeling of being physically present at the remote site. Stereoscopic video has been successfully applied to telepresence vision systems to increase the operator's perception of depth in the remote scene and this sense of presence can be further enhanced using computer generated stereo graphics to augment the visual information presented to the operator. The Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group have over seven years developed a number of high performance active stereo vision systems culminating in the latest, a four degree-of-freedom stereohead. This carries two miniature color cameras and is controlled in real time by the motion of the operator's head, who views the stereoscopic video images on an immersive head mounted display or stereo monitor. The stereohead is mounted on a mobile robot, the movement of which is controlled by a joystick interface. This paper describes the active telepresence system and the development of a prototype augmented reality (AR) application to enhance the operator's sense of presence at the remote site. The initial enhancements are a virtual map and compass to aid navigation in degraded visual conditions and a virtual cursor that provides a means for the operator to interact with the remote environment. The results of preliminary experiments using the initial enhancements are presented.

  3. Evaluating System Capabilities and User Performance in the Battlefield Augmented Reality System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    future military operations on ur- banized terrain, July 1997. [3] J. E. Cutting. How the eye measures reality and virtual real- ity. Behavior Research...Evaluating System Capabilities and User Performance in the Battlefield Augmented Reality System∗ Mark A. Livingston† J. Edward Swan II† Simon J...Abstract We describe a first experiment in evaluating the system capabilities of the Battlefield Augmented Reality System, an interactive system

  4. Interoperability of satellite-based augmentation systems for aircraft navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Donghai

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is pioneering a transformation of the national airspace system from its present ground based navigation and landing systems to a satellite based system using the Global Positioning System (GPS). To meet the critical safety-of-life aviation positioning requirements, a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS), the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), is being implemented to support navigation for all phases of flight, including Category I precision approach. The system is designed to be used as a primary means of navigation, capable of meeting the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and therefore must satisfy the accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements. In recent years there has been international acceptance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), spurring widespread growth in the independent development of SBASs. Besides the FAA's WAAS, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service System (EGNOS) and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau's MTSAT-Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) are also being actively developed. Although all of these SBASs can operate as stand-alone, regional systems, there is increasing interest in linking these SBASs together to reduce costs while improving service coverage. This research investigated the coverage and availability improvements due to cooperative efforts among regional SBAS networks. The primary goal was to identify the optimal interoperation strategies in terms of performance, complexity and practicality. The core algorithms associated with the most promising concepts were developed and demonstrated. Experimental verification of the most promising concepts was conducted using data collected from a joint international test between the National Satellite Test Bed (NSTB) and the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB). This research clearly shows that a simple switch between SBASs made by the airborne equipment is the most effective choice for achieving the

  5. FLIGHT EVALUATION OF A PILOT-ASSIST STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHT AIRCRAFT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of a light aircraft pilot-assist stability augmentation system in extricating the noninstrument...visual flight and instrument flight conditions. The aircraft was equipped with the pilot-assist system and a conventional stability augmentation system . The... augmentation system demonstrated that the utility of the pilot-assist system exceeded that of the conventional system. This relative utility was

  6. Registration using natural features for augmented reality systems.

    PubMed

    Yuan, M L; Ong, S K; Nee, A Y C

    2006-01-01

    Registration is one of the most difficult problems in augmented reality (AR) systems. In this paper, a simple registration method using natural features based on the projective reconstruction technique is proposed. This method consists of two steps: embedding and rendering. Embedding involves specifying four points to build the world coordinate system on which a virtual object will be superimposed. In rendering, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) feature tracker is used to track the natural feature correspondences in the live video. The natural features that have been tracked are used to estimate the corresponding projective matrix in the image sequence. Next, the projective reconstruction technique is used to transfer the four specified points to compute the registration matrix for augmentation. This paper also proposes a robust method for estimating the projective matrix, where the natural features that have been tracked are normalized (translation and scaling) and used as the input data. The estimated projective matrix will be used as an initial estimate for a nonlinear optimization method that minimizes the actual residual errors based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) minimization method, thus making the results more robust and stable. The proposed registration method has three major advantages: 1) It is simple, as no predefined fiducials or markers are used for registration for either indoor and outdoor AR applications. 2) It is robust, because it remains effective as long as at least six natural features are tracked during the entire augmentation, and the existence of the corresponding projective matrices in the live video is guaranteed. Meanwhile, the robust method to estimate the projective matrix can obtain stable results even when there are some outliers during the tracking process. 3) Virtual objects can still be superimposed on the specified areas, even if some parts of the areas are occluded during the entire process. Some indoor and outdoor experiments have

  7. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human–Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aívaro; de Gorostiza Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human–robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human–robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications. PMID:26151202

  8. Registration based on projective reconstruction technique for augmented reality systems.

    PubMed

    Yuan, M L; Ong, S K; Nee, A Y C

    2005-01-01

    In AR systems, registration is one of the most difficult problems currently limiting their application. In this paper, we propose a simple registration method using projective reconstruction. This method consists of two steps: embedding and tracking. Embedding involves specifying four points to build the world coordinate system on which a virtual object will be superimposed. In tracking, a projective reconstruction technique is used to track these four specified points to compute the model view transformation for augmentation. This method is simple, as only four points need to be specified at the embedding stage and the virtual object can then be easily augmented onto a real scene from a video sequence. In addition, it can be extended to a scenario using the projective matrix that has been obtained from previous registration results using the same AR system. The proposed method has three advantages: 1) It is fast because the linear least square method can be used to estimate the related matrix in the algorithm and it is not necessary to calculate the fundamental matrix in the extended case. 2) A virtual object can still be superimposed on a related area even if some parts of the specified area are occluded during the whole process. 3) This method is robust because it remains effective even when not all the reference points are detected during the whole process, as long as at least six pairs of related reference points correspondences can be found. Some experiments have been conducted to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  9. Controlling coexisting attractors of an impacting system via linear augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Páez Chávez, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    This paper studies the control of coexisting attractors in an impacting system via a recently developed control law based on linear augmentation. Special attention is given to two control issues in the framework of multistable engineering systems, namely, the switching between coexisting attractors without altering the system's main parameters and the avoidance of grazing-induced chaotic responses. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is confirmed numerically for the case of a periodically excited, soft impact oscillator. Our analysis shows how path-following techniques for non-smooth systems can be used in order to determine the optimal control parameters in terms of energy expenditure due to the control signal and transient behavior of the control error, which can be applied to a broad range of engineering problems.

  10. A reconfigurable real-time morphological system for augmented vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Ryan M.; Ahmadinia, Ali; McMeekin, Scott G.; Strang, Niall C.; Morison, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    There is a significant number of visually impaired individuals who suffer sensitivity loss to high spatial frequencies, for whom current optical devices are limited in degree of visual aid and practical application. Digital image and video processing offers a variety of effective visual enhancement methods that can be utilised to obtain a practical augmented vision head-mounted display device. The high spatial frequencies of an image can be extracted by edge detection techniques and overlaid on top of the original image to improve visual perception among the visually impaired. Augmented visual aid devices require highly user-customisable algorithm designs for subjective configuration per task, where current digital image processing visual aids offer very little user-configurable options. This paper presents a highly user-reconfigurable morphological edge enhancement system on field-programmable gate array, where the morphological, internal and external edge gradients can be selected from the presented architecture with specified edge thickness and magnitude. In addition, the morphology architecture supports reconfigurable shape structuring elements and configurable morphological operations. The proposed morphology-based visual enhancement system introduces a high degree of user flexibility in addition to meeting real-time constraints capable of obtaining 93 fps for high-definition image resolution.

  11. Augmenting Trust Establishment in Dynamic Systems with Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J; Kumar, Mohan; Venkatesh, Svetha; Lazarescu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Social networking has recently flourished in popularity through the use of social websites. Pervasive computing resources have allowed people stay well-connected to each other through access to social networking resources. We take the position that utilizing information produced by relationships within social networks can assist in the establishment of trust for other pervasive computing applications. Furthermore, we describe how such a system can augment a sensor infrastructure used for event observation with information from mobile sensors (ie, mobile phones with cameras) controlled by potentially untrusted third parties. Pervasive computing systems are invisible systems, oriented around the user. As a result, many future pervasive systems are likely to include a social aspect to the system. The social communities that are developed in these systems can augment existing trust mechanisms with information about pre-trusted entities or entities to initially consider when beginning to establish trust. An example of such a system is the Collaborative Virtual Observation (CoVO) system fuses sensor information from disaparate sources in soft real-time to recreate a scene that provides observation of an event that has recently transpired. To accomplish this, CoVO must efficently access services whilst protecting the data from corruption from unknown remote nodes. CoVO combines dynamic service composition with virtual observation to utilize existing infrastructure with third party services available in the environment. Since these services are not under the control of the system, they may be unreliable or malicious. When an event of interest occurs, the given infrastructure (bus cameras, etc.) may not sufficiently cover the necessary information (be it in space, time, or sensor type). To enhance observation of the event, infrastructure is augmented with information from sensors in the environment that the infrastructure does not control. These sensors may be unreliable

  12. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  13. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to robustly demonstrate stable and high performance flight. On its development path to preliminary design review (PDR), the stability of the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant dynamics. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm previously presented by Orr and VanZwieten, has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies for which the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria (e.g. gain & phase margin). In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  14. Preliminary development of augmented reality systems for spinal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhu Q.; Ramjist, Joel M.; Jivraj, Jamil; Jakubovic, Raphael; Deorajh, Ryan; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Surgical navigation has been more actively deployed in open spinal surgeries due to the need for improved precision during procedures. This is increasingly difficult in minimally invasive surgeries due to the lack of visual cues caused by smaller exposure sites, and increases a surgeon's dependence on their knowledge of anatomical landmarks as well as the CT or MRI images. The use of augmented reality (AR) systems and registration technologies in spinal surgeries could allow for improvements to techniques by overlaying a 3D reconstruction of patient anatomy in the surgeon's field of view, creating a mixed reality visualization. The AR system will be capable of projecting the 3D reconstruction onto a field and preliminary object tracking on a phantom. Dimensional accuracy of the mixed media will also be quantified to account for distortions in tracking.

  15. Development of Augmented Spark Impinging Igniter System for Methane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Osborne, Robin J.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) program is establishing multiple no-funds-exchanged Space Act Agreement (SAA) partnerships with U.S. private sector entities. The purpose of this program is to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers that can be integrated with U.S. commercial launch capabilities to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. NASA can share technology and expertise under the SAA for the benefit of the CATALYST partners. MSFC seeking to vacuum test Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter with methane and new exciter units to support CATALYST partners and NASA programs. ASI has previously been used/tested successfully at sea-level, with both O2/CH4 and O2/H2 propellants. Conventional ignition exciter systems historically experienced corona discharge issues in vacuum. Often utilized purging or atmospheric sealing on high voltage lead to remedy. Compact systems developed since PCAD could eliminate the high-voltage lead and directly couple the exciter to the spark igniter. MSFC developed Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter. Successfully used in several sea-level test programs. Plasma-assisted design. Portion of ox flow is used to generate hot plasma. Impinging flows downstream of plasma. Additional fuel flow down torch tube sleeve for cooling near stoichiometric torch flame. Testing done at NASA GRC Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) facility 2000-lbf class facility with altitude simulation up to around 100,000 ft. (0.2 psia [10 Torr]) via nitrogen driven ejectors. Propellant conditioning systems can provide temperature control of LOX/CH4 up to test article.

  16. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  17. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  18. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  19. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  20. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  1. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  2. Utility of augmented reality system in hepatobiliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Onda, Shinji; Matsumoto, Michinori; Gocho, Takeshi; Futagawa, Yasuro; Fujioka, Shuichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of an image display system for augmented reality in hepatobiliary surgery under laparotomy. An overlay display of organs, vessels, or tumor was obtained using a video see-through system as a display system developed at our institute. Registration between visceral organs and the surface-rendering image reconstructed by preoperative computed tomography (CT) was carried out with an optical location sensor. Using this system, we performed laparotomy for a patient with benign biliary stricture, a patient with gallbladder carcinoma, and a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. The operative procedures performed consisted of choledochojejunostomy, right hepatectomy, and microwave coagulation therapy. All the operations were carried out safely using images of the site of tumor, preserved organs, and resection aspect overlaid onto the operation field images observed on the monitors. The position of each organ in the overlaid image closely corresponded with that of the actual organ. Intraoperative information generated from this system provided us with useful navigation. However, several problems such as registration error and lack of depth knowledge were noted. The image display system appeared to be useful in performing hepatobiliary surgery under laparotomy. Further improvement of the system with individualized function for each operation will be essential, with feedback from clinical trials in the future.

  3. A see through future: augmented reality and health information systems.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a method whereby virtual objects are superimposed on the real world. AR technology is becoming increasingly accessible and affordable and it has many potential health applications. This paper discusses current research on AR health applications such as medical education and medical practice. Some of the potential future uses for this technology (e.g., health information systems, consumer health applications) will also be presented. Additionally, there will be a discussion outlining some of usability and human factors challenges associated with AR in healthcare. It is expected that AR will become increasingly prevalent in healthcare; however, further investigation is required to demonstrate that they provide benefits over traditional methods. Moreover, AR applications must be thoroughly tested to ensure they do not introduce new errors into practice and have patient safety implications.

  4. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  5. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  6. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  7. Interactive augmented reality system for product design review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Giandomenico; Re, Guido Maria

    2010-01-01

    The product development process, of industrial products, includes a phase dedicated to the design review that is a crucial phase where various experts cooperate in selecting the optimal product shape. Although computer graphics allows us to create very realistic virtual representations of the products, it is not uncommon that designers decide to build physical mock-ups of their newly conceived products because they need to physically interact with the prototype and also to evaluate the product within a plurality of real contexts. This paper describes the hardware and software development of our Augmented Reality design review system that allows to overcome some issues related to the 3D visualization and to the interaction with the virtual objects. Our system is composed by a Video See Through Head Mounted Display, which allows to improve the 3D visualization by controlling the convergence of the video cameras automatically, and a wireless control system, which allows us to create some metaphors to interact with the virtual objects. During the development of the system, in order to define and tune the algorithms, we have performed some testing sessions. Then, we have performed further tests in order to verify the effectiveness of the system and to collect additional data and comments about usability and ergonomic aspects.

  8. A Survey of Mobile and Wireless Technologies for Augmented Reality Systems (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Page 1 of 30 A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems George Papagiannakis*, Gurminder Singh**, Nadia...performance of the current task, enabling an “ Augmented Reality ” (AR) Caudell et al [2]. Although AR was meant to include mobility, it was not until...The Columbia Touring Machine” by Feiner et al [3] that the first outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality System (MARS) was created. Around the same time

  9. Scattering height estimation using scintillating Wide Area Augmentation System/Satellite Based Augmentation System and GPS satellite signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti, A. P.; Ledvina, B. M.; Kintner, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    An experiment to measure equatorial amplitude scintillations on the geostationary Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) signal was conducted in Cachoeira Paulista (22.70°S, 45.01°W geographic coordinates; -17.74°N, 21.74°E geomagnetic coordinates), Brazil from December 2003 through February 2004. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the scattering height of the irregularities using the WAAS signal scintillations as compared to nearby Global Positioning System (GPS) signal scintillations. Estimating the scattering height is important because the calculated zonal drift velocity of the irregularities using the measured scintillation pattern velocity on the ground is height dependent. Accurate height estimation is also required if one wishes to develop phase screen scintillation models. The difference in the pattern velocities is due to the different signal puncture point velocities with respect to the ionospheric drift. Two east-west receivers are used to measure the scintillation pattern drift velocity and to compare the results of the geostationary WAAS satellite signal to that of a GPS satellite signal, which has a nonzero ionospheric signal puncture point velocity. By varying the assumed scattering height for the measurements from the nearby GPS signal, the zonal velocity measurements from the GPS scintillations can be matched to those of the WAAS scintillations, and a scattering height estimate can be made. When the puncture points have minimal separation, the inferred ionospheric irregularity zonal velocities should be equal. On the two nights for which data are available, scattering height estimates of 669 ± 209 km for the first night and 388 ± 139 km for the second night were obtained. On the second night, the reported mean hmF2 as calculated using a collocated Digisonde was 385 ± 17 km over the same period as the GPS/WAAS scattering height estimate. The geometry of this experiment was not optimal, but

  10. Implementation of Robust Stability Augmentation Systems for a Blimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yong-Hwan; Kawashima, Mitsutoyo; Goto, Norihiro

    This paper applies robust control techniques to a blimp. The project “Mine Detection System Using Blimps” is in progress. The aim of the project is the development of a practical technique for the autonomous detection of landmines and their positions. In order for a blimp to perform observation and detection, precise flight path control is needed. The error resulting from modeling a real system cannot be avoided, however accurate the model is. In order to aim for realistic control, robust control can compensate model uncertainty. In the two-motion models presented (experimental model and analytical model), it was found that since the yawing motion mode is unstable, lateral-directional movement becomes unstable. This paper proposes a robust stability augmentation system for the yawing motion of the blimp developed for the project. The numerical simulation presents a comparison between a Kharitonov theory controller and a H∞ theory controller. The experimental results show that control of the blimp using a H∞ controller is more suitable for the project objective. An emphasis is placed on implementation of the controller.

  11. Augmentation of Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System to Improve Dilution of Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Achanta D.; Sultana, Quddusa; Srinivas, Vemuri Satya

    The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an autonomous and independent navigational system being developed by India. IRNSS will provide position, navigation and timing services for national applications. To improve accuracy, it can be augmented using GPS and pseudolites (pseudo-satellites). In this paper, the effect on DOP (Dilution of Precision) due to augmentation of the proposed constellation of IRNSS with pseudolites is investigated. GDOP is reduced to 163 (max) due to augmentation of IRNSS with two airport pseudolites (APLs). Due to augmentation of IRNSS with GPS, GDOP is reduced to 265 (max). The regional effect on DOP due to IRNSS is also investigated at different locations in the Indian region.

  12. Handling Qualities Evaluation, OH-58A Helicopter Incorporating a Ministab 3-Axis Stability Augmentation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    A limited handling qualities evaluation of the OH-58A helicopter incorporating the SFENA 3-axis stability augmentation system called Ministab was...Ministab stability augmentation system was manufactured by the Societe Francaise d’Equipements pour la Navigation Aerienne (SFENA) of France and made

  13. Augmented reality-based navigation system for wrist arthroscopy: feasibility.

    PubMed

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Mathoulin, Christophe L; Obdeijn, Miryam; Liverneaux, Philippe A

    2013-11-01

    In video surgery, and more specifically in arthroscopy, one of the major problems is positioning the camera and instruments within the anatomic environment. The concept of computer-guided video surgery has already been used in ear, nose, and throat (ENT), gynecology, and even in hip arthroscopy. These systems, however, rely on optical or mechanical sensors, which turn out to be restricting and cumbersome. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a navigation system based on electromagnetic sensors in video surgery. We used an electromagnetic localization device (Aurora, Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada) to track the movements in space of both the camera and the instruments. We have developed a dedicated application in the Python language, using the VTK library for the graphic display and the OpenCV library for camera calibration. A prototype has been designed and evaluated for wrist arthroscopy. It allows display of the theoretical position of instruments onto the arthroscopic view with useful accuracy. The augmented reality view represents valuable assistance when surgeons want to position the arthroscope or locate their instruments. It makes the maneuver more intuitive, increases comfort, saves time, and enhances concentration.

  14. Augmented Reality-Based Navigation System for Wrist Arthroscopy: Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Mathoulin, Christophe L.; Liverneaux, Philippe A.; Obdeijn, Miryam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In video surgery, and more specifically in arthroscopy, one of the major problems is positioning the camera and instruments within the anatomic environment. The concept of computer-guided video surgery has already been used in ear, nose, and throat (ENT), gynecology, and even in hip arthroscopy. These systems, however, rely on optical or mechanical sensors, which turn out to be restricting and cumbersome. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a navigation system based on electromagnetic sensors in video surgery. Methods We used an electromagnetic localization device (Aurora, Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada) to track the movements in space of both the camera and the instruments. We have developed a dedicated application in the Python language, using the VTK library for the graphic display and the OpenCV library for camera calibration. Results A prototype has been designed and evaluated for wrist arthroscopy. It allows display of the theoretical position of instruments onto the arthroscopic view with useful accuracy. Discussion The augmented reality view represents valuable assistance when surgeons want to position the arthroscope or locate their instruments. It makes the maneuver more intuitive, increases comfort, saves time, and enhances concentration. PMID:24436832

  15. An augmented reality binocular system (ARBS) for air traffic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbrook, Jim E.; Ruffner, John W.; Labbe, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The primary means by which air traffic tower controllers obtain information is through direct out-thewindow viewing, although a considerable amount of time is spent looking at electronic displays and other information sources inside the tower cab. The Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored the development of a prototype Augmented Reality Binocular System (ARBS) that enhances tower controller performance, situation awareness, and safety. The ARBS is composed of a virtual binocular (VB) that displays real-time imagery from high resolution telephoto cameras and sensors mounted on pan/tilt units (PTUs). The selected PTU tracks to the movement of the VB, which has an inertial heading and elevation sensor. Relevant airfield situation text and graphic depictions that identify airfield features are overlaid on the imagery. In addition, the display is capable of labeling and tracking vehicles on which an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system has been installed. The ARBS provides air traffic controllers and airfield security forces with the capability to orient toward, observe, and conduct continuous airfield operations and surveillance/security missions from any number of viewing aspects in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we describe the ARBS in detail, discuss the results of a Usability Test of the prototype ARBS, and discuss ideas for follow-on efforts to develop the ARBS to a fieldable level.

  16. [Modular reconstruction in acetabular revision with antiprotrusio cages and metal augments : the cage-and-augment system].

    PubMed

    Günther, K-P; Wegner, T; Kirschner, S; Hartmann, A

    2014-04-01

    Restore primary center of rotation and reconstruct extensive bone defects in hip revision surgery with a modular off-label implant combined with antiprotrusion cage and metal augment, thus, achieving improved hip function. Large segmental acetabular defects with nonsupportive columns (Paprosky type 3a and 3b) in cup loosening or Girdlestone situation. In case of pelvic discontinuity posterior column-plating is possible. Persisting hip infection and severe systemic disorders impairing achievement of secondary stability through bony integration of metal augment. Posterolateral (if dorsal column plating) or other approach. Remove loose implant and granulation tissue with sufficient exposure of bleeding bone. Size acetabular defect with trial components of augment and appropriate antiprotrusio cage. Fixation of selected metal augment with screws. Fill additional acetabular defects with morsellized bone graft. Open a slot into the ischium to fix the distal flange of the cage. If necessary, bend both flanges according to patient's anatomy. Enter the ischium with distal flange and gradual impaction of the antiprotrusio ring. Final stabilization of the ring with several screws aiming at the posterior column or the acetabular dome. Inject cement between ring and augment to stabilize the construction and avoid metal wear. Final cement fixation of a polyethylene liner or a dual-mobility cup into the antiprotrusio ring. In pelvic discontinuity with major instability osteosynthesis of the dorsal column can be performed prior to cementation. Prophylaxis of periprosthetic infection, DVT and heterotopic ossification. Physical therapy with partial weight bearing (20 kp) for 6 weeks; in discontinuity initial wheel chair mobilization. Since 2008, 72 off-label implantations of a combined antiprotrusio cage and a Trabecular Metal™ Augment were performed. A total of 44 patients (46 operations) were investigated at 38.8 (36-51) months postoperatively. In all, 36 patients had a

  17. Context-Aware Based Efficient Training System Using Augmented Reality and Gravity Sensor for Healthcare Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seoksoo; Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kang, Byong-Ho

    As augmented reality and a gravity sensor is of growing interest, siginificant developement is being made on related technology, which allows application of the technology in a variety of areas with greater expectations. In applying Context-aware to augmented reality, it can make useful programs. A traning system suggested in this study helps a user to understand an effcienct training method using augmented reality and make sure if his exercise is being done propery based on the data collected by a gravity sensor. Therefore, this research aims to suggest an efficient training environment that can enhance previous training methods by applying augmented reality and a gravity sensor.

  18. Architecture and Key Techniques of Augmented Reality Maintenance Guiding System for Civil Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hong, Zhou; Wenhua, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality technology is introduced into the maintenance related field for strengthened information in real-world scenarios through integration of virtual assistant maintenance information with real-world scenarios. This can lower the difficulty of maintenance, reduce maintenance errors, and improve the maintenance efficiency and quality of civil aviation crews. Architecture of augmented reality virtual maintenance guiding system is proposed on the basis of introducing the definition of augmented reality and analyzing the characteristics of augmented reality virtual maintenance. Key techniques involved, such as standardization and organization of maintenance data, 3D registration, modeling of maintenance guidance information and virtual maintenance man-machine interaction, are elaborated emphatically, and solutions are given.

  19. Cadaveric Scapholunate Reconstruction Using the Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Wagels, Michael; Tham, Stephen K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated scapholunate ligament disruption may lead to progressive wrist arthritis. Current techniques used to treat the disruption may not prevent arthritis because of attenuation of a reconstructive ligament substitute or failure to re-establish normal wrist kinematics. Questions/Purposes This study evaluates a combined synthetic-autologous technique for the treatment of scapholunate dissociation. Methods Scapholunate dissociation was created in six cadaveric wrists. The dorsal and volar components of the scapholunate ligament were reconstructed using the Ligament Augmentation & Reconstruction System (LARS; LARS, Arc-sur-Tille, France) and a modified Blatt capsulodesis performed. Reconstructed wrists were subjected to cyclic passive motion. Outcomes were measured radiologically and compared using Student's t-test. Results Carpal alignment was re-established following scapholunate ligament reconstruction. Carpal alignment was maintained after cyclic loading. Conclusions The technique described corrected the carpal malalignment associated with scapholunate dissociation. Corrected positions were maintained after one thousand cycles of flexion and extension without fraying or loosening of the LARS. Clinical Relevance Current popular techniques for scapholunate reconstruction do not address the important dorsal and palmar components of the ligament that control their intercarpal motion. Reconstruction of the dorsal and palmar components of the scapholunate ligament can be achieved through a dorsal approach to the wrist. PMID:25097813

  20. An improved ionospheric model for the Wide Area Augmentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Altshuler, E.

    2004-02-01

    We provide an enhanced model of the errors induced by deviations of ionospheric delays from those estimated by the planar model used by the GPS-based Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). To a first approximation the nominal ionospheric spatial decorrelation of vertical equivalent signal delays, σdecorrnom, is roughly constant over the whole of the WAAS service volume. However, significant gains may be achieved by including a more detailed description of σdecorrnom as a function of various metrics such as geomagnetic latitude, time of day, as well as the quality of the planar fit as characterized by the radius, relative centroid of the fit, and the density of delay data. We take the first step in the development of this more sophisticated model by determining which of these parameters is best suited for use as a metric for determining σdecorrnom. This allows us to construct a first-order model of the ionospheric decorrelation which depends on the local density of ionospheric pierce points. Our preliminary study indicates that this first-order model will result in a better than 20% reduction in the values of broadcast grid ionospheric vertical errors (GIVEs) within the coterminous United States. We also observe a better than 50% reduction in trips of the ionospheric irregularity detector in the Alaska region, which will lead to significant improvements to continuity, although this comes at the cost of a roughly 20% increase in the median GIVE in the Alaska region.

  1. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    plate aperture produces diffraction patterns that change the shape of the focal blur pattern. When used as an aperture, the Fresnel zone plate produces multiple focal planes in the scene. The interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that can be observed both between the focal planes and beyond the most distant focal plane. The Fresnel zone plate aperture and lens may be designed to change in the focal blur pattern at greater depths, thereby improving measurement performance of the coded aperture system. This research provides an in-depth study of the Fresnel zone plate used as a coded aperture, and the performance improvement obtained by augmenting a single camera vision aided inertial navigation system with a Fresnel zone plate coded aperture. Design and analysis of a generalized coded aperture is presented and demonstrated, and special considerations for the Fresnel zone plate are given. Also techniques to determine a continuous depth measurement from a coded image are presented and evaluated through measurement. Finally the measurement results from different aperture configurations are statistically modeled and compared with a simulated vision aided navigation environment to predict the change in performance of a vision aided inertial navigation system when augmented with a coded aperture.

  2. Military Global Positioning System (GPS) Augmentation System (MGAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    provides forward-deployed forces, i.e. Special Forces Operational Detachment Team Alphas, Seal Teams and Long Range Reconnaissance Detachment teams ...System • Army/Marine Corps Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) • Army’s Grenadier BRAT (GB) Blue Force Tracking Device Tactical...providing greater signal power in theater through the use of the MGAS spot beam. 6 Existing GPS Wartime Values Proposed Low-Risk MGAS Technology

  3. Augmented reality guidance system for peripheral nerve blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Rachinsky, Maxim; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wiles, Andrew D.; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Peripheral nerve block treatments are ubiquitous in hospitals and pain clinics worldwide. State of the art techniques use ultrasound (US) guidance and/or electrical stimulation to verify needle tip location. However, problems such as needle-US beam alignment, poor echogenicity of block needles and US beam thickness can make it difficult for the anesthetist to know the exact needle tip location. Inaccurate therapy delivery raises obvious safety and efficacy issues. We have developed and evaluated a needle guidance system that makes use of a magnetic tracking system (MTS) to provide an augmented reality (AR) guidance platform to accurately localize the needle tip as well as its projected trajectory. Five anesthetists and five novices performed simulated nerve block deliveries in a polyvinyl alcohol phantom to compare needle guidance under US alone to US placed in our AR environment. Our phantom study demonstrated a decrease in targeting attempts, decrease in contacting of critical structures, and an increase in accuracy of 0.68 mm compared to 1.34mm RMS in US guidance alone. Currently, the MTS uses 18 and 21 gauge hypodermic needles with a 5 degree of freedom sensor located at the needle tip. These needles can only be sterilized using an ethylene oxide process. In the interest of providing clinicians with a simple and efficient guidance system, we also evaluated attaching the sensor at the needle hub as a simple clip-on device. To do this, we simultaneously performed a needle bending study to assess the reliability of a hub-based sensor.

  4. Development of a low risk augmentation system for an energy efficient transport having relaxed static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizlo, T. R.; Berg, R. A.; Gilles, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    An augmentation system for a 230 passenger, twin engine aircraft designed with a relaxation of conventional longitudinal static stability was developed. The design criteria are established and candidate augmentation system control laws and hardware architectures are formulated and evaluated with respect to reliability, flying qualities, and flight path tracking performance. The selected systems are shown to satisfy the interpreted regulatory safety and reliability requirements while maintaining the present DC 10 (study baseline) level of maintainability and reliability for the total flight control system. The impact of certification of the relaxed static stability augmentation concept is also estimated with regard to affected federal regulations, system validation plan, and typical development/installation costs.

  5. Development of Augmented Spark Impinging Igniter System for Methane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Osborne, Robin J.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) program is establishing multiple no-funds-exchanged Space Act Agreement (SAA) partnerships with U.S. private sector entities. The purpose of this program is to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers that can be integrated with U.S. commercial launch capabilities to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. As part of the efforts in Lander Technologies, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) engine technology to share with the Lunar CATALYST partners. Liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants are attractive owing to their relatively high specific impulse for chemical propulsion systems, modest storage requirements, and adaptability to NASA's Journey to Mars plans. Methane has also been viewed as a possible propellant choice for lunar missions, owing to the performance benefits and as a technology development stepping stone to Martian missions. However, in the development of methane propulsion, methane ignition has historically been viewed as a high risk area in the development of such an engine. A great deal of work has been conducted in the past decade devoted to risk reduction in LOX/CH4 ignition. This paper will review and summarize the history and results of LOX/CH4 ignition programs conducted at NASA. More recently, a NASA-developed Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter body, which utilizes a conventional spark exciter system, is being tested with LOX/CH4 to help support internal and commercial engine development programs, such as those in Lunar CATALYST. One challenge with spark exciter systems, especially at altitude conditions, is the ignition lead that transmits the high voltage pulse from the exciter to the spark igniter (spark plug). The ignition lead can be prone to corona discharge, reducing the energy delivered by the spark and potentially causing non-ignition events. For the current work, a

  6. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, David B; Boone, John M; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice.

  7. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography.

    PubMed

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called "depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality". A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  8. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  9. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  10. Satellite augmentation of cellular type mobile radio telephone systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy E.

    NASA's ATS-6 satellite relayed voice bandwidth communications between five trucks and the trucking company dispatchers as the trucks traveled throughout the north-eastern quarter of the contiguous United States. The experiment, conducted over a seven month period, demonstrated that propagation characteristics are much different for the satellite-mobile links than for terrestrial-mobile links. A properly designed satellite system can provide high quality, reliable voice and data communications except where the vehicle-satellite path is shadowed by a structure or terrain feature. Mobile equipment in the experiment was adapted from commercial mobile radios. The vehicle antennas were 75 cm tall, 2 cm diam. Another experiment proved the feasibility of vehicle position surveillance using active two-way tone-code ranging through ATS-6 to provide one line of position and passive one-way ranging by measuring the time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite. A position fix was printed out at an earth station 1 sec after it sent the interrogation signal to the distant vehicle, a towboat on the Mississippi River. The line of position from ATS-6 was accurate to 0.1 nautical mile using a voice bandwidth ranging signal. The line of position from the NOAA GOES satellite was accurate to 2 miles, using 100 Hz signal bandwidth. If the signal from the independent satellite had the same bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio as ATS-6, the fixes would have been accurate to about 0.1 nautical mile. A concept study concluded that satellites might be a cost effective augmentation of terrestrial cellular type mobile radio telephone systems. The satellites would serve thinly populated areas where terrestrial systems are not cost effective. In the United States, the satellites would serve about 90% of the land area where 20% of the population resides. A multibeam satellite with many channels in each beam would be compatible with the urban terrestrial systems and together they would

  11. Augmented Virtual Reality: How to Improve Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students' learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students' knowledge acquisition.…

  12. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  13. Review of Augmented Paper Systems in Education: An Orchestration Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis P.; Wen, Yun; Caballero, Daniela; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Augmented paper has been proposed as a way to integrate more easily ICTs in settings like formal education, where paper has a strong presence. However, despite the multiplicity of educational applications using paper-based computing, their deployment in authentic settings is still marginal. To better understand this gap between research proposals…

  14. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  15. Design of nonlinear observer by augmented linear system based on formal linearization using fourier expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Kazuo; Takata, Hitoshi

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we consider an observer design by using a formal linearization based on Fourier expansion for nonlinear dynamic and measurement systems. A non-linear dynamic system is given by a nonlinear ordinary differential equation, and a measurement sysetm is done by a nonlinear equation. Defining a linearization function which consists of the trigonometric functions considered up to the higher-order, a nonlinear dynamic system is transformed into an augmented linear one with respect to this linearization function by using Fourier expansion. Introducing an augmented measurement vector which consists of polynomials of measurement data, a measurement equation is transformed into an augmented linear one with respect to the linearization function in the same way. To these augmented linearized systems, a linear estimation theory is applied to design a new non-linear observer.

  16. Analysis of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for application to supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical and mechanization study was conducted for two flutter stability augmentation systems. One concept uses only the wing trailing edge control surface. Another concept uses leading and trailing edge control surfaces operating simultaneously. The combined use of leading and trailing edge control surfaces should improve the surface coupling (controllability) with vertical bending and torsional structural modes and decrease the coupling between bending and torsional modes. The study was directed toward stability augmentation systems characteristics for the supersonic transport aircraft.

  17. Rationale and therapeutic opportunities for natriuretic peptide system augmentation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    McKie, Paul M; Burnett, John C

    2015-02-01

    The natriuretic peptide system (NPS) is intimately involved in cardiorenal homeostasis in health, and dysregulation of the NPS plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Indeed, the diuretic, vasorelaxation, beneficial remodeling, and potent neurohumoral inhibition of the NPS support the therapeutic development of chronic augmentation of the NPS in symptomatic HF. Further, chronic augmentation of the protective NPS and in early stages of HF may ultimately prevent the progression of HF and reduced subsequent morbidity and mortality. In the current manuscript, we review the rationale for as well as previous and current efforts aimed at chronic therapeutic augmentation of the NPS in HF.

  18. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  19. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  20. A Multimedia, Augmented Reality Interactive System for the Application of a Guided School Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ko-Chun; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Chu, Sheng-Kai; Su, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chia-Yen; Chen, Chi-Fa

    The paper describes an implementation of a multimedia, augmented reality system used for a guided school tour. The aim of this work is to improve the level of interactions between a viewer and the system by means of augmented reality. In the implemented system, hand motions are captured via computer vision based approaches and analyzed to extract representative actions which are used to interact with the system. In this manner, tactile peripheral hardware such as keyboard and mouse can be eliminated. In addition, the proposed system also aims to reduce hardware related costs and avoid health risks associated with contaminations by contact in public areas.

  1. A novel augmented reality system for displaying inferior alveolar nerve bundles in maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Chai, Gang; Pan, Jun J.; Jiang, Taoran; Lin, Li; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality systems can combine virtual images with a real environment to ensure accurate surgery with lower risk. This study aimed to develop a novel registration and tracking technique to establish a navigation system based on augmented reality for maxillofacial surgery. Specifically, a virtual image is reconstructed from CT data using 3D software. The real environment is tracked by the augmented reality (AR) software. The novel registration strategy that we created uses an occlusal splint compounded with a fiducial marker (OSM) to establish a relationship between the virtual image and the real object. After the fiducial marker is recognized, the virtual image is superimposed onto the real environment, forming the “integrated image” on semi-transparent glass. Via the registration process, the integral image, which combines the virtual image with the real scene, is successfully presented on the semi-transparent helmet. The position error of this navigation system is 0.96 ± 0.51 mm. This augmented reality system was applied in the clinic and good surgical outcomes were obtained. The augmented reality system that we established for maxillofacial surgery has the advantages of easy manipulation and high accuracy, which can improve surgical outcomes. Thus, this system exhibits significant potential in clinical applications. PMID:28198442

  2. A novel augmented reality system for displaying inferior alveolar nerve bundles in maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Chai, Gang; Pan, Jun J; Jiang, Taoran; Lin, Li; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-02-15

    Augmented reality systems can combine virtual images with a real environment to ensure accurate surgery with lower risk. This study aimed to develop a novel registration and tracking technique to establish a navigation system based on augmented reality for maxillofacial surgery. Specifically, a virtual image is reconstructed from CT data using 3D software. The real environment is tracked by the augmented reality (AR) software. The novel registration strategy that we created uses an occlusal splint compounded with a fiducial marker (OSM) to establish a relationship between the virtual image and the real object. After the fiducial marker is recognized, the virtual image is superimposed onto the real environment, forming the "integrated image" on semi-transparent glass. Via the registration process, the integral image, which combines the virtual image with the real scene, is successfully presented on the semi-transparent helmet. The position error of this navigation system is 0.96 ± 0.51 mm. This augmented reality system was applied in the clinic and good surgical outcomes were obtained. The augmented reality system that we established for maxillofacial surgery has the advantages of easy manipulation and high accuracy, which can improve surgical outcomes. Thus, this system exhibits significant potential in clinical applications.

  3. An activity systemic approach to augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Hedvall, Per-Olof; Rydeman, Bitte

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and highlight how Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can contribute to the understanding of the different factors at play when a person is using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). It is based on data from a 3-year project concerning activity-based vocabulary design of voice output communication aids (VOCAs). Four persons who used AAC and their assistants were interviewed about shopping activities and their views about a vocabulary that included pre-stored phrases. A CHAT model, the Activity Diamond, was applied in an analysis of the data. The result was a multiplicity of human, artifactual, and natural factors, in which six themes were identified: Attitude/Preference, Expectation/Trust, Goal/Power, Place/Space, Time/Learning, and Usability/Accessibility. The themes are exemplified and discussed in relation to AAC.

  4. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part...

  5. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part...

  6. Multimodal user input to supervisory control systems - Voice-augmented keyboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Forren, Michelle G.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a voice-augmented keyboard input modality is evaluated in a supervisory control application. An implementation of voice recognition technology in supervisory control is proposed: voice is used to request display pages, while the keyboard is used to input system reconfiguration commands. Twenty participants controlled GT-MSOCC, a high-fidelity simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system, via a workstation equipped with either a single keyboard or a voice-augmented keyboard. Experimental results showed that in all cases where significant performance differences occurred, performance with the voice-augmented keyboard modality was inferior to and had greater variance than the keyboard-only modality. These results suggest that current moderately priced voice recognition systems are an inappropriate human-computer interaction technology in supervisory control systems.

  7. Multimodal user input to supervisory control systems - Voice-augmented keyboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Forren, Michelle G.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a voice-augmented keyboard input modality is evaluated in a supervisory control application. An implementation of voice recognition technology in supervisory control is proposed: voice is used to request display pages, while the keyboard is used to input system reconfiguration commands. Twenty participants controlled GT-MSOCC, a high-fidelity simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system, via a workstation equipped with either a single keyboard or a voice-augmented keyboard. Experimental results showed that in all cases where significant performance differences occurred, performance with the voice-augmented keyboard modality was inferior to and had greater variance than the keyboard-only modality. These results suggest that current moderately priced voice recognition systems are an inappropriate human-computer interaction technology in supervisory control systems.

  8. Analytical design of a high performance stability and control augmentation system for a hingeless rotor helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyajima, K.

    1978-01-01

    A stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) was designed based on a set of comprehensive performance criteria. Linear optimal control theory was applied to determine appropriate feedback gains for the stability augmentation system (SAS). The helicopter was represented by six-degree-of-freedom rigid body equations of motion and constant factors were used as weightings for state and control variables. The ratio of these factors was employed as a parameter for SAS analysis and values of the feedback gains were selected on this basis to satisfy three of the performance criteria for full and partial state feedback systems. A least squares design method was then applied to determine control augmentation system (CAS) cross feed gains to satisfy the remaining seven performance criteria. The SCAS gains were then evaluated by nine degree-of-freedom equations which include flapping motion and conclusions drawn concerning the necessity of including the pitch/regressing and roll/regressing modes in SCAS analyses.

  9. Human Augmentics: augmenting human evolution.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.

  10. Augmented-reality visualization in iMRI operating room: system description and preclinical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Frank; Khamene, Ali; Bascle, Benedicte; Vogt, Sebastian; Rubino, Gregory

    2002-05-01

    We developed an augmented reality system targeting image guidance for surgical procedures. The surgeon wears a video- see-through head mounted display that provides him with a stereo video view of the patient. The live video images are augmented with graphical representations of anatomical structures that are segmented from medical image data. The surgeon can see, e.g., a tumor in its actual location inside the patient. This in-situ visualization, where the computer maps the image information onto the patient, promises the most direct, intuitive guidance for surgical procedures. In this paper, we describe technical details of the system and its installation in UCLA's iMRI operating room. We added instrument tracking to the capabilities of our system to prepare it for minimally invasive procedures. We discuss several pre-clinical phantom experiments that support the potential clinical usefulness of augmented reality guidance.

  11. Augmented reality system for CT-guided interventions: system description and initial phantom trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Frank; Schoepf, Uwe J.; Khamene, Ali; Vogt, Sebastian; Das, Marco; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system, in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The interventionalist wears a head-mounted display (HMD) that presents him with the augmented stereo view. The HMD is custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. A third video camera, operating in the near IR, is also attached to the HMD and is used for head tracking. The system achieves real-time performance of 30 frames per second. The graphics appears firmly anchored in the scne, without any noticeable swimming or jitter or time lag. For the application of CT-guided interventions, we extended our original prototype system to include tracking of a biopsy needle to which we attached a set of optical markers. The AR visualization provides very intuitive guidance for planning and placement of the needle and reduces radiation to patient and radiologist. We used an interventional abdominal phantom with simulated liver lesions to perform an inital set of experiments. The users were consistently able to locate the target lesion with the first needle pass. These results provide encouragement to move the system towards clinical trials.

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of Learning Solid Geometry by Using an Augmented Reality-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chen, Mei-Chi; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates augmented reality (AR) technology into teaching activities to design a learning system that assists junior high-school students in learning solid geometry. The following issues are addressed: (1) the relationship between achievements in mathematics and performance in spatial perception; (2) whether system-assisted learning…

  13. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... exceptional pilot skill or strength, by either the deactivation of the system, or a failed portion thereof, or...

  14. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... requiring exceptional pilot skill or strength, by either the deactivation of the system or a failed portion...

  15. Assessing the Effectiveness of Learning Solid Geometry by Using an Augmented Reality-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chen, Mei-Chi; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates augmented reality (AR) technology into teaching activities to design a learning system that assists junior high-school students in learning solid geometry. The following issues are addressed: (1) the relationship between achievements in mathematics and performance in spatial perception; (2) whether system-assisted learning…

  16. [Development of a computer-aided system for augmentation mammaplasty simulation].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jian; Jun, Feng; Gao, Jian-Hu; Li, Shi-Heng; Cao, Lei

    2007-10-01

    A method for developing a three-dimensional visual system for simulating augmentation mammaplasty based on OpenGL is proposed. The 3D reconstruction of breast surface using NURBS, reality simulation of the breast surface, parametric design of mammary prosthesis, and simulation of postoperative effect are described. The system may provide a means for better communication between the surgeons and patients.

  17. Experiences with an Augmented Human Intellect System: A Revolution in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair, James H.

    The Augmented Human Intellect System (AHI) has been designed to facilitate communication among knowledge workers who may accomplish their entire job utilizing this advanced technology. The system is capable of sending information to geographically distributed users. It permits access to and modification of stored information by a number of persons…

  18. "On the Augmented Cognition Approach to Early Warning Systems- Human System Integration NASA Experiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achimowicz, Jerzy; Bakowski, Rafal; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The authors present results related to the implementation of augmented cognition approach to severe weather early warning systems in aviation and aerospace operational environment. The limitations of automation and adaptive approach in severe weather warning systems are discussed. Also the positive impact of HSI (Human System Integration) NASA approach will be shown, in the process of pilot training in minimal weather conditions. The flight safety procedures related to weather conditions will be analyzed and the meteorological general aviation weather support product developed at IMGW will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on the integration of the military and civilian weather radar/lighting detection systems and the impact of space weather on aerospace operations including the use of unmanned RPAS (Remotely Controlled Aircraf Systems). J.Z. Achimowicz is also affiliated with Flight Safety Division of Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

  19. Development of a remote digital augmentation system and application to a remotely piloted research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective approach to flight testing advanced control concepts with remotely piloted vehicles is described. The approach utilizes a ground based digital computer coupled to the remotely piloted vehicle's motion sensors and control surface actuators through telemetry links to provide high bandwidth feedback control. The system was applied to the control of an unmanned 3/8-scale model of the F-15 airplane. The model was remotely augmented; that is, the F-15 mechanical and control augmentation flight control systems were simulated by the ground-based computer, rather than being in the vehicle itself. The results of flight tests of the model at high angles of attack are discussed.

  20. Variational Geminal-augmented Multireference Self-consistent Field Theory: Two-electron Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Varganov, Sergey

    2010-06-18

    We introduce a geminal-augmented multiconfigurational self-consistent field method for describing electron correlation effects. The approach is based on variational optimization of a MCSCF-type wave function augmented by a single geminal. This wave function is able to account for some dynamic correlation without explicit excitations to virtual molecular orbitals. Test calculations on two-electron systems demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to describe ionic and covalent electronic states in a balanced way, i.e., including the effects of both static and dynamic correlation simultaneously. Extension of the theory to larger systems will potentially provide an alternative to standard multireference methods.

  1. Research on gesture recognition of augmented reality maintenance guiding system based on improved SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shouwei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Bin; Ma, Dongxi

    2014-09-01

    Interaction is one of the key techniques of augmented reality (AR) maintenance guiding system. Because of the complexity of the maintenance guiding system's image background and the high dimensionality of gesture characteristics, the whole process of gesture recognition can be divided into three stages which are gesture segmentation, gesture characteristic feature modeling and trick recognition. In segmentation stage, for solving the misrecognition of skin-like region, a segmentation algorithm combing background mode and skin color to preclude some skin-like regions is adopted. In gesture characteristic feature modeling of image attributes stage, plenty of characteristic features are analyzed and acquired, such as structure characteristics, Hu invariant moments features and Fourier descriptor. In trick recognition stage, a classifier based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is introduced into the augmented reality maintenance guiding process. SVM is a novel learning method based on statistical learning theory, processing academic foundation and excellent learning ability, having a lot of issues in machine learning area and special advantages in dealing with small samples, non-linear pattern recognition at high dimension. The gesture recognition of augmented reality maintenance guiding system is realized by SVM after the granulation of all the characteristic features. The experimental results of the simulation of number gesture recognition and its application in augmented reality maintenance guiding system show that the real-time performance and robustness of gesture recognition of AR maintenance guiding system can be greatly enhanced by improved SVM.

  2. Analysis of Aeroheating Augmentation due to Reaction Control System Jets on Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Buck, Gregory M.; Decaro, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of effects of the reaction control system jet plumes on aftbody heating of Orion entry capsule is presented. The analysis covered hypersonic continuum part of the entry trajectory. Aerothermal environments at flight conditions were evaluated using Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) code and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) algorithm code. Results show a marked augmentation of aftbody heating due to roll, yaw and aft pitch thrusters. No significant augmentation is expected due to forward pitch thrusters. Of the conditions surveyed the maximum heat rate on the aftshell is expected when firing a pair of roll thrusters at a maximum deceleration condition.

  3. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  4. Augmented reality system for MR-guided interventions: phantom studies and first animal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Sebastian; Wacker, Frank; Khamene, Ali; Elgort, Daniel R.; Sielhorst, Tobias; Niemann, Heinrich; Duerk, Jeff; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Sauer, Frank

    2004-05-01

    We developed an augmented reality navigation system for MR-guided interventions. A head-mounted display provides in real-time a stereoscopic video-view of the patient, which is augmented with three-dimensional medical information to perform MR-guided needle placement procedures. Besides with the MR image information, we augment the scene with 3D graphics representing a forward extension of the needle and the needle itself. During insertion, the needle can be observed virtually at its actual location in real-time, supporting the interventional procedure in an efficient and intuitive way. In this paper we report on quantitative results of AR guided needle placement procedures on gel phantoms with embedded targets of 12mm and 6mm diameter; we furthermore evaluate our first animal experiment involving needle insertion into deep lying anatomical structures of a pig.

  5. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must...

  6. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be...

  7. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be...

  8. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense and deactivating the...

  9. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must...

  10. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  11. A Mobile Augmented Reality System for the Learning of Dental Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, M.-Carmen; Alexandrescu, Lucian; Folguera, Fernando; García-García, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional models are important when the learning content is difficult to acquire from 2D images or other traditional methods. This is the case for learning dental morphology. In this paper, we present a mobile augmented reality (AR) system for learning dental morphology. A study with students was carried out to determine whether learning…

  12. An investigation of separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The status of a project to develop and evaluate separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft is discussed. The electrical design, roll heading hold is described and schematic diagrams and an operational description are provided. The flight tests program is explained. Various failure conditions are proposed and the effects on the stability of the aircraft are analyzed.

  13. Design of a Helicopter Stability and Control Augmentation System Using Optimal Control Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    technique is described for the design of multivariable feedback controllers based upon results in optimal control theory . For a specified performance...helicopter flight envelope. The results show that optimal control theory can be used to design a helicopter stability and control augmentation system

  14. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  15. A novel augmented reality system of image projection for image-guided neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mahvash, Mehran; Besharati Tabrizi, Leila

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality systems combine virtual images with a real environment. To design and develop an augmented reality system for image-guided surgery of brain tumors using image projection. A virtual image was created in two ways: (1) MRI-based 3D model of the head matched with the segmented lesion of a patient using MRIcro software (version 1.4, freeware, Chris Rorden) and (2) Digital photograph based model in which the tumor region was drawn using image-editing software. The real environment was simulated with a head phantom. For direct projection of the virtual image to the head phantom, a commercially available video projector (PicoPix 1020, Philips) was used. The position and size of the virtual image was adjusted manually for registration, which was performed using anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers position. An augmented reality system for image-guided neurosurgery using direct image projection has been designed successfully and implemented in first evaluation with promising results. The virtual image could be projected to the head phantom and was registered manually. Accurate registration (mean projection error: 0.3 mm) was performed using anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers position. The direct projection of a virtual image to the patients head, skull, or brain surface in real time is an augmented reality system that can be used for image-guided neurosurgery. In this paper, the first evaluation of the system is presented. The encouraging first visualization results indicate that the presented augmented reality system might be an important enhancement of image-guided neurosurgery.

  16. An augmented reality system for upper-limb post-stroke motor rehabilitation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Assis, Gilda Aparecida de; Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; Martins, Maria Bernardete Rodrigues; Pedrozo, Wendel Goes; Lopes, Roseli de Deus

    2016-08-01

    To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation.

  17. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  18. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  19. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  20. Technical experience from clinical studies with INPRES and a concept for a miniature augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudra, Gunther; Marmulla, Ruediger; Salb, Tobias; Gockel, Tilo; Eggers, Georg; Giesler, Bjoern; Ghanai, Sassan; Fritz, Dominik; Dillmann, Ruediger; Muehling, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    This paper is going to present a summary of our technical experience with the INPRES System -- an augmented reality system based upon a tracked see-through head-mounted display. With INPRES a complete augmented reality solution has been developed that has crucial advantages when compared with previous navigation systems. Using these techniques the surgeon does not need to turn his head from the patient to the computer monitor and vice versa. The system's purpose is to display virtual objects, e.g. cutting trajectories, tumours and risk-areas from computer-based surgical planning systems directly in the surgical site. The INPRES system was evaluated in several patient experiments in craniofacial surgery at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/University of Heidelberg. We will discuss the technical advantages as well as the limitations of INPRES and present two strategies as a result. On the one hand we will improve the existing and successful INPRES system with new hardware and a new calibration method to compensate for the stated disadvantage. On the other hand we will focus on miniaturized augmented reality systems and present a new concept based on fibre optics. This new system should be easily adaptable at surgical instruments and capable of projecting small structures. It consists of a source of light, a miniature TFT display, a fibre optic cable and a tool grip. Compared to established projection systems it has the capability of projecting into areas that are only accessible by a narrow path. No wide surgical exposure of the region is necessary for the use of augmented reality.

  1. Analysis and testing of stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.; Wattman, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of stability augmentation systems for aircraft flight control were conducted. The flutter suppression system analysis of a scale supersonic transport wing model is described. Mechanization of the flutter suppression system is reported. The ride control synthesis for the B-52 aeroelastic model is discussed. Model analyses were conducted using equations of motion generated from generalized mass and stiffness data.

  2. Does the topical use of epinephrine for sinus floor augmentation affect systemic hemodynamics?

    PubMed

    Degerliyurt, Kagan; Denizci, Senem

    2013-06-01

    Although epinephrine is one of the most commonly used vasoconstrictor in association with local anesthesia in dentistry, systemic effects of topical admission of epinephrine for sinus augmentation have not been investigated yet. The purpose of this study was to reveal the safety of epinephrine as a topical vasoconstrictor in sinus augmentation procedures. Forty-three healthy patients who require sinus floor augmentation for dental implant placement were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the application of either epinephrine-soaked cottonoid or saline-soaked cottonoid for sinus floor augmentation, and heart rate, systolic, and diastolic pressures were evaluated and compared before, during, and after the procedure. Although there were changes in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressures, no statistical significance was observed for neither heart rate nor systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P > 0.05). This study showed that the topical use of 1/100,000 epinephrine ensures efficacy by helping the clinician to elevate the sinus membrane and keeps the changes in systemic hemodynamics within safe limitations.

  3. An advanced rehabilitation robotic system for augmenting healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hu, John; Lim, Yi-Je; Ding, Ye; Paluska, Daniel; Solochek, Aaron; Laffery, David; Bonato, Paolo; Marchessault, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies such as rehabilitation robots (RehaBot) for retraining upper and lower limb functions have shown to carry tremendous potential to improve rehabilitation outcomes. Hstar Technologies is developing a revolutionary rehabilitation robot system enhancing healthcare quality for patients with neurological and muscular injuries or functional impairments. The design of RehaBot is a safe and robust system that can be run at a rehabilitation hospital under the direct monitoring and interactive supervision control and at a remote site via telepresence operation control. RehaBot has a wearable robotic structure design like exoskeleton, which employs a unique robotic actuation--Series Elastic Actuator. These electric actuators provide robotic structural compliance, safety, flexibility, and required strength for upper extremity dexterous manipulation rehabilitation training. RehaBot also features a novel non-treadmill paddle platform capable of haptics feedback locomotion rehabilitation training. In this paper, we concern mainly about the motor incomplete patient and rehabilitation applications.

  4. An Augmented Reality System for Military Operations in Urban Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-05

    24061 ABSTRACT Many future military operations are expected to occur in urban environments. These complex, 3D battlefields intro- duce many...from ISIM, France, and an M.S. in computer science in 1999 from the University of Central Florida. His research interests are in computer graphics, 3D ...information needed and reduce it to a minimum during high-stress situations. The Shared Information Database The system contains a detailed 3D

  5. Rain-fade simulation and power augmentation for satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Nagy, Lawrence A.; Svoboda, James S.

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of an automated rain-fade simulation and power augmentation system is presented. The system experimentally simulates and measures the effects of radiofrequency power fade on a 20 GHz communication link using a multimode travelling wave tube amplifier for loss compensation. Precision, computer-controlled attenuators are used in the fade simulation. Test plans for analog and digital testing are discussed.

  6. Tracking and registration method based on vector operation for augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Hengyou; Bian, Xiaoning

    2015-08-01

    Tracking and registration is one key issue for an augmented reality (AR) system. For the marker-based AR system, the research focuses on detecting the real-time position and orientation of camera. In this paper, we describe a method of tracking and registration using the vector operations. Our method is proved to be stable and accurate, and have a good real-time performance.

  7. New Time and Multipath Augmentations for the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, John A.

    Although developed with a narrow focus in mind, use of GPS has expanded into dozens of fields in industry, science, and military applications. The purpose of the research detailed in this dissertation is an increase in the utility of GPS by improving primary applications of the constellation and expand the practicality of some secondary applications. The first portion of this disseration focuses on the development of clock estimation algorithms for a GPS aiding system called iGPS which has been designed to improve the performance of the system in challenging environments. Central to the functioning of iGPS are the Iridium communication satellites. This dissertation describes a Kalman filter for estimating Iridium satellite clock biases from GPS-like measurements at an interval of 10 s. Typical results show the current filter to be accurate to within 200 ns while always meeting the initial system specification of half a microsecond. The following chapter examines the expediency of increasing the number of terms used to represent the clock bias in the broadcast message and it is shown that the current broadcast message is sufficient. The second half of the dissertation deals with the use of GPS multipath as an environmental measurement. It is shown that reflections of GPS signals from the ground can be used to estimate several important phenological indicators relative to the vegetation surrounding the GPS antenna. Methods are developed for refining the reflected signal and preparing it for use as a vegetation index. Finally, the effect of temperature and multipath supression algorithms on the GPS multipath data is examined relative to its viability for use as previously described. It is shown that these effects are minor in the majority of the GPS sites used in this study and that the data can be adjusted to avoid temperature difficulties.

  8. Velocity vector control system augmented with direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tisdale, H. F., Sr.; Kelly, W. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pilot-controlled stability control system that employs direct lift control (spoiler control) with elevator control to control the flight path angle of an aircraft is described. A computer on the aircraft generates an elevator control signal and a spoiler control signal, using a pilot-controlled pitch control signal and pitch rate, vertical velocity, roll angle, groundspeed, engine pressure ratio and vertical acceleration signals which are generated on the aircraft. The direct lift control by the aircraft spoilers improves the response of the aircraft flight path angle and provides short term flight path stabilization against environmental disturbances.

  9. Safety system augmentation at Russian Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerbo, J. A.; Satpute, S. N.; Donkin, J. Y.; Reister, R. A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class 1E DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyanie Zprie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER 440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNASZOR (GAN), the Russian Version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union.

  10. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  11. Updating and augmenting NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Spacelink is a collection of NASA information and educational materials stored on a computer at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). It is provided by the NASA Education Affairs Division and is operated by the Public Services and Education Branch of the MFSC Public Affairs Office. It is designed to communicate with a wide variety of computers and modems, especially those most commonly found in classrooms and homes. The system may be accessed by the educators and the public over regular telephone lines. NASA Spacelink is free except for the cost of long distance calls. The material prepared for Spacelink was found to be widespread by teachers and others across the nation and is being used to stimulate students in their quest for excellence. A partial summary of Spacelinks usage is presented.

  12. Leading edge flap system for aircraft control augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Traditional roll control systems such as ailerons, elevons or spoilers are least effective at high angles of attack due to boundary layer separation over the wing. This invention uses independently deployed leading edge flaps on the upper surfaces of vortex stabilized wings to shift the center of lift outboard. A rolling moment is created that is used to control roll in flight at high angles of attack. The effectiveness of the rolling moment increases linearly with angle of attack. No adverse yaw effects are induced. In an alternate mode of operation, both leading edge flaps are deployed together at cruise speeds to create a very effective airbrake without appreciable modification in pitching moment. Little trim change is required.

  13. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  14. A remotely augmented vehicle approach to flight testing RPV control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, D. A.; Edwards, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A remotely augmented vehicle concept for flight testing advanced control systems was developed as an outgrowth of a remotely piloted research vehicle (RPV) program in which control laws are implemented through telemetry uplink and downlink data channels using a general purpose ground based digital computer which provides the control law computations. Some advantages of this approach are that the cost of one control system facility is spread over a number of RPV programs, and control laws can be changed quickly as required, without changing the flight hardware. The remotely augmented vehicle concept is described, and flight test results from a subscale F-15 program are discussed. Suggestions of how the concept could lead to more effective testing of RPV control system concepts, and how it is applicable to a military RPV reconnaissance mission are given.

  15. Estimating ionospheric delay using kriging: 2. Impact on satellite-based augmentation system availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Blanch, Juan; Pandya, Nitin

    2011-12-01

    An augmentation of the Global Positioning System, the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) broadcasts, at each node of an ionospheric grid, an estimate of the vertical ionospheric delay and an integrity bound on the vertical delay error. To date, these quantities have been determined from a planar fit of slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using an obliquity factor specified by the standard thin shell model of the ionosphere. In a future WAAS upgrade (WAAS Follow-On Release 3), however, they will be calculated using an established, geo-statistical estimation technique known as kriging that generally provides higher estimate accuracy than planar fit estimation. This paper analyzes the impact of kriging on system availability. In a preliminary assessment, kriging is found to produce improvements in availability of up to 15%.

  16. Sensorized Garment Augmented 3D Pervasive Virtual Reality System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulrez, Tauseef; Tognetti, Alessandro; de Rossi, Danilo

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has matured to a point where humans can navigate in virtual scenes; however, providing them with a comfortable fully immersive role in VR remains a challenge. Currently available sensing solutions do not provide ease of deployment, particularly in the seated position due to sensor placement restrictions over the body, and optic-sensing requires a restricted indoor environment to track body movements. Here we present a 52-sensor laden garment interfaced with VR, which offers both portability and unencumbered user movement in a VR environment. This chapter addresses the systems engineering aspects of our pervasive computing solution of the interactive sensorized 3D VR and presents the initial results and future research directions. Participants navigated in a virtual art gallery using natural body movements that were detected by their wearable sensor shirt and then mapped the signals to electrical control signals responsible for VR scene navigation. The initial results are positive, and offer many opportunities for use in computationally intelligentman-machine multimedia control.

  17. Overhauling, updating and augmenting NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Spacelink is a collection of NASA information and educational materials stored on a computer at the MSFC. It is provided by the NASA Educational Affairs Division and is operated by the Education Branch of the Marshall Center Public Affairs Office. It is designed to communicate with a wide variety of computers and modems, especially those most commonly found in classrooms and homes. It was made available to the public in February, 1988. The system may be accessed by educators and the public over regular telephone lines. NASA/Spacelink is free except for the cost of long distance calls. Overhauling and updating Spacelink was done to refurbish NASA/Spacelink, a very valuable resource medium. Several new classroom activities and miscellaneous topics were edited and entered into Spacelink. One of the areas that received a major overhaul (under the guidance of Amos Crisp) was the SPINOFFS BENEFITS, the great benefits resulting from America's space explorations. The Spinoff Benefits include information on a variety of topics including agriculture, communication, the computer, consumer, energy, equipment and materials, food, health, home, industry, medicine, natural resources, public services, recreation, safety, sports, and transportation. In addition to the Space Program Spinoff Benefits, the following is a partial list of some of the material updated and introduced: Astronaut Biographies, Miscellaneous Aeronautics Classroom Activities, Miscellaneous Astronomy Classroom Activities, Miscellaneous Rocketry Classroom Activities, Miscellaneous Classroom Activities, NASA and Its Center, NASA Areas of Research, NASA Patents, Licensing, NASA Technology Transfer, Pictures from Space Classroom Activities, Status of Current NASA Projects, Using Art to Teach Science, and Word Puzzles for Use in the Classroom.

  18. Design and Validation of an Augmented Reality System for Laparoscopic Surgery in a Real Environment

    PubMed Central

    López-Mir, F.; Naranjo, V.; Fuertes, J. J.; Alcañiz, M.; Bueno, J.; Pareja, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This work presents the protocol carried out in the development and validation of an augmented reality system which was installed in an operating theatre to help surgeons with trocar placement during laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this validation is to demonstrate the improvements that this system can provide to the field of medicine, particularly surgery. Method. Two experiments that were noninvasive for both the patient and the surgeon were designed. In one of these experiments the augmented reality system was used, the other one was the control experiment, and the system was not used. The type of operation selected for all cases was a cholecystectomy due to the low degree of complexity and complications before, during, and after the surgery. The technique used in the placement of trocars was the French technique, but the results can be extrapolated to any other technique and operation. Results and Conclusion. Four clinicians and ninety-six measurements obtained of twenty-four patients (randomly assigned in each experiment) were involved in these experiments. The final results show an improvement in accuracy and variability of 33% and 63%, respectively, in comparison to traditional methods, demonstrating that the use of an augmented reality system offers advantages for trocar placement in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:24236293

  19. Design and validation of an augmented reality system for laparoscopic surgery in a real environment.

    PubMed

    López-Mir, F; Naranjo, V; Fuertes, J J; Alcañiz, M; Bueno, J; Pareja, E

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the protocol carried out in the development and validation of an augmented reality system which was installed in an operating theatre to help surgeons with trocar placement during laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this validation is to demonstrate the improvements that this system can provide to the field of medicine, particularly surgery. Two experiments that were noninvasive for both the patient and the surgeon were designed. In one of these experiments the augmented reality system was used, the other one was the control experiment, and the system was not used. The type of operation selected for all cases was a cholecystectomy due to the low degree of complexity and complications before, during, and after the surgery. The technique used in the placement of trocars was the French technique, but the results can be extrapolated to any other technique and operation. Four clinicians and ninety-six measurements obtained of twenty-four patients (randomly assigned in each experiment) were involved in these experiments. The final results show an improvement in accuracy and variability of 33% and 63%, respectively, in comparison to traditional methods, demonstrating that the use of an augmented reality system offers advantages for trocar placement in laparoscopic surgery.

  20. A Novel Augmented Reality Navigation System for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Yang, Jian; Chu, Yakui; Wu, Wenbo; Xue, Jin; Liang, Ping; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems. The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D) virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons. The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon's skills and knowledge, not as a substitute.

  1. A Novel Augmented Reality Navigation System for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Yang, Jian; Chu, Yakui; Wu, Wenbo; Xue, Jin; Liang, Ping; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Materials and Methods In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems. Results The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D) virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons. Conclusion The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon’s skills and knowledge, not as a substitute. PMID:26757365

  2. Analysis and testing of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of a stability augmentation system for aircraft flight control were performed. The flutter suppression system and synthesis conducted on a scale model of a supersonic wing for a transport aircraft are discussed. Mechanization and testing of the leading and trailing edge surface actuation systems are described. The ride control system analyses for a 375,000 pound gross weight B-52E aircraft are presented. Analyses of the B-52E aircraft maneuver load control system are included.

  3. Eliminating Obliquity Error from the Estimation of Ionospheric Delay in a Satellite-Based Augmentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Current satellite-based augmentation systems estimate ionospheric delay using algorithms that assume the electron density of the ionosphere is non-negligible only in a thin shell located near the peak of the actual profile. In its initial operating capability, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System incorporated the thin shell model into an estimation algorithm that calculates vertical delay using a planar fit. Under disturbed conditions or at low latitude where ionospheric structure is complex, however, the thin shell approximation can serve as a significant source of estimation error. A recent upgrade of the system replaced the planar fit algorithm with an algorithm based upon kriging. The upgrade owes its success, in part, to the ability of kriging to mitigate the error due to this approximation. Previously, alternative delay estimation algorithms have been proposed that eliminate the need for invoking the thin shell model altogether. Prior analyses have compared the accuracy achieved by these methods to the accuracy achieved by the planar fit algorithm. This paper extends these analyses to include a comparison with the accuracy achieved by kriging. It concludes by examining how a satellite-based augmentation system might be implemented without recourse to the thin shell approximation.

  4. A new algorithm and results of ionospheric delay correction for satellite-based augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Yuan, H.

    Ionospheric delay resulted from radio signals traveling ionosphere is the largest source of errors for single-frequency users of the Global Positioning System GPS In order to improve users position accuracy augmentation systems based on satellite have been developed to provide accurate calibration since the nineties A famous one is Wide Area Augmentation System WAAS which is aimed to the efficiency of navigation over the conterminous United States and has been operating successfully so far The main idea of ionospheric correction algorithm for WAAS is to establish ionospheric grid model i e ionosphere is discretized into a set of regularly-spaced intervals in latitude and longitude at an altitude of 350km above the earth surface The users calculate their pseudoranges by interpolating estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled at ionospheric grid points The Chinese crust deformation monitoring network has been established since the eighties and now it is in good operation with 25 permanent GPS stations which provide feasibility to construct similar satellite-based augmentation system SBAS in China For the west region of China the distribution of stations is relatively sparse not to ensure sufficient data If we follow the ionospheric grid correction algorithm some grid points can t obtain their estimate and lost availability Consequently ionospheric correction measurement on the users situated in that region is inestimable which constitute a fatal threat to navigation users In this paper we presented a new algorithm that

  5. A piloted simulator study on augmentation systems to improve helicopter flying qualities in terrain flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Talbot, P. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four basic single-rotor helicopters, one teetering, on articulated, and two hingeless, which were found to have a variety of major deficiencies in a previous fixed-based simulator study, were selected as baseline configurations. The stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS) include simple control augmentation systems to decouple pitch and yaw responses due to collective input and to quicken the pitch and roll control responses; SCAS of rate-command type designed to optimize the sensitivity and damping and to decouple the pitch-roll due to aircraft angular tate; and attitude-command type SCAS. Pilot ratings and commentary are presented as well as performance data related to the task. SCAS control usages and their gain levels associated with specific rotor types are also discussed.

  6. Removal of recurrent intraorbital tumour using a system of augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, P; Bijlenga, P

    2017-09-13

    The most crucial step in the management of pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland is choosing the optimal approach for excision. We report the successful removal of a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland in a 42-year-old woman using a specific microscope-based system of augmented reality. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Building a Mobile Augmented Reality System for Embedded Training: Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    tracked see-through Head Mounted Display (HMD) (Sony Glasstron, Microvision Nomad, or Trivisio). Three-dimensional ( 3D ) data about the environment is...graphics, 3D displays, tracking, vision, mobile augmented reality and wearable computers. Baillot is a member of the IEEE Computer Society. Simon...which he is looking. Figure 1 shows the BARS wearable system. Based on this data, the desired 3D data is rendered to appear as if it were in the real

  8. Effect of augmented visual feedback from a virtual reality simulation system on manual dexterity training.

    PubMed

    Wierinck, E; Puttemans, V; Swinnen, S; van Steenberghe, D

    2005-02-01

    Little research has been published about the impact of simulation technology on the learning process of novel motor skills. Especially the role of augmented feedback (FB) on the quality of performance and the transfer of the acquired behaviour to a no-augmented FB condition require further investigation. Therefore, novice dental students were randomly assigned to one of three groups and given the task of drilling a geometrical class 1 cavity. The FB group trained under augmented visual FB conditions, provided by the virtual reality (VR) system (DentSim). The no-FB group practised under normal vision conditions, in the absence of augmented FB. A control group performed the test sessions without participating in any training programme. All preparations were evaluated by the VR grading system according to four traditional (outline shape, floor depth, floor smoothness and wall inclination), and two critical, criteria (pulp exposure and damage to adjacent teeth). Performance analyses revealed an overall trend towards significant improvement with training for the experimental groups. The FB group obtained the highest scores. It scored better for floor depth (P < 0.001), whilst the no-FB group was best for floor smoothness (P < 0.005). However, at the retention tests, the FB group demonstrated inferior performance in comparison with the no-FB group. The transfer test on a traditional unit revealed no significant differences between the training groups. Consequently, drilling experience on a VR system under the condition of frequently provided FB and lack of any tutorial input was considered to be not beneficial to learning. The present data are discussed in view of the guidance hypothesis of FB, which refers to the apprentice's dependence on FB.

  9. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume 3: Preconceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  10. Synchronization of the fractional-order generalized augmentedsystem and its circuit implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wei; Xu, Jin-Kang; Cang, Shi-Jian; Jia, Hong-Yan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of the fractional-order generalized augmentedsystem is investigated. Based on the predictor—corrector method, we obtain phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponent spectra, and Poincaré maps of the fractional-order system and find that a four-wing chaotic attractor exists in the system when the system parameters change within certain ranges. Further, by varying the system parameters, rich dynamical behaviors occur in the 2.7-order system. According to the stability theory of a fractional-order linear system, and adopting the linearization by feedback method, we have designed a nonlinear feedback controller in our theoretical analysis to implement the synchronization of the drive system with the response system. In addition, the synchronization is also shown by an electronic circuit implementation for the 2.7-order system. The obtained experiment results accord with the theoretical analyses, which further demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  11. CONSTRAINTS ON VELOCITY ANISOTROPY OF SPHERICAL SYSTEMS WITH SEPARABLE AUGMENTED DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    An, Jin H.

    2011-08-01

    If the augmented density of a spherical anisotropic system is assumed to be multiplicatively separable into functions of the potential and the radius, the radial function, which can be completely specified by the behavior of the anisotropy parameter alone, also fixes the anisotropic ratios of every higher order velocity moment. It is inferred from this that the non-negativity of the distribution function necessarily limits the allowed behaviors of the radial function. This restriction is translated into the constraints on the behavior of the anisotropy parameter. We find that not all radial variations of the anisotropy parameter satisfy these constraints and thus anisotropy profiles exist that are not consistent with any separable augmented density.

  12. A Spatial Augmented Reality rehab system for post-stroke hand rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mousavi Hondori, Hossein; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; Cramer, Steven C; Lopes, Cristina Videira

    2013-01-01

    This paper features a Spatial Augmented Reality system for rehabilitation of hand and arm movement. The table-top home-based system tracks a subject's hand and creates a virtual audio-visual interface for performing rehabilitation-related tasks that involve wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements. It measures range, speed, and smoothness of movements locally and can send the real-time photos and data to the clinic for further assessment. To evaluate the system, it was tested on two normal subjects and proved functional.

  13. Active glass-type human augmented cognition system considering attention and intention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ojha, Amitash; Lee, Minho

    2015-10-01

    Human cognition is the result of an interaction of several complex cognitive processes with limited capabilities. Therefore, the primary objective of human cognitive augmentation is to assist and expand these limited human cognitive capabilities independently or together. In this study, we propose a glass-type human augmented cognition system, which attempts to actively assist human memory functions by providing relevant, necessary and intended information by constantly assessing intention of the user. To achieve this, we exploit selective attention and intention processes. Although the system can be used in various real-life scenarios, we test the performance of the system in a person identity scenario. To detect the intended face, the system analyses the gaze points and change in pupil size to determine the intention of the user. An assessment of the gaze points and change in pupil size together indicates that the user intends to know the identity and information about the person in question. Then, the system retrieves several clues through speech recognition system and retrieves relevant information about the face, which is finally displayed through head-mounted display. We present the performance of several components of the system. Our results show that the active and relevant assistance based on users' intention significantly helps the enhancement of memory functions.

  14. Implementation of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, John

    2016-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System has issued a Call for Participation to research scientists, geodetic research groups and national agencies in support of the implementation of the IUGG recommendation for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems. The call seeks to establish a working group to be a catalyst and motivating force for the definition of requirements, identification of resources, and for the encouragement of international cooperation in the establishment, advancement, and utilization of GNSS for Tsunami Early Warning. During the past fifteen years the populations of the Indo-Pacific region experienced a series of mega-thrust earthquakes followed by devastating tsunamis that claimed nearly 300,000 lives. The future resiliency of the region will depend upon improvements to infrastructure and emergency response that will require very significant investments from the Indo-Pacific economies. The estimation of earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation are critical to rapid tsunami warning. Geodetic research groups have demonstrated the use of GNSS data to estimate earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation sufficient for the accurate and timely prediction of tsunamis generated by mega-thrust earthquakes. GNSS data have also been used to measure the formation and propagation of tsunamis via ionospheric disturbances acoustically coupled to the propagating surface waves; thereby providing a new technique to track tsunami propagation across ocean basins, opening the way for improving tsunami propagation models, and providing accurate warning to communities in the far field. These two new advancements can deliver timely and accurate tsunami warnings to coastal communities in the near and far field of mega-thrust earthquakes. This presentation will present the justification for and the details of the GGOS Call for

  15. Planning, simulation, and augmented reality for robotic cardiac procedures: The STARS system of the ChIR team.

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Mourgues, Fabien; Carpentier, Alain

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents STARS (Simulation and Transfer Architecture for Robotic Surgery), a versatile system that aims at enhancing minimally invasive robotic surgery through patient-dependent optimized planning, realistic simulation, safe supervision, and augmented reality. The underlying architecture of the proposed approach is presented, then each component is detailed. An experimental validation is conducted on a dog for a coronary bypass intervention using the Da Vinci(TM) surgical system focusing on planing, registration, and augmented reality trials.

  16. An augmented reality (AR)-based vocational task prompting system for people with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Kang, Ya-Shu; Huang, Po-Chiao

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training three people with cognitive impairments using an augmented reality (AR)-based task prompting system. Using AR technology, the system provided picture cues, identified incorrect task steps on the fly, and helped users make corrections. Based on a multiple baseline design, the data showed that the three participants considerably increased their target response, which improved their vocational job skills during the intervention phases and enabled them to maintain the acquired job skills after intervention. The practical and developmental implications of the results are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New education system for construction of optical holography setup - Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  18. Optical augmented reality assisted navigation system for neurosurgery teaching and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Geng, Xing-Yun; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-Peng; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposed a convenient navigation system for neurosurgeon's pre-operative planning and teaching with augmented reality (AR) technique, which maps the three-dimensional reconstructed virtual anatomy structures onto a skull model. This system included two parts, a virtual reality system and a skull model scence. In our experiment, a 73 year old right-handed man initially diagnosed with astrocytoma was selected as an example to vertify our system. His imaging data from different modalities were registered and the skull soft tissue, brain and inside vessels as well as tumor were reconstructed. Then the reconstructed models were overlayed on the real scence. Our findings showed that the reconstructed tissues were augmented into the real scence and the registration results were in good alignment. The reconstructed brain tissue was well distributed in the skull cavity. The probe was used by a neurosurgeon to explore the surgical pathway which could be directly posed into the tumor while not injuring important vessels. In this way, the learning cost for students and patients' education about surgical risks reduced. Therefore, this system could be a selective protocol for image guided surgery(IGS), and is promising for neurosurgeon's pre-operative planning and teaching.

  19. Hybrid diffractive-refractive optical system design of head-mounted display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huijuan

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality is designed in this paper. Considering the factors, such as the optical performance, the utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world, the feelings of users when he wears it and etc., a structure of the optical see-through is adopted. With the characteristics of the particular negative dispersive and the power of realizing random-phase modulation, the diffractive surface is helpful for optical system of reducing weight, simplifying structure and etc., and a diffractive surface is introduced in our optical system. The optical system with 25 mm eye relief, 12 mm exit pupil and 20° (H)x15.4° (V) field-of-view is designed. The utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world are 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. The angular resolution of display is 0.27 mrad and it less than that of the minimum of human eyes. The diameter of this system is less than 46mm, and it applies the binocular. This diffractive-refractive optical system of see-through head-mounted display not only satisfies the demands of user"s factors in structure, but also with high resolution, very small chromatic aberration and distortion, and satisfies the need of augmented reality. In the end, the parameters of the diffractive surface are discussed.

  20. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems. PMID:22163479

  1. Design and implementation of a GPS guidance system for agricultural tractors using augmented reality technology.

    PubMed

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor's position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems.

  2. Augmented reality as an aid in maxillofacial surgery: validation of a wearable system allowing maxillary repositioning.

    PubMed

    Badiali, Giovanni; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Freschi, Cinzia; Caramella, Davide; Bianchi, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    We present a newly designed, localiser-free, head-mounted system featuring augmented reality as an aid to maxillofacial bone surgery, and assess the potential utility of the device by conducting a feasibility study and validation. Our head-mounted wearable system facilitating augmented surgery was developed as a stand-alone, video-based, see-through device in which the visual features were adapted to facilitate maxillofacial bone surgery. We implement a strategy designed to present augmented reality information to the operating surgeon. LeFort1 osteotomy was chosen as the test procedure. The system is designed to exhibit virtual planning overlaying the details of a real patient. We implemented a method allowing performance of waferless, augmented-reality assisted bone repositioning. In vitro testing was conducted on a physical replica of a human skull, and the augmented reality system was used to perform LeFort1 maxillary repositioning. Surgical accuracy was measured with the aid of an optical navigation system that recorded the coordinates of three reference points (located in anterior, posterior right, and posterior left positions) on the repositioned maxilla. The outcomes were compared with those expected to be achievable in a three-dimensional environment. Data were derived using three levels of surgical planning, of increasing complexity, and for nine different operators with varying levels of surgical skill. The mean error was 1.70 ± 0.51 mm. The axial errors were 0.89 ± 0.54 mm on the sagittal axis, 0.60 ± 0.20 mm on the frontal axis, and 1.06 ± 0.40 mm on the craniocaudal axis. The simplest plan was associated with a slightly lower mean error (1.58 ± 0.37 mm) compared with the more complex plans (medium: 1.82 ± 0.71 mm; difficult: 1.70 ± 0.45 mm). The mean error for the anterior reference point was lower (1.33 ± 0.58 mm) than those for both the posterior right (1.72 ± 0.24 mm) and posterior left points (2.05 ± 0.47 mm). No significant difference

  3. Evaluating the Stability of NASA's Space Launch System with Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hannan, Michael R.; Wall, John H.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's baseline Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system (FCS) design includes an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) component that modifies the attitude control system response to provide the classical gain-scheduled control architecture with additional performance and robustness. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) teamed with the Space Launch System (SLS) Program to perform a comprehensive assessment of the stability and robustness of the FCS with AAC. This paper provides an overview of the approach, specific analysis techniques, and outcomes that were particularly relevant for the SLS Program. Multiple analysis techniques that specifically target the nonlinear AAC were commissioned as part of this assessment, which was completed outside of the Program's standard design analysis cycle. The following analyses were included, with each technique adding its own valuable insights: Lyapunov-based stability analysis, classical stability analysis with static AAC gain variations, circle criterion-based analysis of the FCS with a time-varying element, time-domain stability margin assessment, Monte Carlo simulations with expanded dispersions, and an extensive set of stressing cases. Several of the completed analyses focused on determining whether the inclusion of AAC introduced risk to the FCS, while others quantified the benefits of the adaptive augmentation.

  4. Way-Finding Assistance System for Underground Facilities Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, K.; Yabuki, N.; Fukuda, T.; Michikawa, T.; Motamedi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Way-finding is one of main challenges for pedestrians in large subterranean spaces with complex network of connected labyrinths. This problem is caused by the loss of their sense of directions and orientation due to the lack of landmarks that are occluded by ceilings, walls, and skyscraper. This paper introduces an assistance system for way-finding problem in large subterranean spaces using Augmented Reality (AR). It suggests displaying known landmarks that are invisible in indoor environments on tablet/handheld devices to assist users with relative positioning and indoor way-finding. The location and orientation of the users can be estimated by the indoor positioning systems and sensors available in the common tablet or smartphones devices. The constructed 3D model of a chosen landmark that is in the field of view of the handheld's camera is augmented on the camera's video feed. A prototype system has been implemented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed system for way-finding.

  5. A Novel Augmented Reality-Based Navigation System in Perforator Flap Transplantation - A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Taoran; Zhu, Ming; Zan, Tao; Gu, Bin; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-08-01

    In perforator flap transplantation, dissection of the perforator is an important but difficult procedure because of the high variability in vascular anatomy. Preoperative imaging techniques could provide substantial information about vascular anatomy; however, it cannot provide direct guidance for surgeons during the operation. In this study, a navigation system (NS) was established to overlie a vascular map on surgical sites to further provide a direct guide for perforator flap transplantation. The NS was established based on computed tomographic angiography and augmented reality techniques. A virtual vascular map was reconstructed according to computed tomographic angiography data and projected onto real patient images using ARToolKit software. Additionally, a screw-fixation marker holder was created to facilitate registration. With the use of a tracking and display system, we conducted the NS on an animal model and measured the system error on a rapid prototyping model. The NS assistance allowed for correct identification, as well as a safe and precise dissection of the perforator. The mean value of the system error was determined to be 3.474 ± 1.546 mm. Augmented reality-based NS can provide precise navigation information by directly displaying a 3-dimensional individual anatomical virtual model onto the operative field in real time. It will allow rapid identification and safe dissection of a perforator in free flap transplantation surgery.

  6. Comparing two types of augmentative and alternative communication systems for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung-Hyun; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2006-01-01

    This study compared acquisition and preference for two types of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in three pre-schoolers with autism. Acquisition of requesting behaviour using a picture-exchange system vs a voice-output communication aide (VOCA) was compared in an alternating treatments design. Following acquisition, both ACC systems were simultaneously available and the child could select which one of the two systems to use. There was little difference between picture-exchange and VOCA in terms of acquisition rates. Two children demonstrated a consistent preference for picture-exchange and the third showed a preference for the VOCA. Both speed of acquisition and system preference should be considered when designing AAC interventions for children with autism and related developmental disabilities.

  7. A simple system for helicopter Individual-Blade-Control and its application to lag damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.; Behal, B. L.; Mckillip, R. M., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new, advanced type of active control for helicopters and its application to a system for blade lag damping augmentation is described. The system, based on previously developed M.I.T. Individual-Blade-Control hardware, employs blade-mounted accelerometers to sense blade lag motion and feeds back rate information to increase the damping of the first lag mode. A linear model of the blade and control system dynamics is used to give guidance in the design process as well as to aid in analysis of experimental results. System performance in wind tunnel tests is described, and evidence is given of the system's ability to provide substantial additional damping to blade lag motion.

  8. A novel 3D guidance system using augmented reality for percutaneous vertebroplasty: technical note.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuichiro; Sato, Shigenobu; Kato, Koji; Hyakumachi, Takahiko; Yanagibashi, Yasushi; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is an imaging technology by which virtual objects are overlaid onto images of real objects captured in real time by a tracking camera. This study aimed to introduce a novel AR guidance system called virtual protractor with augmented reality (VIPAR) to visualize a needle trajectory in 3D space during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). The AR system used for this study comprised a head-mount display (HMD) with a tracking camera and a marker sheet. An augmented scene was created by overlaying the preoperatively generated needle trajectory path onto a marker detected on the patient using AR software, thereby providing the surgeon with augmented views in real time through the HMD. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by using a computer-generated simulation model in a spine phantom and also evaluated clinically in 5 patients. In the 40 spine phantom trials, the error of the insertion angle (EIA), defined as the difference between the attempted angle and the insertion angle, was evaluated using 3D CT scanning. Computed tomography analysis of the 40 spine phantom trials showed that the EIA in the axial plane significantly improved when VIPAR was used compared with when it was not used (0.96° ± 0.61° vs 4.34° ± 2.36°, respectively). The same held true for EIA in the sagittal plane (0.61° ± 0.70° vs 2.55° ± 1.93°, respectively). In the clinical evaluation of the AR system, 5 patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures underwent VIPAR-guided PVP from October 2011 to May 2012. The postoperative EIA was evaluated using CT. The clinical results of the 5 patients showed that the EIA in all 10 needle insertions was 2.09° ± 1.3° in the axial plane and 1.98° ± 1.8° in the sagittal plane. There was no pedicle breach or leakage of polymethylmethacrylate. VIPAR was successfully used to assist in needle insertion during PVP by providing the surgeon with an ideal insertion point and needle trajectory through the HMD. The findings indicate

  9. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  10. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J. D.; Downing, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft typically have low wing loadings, and fly at low altitudes, and so they are susceptible to undesirable accelerations caused by random atmospheric turbulence. Larger commercial aircraft typically have higher wing loadings and fly at altitudes where the turbulence level is lower, and so they provide smoother rides. This project was initiated based on the goal of making the ride of the commuter aircraft as smooth as the ride experienced on the major commercial airliners. The objectives of this project were to design a digital, longitudinal mode ride quality augmentation system (RQAS) for a commuter aircraft, and to investigate the effect of selected parameters on those designs.

  11. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for a commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Downing, D. R.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft with low wing loading that operate at low altitudes are particularly susceptible to unwanted accelerations caused by atmospheric gusts. This paper describes the design and analysis of a longitudinal digital Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS). The RQAS designs were conducted for a Cessna 402B aircraft using the flaps and the elevator as the control surfaces. The designs are generated using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Nominal designs are presented at five flight conditions that cover a total mission. Trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the effect of sample time, computational delay time, servo bandwidth and control power.

  12. Singularity-free integral-augmented sliding mode control for combined energy and attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghi, Samira; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2017-01-01

    A combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is a synergized system in which flywheels are used as attitude control actuators and simultaneously as a power storage system. This paper, a subsequent to previous research on CEACS, addresses the attitude-tracking problem. Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL), a locally asymptotically stable controller, is developed to provide a robust and accurate solution for the CEACS's attitude-tracking problem. The controller alleviates the chattering phenomenon associated with the sliding mode using a boundary-layer technique. Simultaneously, it reduces the steady-state error using an integral action. This paper highlights the uncertainty of inertia matrix as a contributing factor to singularity problem. The inversion of the uncertain inertia matrix in simulation of a spacecraft dynamics is also identified as a leading factor to a singular situation. Therefore, an avoidance strategy is proposed in this paper to guarantee a singular-free dynamics behavior in faces of the uncertainties. This maiden work attempts to employ the singularity-free Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL) to provide a robust, accurate and nonsingular attitude-tracking solution for CEACS.

  13. Measuring the Usability of Augmented Reality e-Learning Systems: A User-Centered Evaluation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Dragoş Daniel

    The development of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is creating new challenges and opportunities for the designers of e-learning systems. The mix of real and virtual requires appropriate interaction techniques that have to be evaluated with users in order to avoid usability problems. Formative usability aims at finding usability problems as early as possible in the development life cycle and is suitable to support the development of such novel interactive systems. This work presents an approach to the user-centered usability evaluation of an e-learning scenario for Biology developed on an Augmented Reality educational platform. The evaluation has been carried on during and after a summer school held within the ARiSE research project. The basic idea was to perform usability evaluation twice. In this respect, we conducted user testing with a small number of students during the summer school in order to get a fast feedback from users having good knowledge in Biology. Then, we repeated the user testing in different conditions and with a relatively larger number of representative users. In this paper we describe both experiments and compare the usability evaluation results.

  14. Study of ejector geometry on thrust augmentation for pulse detonation engine ejector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadeh, Ra'fat

    Pulse detonation engine (PDE) technology is a novel form of propulsion that offers the potential of high efficiency combustion with reduced hardware complexity. Although the primary interest of the research in the pulse detonation engine field is directed towards overcoming the problems associated with operating a pure PDE system, there are other worthy options to be considered for these engines. The PDE driven ejector concept is one such option where the system would be part of a hybrid PD/Turbofan engine. This system offers the promise of replacing the high-pressure turbine sections of the core of a high bypass turbofan engine. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the thrust augmentation capabilities of a PDE driven ejector and provide experimental data that would assist in understanding the behavior of such a system. The major potential advantages of the PDE-ejector include reduced costs due to the reduced engine weight, along with improved specific fuel consumption and specific power inherent in the incorporation of a PDE component. To achieve the goal of this research, the thrust augmentation of a PDE driven ejector was characterized for a set of configurations. Two separate PDE's were utilized in this study. The first PDE was capable of operating at a constant frequency of 10 Hz de to flow rate limitations, and another PDE built to have an operational frequency range of 10 Hz-70 Hz to test the effect of operational frequency on PDE-ejector systems. Optical diagnostics were employed at specific positions of interest to understand the physical behavior of the flow. Baseline experimental results helped define and understand the operational characteristics of the PDE's utilized in this study. Thrust measurements were then made for PDE driven ejector configurations. The parameters that were independently changed were the inlet geometry of a constant diameter ejector, as well as the overlap distance between the PDE tube exit and ejector tube inlet

  15. Bioaugmentation of bromoamine acid degradation with Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY and DNA fingerprint analysis of augmented systems.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Song, Zhiyong; Xing, Linlin; Fu, Xiang

    2006-02-01

    One high-effective bromoamine acid (1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid, BAA) degrading strain was isolated previously with the ability to use BAA as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. It was identified as Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and physio-biochemical tests. In this study, bioaugmentation of BAA degradation with suspended and immobilized cells of strain QYY was investigated. The optimal degradation conditions were as follows: temperature 30 degrees C, pH 6.0-7.0, 150 rev min(-1) and the immobilized cells maintained degradation activity to BAA after 60 days storage at 4 degrees C. The structure of BAA was evidently changed according to the analysis of total organic carbon removal of BAA (about 50%) and the UV-VIS spectra changes during the biodegradation. Bioaugmented systems exhibited stronger abilities degrading BAA than the non-bioaugmented control ones. And microbial community dynamics of augmented systems was revealed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), a modern DNA fingerprint technique. The results indicated that the microbial community dynamics was substantially changed throughout the augmentation process. This study suggests that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance BAA degradation using bioaugmentation with the immobilized cells of BAA-degrading bacterium.

  16. L-Alanine augments rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, K S; Paul, D; Kim, J S; Park, J W

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus vallismortis strain EXTN-1 is a proven biotic elicitor of systemic resistance in many crops against various pathogens. L: -Alanine (Ala) was tested in cucumber as a chemical elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Colletotrichum orbiculare. In the greenhouse, both Ala and EXTN-1 induced significant levels of disease suppression in cucumber against anthracnose. When cucumber plants were treated with EXTN-1 and Ala together, augmentative disease suppression was observed. Experiments with transgenic tobacco plants carrying pathogenesis-related genes fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reported gene (PR-1a::GUS & PDF 1.2::GUS) showed an enhanced activation of both PR-1a and PDF 1.2 genes upon combined treatment with Ala and EXTN-1. RT-PCR analysis with transgenic (PR-1a or PDF 1.2 over expressing) Arabidopsis plant showed more enhanced expression of resistance genes PR-1a and PDF 1.2 upon combined treatment with Ala and EXTN-1 than either alone. An augmentative ISR effect, when the bacterial elicitor and chemical elicitor were combined together, was confirmed.

  17. [A Patient with Early-Stage Multiple System Atrophy Showing Augmented Nystagmus in Light].

    PubMed

    Oguri, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Hara, Ayako; Kitano, Hiroya; Motokura, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The ability to fix the eyes on a target, visual fixation, is important for the maintenance of equilibrium. The visual suppression (VS) test is one method of measuring the function of visual fixation. The test records caloric nystagmus by electrooculography, and the maximum slow phase velocity of caloric nystagmus in darkness is compared with the slow phase velocity in light with eyes fixed. Lesions of the cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebrum cause abnormalities of VS. We report a patient whose VS became a clue in the diagnosis of a disorder of the central nervous system. A 54-year-old man complained of dizziness, which gradually increased in frequency over 5 months. He visited several clinics, where vestibular neutritis and cervical spondylosis were suspected and treated without improvement. Although a pure-tone auditory test revealed bilateral normal hearing, a caloric test showed a weak response and VS was lost with augmentation of caloric nystagmus in light on both sides. Both eye tracking and optokinetic nystagmus tests were abnormal. Although magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities, single photon emission computed tomography revealed decreased blood flow in the parietal area. VS of caloric nystagmus towards the side of a lesion is reduced or abolished after unilateral flocculus damage, and is abolished bilaterally after bilateral flocculus damage. In the case of a parietal lobe or pontine lesion, VS is strongly abolished, and even augmentation of caloric nystagmus may be observed. In the present case, the patient was diagnosed with multiple-system atrophy after onset of dizziness.

  18. Central but not systemic lipid infusion augments the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Samuel C.; Bree, Adam J.; Puente, Erwin C.; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Fisher, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that lipids could act as an alternative fuel source in the brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to hyperinsulinemic (5 mU·kg−1·min−1) hypoglycemic (∼50 mg/dl) clamps. In protocol 1, intralipid (IL), a fat emulsion, was infused intravenously to prevent the fall in free fatty acid levels that occurs in response to hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Intravenous lipid infusion did not alter the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. To test whether IL could have central effects in mediating the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, in protocol 2 the brains of precannulated rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with IL or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as control. Unexpectedly, the epinephrine and glucagon response to hypoglycemia was significantly augmented with icv IL infusion. To determine whether central IL infusion could restore defective counterregulation, in protocol 3 rats were made recurrently hypoglycemic (RH) for 3 days and on the 4th day underwent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps with icv IL or aCSF infusion. RH rats had the expected impaired epinephrine response to hypoglycemia, and icv IL infusion again significantly augmented the epinephrine response in RH rats to normal. With regard to our experimental model of hypoglycemic counterregulation, we conclude that 1) systemic lipid infusion did not alter the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, 2) the icv infusion of lipids markedly increased CSF FFA levels and paradoxically augmented the epinephrine and glucagon responses, and 3) the blunted sympathoadrenal response in recurrently hypoglycemic rats was completely normalized with the icv lipid infusion. It is concluded that, in the setting of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, increased brain lipids can enhance the sympathoadrenal response. PMID:19417126

  19. Hierarchy of conversational rule violations involving utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication systems.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Linda A; Bedrosian, Jan L; McCoy, Kathleen F; Johnson, Dallas E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using messages with conversational rule violations on attitudes toward people who used utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in transactional interactions. Specifically, the ratings were compared across messages with relevance, informativeness, and brevity violations, when latency remained constant (i.e., short). The 96 participating sales clerks viewed scripted, videotaped bookstore conversations and completed an attitude questionnaire. Results indicated that the prestored message with repeated words/phrases was rated the highest, followed by the message with excessive information; next was the message with inadequate information, followed by the message with partly relevant information. The findings may be useful to those using utterance-based systems when making message choices during interactions with service providers. Technological implications point to the development of schema/script-based systems and intelligent editing.

  20. A Real-Time Augmented Reality System to See-Through Cars.

    PubMed

    Rameau, Francois; Ha, Hyowon; Joo, Kyungdon; Choi, Jinsoo; Park, Kibaek; Kweon, In So

    2016-11-01

    One of the most hazardous driving scenario is the overtaking of a slower vehicle, indeed, in this case the front vehicle (being overtaken) can occlude an important part of the field of view of the rear vehicle's driver. This lack of visibility is the most probable cause of accidents in this context. Recent research works tend to prove that augmented reality applied to assisted driving can significantly reduce the risk of accidents. In this paper, we present a real-time marker-less system to see through cars. For this purpose, two cars are equipped with cameras and an appropriate wireless communication system. The stereo vision system mounted on the front car allows to create a sparse 3D map of the environment where the rear car can be localized. Using this inter-car pose estimation, a synthetic image is generated to overcome the occlusion and to create a seamless see-through effect which preserves the structure of the scene.

  1. Jedi training: playful evaluation of head-mounted augmented reality display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Christopher S.; Giesler, Bjorn; Dillmann, Ruediger

    2004-05-01

    A fundamental decision in building augmented reality (AR) systems is how to accomplish the combining of the real and virtual worlds. Nowadays this key-question boils down to the two alternatives video-see-through (VST) vs. optical-see-through (OST). Both systems have advantages and disadvantages in areas like production-simplicity, resolution, flexibility in composition strategies, field of view etc. To provide additional decision criteria for high dexterity, accuracy tasks and subjective user-acceptance a gaming environment was programmed that allowed good evaluation of hand-eye coordination, and that was inspired by the Star Wars movies. During an experimentation session with more than thirty participants a preference for optical-see-through glasses in conjunction with infra-red-tracking was found. Especially the high-computational demand for video-capture, processing and the resulting drop in frame rate emerged as a key-weakness of the VST-system.

  2. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  3. Space Weather Prediction Error Bounding for Real-Time Ionospheric Threat Adaptation of GNSS Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yoon, M.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) augmentation systems attempt to consider all possible ionospheric events in their correction computations of worst-case errors. This conservatism can be mitigated by subdividing anomalous conditions and using different values of ionospheric threat-model bounds for each class. A new concept of 'real-time ionospheric threat adaptation' that adjusts the threat model in real time instead of always using the same 'worst-case' model was introduced in my previous research. The concept utilizes predicted values of space weather indices for determining the corresponding threat model based on the pre-defined worst-case threat as a function of space weather indices. Since space weather prediction is not reliable due to prediction errors, prediction errors are needed to be bounded to the required level of integrity of the system being supported. The previous research performed prediction error bounding using disturbance, storm time (Dst) index. The distribution of Dst prediction error over the 15-year data was bounded by applying 'inflated-probability density function (pdf) Gaussian bounding'. Since the error distribution has thick and non-Gaussian tails, investigation on statistical distributions which properly describe heavy tails with less conservatism is required for the system performance. This paper suggests two potential approaches for improving space weather prediction error bounding. First, we suggest using different statistical models when fit the error distribution, such as the Laplacian distribution which has fat tails, and the folded Gaussian cumulative distribution function (cdf) distribution. Second approach is to bound the error distribution by segregating data based on the overall level of solar activity. Bounding errors using only solar minimum period data will have less uncertainty and it may allow the use of 'solar cycle prediction' provided by NASA when implementing to real-time threat adaptation. Lastly

  4. Vertebral augmentation treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures with the Kiva VCF Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Olivarez, Luis M. Rosales; Dipp, Juan M.; Escamilla, Ricardo Flores; Bajares, Guillermo; Perez, Alejandro; Stubbs, Harrison A.; Block, Jon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can cause significant pain and functional impairment, and their cumulative effect can lead to progressive morbidity. This single-arm, prospective feasibility trial, conducted at 4 clinical sites, was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with the use of an innovative vertebral augmentation device, the Kiva VCF Treatment System (Benvenue Medical, Santa Clara, California), in the management of symptomatic VCFs associated with osteoporosis. Methods Vertebral augmentation treatment was performed for persistent back pain symptoms in 57 patients (mean age, 71.9 ± 10.4 years), including 46 women, with radiologically confirmed VCFs; 36 of these patients (63%) had reached 12 months of follow-up at this data analysis. There were 51 one-level cases, 5 two-level cases, and 1 three-level case, representing 64 treated levels. Back pain severity and condition-specific functional impairment were evaluated with a standard 100-mm visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively, before device implantation as well as at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months. Results Marked clinical improvements were realized in back pain severity and functional impairment through 12 months of follow-up. The mean back pain score on the visual analog scale improved from 79.3 ± 17.2 before treatment to 21.9 ± 21.3, 21.9 ± 24.6, and 23.2 ± 23.3 at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively. The mean decrease at 12 months was 49.9 ± 30.3 mm, or approximately 66% (P < .0001). Similarly, the mean ODI score improved from 68.1% ± 16.9% before treatment to 27.4% ± 17.2%, 23.8% ± 18.7%, and 23.3% ± 15.5% at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively, representing a mean change of 39.2 ± 19.6 percentage points, or approximately 63%, at 12 months. Overall clinical success rates based on a 30% improvement in pain severity or greater and maintenance or improvement in the ODI were 91%, 88%, and 89% at 6 weeks

  5. Vertebral augmentation treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures with the Kiva VCF Treatment System.

    PubMed

    Olivarez, Luis M Rosales; Dipp, Juan M; Escamilla, Ricardo Flores; Bajares, Guillermo; Perez, Alejandro; Stubbs, Harrison A; Block, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can cause significant pain and functional impairment, and their cumulative effect can lead to progressive morbidity. This single-arm, prospective feasibility trial, conducted at 4 clinical sites, was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with the use of an innovative vertebral augmentation device, the Kiva VCF Treatment System (Benvenue Medical, Santa Clara, California), in the management of symptomatic VCFs associated with osteoporosis. Vertebral augmentation treatment was performed for persistent back pain symptoms in 57 patients (mean age, 71.9 ± 10.4 years), including 46 women, with radiologically confirmed VCFs; 36 of these patients (63%) had reached 12 months of follow-up at this data analysis. There were 51 one-level cases, 5 two-level cases, and 1 three-level case, representing 64 treated levels. Back pain severity and condition-specific functional impairment were evaluated with a standard 100-mm visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively, before device implantation as well as at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months. Marked clinical improvements were realized in back pain severity and functional impairment through 12 months of follow-up. The mean back pain score on the visual analog scale improved from 79.3 ± 17.2 before treatment to 21.9 ± 21.3, 21.9 ± 24.6, and 23.2 ± 23.3 at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively. The mean decrease at 12 months was 49.9 ± 30.3 mm, or approximately 66% (P < .0001). Similarly, the mean ODI score improved from 68.1% ± 16.9% before treatment to 27.4% ± 17.2%, 23.8% ± 18.7%, and 23.3% ± 15.5% at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively, representing a mean change of 39.2 ± 19.6 percentage points, or approximately 63%, at 12 months. Overall clinical success rates based on a 30% improvement in pain severity or greater and maintenance or improvement in the ODI were 91%, 88%, and 89% at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months

  6. The Trans-Visible Navigator: A See-Through Neuronavigation System Using Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiju; Satoh, Makoto; Konno, Takehiko; Hirai, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The neuronavigator has become indispensable for brain surgery and works in the manner of point-to-point navigation. Because the positional information is indicated on a personal computer (PC) monitor, surgeons are required to rotate the dimension of the magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography scans to match the surgical field. In addition, they must frequently alternate their gaze between the surgical field and the PC monitor. To overcome these difficulties, we developed an augmented reality-based navigation system with whole-operation-room tracking. A tablet PC is used for visualization. The patient's head is captured by the back-face camera of the tablet. Three-dimensional images of intracranial structures are extracted from magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography and are superimposed on the video image of the head. When viewed from various directions around the head, intracranial structures are displayed with corresponding angles as viewed from the camera direction, thus giving the surgeon the sensation of seeing through the head. Whole-operation-room tracking is realized using a VICON tracking system with 6 cameras. A phantom study showed a spatial resolution of about 1 mm. The present system was evaluated in 6 patients who underwent tumor resection surgery, and we showed that the system is useful for planning skin incisions as well as craniotomy and the localization of superficial tumors. The main advantage of the present system is that it achieves volumetric navigation in contrast to conventional point-to-point navigation. It extends augmented reality images directly onto real surgical images, thus helping the surgeon to integrate these 2 dimensions intuitively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  8. Long-term Analysis of Lip Augmentation With Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System (SMAS) Tissue Transfer Following Biplanar Extended SMAS Rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Matthew Allen; Rousso, Daniel Elliott; Replogle, William H

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, long-term, objective results of lip augmentation using superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) tissue transfer beyond 1 year have not been previously described. To evaluate the efficacy, longevity, and safety of lip augmentation using SMAS tissue transfer. A retrospective single-blind cohort study was designed to evaluate all patients who underwent surgical lip augmentation using SMAS following rhytidectomy between January 1, 2000, and November, 16, 2015, at a private facial plastic surgery practice in Birmingham, Alabama. Preoperative photographs of each patient served as controls and were compared with postoperative photographs at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 years after lip augmentation. A total of 104 images (from 26 individual patients) were reviewed by 12 blinded observers using a validated lip augmentation grading scale. Lip augmentation using SMAS. Median lip volumes of all patients at each postoperative interval (3 months, 1 year, and 5 years) compared with preoperative lip volumes. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative complications. A total of 423 patients were identified who underwent surgical lip augmentation using SMAS. Sixty patients with approximately 5 years or more of postoperative photographs were reviewed for complications. Twenty-six patients had 3-month, 1-year, and 5-year postoperative follow-up photographs and were included in the photographic evaluation. The mean age of these patients at the time of surgery was 54.6 years (range, 41.2-80.6 years. Fifty-nine of the 60 patients (98.3%) were female. Two of 60 patients (3.3%) with 5 years or more of postoperative follow-up developed complications requiring intervention. Both the superior lip and the inferior lip showed statistically significant increases in volume at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 years (P ≤ .004 for the superior lip after 5 years; P ≤ .001 for all other comparisons) after SMAS lip augmentation. The greatest median increase was observed in the

  9. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.

  10. Interactive Learning Environment: Web-based Virtual Hydrological Simulation System using Augmented and Immersive Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in internet technologies make it possible to manage and visualize large data on the web. Novel visualization techniques and interactive user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The hydrological simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive learning environment for teaching hydrological processes and concepts. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create or load predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate environmental mitigation alternatives. The web-based simulation system provides an environment for students to learn about the hydrological processes (e.g. flooding and flood damage), and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system utilizes latest web technologies and graphics processing unit (GPU) for water simulation and object collisions on the terrain. Users can access the system in three visualization modes including virtual reality, augmented reality, and immersive reality using heads-up display. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of various users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various visualization and interaction modes.

  11. Coronary Heart Disease Preoperative Gesture Interactive Diagnostic System Based on Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi-Bo; Chen, Yi-Min; Gao, Ming-Ke; Liu, Quan; Jiang, Si-Yu; Lu, Jia-Hui; Huang, Chen; Li, Ze-Yu; Zhang, Dian-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Coronary heart disease preoperative diagnosis plays an important role in the treatment of vascular interventional surgery. Actually, most doctors are used to diagnosing the position of the vascular stenosis and then empirically estimating vascular stenosis by selective coronary angiography images instead of using mouse, keyboard and computer during preoperative diagnosis. The invasive diagnostic modality is short of intuitive and natural interaction and the results are not accurate enough. Aiming at above problems, the coronary heart disease preoperative gesture interactive diagnostic system based on Augmented Reality is proposed. The system uses Leap Motion Controller to capture hand gesture video sequences and extract the features which that are the position and orientation vector of the gesture motion trajectory and the change of the hand shape. The training planet is determined by K-means algorithm and then the effect of gesture training is improved by multi-features and multi-observation sequences for gesture training. The reusability of gesture is improved by establishing the state transition model. The algorithm efficiency is improved by gesture prejudgment which is used by threshold discriminating before recognition. The integrity of the trajectory is preserved and the gesture motion space is extended by employing space rotation transformation of gesture manipulation plane. Ultimately, the gesture recognition based on SRT-HMM is realized. The diagnosis and measurement of the vascular stenosis are intuitively and naturally realized by operating and measuring the coronary artery model with augmented reality and gesture interaction techniques. All of the gesture recognition experiments show the distinguish ability and generalization ability of the algorithm and gesture interaction experiments prove the availability and reliability of the system.

  12. Patient expectations after breast augmentation: the imperative to audit your sizing system.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Patient dissatisfaction with breast size after breast implant surgery can lead to early secondary procedures in a minority of cases. Different systems of sizing a patient preoperatively have been proposed, including detailed measurements and computer-assisted assessment. Whatever system is used, a surgeon needs to obtain feedback to ascertain that the system is effective at producing a satisfactory outcome. In this study, 137 patients who underwent breast augmentation by a single surgeon were prospectively assessed for a 12-week period after surgery to determine their satisfaction with their breast size. Both expectations and desire to change implant size were assessed. Early (week 1) expectations of the patients were a good predictor of their long-term assessment 12 weeks after surgery and their desire to change their implant size. The patients with a greater body mass index (BMI) and larger implant volume were more likely to express a desire for a change in implant size early in the postoperative course. The findings showed that 19.4 % (26/134) of the patients wished to have larger implants by 12 weeks after surgery and that 3.7 % (5/134) felt smaller implants would be preferable. The information produced by this audit is important to the provision of future informed consent for this surgeon. Without similar data from their individual practices, surgeons cannot provide patients with an accurate assessment of their satisfaction after breast augmentation surgery. A similar undertaking is strongly recommended for surgeons performing breast implant surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Intelligent Filtering for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    1 Intelligent Filtering for Augmented Reality Sabrina Sestito*, Simon Julier, Marco Lanzagorta and Larry Rosenblum Advanced Information Technology...Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia) KEYWORDS: Augmented Reality , Intelligent Systems, Databases ABSTRACT: Recent developments in computing...hardware have begun to make mobile and wearable Augmented Reality (AR) systems a reality . With this new freedom, AR systems can now be used in a very wide

  14. Usability of a real-time tracked augmented reality display system in musculoskeletal injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Zachary; Ungi, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: Image-guided needle interventions are seldom performed with augmented reality guidance in clinical practice due to many workspace and usability restrictions. We propose a real-time optically tracked image overlay system to make image-guided musculoskeletal injections more efficient and assess its usability in a bed-side clinical environment. METHODS: An image overlay system consisting of an optically tracked viewbox, tablet computer, and semitransparent mirror allows users to navigate scanned patient volumetric images in real-time using software built on the open-source 3D Slicer application platform. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the latency and screen refresh rate of the system using different image resolutions. To assess the usability of the system and software, five medical professionals were asked to navigate patient images while using the overlay and completed a questionnaire to assess the system. RESULTS: In assessing the latency of the system with scanned images of varying size, screen refresh rates were approximately 5 FPS. The study showed that participants found using the image overlay system easy, and found the table-mounted system was significantly more usable and effective than the handheld system. CONCLUSION: It was determined that the system performs comparably with scanned images of varying size when assessing the latency of the system. During our usability study, participants preferred the table-mounted system over the handheld. The participants also felt that the system itself was simple to use and understand. With these results, the image overlay system shows promise for use in a clinical environment.

  15. Applying Augmented Reality to a Mobile-Assisted Learning System for Martial Arts Using Kinect Motion Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wen-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to learn the routine of Tantui, a branch of martial arts was taken as an object of research. Fitts' stages of motor learning and augmented reality (AR) were applied to a 3D mobile-assisted learning system for martial arts, which was characterized by free viewing angles. With the new system, learners could rotate the viewing angle of…

  16. Applying Augmented Reality to a Mobile-Assisted Learning System for Martial Arts Using Kinect Motion Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wen-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to learn the routine of Tantui, a branch of martial arts was taken as an object of research. Fitts' stages of motor learning and augmented reality (AR) were applied to a 3D mobile-assisted learning system for martial arts, which was characterized by free viewing angles. With the new system, learners could rotate the viewing angle of…

  17. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  18. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  19. An augmented reality system in lymphatico-venous anastomosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Soh; Tonooka, Maki; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Sotsuka, Yohei; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Kawai, Kenichiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2016-05-06

    Indocyanine green lymphography, displayed as infrared image, is very useful in identifying lymphatic vessels during surgeries. Surgeons refer the infrared image on the displays as they proceed the operation. Those displays are usually placed on the walls or besides the operation tables. The surgeons cannot watch the infrared image and the operation field simultaneously. They have to move their heads and visual lines. An augmented reality system was developed for simultaneous referring of the infrared image, overlaid on real operation field view. A surgeon wore a see-through eye-glasses type display during lymphatico-venous anastomosis surgery. Infrared image was transferred wirelessly to the display. The surgeon was able to recognize fluorescently shining lymphatic vessels projected on the glasses and dissect them out. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  20. An augmented reality system in lymphatico-venous anastomosis surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Soh; Tonooka, Maki; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Sotsuka, Yohei; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Kawai, Kenichiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green lymphography, displayed as infrared image, is very useful in identifying lymphatic vessels during surgeries. Surgeons refer the infrared image on the displays as they proceed the operation. Those displays are usually placed on the walls or besides the operation tables. The surgeons cannot watch the infrared image and the operation field simultaneously. They have to move their heads and visual lines. An augmented reality system was developed for simultaneous referring of the infrared image, overlaid on real operation field view. A surgeon wore a see-through eye-glasses type display during lymphatico-venous anastomosis surgery. Infrared image was transferred wirelessly to the display. The surgeon was able to recognize fluorescently shining lymphatic vessels projected on the glasses and dissect them out. PMID:27154749

  1. Development and flight test evaluation of a pitch stability augmentation system for a relaxed stability L-1011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rising, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The L-1011 has been flight tested to demonstrate the relaxed static stability concept as a means of obtaining significant drag benefits to achieve a more energy efficient transport. Satisfactory handling qualities were maintained with the design of an active control horizontal tail for stability and control augmentation to allow operation of the L-1011 at centers of gravity close to the neutral point. Prior to flight test, a motion base visual flight simulator program was performed to optimize the augmentation system. The system was successfully demonstrated in a test program totaling forty-eight actual flight hours.

  2. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  3. Sensitivity of control-augmented structure obtained by a system decomposition method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanskisobieski, Jaroslaw; Bloebaum, Christina L.; Hajela, Prabhat

    1988-01-01

    The verification of a method for computing sensitivity derivatives of a coupled system is presented. The method deals with a system whose analysis can be partitioned into subsets that correspond to disciplines and/or physical subsystems that exchange input-output data with each other. The method uses the partial sensitivity derivatives of the output with respect to input obtained for each subset separately to assemble a set of linear, simultaneous, algebraic equations that are solved for the derivatives of the coupled system response. This sensitivity analysis is verified using an example of a cantilever beam augmented with an active control system to limit the beam's dynamic displacements under an excitation force. The verification shows good agreement of the method with reference data obtained by a finite difference technique involving entire system analysis. The usefulness of a system sensitivity method in optimization applications by employing a piecewise-linear approach to the same numerical example is demonstrated. The method's principal merits are its intrinsically superior accuracy in comparison with the finite difference technique, and its compatibility with the traditional division of work in complex engineering tasks among specialty groups.

  4. A piloted simulator investigation of augmentation systems to improve helicopter nap-of-the-earth handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Talbot, P. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    A piloted simulation study assessed various levels of stability and control augmentation designed to improve the handling qualities of several helicopters in nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. Five basic single rotor helicopters - one teetering, two articulated, and two hingeless - which were found to have a variety of major deficiencies in a previous fixed-based simulator study were selected as baseline configurations. The stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS) include simple control augmentation systems (CAS) to decouple pitch and yaw responses due to collective input and to quicken the pitch and roll control responses; SCAS of rate command type designed to optimize the sensitivity and damping and to decouple the pitch-roll due to aircraft angular rate; and attitude command type SCAS. Pilot ratings and commentary are presented as well as performance data related to the task. SCAS control usage and their gain levels associated with specific rotor type are also discussed.

  5. Hughes aircraft's architectural design of the federal aviation administration wide-area augmentation system: An international system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceva, Juan

    Hughes Aircraft is currently developing under contract with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) a GPS-based navigation system that is intended to become the primary navigational aid for commercial aviation during all phases of flight—from enroute through Category I precision approach. This innovative system, named the Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS), will make use of a network of reference stations distributed throughout the U.S. National Airspace System. These reference stations will collect GPS measurements and send them to master stations. The master stations will process the data to provide correctional information for each GPS satellite. This information will include as separate components the GPS ephemeris errors, satellite clock bias and ionospheric estimation data. The corrections will be sent to the users by means of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite using a specific signal and data format. WAAS is first expected to provide supplemental radio navigation, and eventually to become the primary system of navigation. The system will add the following features to the current GPS system: a GEO ranging function that will improve availability and reliability; differential GPS corrections that will improve accuracy; and integrity monitoring that will provide and enhance safety. To meet the requirements associated with a primary navigation system, WAAS should be able to provide fault-free position fix with a time availability of 0.999 for Category I approaches, and 0.99999 for domestic enroute, terminal and nonprecision approach phases of flight. This paper presents the improvements that this augmentation system offers to stand-alone GPS in order to become the primary navigational system in the U.S. The paper also covers the features that make this wide-area system a naturally expandable system worldwide that will allow the integration of future local-area differential systems across the world.

  6. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    PubMed

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time.

  7. Real-time advanced spinal surgery via visible patient model and augmented reality system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Ren; Wang, Min-Liang; Liu, Kai-Che; Hu, Ming-Hsien; Lee, Pei-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced augmented reality system for spinal surgery assistance, and develops entry-point guidance prior to vertebroplasty spinal surgery. Based on image-based marker detection and tracking, the proposed camera-projector system superimposes pre-operative 3-D images onto patients. The patients' preoperative 3-D image model is registered by projecting it onto the patient such that the synthetic 3-D model merges with the real patient image, enabling the surgeon to see through the patients' anatomy. The proposed method is much simpler than heavy and computationally challenging navigation systems, and also reduces radiation exposure. The system is experimentally tested on a preoperative 3D model, dummy patient model and animal cadaver model. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed system is verified on three patients undergoing spinal surgery in the operating theater. The results of these clinical trials are extremely promising, with surgeons reporting favorably on the reduced time of finding a suitable entry point and reduced radiation dose to patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An augmented reality system validation for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    PubMed

    Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa Maria; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a new technology in which various virtual elements are incorporated into the user's perception of the real world. The most significant aspect of AR is that the virtual elements add relevant and helpful information to the real scene. AR shares some important characteristics with virtual reality as applied in clinical psychology. However, AR offers additional features that might be crucial for treating certain problems. An AR system designed to treat insect phobia has been used for treating phobia of small animals, and positive preliminary data about the global efficacy of the system have been obtained. However, it is necessary to determine the capacity of similar AR systems and their elements that are designed to evoke anxiety in participants; this is achieved by testing the correspondence between the inclusion of feared stimuli and the induction of anxiety. The objective of the present work is to validate whether the stimuli included in the AR-Insect Phobia system are capable of inducing anxiety in six participants diagnosed with cockroach phobia. Results support the adequacy of each element of the system in inducing anxiety in all participants.

  9. Initial experiences using a new implant based distraction system for alveolar ridge augmentation.

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Papageorge, M; Kovács, A; Carchidi, J E

    2001-04-01

    With this case report we demonstrate a new technique useful in augmenting alveolar ridges after resection procedures or atrophic loss of volume. The augmentation is done by means of a new osteogenic distractor (manufactured by ACE Surgical Supply Co., Inc., Brockton, MA, USA), the distraction procedure is according to Ilizarov's principles.

  10. Subfascial gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    Developing the concept of gluteal augmentation through the past 17 years has been an academic adventure. During these years my coworkers and I have progressively improved surgical technique and devised an anatomical system for gluteal augmentation that includes an ideal implant design and templates to assist in evaluating patients in the preoperative period and to identify the most appropriate implant size.

  11. Helicopter force-feel and stability augmentation system with parallel servo-actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, Roger H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A force-feel system is implemented by mechanically coupling a servo-actuator to and in parallel with a flight control system. The servo-actuator consists of an electric motor, a gearing device, and a clutch. A commanded cockpit-flight-controller position is achieved by pilot actuation of a trim-switch. The position of the cockpit-flight-controller is compared with the commanded position to form a first error which is processed by a shaping function to correlate the first error with a commanded force at the cockpit-flight-controller. The commanded force on the cockpit-flight-controller provides centering forces and improved control feel for the pilot. In an embodiment, the force-feel system is used as the basic element of stability augmentation system (SAS). The SAS provides a stabilization signal that is compared with the commanded position to form a second error signal. The first error is summed with the second error for processing by the shaping function.

  12. Augmenting Instructional Animations with a Body Analogy to Help Children Learn about Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children’s learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed–accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems. PMID:27375538

  13. Applications of Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems in Vision Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang; Bowers, Alex; Rensing, Noa

    2007-01-01

    Vision loss typically affects either the wide peripheral vision (important for mobility), or central vision (important for seeing details). Traditional optical visual aids usually recover the lost visual function, but at a high cost for the remaining visual function. We have developed a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision head-mounted display systems to address vision loss. Two applications are discussed in this paper. In the first, minified edge images from a head-mounted video camera are presented on a see-through display providing visual field expansion for people with peripheral vision loss, while still enabling the full resolution of the residual central vision to be maintained. The concept has been applied in daytime and nighttime devices. A series of studies suggested that the system could help with visual search, obstacle avoidance, and nighttime mobility. Subjects were positive in their ratings of device cosmetics and ergonomics. The second application is for people with central vision loss. Using an on-axis aligned camera and display system, central visibility is enhanced with 1:1 scale edge images, while still enabling the wide field of the unimpaired peripheral vision to be maintained. The registration error of the system was found to be low in laboratory testing. PMID:18172511

  14. Structural stability augmentation system design using BODEDIRECT: A quick and accurate approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goslin, T. J.; Ho, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology is presented for a modal suppression control law design using flight test data instead of mathematical models to obtain the required gain and phase information about the flexible airplane. This approach is referred to as BODEDIRECT. The purpose of the BODEDIRECT program is to provide a method of analyzing the modal phase relationships measured directly from the airplane. These measurements can be achieved with a frequency sweep at the control surface input while measuring the outputs of interest. The measured Bode-models can be used directly for analysis in the frequency domain, and for control law design. Besides providing a more accurate representation for the system inputs and outputs of interest, this method is quick and relatively inexpensive. To date, the BODEDIRECT program has been tested and verified for computational integrity. Its capabilities include calculation of series, parallel and loop closure connections between Bode-model representations. System PSD, together with gain and phase margins of stability may be calculated for successive loop closures of multi-input/multi-output systems. Current plans include extensive flight testing to obtain a Bode-model representation of a commercial aircraft for design of a structural stability augmentation system.

  15. A system for context-aware intraoperative augmented reality in dental implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Katić, Darko; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Seeberger, Robin; Hoffmann, Juergen; Dillmann, Ruediger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of information in the OR are ignored by surgeons when the amount outpaces human mental processing abilities. We developed an augmented reality (AR) system for dental implant surgery that acts as an automatic information filter, selectively displaying only relevant information. The purpose is to reduce information overflow and offer intuitive image guidance. The system was evaluated in a pig cadaver experiment. Information filtering is implemented via rule-based situation interpretation with description logics. The interpretation is based on intraoperative distances measurement between anatomical structures and the dental drill with optical tracking. For AR, a head-mounted display is used, which was calibrated with a novel method based on SPAAM. To adapt to surgeon specific preferences, we offer two alternative display formats: one with static and another with contact analog AR. The system made the surgery easier and showed ergonomical benefits, as assessed by a questionnaire. All relevant phases were recognized reliably. The new calibration showed significant improvements, while the deviation of the realized implants was <2.5 mm. The system allowed the surgeon to fully concentrate on the surgery itself. It offered greater flexibility since the surgeon received all relevant information, but was free to deviate from it. Accuracy of the realized implants remains an open issue and part of future work.

  16. An Augmented γ-Spray System to Visualize Biological Effects for Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Seiya; Tenzou, Hideki; Kasuga, Takaaki; Iwakura, Yukiko; Johnston, Robert

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new educational system with an easy-to-use interface in order to support comprehension of the biological effects of radiation on the human body within a short period of time. A paint spray-gun was used as a gamma rays source mock-up for the system. The application screen shows the figure of a human body for radiation deposition using the γ-Sprayer, a virtual radiation source, as well as equivalent dosage and a panel for setting the irradiation conditions. While the learner stands in front of the PC monitor, the virtual radiation source is used to deposit radiation on the graphic of the human body that is displayed. Tissue damage is calculated using an interpolation method from the data calculated by the PHITS simulation code in advance while the learner is pulling the trigger with respect to the irradiation time, incident position, and distance from the screen. It was confirmed that the damage was well represented by the interpolation method. The augmented ?-Spray system was assessed by questionnaire. Pre-post questionnaire was taken for our 41 students in National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College. It was also confirmed that the system has a capability of teaching the basic radiation protection concept, quantitative feeling of the radiation dose, and the biological effects

  17. Augmenting Instructional Animations with a Body Analogy to Help Children Learn about Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Wim T J L; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children's learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed-accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems.

  18. Testing and evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Stephen; Russler, Pat; Clipp, Brian; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Bennett, Matthew; Mauger, Jennifer; Church, William; Towles, Herman; MacCabe, Stephen; Webb, Jeffrey; Lupo, Jasper; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Dunn, Enrique; Leslie, Christopher; Welch, Greg

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes performance evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments. Applied Research Associates (ARA), as prime integrator on the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program, is developing a soldier-worn system to provide intuitive `heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a novel pose estimation capability, a helmet-mounted see-through display, and a wearable processing unit to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (e.g., navigation waypoints, sensor points of interest, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. We achieve accurate pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, terrain data, and computer-vision inputs. We leverage a helmet-mounted camera and custom computer vision algorithms to provide terrain-based measurements of absolute orientation (i.e., orientation of the helmet with respect to the earth). These orientation measurements, which leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry and mission planning landmarks, enable our system to operate robustly in the presence of external and body-worn magnetic disturbances. Current field testing activities across a variety of mountainous environments indicate that we can achieve high icon geo-registration accuracy (<10mrad) using these vision-based methods.

  19. NASA's global differential GPS system and the TDRSS augmentation service for satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Young, Larry; Stocklin, Frank; Rush, John

    2004-01-01

    NASA is planning to launch a new service for Earth satellites providing them with precise GPS differential corrections and other ancillary information enabling decimeter level orbit determination accuracy, and nanosecond time-transfer accuracy, onboard, in real-time. The TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) will broadcast its message on the S-band multiple access channel of NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The satellite's phase array antenna has been configured to provide a wide beam, extending coverage up to 1000 km altitude over the poles. Global coverage will be ensured with broadcast from three or more TDRSS satellites. The GPS differential corrections are provided by the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System, developed and operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The GDGPS System employs a global ground network of more than 70 GPS receivers to monitor the GPS constellation in real time. The system provides real-time estimates of the GPS satellite states, as well as many other real-time products such as differential corrections, global ionospheric maps, and integrity monitoring. The unique multiply redundant architecture of the GDGPS System ensures very high reliability, with 99.999% demonstrated since the inception of the system in Early 2000. The estimated real time GPS orbit and clock states provided by the GDGPS system are accurate to better than 20 cm 3D RMS, and have been demonstrated to support sub-decimeter real time positioning and orbit determination for a variety of terrestrial, airborne, and spaceborne applications. In addition to the GPS differential corrections, TASS will provide real-time Earth orientation and solar flux information that enable precise onboard knowledge of the Earth-fixed position of the spacecraft, and precise orbit prediction and planning capabilities. TASS will also provide 5 seconds alarms for GPS integrity failures based on the unique GPS integrity monitoring service of the

  20. Feasibility of an Autism-Focused Augmented Reality Smartglasses System for Social Communication and Behavioral Coaching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runpeng; Salisbury, Joseph P; Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Sahin, Ned T

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a rapidly rising prevalence, currently affecting 1 in 68 children, and over 3.5 million people in the United States. Current ASD interventions are primarily based on in-person behavioral therapies that are both costly and difficult to access. These interventions aim to address some of the fundamental deficits that clinically characterize ASD, including deficits in social communication, and the presence of stereotypies, and other autism-related behaviors. Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches seldom rely on quantitative data measures of symptomatology, severity, or condition trajectory. Given the current situation, we report on the Brain Power System (BPS), a digital behavioral aid with quantitative data gathering and reporting features. The BPS includes customized smartglasses, providing targeted personalized coaching experiences through a family of gamified augmented-reality applications utilizing artificial intelligence. These applications provide children and adults with coaching for emotion recognition, face directed gaze, eye contact, and behavioral self-regulation. This preliminary case report, part of a larger set of upcoming research reports, explores the feasibility of the BPS to provide coaching in two boys with clinically diagnosed ASD, aged 8 and 9 years. The coaching intervention was found to be well tolerated and rated as being both engaging and fun. Both males could easily use the system, and no technical problems were noted. During the intervention, caregivers reported improved non-verbal communication, eye contact, and social engagement during the intervention. Both boys demonstrated decreased symptoms of ASD, as measured by the aberrant behavior checklist at 24-h post-intervention. Specifically, both cases demonstrated improvements in irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity/non-compliance, and inappropriate speech. Smartglasses using augmented

  1. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  2. Conceptual design, evaluation and research identification for Remote Augmented Propulsive Lift Systems (RALS) with ejectors for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Konarski, M.; Sutherland, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    Ejector concepts for use with a remote augmented lift system (RALS) exhaust nozzle were studied. A number of concepts were considered and three were selected as having the greatest promise of providing the desired aircraft and exhaust gas cooling and lift enhancement. A scale model test program is recommended to explore the effects of the more important parameters on ejector performance.

  3. An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Learning System to Improve Students' Learning Achievements and Motivations in Natural Science Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…

  4. An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Learning System to Improve Students' Learning Achievements and Motivations in Natural Science Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…

  5. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  6. An augmented reality system for patient-specific guidance of cardiac catheter ablation procedures.

    PubMed

    De Buck, Stijn; Maes, Frederik; Ector, Joris; Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Heidbüchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

    2005-11-01

    We present a system to assist in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias by catheter ablation. A patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical model, constructed from magnetic resonance images, is merged with fluoroscopic images in an augmented reality environment that enables the transfer of electrocardiography (ECG) measurements and cardiac activation times onto the model. Accurate mapping is realized through the combination of: a new calibration technique, adapted to catheter guided treatments; a visual matching registration technique, allowing the electrophysiologist to align the model with contrast-enhanced images; and the use of virtual catheters, which enable the annotation of multiple ECG measurements on the model. These annotations can be visualized by color coding on the patient model. We provide an accuracy analysis of each of these components independently. Based on simulation and experiments, we determined a segmentation error of 0.6 mm, a calibration error in the order of 1 mm and a target registration error of 1.04 +/- 0.45 mm. The system provides a 3-D visualization of the cardiac activation pattern which may facilitate and improve diagnosis and treatment of the arrhytmia. Because of its low cost and similar advantages we believe our approach can compete with existing commercial solutions, which rely on dedicated hardware and costly catheters. We provide qualitative results of the first clinical use of the system in 11 ablation procedures.

  7. Lbs Augmented Reality Assistive System for Utilities Infrastructure Management Through Galileo and Egnos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylianidis, E.; Valaria, E.; Smagas, K.; Pagani, A.; Henriques, J.; Garca, A.; Jimeno, E.; Carrillo, I.; Patias, P.; Georgiadis, C.; Kounoudes, A.; Michail, K.

    2016-06-01

    There is a continuous and increasing demand for solutions, both software and hardware-based, that are able to productively handle underground utilities geospatial data. Innovative approaches that are based on the use of the European GNSS, Galileo and EGNOS, sensor technologies and LBS, are able to monitor, document and manage utility infrastructures' data with an intuitive 3D augmented visualisation and navigation/positioning technology. A software and hardware-based system called LARA, currently under develop- ment through a H2020 co-funded project, aims at meeting that demand. The concept of LARA is to integrate the different innovative components of existing technologies in order to design and develop an integrated navigation/positioning and information system which coordinates GNSS, AR, 3D GIS and geodatabases on a mobile platform for monitoring, documenting and managing utility infrastruc- tures on-site. The LARA system will guide utility field workers to locate the working area by helping them see beneath the ground, rendering the complexity of the 3D models of the underground grid such as water, gas and electricity. The capacity and benefits of LARA are scheduled to be tested in two case studies located in Greece and the United Kingdom with various underground utilities. The paper aspires to present the first results from this initiative. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European GNSS Agency under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641460.

  8. GAPforAPE: an augmented browsing system to improve Web 2.0 accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Prandi, Catia; Muratori, Ludovico Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The Web 2.0 evolution has spread more interactive technologies which affected accessibility for users who navigate the Web by using assistive technologies. In particular, the partial download of new data, the continuous refreshing, and the massive use of scripting can represent significant barriers especially for people with visual impairments, who enjoy the Web by means of screen readers. On the other hand, such technologies can be an opportunity, because they can provide a new means of transcoding Web content, making the Web more accessible. In this article we present GAPforAPE, an augmented browsing system (based on Web browsers extensions) which offers a user's profiling system and transcodes Web content according to constrains declared by users: the same Web page is provided to any user, but GAPforAPE computes adequate customizations, by exploiting scripting technologies which usually affect Web pages accessibility. GAPforAPE imitates screen readers behavior: it applies a specific set of transcoding scripts devoted to a given Web site, when available, and a default set of transcoding operations otherwise. The continuous and quick evolution of the Web has shown that a crowdsourcing system is a desirable solution, letting the transcoding scripts evolve in the same way.

  9. Augmented reality system for oral surgery using 3D auto stereoscopic visualization.

    PubMed

    Tran, Huy Hoang; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Kuwana, Kenta; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Liao, Hongen

    2011-01-01

    We present an augmented reality system for oral and maxillofacial surgery in this paper. Instead of being displayed on a separated screen, three-dimensional (3D) virtual presentations of osseous structures and soft tissues are projected onto the patient's body, providing surgeons with exact knowledge of depth information of high risk tissues inside the bone. We employ a 3D integral imaging technique which produce motion parallax in both horizontal and vertical direction over a wide viewing area in this study. In addition, surgeons are able to check the progress of the operation in real-time through an intuitive 3D based interface which is content-rich, hardware accelerated. These features prevent surgeons from penetrating into high risk areas and thus help improve the quality of the operation. Operational tasks such as hole drilling, screw fixation were performed using our system and showed an overall positional error of less than 1 mm. Feasibility of our system was also verified with a human volunteer experiment.

  10. Effectiveness of a Novel Augmented Reality-Based Navigation System in Treatment of Orbital Hypertelorism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Chai, Gang; Lin, Li; Xin, Yu; Tan, Andy; Bogari, Melia; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology can superimpose the virtual image generated by computer onto the real operating field to present an integral image to enhance surgical safety. The purpose of our study is to develop a novel AR-based navigation system for craniofacial surgery. We focus on orbital hypertelorism correction, because the surgery requires high preciseness and is considered tough even for senior craniofacial surgeon. Twelve patients with orbital hypertelorism were selected. The preoperative computed tomography data were imported into 3-dimensional platform for preoperational design. The position and orientation of virtual information and real world were adjusted by image registration process. The AR toolkits were used to realize the integral image. Afterward, computed tomography was also performed after operation for comparing the difference between preoperational plan and actual operational outcome. Our AR-based navigation system was successfully used in these patients, directly displaying 3-dimensional navigational information onto the surgical field. They all achieved a better appearance by the guidance of navigation image. The difference in interdacryon distance and the dacryon point of each side appear no significant (P > 0.05) between preoperational plan and actual surgical outcome. This study reports on an effective visualized approach for guiding orbital hypertelorism correction. Our AR-based navigation system may lay a foundation for craniofacial surgery navigation. The AR technology could be considered as a helpful tool for precise osteotomy in craniofacial surgery.

  11. Sudden ionospheric delay decorrelation and its impact on the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere represents the largest source of positioning error for single-frequency users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). In differential GPS systems such as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), vertical ionospheric delays are modeled at regularly spaced intervals in geographic latitude and longitude. The broadcast bound on the error at each of these points is designated the grid ionospheric vertical error (GIVE). Higher performance standards planned for future implementations of WAAS require a reduction in the magnitude of the GIVE broadcast under nominal conditions. Achieving this reduction depends upon a better understanding of the decorrelation of ionospheric delay, in both space and time. In this paper we focus on temporal decorrelation. We report a methodology for assessing the impact on WAAS posed by a sudden increase in the level of ionospheric disturbance. The methodology is based upon forming an estimate of the probability PD that a WAAS user will confront a sudden increase in the level of ionospheric disturbance following a period of relative calm. We have determined a limiting upper bound of PD to be 4 × 10-7, which lies well within the margin needed to meet WAAS integrity requirements.

  12. An augmented reality navigation system for pediatric oncologic surgery based on preoperative CT and MRI images.

    PubMed

    Souzaki, Ryota; Ieiri, Satoshi; Uemura, Munenori; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Koga, Yuhki; Suminoe, Aiko; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Hara, Toshiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2013-12-01

    In pediatric endoscopic surgery, a limited view and lack of tactile sensation restrict the surgeon's abilities. Moreover, in pediatric oncology, it is sometimes difficult to detect and resect tumors due to the adhesion and degeneration of tumors treated with multimodality therapies. We developed an augmented reality (AR) navigation system based on preoperative CT and MRI imaging for use in endoscopic surgery for pediatric tumors. The patients preoperatively underwent either CT or MRI with body surface markers. We used an optical tracking system to register the reconstructed 3D images obtained from the CT and MRI data and body surface markers during surgery. AR visualization was superimposed with the 3D images projected onto captured live images. Six patients underwent surgery using this system. The median age of the patients was 3.5 years. Two of the six patients underwent laparoscopic surgery, two patients underwent thoracoscopic surgery, and two patients underwent laparotomy using this system. The indications for surgery were local recurrence of a Wilms tumor in one case, metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma in one case, undifferentiated sarcoma in one case, bronchogenic cysts in two cases, and hepatoblastoma in one case. The average tumor size was 22.0±14.2 mm. Four patients were treated with chemotherapy, three patients were treated with radiotherapy before surgery, and four patients underwent reoperation. All six tumors were detected using the AR navigation system and successfully resected without any complications. The AR navigation system is very useful for detecting the tumor location during pediatric surgery, especially for endoscopic surgery. Crown Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraoperative Evaluation of Body Surface Improvement by an Augmented Reality System That a Clinician Can Modify.

    PubMed

    Mitsuno, Daisuke; Ueda, Koichi; Itamiya, Tomoki; Nuri, Takashi; Otsuki, Yuki

    2017-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology that can combine computer-generated images with a real scene has been reported in the medical field recently. We devised the AR system for evaluation of improvements of the body surface, which is important for plastic surgery. We constructed an AR system that is easy to modify by combining existing devices and free software. We superimposed the 3-dimensional images of the body surface and the bone (obtained from VECTRA H1 and CT) onto the actual surgical field by Moverio BT-200 smart glasses and evaluated improvements of the body surface in 8 cases. In all cases, the 3D image was successfully projected on the surgical field. Improvement of the display method of the 3D image made it easier to distinguish the different shapes in the 3D image and surgical field, making comparison easier. In a patient with fibrous dysplasia, the symmetrized body surface image was useful for confirming improvement of the real body surface. In a patient with complex facial fracture, the simulated bone image was useful as a reference for reduction. In a patient with an osteoma of the forehead, simultaneously displayed images of the body surface and the bone made it easier to understand these positional relationships. This study confirmed that AR technology is helpful for evaluation of the body surface in several clinical applications. Our findings are not only useful for body surface evaluation but also for effective utilization of AR technology in the field of plastic surgery.

  14. An Human-Computer Interactive Augmented Reality System for Coronary Artery Diagnosis Planning and Training.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiming; Huang, Chen; Lv, Shengqing; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Yimin; Ma, Lizhuang

    2017-09-02

    In order to let the doctor carry on the coronary artery diagnosis and preoperative planning in a more intuitive and more natural way, and to improve the training effect for interns, an augmented reality system for coronary artery diagnosis planning and training (ARS-CADPT) is designed and realized in this paper. At first, a 3D reconstruction algorithm based on computed tomographic (CT) images is proposed to model the coronary artery vessels (CAV). Secondly, the algorithms of static gesture recognition and dynamic gesture spotting and recognition are presented to realize the real-time and friendly human-computer interaction (HCI), which is the characteristic of ARS-CADPT. Thirdly, a Sort-First parallel rendering and splicing display subsystem is developed, which greatly expands the capacity of student users. The experimental results show that, with the use of ARS-CADPT, the reconstruction accuracy of CAV model is high, the HCI is natural and fluent, and the visual effect is good. In a word, the system fully meets the application requirement.

  15. Fast Scene Recognition and Camera Relocalisation for Wide Area Augmented Reality Systems

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Tao; Duan, Liya; Chen, Yongjian; Yu, Junqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on online scene learning and fast camera relocalisation which are two key problems currently limiting the performance of wide area augmented reality systems. Firstly, we propose to use adaptive random trees to deal with the online scene learning problem. The algorithm can provide more accurate recognition rates than traditional methods, especially with large scale workspaces. Secondly, we use the enhanced PROSAC algorithm to obtain a fast camera relocalisation method. Compared with traditional algorithms, our method can significantly reduce the computation complexity, which facilitates to a large degree the process of online camera relocalisation. Finally, we implement our algorithms in a multithreaded manner by using a parallel-computing scheme. Camera tracking, scene mapping, scene learning and relocalisation are separated into four threads by using multi-CPU hardware architecture. While providing real-time tracking performance, the resulting system also possesses the ability to track multiple maps simultaneously. Some experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of our methods. PMID:22219700

  16. Multi-GNSS assessment of ionospheric threat model parameters for Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onur Karslioglu, Mahmut; Durmaz, Murat; YeganehSahab, Amir

    2015-04-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) makes aircraft precision approach and landing possible by providing differential corrections and integrity information for pseude range measurements obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).These information are transmited to the aviation users by means of very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) bands on the basis of GBAS local networks which support avionic receivers approximately within 20 kilometers of the airport. GBAS is strongly affected by anomalous ionospheric gradients during high ionospheric activities which can treaten the safety of the users. Therefore anomalous ionospheric gradients must be determined to understand and mitigate ionosphere threats occurring in different geographical regions. In this work, we assess an ionospheric anomaly threat model by analysing ionospheric gradients around Istanbul Ataturk Airport. For this, real ground-based observations from both GPS and GLONASS during high ionospheric activities since 2009 are pre-processed to extract ionospheric gradients. Afterwards ionospheric delays at each ionospheric piercing point are determined by applying different local ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) modeling and filtering techniques on the basis of raw carrier-phase observations. The ionospheric fronts are searched by looking at high ionospheric gradients which result from ionospheric delay differences between ionospheric piercing points. Then, the ionospheric threat parameters in terms of width, slope and velocity of the ionospheric wavefront are estimated from the extracted front occurences and gradients including velocity information of ionospheric piercing points. Finally, the estimated threat model parameters are examined and assessed by comparing the results from different techniques.

  17. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  18. Information system technologies' role in augmenting dermatologists' knowledge of prescription medication costs.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Paul, Ravi; Kilpatrick, Russell J

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent rising costs of once affordable dermatologic prescription medications, a survey measuring dermatologists' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of the cost of drugs they commonly prescribe has not been conducted. Awareness of drug costs is hindered by a lack of access to data about the prices of medicines. No surveys of physicians have addressed this issue by proposing new information system technologies that augment prescription medication price transparency and measuring how receptive physicians are to using these novel solutions in their daily clinical practice. Our research aims to investigate these topics with a survey of physicians in dermatology. Members of the North Carolina Dermatology Association were contacted through their electronic mailing list and asked to take an online survey. The survey asked several questions about dermatologists' attitudes and beliefs about drug costs. To measure their knowledge of prescription medications, the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost was used as an authoritative price that was compared to the survey takers' price estimates of drugs commonly used in dermatology. Physicians' willingness to use four distinct information system technologies that increase drug price transparency was also assessed. Dermatologists believe drug costs are an important factor in patient care and believe access to price information would allow them to provide a higher quality of care. Dermatologists' knowledge of the costs of medicines they commonly prescribe is poor, but they want to utilize information system technologies that increase access to drug pricing information. There is an unmet demand for information system technologies which increase price transparency of medications in dermatology. Physicians and IT professionals have the opportunity to create novel information systems that can be utilized to help guide cost conscious clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PME Augmentation to Isotopic Investigations Relevant to Origins of Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Qing-zhu

    We propose to acquire a state-of-the-art, next generation, ultra high precision and high sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) for isotope cosmochemistry research that is highly relevant to NASA's Origins of Solar Systems program. UC Davis will contribute 10% of the total budget (87,791) from the PI's start-up fund to share the cost of the proposed equipment. We request partial funding (790,118) from the Planetary Major Equipment program to cover the remaining cost of the instrument, as an augmentation to the existing science research award from the Origins of Solar Systems (OSS) program (NNX09AC93G) to the PI (Qing-Zhu Yin). The proposed instrument acquisition is vital to accomplish the research objectives outlined in the original OSS award (NNX09AC93G) and Cosmochemistry award (NNX08AG57G) to the PI. To ensure investigator access to and further development of new techniques that expand our research goals, the PI needs a TIMS as an Investigator Instrument (using NASA terminology). The University of California, Davis is fully committed to supporting isotope geochemistry and cosmochemistry research, as manifested through the promotion of the PI as a tenured faculty member effective July 1, 2008, providing the matching funds for cost sharing of the proposed instrument purchase, and a class-100 clean lab space (640 square feet) for sample handling in the new Earth and Physical Sciences building. The proposed acquisition is highly relevant to the scope of NASA's Origins of Solar Systems program: i.e., to conduct scientific investigations related to understanding the formation and early evolution of planetary systems in the area of analysis of primitive materials, solar nebular processes, star formation and its relationship to planetary system formations. The acquisition will help to generate new data and contribute to the development of new techniques that closely support NASA's activities for future

  20. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  1. Performance analysis of IMU-augmented GNSS tracking systems for space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Benjamin; Markgraf, Markus; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    European space launch operators consider the potential of GNSS (global navigation satellite system) as a promising novel means of localization for the purpose of range safety of launch vehicles like Ariane and Vega, since it is expected that recurring costs are lower and accuracy is higher than currently existing systems like radar tracking. Range safety requires continuous information about the position and velocity of the launch vehicle to quickly detect the occurrence of catastrophic events. However, GNSS outages due, for example, to high jerks at fairing and stage jettisons or other external interferences like (un-)intentional jamming cannot be precluded. The OCAM-G experiment on Ariane 5 flight VA219 has provided evidence that GNSS is capable of providing a highly accurate position and velocity solution during most of the flight, but that outages of several seconds do occur. To increase the continuity of a GNSS-based localization system, it is proposed that the GNSS receiver is augmented by an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is able to output a position and velocity solution even during GNSS outages. Since these outages are expected to be short, a tactical- or even consumer-grade IMU is expected to be sufficient. In this paper, the minimum IMU performance that is required to bridge outages of up to 10 s, and thereby meeting the accuracy requirements of range safety, is determined by means of a thorough simulation study. The focus of the analysis is on current generation microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based IMU, which is lightweight, low-cost, available commercially and has reached acceptable maturity in the last decade.

  2. Augmentation of aflatoxin B1 hepatotoxicity by endotoxin: involvement of endothelium and the coagulation system.

    PubMed

    Luyendyk, James P; Copple, Bryan L; Barton, Charles C; Ganey, Patricia E; Roth, Robert A

    2003-03-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a fungal toxin that causes both acute hepatotoxicity and liver carcinoma in exposed humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that exposure of rats to nontoxic doses of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) augments AFB(1) acute hepatotoxicity, resulting in enhanced injury to hepatic parenchymal cells and bile ducts. At larger doses, LPS causes damage to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and activation of the coagulation system. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of rats with AFB(1) and LPS damages SECs and activates the coagulation system, which is critical for potentiation of AFB(1) hepatotoxicity by LPS. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1 mg/kg AFB(1) (ip), then 4 hours later 7.4 x 10(6) EU/kg LPS was administered (iv). A time-dependent injury to SECs and parenchymal cells was observed in AFB(1)/LPS-cotreated animals that became significant by 12 h, as estimated by increases in plasma hyaluronic acid (HA) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that endothelial cell immunostaining was decreased in both centrilobular and periportal regions after AFB(1)/LPS treatment. Immunohistochemical evidence of fibrin deposition was found in both centrilobular and periportal regions by 12 h, but these deposits persisted only in periportal regions by 24 h. Administration of the anticoagulant heparin to AFB(1)/LPS-cotreated animals markedly attenuated increases in markers of hepatic parenchymal cell injury but provided only minimal amelioration of bile duct injury. These results suggest that AFB(1)/LPS coexposure results in SEC injury and activation of the coagulation system, and that the coagulation system is required for the development of hepatic parenchymal cell injury but not bile duct injury in this model.

  3. Evaluation of wearable haptic systems for the fingers in Augmented Reality applications.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Maurizio; Pacchierotti, Claudio; Chinello, Francesco; Salvietti, Gionata; De Luca, Alessandro; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2017-04-05

    Although Augmented Reality (AR) has been around for almost five decades, only recently we have witnessed AR systems and applications entering in our everyday life. Representative examples of this technological revolution are the smartphone games "Pok´emon GO" and "Ingress" or the Google Translate real-time sign interpretation app. Even if AR applications are already quite compelling and widespread, users are still not able to physically interact with the computer-generated reality. In this respect, wearable haptics can provide the compelling illusion of touching the superimposed virtual objects without constraining the motion or the workspace of the user. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of two wearable haptic interfaces for the fingers in three AR scenarios, enrolling 38 participants. In the first experiment, subjects were requested to write on a virtual board using a real chalk. The haptic devices provided the interaction forces between the chalk and the board. In the second experiment, subjects were asked to pick and place virtual and real objects. The haptic devices provided the interaction forces due to the weight of the virtual objects. In the third experiment, subjects were asked to balance a virtual sphere on a real cardboard. The haptic devices provided the interaction forces due to the weight of the virtual sphere rolling on the cardboard. Providing haptic feedback through the considered wearable device significantly improved the performance of all the considered tasks. Moreover, subjects significantly preferred conditions providing wearable haptic feedback.

  4. Identification of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery during pancreaticoduodenectomy using augmented reality-based navigation system.

    PubMed

    Onda, Shinji; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Kanehira, Masaru; Suzuki, Fumitake; Ito, Ryusuke; Fujioka, Shuichi; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-04-01

    In pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), early ligation of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) before efferent veins has been advocated to decrease blood loss by congestion of the pancreatic head to be resected. In this study, we herein report the utility of early identification of the IPDA using an augmented reality (AR)-based navigation system (NS). Seven nonconsecutive patients underwent PD using AR-based NS. After paired-point matching registration, the reconstructed image obtained by preoperative computed tomography (CT) was fused with a real-time operative field image and displayed on 3D monitors. The vascular reconstructed images, including the superior mesenteric artery, jejunal artery, and IPDA were visualized to facilitate image-guided surgical procedures. We compared operating time and intraoperative blood loss of six patients who successfully underwent identification of IPDA using AR-based NS (group A) with nine patients who underwent early ligation of IPDA without using AR (group B) and 18 patients who underwent a conventional PD (group C). The IPDA or the jejunal artery was rapidly identified and ligated in six patients. The mean operating time and intraoperative blood loss in group A was 415 min and 901 ml, respectively. There was no significant difference in operating time and intraoperative blood loss among the groups. The AR-based NS provided precise anatomical information, which allowed the surgeons to rapidly identify and perform early ligation of IPDA in PD. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  5. Space Weather Conditions During the February 2014 Wide Area Augmentation System GPS Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotoaniu, T. M.; Redmon, R. J.; Codrescu, M.; Singer, H. J.; Viereck, R. A.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 February 2014, at 21:20 GMT, the United States Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) service over Eastern Alaska and Northeastern Continental United States (CONUS) was disrupted. This study presents the space weather conditions leading up to and during the WAAS disruption. An X5-class solar flare, the strongest to date in 2014, was observed by multiple spacecraft on 25 February at 05:00 UT. However, the source of this flare was well off the Sun-Earth line and the coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with the event arrived at Earth with a glancing blow. An NGDC product based on NOAA's GOES magnetometer observations and a magnetopause model indicates the magnetopause compressed to below geosynchronous orbit around the time of the event. However, global geomagnetic activity was moderate and not generally expected to result in a significant WAAS degradation. This study summarizes the WAAS anomaly in the context of comprehensive space weather environmental characterization and highlights the value of geomagnetic activity indicators (e.g., magnetopause location) for situational awareness and predicting space weather geoeffectiveness.

  6. LINX(™) Reflux Management System: magnetic sphincter augmentation in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Bonavina, Luigi; DeMeester, Tom R; Ganz, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), commonly manifested by heartburn or regurgitation, is a chronic, progressive condition in which failed sphincter function allows the contents of the stomach to reflux into the esophagus, the airways and the mouth. Chronic GERD affects 10% of Western society. The majority of patients receive adequate relief from proton pump inhibitors, but up to 40% have incomplete relief of symptoms that cannot be addressed by increasing the dose of medications. The laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the surgical gold standard; however, the level of technical difficulty and its side effects have limited its use to less than 1% of the GERD population. These factors have contributed to the propensity of patients to persist with medical therapy, even when inadequate to control symptoms and complications of the disease. Consequently, a significant gap in the treatment continuum for GERD remains evident in current clinical practice. The LINX(™) Reflux Management System (Torax Medical) is designed to provide a permanent solution to GERD by augmenting the physiologic function of the sphincter barrier with a simple and reproducible laparoscopic procedure that does not alter gastric anatomy and can be easily reversed if necessary.

  7. GNSS Tsunami Warning System Augmentation for the Indo-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The years since the devastating Banda Aceh Earthquake of December, 2004 have repeatedly inflicted the terrible loss of life and economic disruption from large earthquakes and resulting tsunamis upon Indo-Pacific coastal populations. The hardest hit populations are those closest to the earthquake source, a scenario for which most Indo-Pacific nations lack an adequate early warning system. Following the Banda Aceh Earthquake, GNSS based techniques were developed to provide accurate, timely, estimates of ground displacements, the modeling and monitoring of tsunami propagation. Major investments are also being made to deploy and upgrade existing GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Beidou, Galileo, GZSS, and IRNSS) by the end of this decade. There have also been significant investments in multi-GNSS ground networks and analysis centers that often provide measurements in real time. These multi-national investments now present the possibility for significant improvements to the Indo-Pacific region's tsunami warning. The development of GNSS based tsunami warning integrated with existing seismic based tsunami warning systems will provide a robust, accurate, timely, and cost effective network to provide effective warning for the Indo-Pacific coastal communities. The UN General Assembly has called for the sharing of geodetic data for the mitigation of natural hazards while the IUGG and IGS recommend the implementation of a GNSS based augmentation to the Tsunami Early Warning System. The same GNSS ground networks and constellations that support the Tsunami Early Warning network also provide Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and other benefits to these communities thereby insuring a sustainable and reliable capability.

  8. Methodology, Methods, and Metrics for Testing and Evaluating Augmented Cognition Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2008-09-15

    The augmented cognition research community seeks cognitive neuroscience-based solutions to improve warfighter performance by applying and managing mitigation strategies to reduce workload and improve the throughput and quality of decisions. The focus of augmented cognition mitigation research is to define, demonstrate, and exploit neuroscience and behavioral measures that support inferences about the warfighter’s cognitive state that prescribe the nature and timing of mitigation. A research challenge is to develop valid evaluation methodologies, metrics and measures to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations. Two considerations are external validity, which is the extent to which the results apply to operational contexts; and internal validity, which reflects the reliability of performance measures and the conclusions based on analysis of results. The scientific rigor of the research methodology employed in conducting empirical investigations largely affects the validity of the findings. External validity requirements also compel us to demonstrate operational significance of mitigations. Thus it is important to demonstrate effectiveness of mitigations under specific conditions. This chapter reviews some cognitive science and methodological considerations in designing augmented cognition research studies and associated human performance metrics and analysis methods to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations.

  9. An optoacoustic guide with augmented reality system towards precision breast conserving surgery (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Lu; Liu, Kaiming; Xia, Yan; Wu, Jiayingzi; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Han, Linda K.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-02-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a well-accepted breast cancer treatment. However, it is still challenging for the surgeon to accurately localize the tumor during the surgery. Also, the guidance provided by current methods is 1 dimensional distance information, which is indirect and not intuitive. Therefore, it creates problems on a large re-excision rate, and a prolonged surgical time. To solve these problems, we have developed a fiber-delivered optoacoustic guide (OG), which mimics the traditional localization guide wire and is preoperatively placed into tumor mass, and an augmented reality (AR) system to provide real-time visualization on the location of the tumor with sub-millimeter variance. By a nano-composite light diffusion sphere and light absorbing layer formed on the tip of an optical fiber, the OG creates an omnidirectional acoustic source inside tumor mass under pulsed laser excitation. The optoacoustic signal generated has a high dynamic range ( 58dB) and spreads in a large apex angle of 320 degrees. Then, an acoustic radar with three ultrasound transducers is attached to the breast skin, and triangulates the location of the OG tip. With an AR system to sense the location of the acoustic radar, the relative position of the OG tip inside the tumor to the AR display is calculated and rendered. This provides direct visual feedback of the tumor location to surgeons, which will greatly ease the surgical planning during the operation and save surgical time. A proof-of-concept experiment using a tablet and a stereo-vision camera is demonstrated and 0.25 mm tracking variance is achieved.

  10. Cognitive models applied to human effectiveness in national security environments (ergonomics of augmented cognition system design and application).

    SciTech Connect

    Ntuen, Celestine; Winchester, Woodrow III

    2004-06-01

    In complex simulation systems where humans interact with computer-generated agents, information display and the interplay of virtual agents have become dominant media and modalities of interface design. This design strategy is reflected in augmented reality (AR), an environment where humans interact with computer-generated agents in real-time. AR systems can generate large amount of information, multiple solutions in less time, and perform far better in time-constrained problem solving. The capabilities of AR have been leveraged to augment cognition in human information processing. In this sort of augmented cognition (AC) work system, while technology has become the main source for information acquisition from the environment, the human sensory and memory capacities have failed to cope with the magnitude and scale of information they encounter. This situation generates opportunity for excessive cognitive workloads, a major factor in degraded human performance. From the human effectiveness point of view, research is needed to develop, model, and validate simulation tools that can measure the effectiveness of an AR technology used to support the amplification of human cognition. These tools will allow us to predict human performance for tasks executed under an AC tool construct. This paper presents an exploration of ergonomics issues relevant to AR and AC systems design. Additionally, proposed research to investigate those ergonomic issues is discussed.

  11. Estimating the joint disease outbreak-detection time when an automated biosurveillance system is augmenting traditional clinical case finding.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanna; Adamou, Christina; Dowling, John N; Cooper, Gregory F

    2008-04-01

    The goals of automated biosurveillance systems are to detect disease outbreaks early, while exhibiting few false positives. Evaluation measures currently exist to estimate the expected detection time of biosurveillance systems. Researchers also have developed models that estimate clinician detection of cases of outbreak diseases, which is a process known as clinical case finding. However, little research has been done on estimating how well biosurveillance systems augment traditional outbreak detection that is carried out by clinicians. In this paper, we introduce a general approach for doing so for non-endemic disease outbreaks, which are characteristic of bioterrorist induced diseases, such as respiratory anthrax. We first layout the basic framework, which makes minimal assumptions, and then we specialize it in several ways. We illustrate the method using a Bayesian outbreak detection algorithm called PANDA, a model of clinician outbreak detection, and simulated cases of a windborne anthrax release. This analysis derives a bound on how well we would expect PANDA to augment clinician detection of an anthrax outbreak. The results support that such analyses are useful in assessing the extent to which computer-based outbreak detection systems are expected to augment traditional clinician outbreak detection.

  12. The Impact of Ionospheric Storms on the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, T.

    2004-12-01

    In 2003, the FAA commissioned the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This new navigation system is capable of guiding aircraft to within a few hundred feet of the ground. Although the system accuracy is typically better than 2 m (95% in the vertical direction), there exist rare fault modes that can create errors more than ten times as large. Because these rare faults may be unobservable, the system availability is limited to times when they can be guaranteed to be small. The dominant source of these errors is the ionosphere. The WAAS ground segment consists of 25 dual-frequency reference stations that sample the ionosphere at discrete locations throughout the service volume. The users, however, only have access to a single frequency and cannot estimate the ionosphere directly. The ionospheric delay that they experience must be estimated from the ground station measurements. More importantly, the uncertainty from each estimate must be rigidly bounded as these corrections are part of a safety-of-life system. In addition, the users may be anywhere within the service volume; WAAS needs to protect all possible ray paths based on its discrete samples. The vast majority of the time Total Electron Content (TEC) ionospheric delays are smoothly varying functions of time and space. Given even just a few measurements, the surrounding ionosphere can be predicted accurately for tens of minutes. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. During the last solar peak, several major storms were observed that created highly localized disturbances in the ionosphere. These disturbances are not easily modeled by the low bit rate message format used to communicate to the users. Even worse, they may not be sampled at all by the ground stations. Thus, during such storms users may suffer very large correction errors. WAAS therefore includes three protection factors against this threat: a storm detector, and spatial and temporal threat models. The storm detector is an internal consistency

  13. Cell painting with an engineered EPCR to augment the protein C system

    PubMed Central

    Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Stavenuiter, Fabian; Mosnier, Laurent O.

    2016-01-01

    The protein C (PC) system conveys beneficial anticoagulant and cytoprotective effects in numerous in vivo disease models. The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a central role in these pathways as cofactor for PC activation and by enhancing activated protein C (APC)-mediated protease-activated receptor (PAR) activation. During inflammatory disease, expression of EPCR on cell membranes is often diminished thereby limiting PC activation and APC’s effects on cells. Here a caveolae-targeting glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored EPCR (EPCR-GPI) was engineered to restore EPCR’s bioavailability via “cell painting.” The painting efficiency of EPCR-GPI on EPCR-depleted endothelial cells was time- and dose-dependent. The EPCR-GPI bioavailability after painting was long lasting since EPCR surface levels reached 400% of wild-type cells after 2 hours and remained >200% for 24 hours. EPCR-GPI painting conveyed APC binding to EPCR-depleted endothelial cells where EPCR was lost due to shedding or shRNA. EPCR painting normalized PC activation on EPCR-depleted cells indicating that EPCR-GPI is functional active on painted cells. Caveolin-1 lipid rafts were enriched in EPCR after painting due to the GPI-anchor targeting caveolae. Accordingly, EPCR painting supported PAR1 and PAR3 cleavage by APC and augmented PAR1-dependent Akt phosphorylation by APC. Thus, EPCR-GPI painting achieved physiological relevant surface levels on endothelial cells, restored APC binding to EPCR-depleted cells, supported PC activation, and enhanced APC-mediated PAR cleavage and cytoprotective signaling. Therefore, EPCR-GPI provides a novel tool to restore the bioavailability and functionality of EPCR on EPCR-depleted and deficient cells. PMID:26272345

  14. Augmented photocatalytic activity and luminescence response of Tb³⁺ doped nanoscale titania systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Nibedita; Deka, Amrita; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-10-14

    The present work reports on the effect of Tb³⁺ doping on the luminescence and photocatalytic performance of nano-structured titania derived through a sol-gel route. X-ray diffraction patterns have revealed the existence of anatase phase with and without Tb³⁺ doping and with an improved orientation factor along (004) and (200) planes. Transmission electron microscopy and selective area electron diffraction studies, while exhibiting ample poly-crystallinity feature, have predicted an average particle size of ~9 nm and ~6 nm for the un-doped and 5% Tb³⁺ doped nano-titania samples; respectively. Apart from emissions accompanied by different types of defects, Tb³⁺ related transitions, such as, ⁵D₃ → ⁷F₅, ⁵D₃ → ⁷F₄, and ⁵D₄ → ⁷F₆ were identified in the photoluminescence spectra. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, as carried out on a Tb³⁺ doped nano-titania system, has demonstrated a more-open hysteretic loop owing to significant difference of N₂ adsorption/desorption rates. The photocatalytic activity of nano-titania, as evaluated from the nature of degradation of methyl orange under UV illumination, exhibited the highest efficiency for a Tb³⁺ doping level of 2.5%. The augmented photocatalytic degradation has also been discussed in the light of a model based on pseudo first-order kinetics.

  15. Arsenic causes aortic dysfunction and systemic hypertension in rats: Augmentation of angiotensin II signaling.

    PubMed

    Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Gupta, Priyanka; Kandasamy, Kannan; Choudhury, Soumen; Kutty, Harikumar Sankaran; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2015-07-25

    The groundwater pollutant arsenic can cause various cardiovascular disorders. Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, plays an important role in vascular dysfunction by promoting changes in endothelial function, vascular reactivity, tissue remodeling and oxidative stress. We investigated whether modulation of angiotensin II signaling and redox homeostasis could be a mechanism contributing to arsenic-induced vascular disorder. Rats were exposed to arsenic at 25, 50 and 100ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water consecutively for 90 days. Blood pressure was recorded weekly. On the 91st day, the rats were sacrificed for blood collection and isolation of thoracic aorta. Angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II levels were assessed in plasma. Aortic reactivity to angiotensin II was assessed in organ-bath system. Western blot of AT1 receptors and G protein (Gαq/11), ELISA of signal transducers of MAP kinase pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed in aorta. Arsenic caused concentration-dependent increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure from the 10th, 8th and 7th week onwards, respectively. Arsenic caused concentration-dependent enhancement of the angiotensin II-induced aortic contractile response. Arsenic also caused concentration-dependent increase in the plasma levels of angiotensin II and angiotensin converting enzyme and the expression of aortic AT1 receptor and Gαq/11 proteins. Arsenic increased aortic protein kinase C activity and the concentrations of protein tyrosine kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Further, arsenic increased aortic mRNA expression of Nox2, Nox4 and p22phox, NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation. The results suggest that arsenic-mediated enhancement of angiotensin II signaling could be an important mechanism in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder, where ROS could augment the angiotensin II signaling through activation

  16. Ranging airport pseudolite for local area augmentation using the global positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartone, Chris Gregory

    The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is being developed to support precision approach and landing operations in and about the local area surrounding an airport. The LAAS Program is currently under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for the LAAS being developed by RTCA, Incorporated. The LAAS uses differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and includes one or more airport pseudolites (APL) to increase the availability for certain installations. This dissertation addresses the addition of a differentially corrected, ranging APL into a LAAS. Prior to this work, no ranging APL has been integrated into a prototype LAAS and demonstrated in a real-time flight environment showing that an increase in LAAS availability is feasible. The APL requirements resulted in a prototype APL transmitting and receiving subsystem with a coarse-acquisition (C/A) code format that could be operated at any frequency within the L1± 10.0 MHz band. To investigate the major APL error the developmental approach was performed in two phases. Phase I implemented an APL operating at a center frequency off-L1 and concentrated on multipath limiting. The Phase II on-L1 APL architecture implemented a unique pulsing, automatic gain control (AGC) and GPS Blanker technique in the common reception path to maximize APL signal tracking and minimize electromagnetic interference to DGPS. To minimize ground multipath for the APL geometry, which is more severe than for GPS, a multipath limiting antenna (MLA) was designed, fabricated, and tested within a 4-month period. The implementation of this MLA concept was a first for APL applications and also contributed to the successful multipath limiting of ground multipath at the DGPS LAAS Ground Station. This effort successfully demonstrated that ground multipath can be limited (with low variance and no long-term bias) for the APL geometry and that suitable precision approach performance

  17. Applying a Testing Methodology to Augmented Reality Interfaces to Simulation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    facility. mounted display (Sony Glasstron, Microvision Nomad, or Trivisio). This approach integrates spatial information with objects in the...Augmented vision for automotive mainte- nance and repair: The benefits of testing and repair data at point of task (unpublished), Microvision , Inc

  18. An Augmented Lecture Feedback System to Support Learner and Teacher Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarraonandia, Telmo; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma; Montero, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is advocated that the feedback loop between learners and teachers could be improved by making use of augmented reality (AR) techniques. The bidirectional communication between teacher and learners is sometimes hampered by students' fear of showing themselves up in front of their classmates. In order to overcome this problem, a…

  19. Augmenting the Global Positioning System with Foreign Navigation Systems and Alternative Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    17 GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 FDMA Frequency Division Multiple... FDMA ). The frequency spectrum is broken down into two sub-bands from which the GLONASS channels derive their specific frequencies. The channels are

  20. Influence of screw augmentation in posterior dynamic and rigid stabilization systems in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: a biomechanical cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sven; Sven, Hoppe; Loosli, Yannick; Yannick, Loosli; Baumgartner, Daniel; Daniel, Baumgartner; Heini, Paul; Paul, Heini; Benneker, Lorin; Lorin, Benneker

    2014-03-15

    Biomechanical cadaveric study. To determine whether augmentation positively influence screw stability or not. Implantation of pedicle screws is a common procedure in spine surgery to provide an anchorage of posterior internal fixation into vertebrae. Screw performance is highly correlated to bone quality. Therefore, polymeric cement is often injected through specifically designed perforated pedicle screws into osteoporotic bone to potentially enhance screw stability. Caudocephalic dynamic loading was applied as quasi-physiological alternative to classical pull-out tests on 16 screws implanted in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae and 20 screws in nonosteoporotic specimen. Load was applied using 2 different configurations simulating standard and dynamic posterior stabilization devices. Screw performance was quantified by measurement of screwhead displacement during the loading cycles. To reduce the impact of bone quality and morphology, screw performance was compared for each vertebra and averaged afterward. All screws (with or without cement) implanted in osteoporotic vertebrae showed lower performances than the ones implanted into nonosteoporotic specimen. Augmentation was negligible for screws implanted into nonosteoporotic specimen, whereas in osteoporotic vertebrae pedicle screw stability was significantly increased. For dynamic posterior stabilization system an increase of screwhead displacement was observed in comparison with standard fixation devices in both setups. Augmentation enhances screw performance in patients with poor bone stock, whereas no difference is observed for patients without osteoporosis. Furthermore, dynamic stabilization systems have the possibility to fail when implanted in osteoporotic bone.

  1. Augmented switching linear dynamical system model for gas concentration estimation with MOX sensors in an open sampling system.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-07-11

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector.

  2. Augmented Switching Linear Dynamical System Model for Gas Concentration Estimation with MOX Sensors in an Open Sampling System

    PubMed Central

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector. PMID:25019637

  3. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  4. Augmented Reality on a C-Arm System: A Preclinical Assessment for Percutaneous Needle Localization.

    PubMed

    Racadio, John M; Nachabe, Rami; Homan, Robert; Schierling, Ross; Racadio, Judy M; Babić, Draženko

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To compare the navigational accuracy and radiation dose during needle localization of targets for augmented reality (AR) with and without motion compensation (MC) versus those for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) with real-time fluoroscopy navigation in a pig model. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Three operators each localized 15 targets (bone fragments) approximately 7 cm deep in the paraspinal muscles of nine Yorkshire pigs by using each of the three modalities (AR with and without MC and cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy). Target depth, accuracy (distance between needle tip and target), and radiation dose (dose-area product [DAP]) were recorded for each procedure. Correlation between accuracy and depth of target was assessed by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Two-way analysis of variance was used for differentiating accuracy and DAPs across navigation techniques and operator backgrounds. Results There was no correlation between depth of target and accuracy. There was no significant difference in accuracy between modalities (mean distance, 3.0 mm ± 1.9 [standard deviation] for cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy, 2.5 mm ± 2.0 for AR, and 3.2 mm ± 2.7 for AR with MC [P = .33]). There was, however, a significant difference in fluoroscopy radiation dose (10.4 Gy · cm(2) ± 10.6 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 2.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 2.4 for AR, and 3.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 4.6 for AR with MC [P < .05]) and therefore in total procedural radiation dose (20.5 Gy · cm(2) ± 13.4 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 12.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 5.3 for AR, 13.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 7.4 for AR with MC [P < .05]). Conclusion Use of an AR C-arm system reduces radiation dose while maintaining navigational accuracy compared with cone-beam CT fluoroscopy during image-guided percutaneous needle placement in a pig model. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Vertebral augmentation with a novel Vessel-X bone void filling container system and bioactive bone cement.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaomin; Luk, Keith D K; Kuang, Guanming; Li, Zhaoyang; Lin, Jerry; Lam, Wing M; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Lu, William W

    2007-09-01

    Evaluation of a novel, leakage-free vertebroplastic instrumentation by fresh cadaveric studies. To compare Vessel-X, a novel percutaneous bone void filling container system, with conventional kyphoplasty in restoring strength, stiffness, and height in experimentally induced vertebral compressive fractures and morphologically determine the cement distribution. Clinically, both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty perform well in reinforcement and pain relief. One of the shortcomings, however, is the risk of cement leakage. Vessel-X is a novel bone expander and bone void filler combined instrumentation for vertebral augmentation requiring evaluation. A total of 28 fresh-frozen vertebral specimens were randomly assigned to 4 groups for testing: unipedicular kyphoplasty, bipedicular kyphoplasty, unipedicular Vessel-X, and bipedicular Vessel-X. Compressive fractures were experimentally created on each vertebra after determining the bone mineral density. Kyphoplasty and Vessel-X were performed using bioactive bone cement (SrHAC) under C-arm fluoroscopy and compared by compression testing to measure the effects of augmentation. Morphologic observations were also performed to determine the cement distribution and vertebral height restoration. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density, initial strength, and stiffness in any of the groups. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in total cement volume in intragroup comparison within the unipedicular or bipedicular groups. Vessel-X bone filler container could expand well and contain most of the cement. The height restoration ranged from 88.5% to 96.4% in all groups. The augmented strength with unipedicular and bipedicular injections reached 3651.57 N and 4833.73 N, respectively. Stiffness with bipedicular injection was significantly higher than that of unipedicular injection. Vessel-X was comparable to kyphoplasty in restoring the mechanical properties and height of the fractured vertebrae

  6. Dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, Thomas E.; Xia, Houchun; Chen, Yung

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatment designs is evaluated separately as passive control measures for low frequency joint dominated modes and higher frequency boom flexure dominated modes using a NASTRAN finite element analysis. Passive damping augmentation is proposed which is based on a constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatment applied to the surface of the manipulators's flexible booms. It is pointed out that even the joint compliance dominated modes can be damped to some degree through appropriate design of the treatment.

  7. Study on using a digital ride quality augmentation system to trim an engine-out in a Cessna 402B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    A linear model of the Cessna 402B was used to determine if the control power available to a Ride Quality Augmentation System was adequate to trim an engine-out. Two simulations were completed: one using a steady state model, and the other using a state matrix model. The amount of rudder available was not sufficient in all cases to completely trim the airplane, but it was enough to give the pilot valuable reaction time. The system would be an added measure of safety for only a relatively small amount of development.

  8. Development of sensor augmented robotic weld systems for aerospace propulsion system fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. S.; Gangl, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to meet stringent performance goals for power and reuseability, the Space Shuttle Main Engine was designed with many complex, difficult welded joints that provide maximum strength and minimum weight. To this end, the SSME requires 370 meters of welded joints. Automation of some welds has improved welding productivity significantly over manual welding. Application has previously been limited by accessibility constraints, requirements for complex process control, low production volumes, high part variability, and stringent quality requirements. Development of robots for welding in this application requires that a unique set of constraints be addressed. This paper shows how robotic welding can enhance production of aerospace components by addressing their specific requirements. A development program at the Marshall Space Flight Center combining industrial robots with state-of-the-art sensor systems and computer simulation is providing technology for the automation of welds in Space Shuttle Main Engine production.

  9. Development of sensor augmented robotic weld systems for aerospace propulsion system fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. S.; Gangl, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to meet stringent performance goals for power and reuseability, the Space Shuttle Main Engine was designed with many complex, difficult welded joints that provide maximum strength and minimum weight. To this end, the SSME requires 370 meters of welded joints. Automation of some welds has improved welding productivity significantly over manual welding. Application has previously been limited by accessibility constraints, requirements for complex process control, low production volumes, high part variability, and stringent quality requirements. Development of robots for welding in this application requires that a unique set of constraints be addressed. This paper shows how robotic welding can enhance production of aerospace components by addressing their specific requirements. A development program at the Marshall Space Flight Center combining industrial robots with state-of-the-art sensor systems and computer simulation is providing technology for the automation of welds in Space Shuttle Main Engine production.

  10. Aircraft landing using a modernized global positioning system and the wide area augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun

    This research investigates the performance of an airborne GPS receiver using differential corrections and associated error bounds from the WAAS when three civil GPS signals become available. There are three ways to take advantage of the multiple frequencies. First, one can measure ionospheric delay directly in the airplane. This would replace the grid of ionosphere delay corrections currently broadcast by the WAAS. This direct use of multiple frequencies would be more accurate, and offer higher availability. Second, one can use the additional GPS frequencies to mitigate unintentional radio frequency interference (RFI). Even if two frequencies are lost, the user could revert to the WAAS grid. Third, one can take advantage of stronger civil signal power of the modernized GPS to acquire a low elevation satellite before using it for the position solution. Earlier acquisition would allow for longer carrier-aided smoothing of multipath. This research evaluates the performance of a multiple-frequency GPS landing system that depends on the number of available GPS frequencies and includes the following scenarios: Case 1. All three GPS frequencies are available, Case 2. Two of three GPS frequencies are available, Case 3. One of three GPS frequencies is available. This research also presents a solution to sustain multiple frequency performance when an aircraft descends into an RFI field and loses all but one of the frequencies. There are three available techniques. First, one can use the code-carrier divergence to continue ionospheric delay estimation. Second, one can use the WAAS ionospheric threat model to bound the error. Third, one can use the maximum ionospheric delay gradient model to bound the ionospheric delay during the ionosphere storm period. These three techniques all provide the ability to continue operation for more than 10 minutes after the onset of RFI. This research provides the first three-frequency GPS/WAAS LPV coverage predictions for CONUS. The current L1

  11. A stochastic analysis of the calibration problem for Augmented Reality systems with see-through head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leebmann, Johannes

    This paper presents a closed stochastic solution for the calibration of see-through head-mounted displays (STHMD) for Augmented Reality. An Augmented Reality system (ARS) is based on several components that are affected by stochastic and random errors. One important component is the tracking system. The flock of birds (FOB) tracking system was tested for consistency in position and orientation outputs by establishing constraints that the system was required to meet. The tests for position and orientation were separated to derive uncorrelated quality measures. The tests are self-controlling and do not require any other measuring device. In addition, the image coordinate accuracy also had to be determined to complete the stochastic description of the calibration problem. Based on this stochastic model, different mathematical models were tested to determine whether or not they fit the stochastic model. An overview of different calibration approaches for optical see-through displays is given and a quantitative comparison of the different models is made based on the derived accuracy information.

  12. Advanced intellect-augmentation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbart, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    User experience in applying our augmentation tools and techniques to various normal working tasks within our center is described so as to convey a subjective impression of what it is like to work in an augmented environment. It is concluded that working-support, computer-aid systems for augmenting individuals and teams, are undoubtedly going to be widely developed and used. A very special role in this development is seen for multi-access computer networks.

  13. Acceptable distortion and magnification of images on reflective surfaces in an augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shoji; Hosokawa, Natsumi; Yokoya, Mayu; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated the consistency of visual perception for the change of reflection images in an augmented reality setting. Reflection images with distortion and magnification were generated by changing the capture position of the environment map. Observers evaluated the distortion and magnification in reflection images where the reflected objects were arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically. Our results confirmed that the observers' visual perception was more sensitive to changes in distortion than in magnification in the reflection images. Moreover, the asymmetrical arrangement of reflected objects effectively expands the acceptable range of distortion compared with the symmetrical arrangement.

  14. Shifting the paradigm of music instruction: implications of embodiment stemming from an augmented reality guitar learning system.

    PubMed

    Keebler, Joseph R; Wiltshire, Travis J; Smith, Dustin C; Fiore, Stephen M; Bedwell, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Musical instruction often includes materials that can act as a barrier to learning. New technologies using augmented reality may aid in reducing the initial difficulties involved in learning music by lowering these barriers characteristic of traditional instructional materials. Therefore, this set of studies examined a novel augmented reality guitar learning system (i.e., the Fretlight® guitar) in regards to current theories of embodied music cognition. Specifically, we examined the effects of using this system in comparison to a standard instructional material (i.e., diagrams). First, we review major theories related to musical embodiment and specify a niche within this research space we call embodied music technology for learning. Following, we explicate two parallel experiments that were conducted to address the learning effects of this system. Experiment 1 examined short-term learning effects within one experimental session, while Experiment 2 examined both short-term and long-term effects across two sessions spaced at a 2-week interval. Analyses demonstrated that, for many of our dependent variables, all participants increased in performance across time. Further, the Fretlight® condition consistently led to significantly better outcomes via interactive effects, including significantly better long term retention for the learned information across a 2 week time interval. These results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition theory as it relates to music. Potential limitations and avenues for future research are described.

  15. A new head-mounted display-based augmented reality system in neurosurgical oncology: a study on phantom.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Fabrizio; Meola, Antonio; Carbone, Marina; Sinceri, Sara; Cagnazzo, Federico; Denaro, Ennio; Esposito, Nicola; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas. A two-phase evaluation process was adopted in a simulated small tumor resection adjacent to Broca's area. Phase I involved nine subjects without neurosurgical training in performing spatial judgment tasks. In Phase II, three surgeons were involved in assessing the effectiveness of the AR-neuronavigator in performing brain tumor targeting on a patient-specific head phantom. Phase I revealed the ability of the AR scene to evoke depth perception under different visualization modalities. Phase II confirmed the potentialities of the AR-neuronavigator in aiding the determination of the optimal surgical access to the surgical target. The AR-neuronavigator is intuitive, easy-to-use, and provides three-dimensional augmented information in a perceptually-correct way. The system proved to be effective in guiding skin incision, craniotomy, and lesion targeting. The preliminary results encourage a structured study to prove clinical effectiveness. Moreover, our testing platform might be used to facilitate training in brain tumour resection procedures.

  16. Shifting the paradigm of music instruction: implications of embodiment stemming from an augmented reality guitar learning system

    PubMed Central

    Keebler, Joseph R.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Smith, Dustin C.; Fiore, Stephen M.; Bedwell, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Musical instruction often includes materials that can act as a barrier to learning. New technologies using augmented reality may aid in reducing the initial difficulties involved in learning music by lowering these barriers characteristic of traditional instructional materials. Therefore, this set of studies examined a novel augmented reality guitar learning system (i.e., the Fretlight® guitar) in regards to current theories of embodied music cognition. Specifically, we examined the effects of using this system in comparison to a standard instructional material (i.e., diagrams). First, we review major theories related to musical embodiment and specify a niche within this research space we call embodied music technology for learning. Following, we explicate two parallel experiments that were conducted to address the learning effects of this system. Experiment 1 examined short-term learning effects within one experimental session, while Experiment 2 examined both short-term and long-term effects across two sessions spaced at a 2-week interval. Analyses demonstrated that, for many of our dependent variables, all participants increased in performance across time. Further, the Fretlight® condition consistently led to significantly better outcomes via interactive effects, including significantly better long term retention for the learned information across a 2 week time interval. These results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition theory as it relates to music. Potential limitations and avenues for future research are described. PMID:24999334

  17. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  18. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes.

  19. Situational and psychosocial factors mediating coordinated joint attention with augmentative and alternative communication systems with beginning communicators without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Benigno, Joann P; Bennett, Jamie L; McCarthy, John W; Smith, Julia L

    2011-06-01

    This study examined how infants' age, joint attention (JA) skills, caregiver ratings of language and temperament, and caregiver JA style related to JA in a structured literacy task with an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system. Sixteen infants (mean = 10.6 months) without disabilities participated in two storybook reading interactions with an experimenter in two conditions where the AAC system was either aligned or divided from the experimenter's eye gaze. Individual differences in JA skills, caregiver JA style, and temperament were associated with coordinated JA across both conditions. The findings suggest it is important to examine both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which may not only reduce attention demands but also mediate the success of JA interactions with AAC systems.

  20. Funnel-and-gate remediation systems augmented with passive filter wells.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of funnel-and-gate structures augmented with passive wells containing filter cartridges to capture contaminated groundwater in hypothetical, homogeneous and heterogeneous, unconfined aquifers. Perpendicular to groundwater flow, linear structures were 15 m wide, 1 m thick, and keyed into the base of the aquifer. Gates occupied 4 m of the total width of each simulated structure; one gate was 5 m from a contaminant plume's leading tip, while others occupied cross-gradient margins of the plume. Results suggest a modest reduction in remediation timeframes, up to 425 d per well added in these simulations; however, incremental benefits are highly variable and case specific.

  1. Augmented weighted diamond form of the linear nodal scheme for Cartesian coordinate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The equations of the high order linear nodal numerical scheme are cast in an augmented weighted difference form for three-dimensional Cartesian nodes. The coupling exhibited by these equations indicate that this new algorithm is simpler and hence faster than previous nodal schemes of this degree of accuracy. A well-logging problem and a fast reactor problem are examined. The new scheme developed here is compared with the classical linear-linear nodal scheme and the diamond difference scheme. For the well-logging problem, it is found that the new scheme is both faster and simpler than the classical linear-linear nodal scheme while sacrificing little in accuracy. Even though the new scheme is more accurate than the diamond difference scheme for the reactor problem, the results indicate that state of the art acceleration methods are needed for nodal schemes.

  2. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  3. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  4. Computer Augmented Video Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)

  5. Computer Augmented Video Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)

  6. SU-E-J-134: An Augmented-Reality Optical Imaging System for Accurate Breast Positioning During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nazareth, D; Malhotra, H; French, S; Hoffmann, K; Merrow, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Breast radiotherapy, particularly electronic compensation, may involve large dose gradients and difficult patient positioning problems. We have developed a simple self-calibrating augmented-reality system, which assists in accurately and reproducibly positioning the patient, by displaying her live image from a single camera superimposed on the correct perspective projection of her 3D CT data. Our method requires only a standard digital camera capable of live-view mode, installed in the treatment suite at an approximately-known orientation and position (rotation R; translation T). Methods: A 10-sphere calibration jig was constructed and CT imaged to provide a 3D model. The (R,T) relating the camera to the CT coordinate system were determined by acquiring a photograph of the jig and optimizing an objective function, which compares the true image points to points calculated with a given candidate R and T geometry. Using this geometric information, 3D CT patient data, viewed from the camera's perspective, is plotted using a Matlab routine. This image data is superimposed onto the real-time patient image, acquired by the camera, and displayed using standard live-view software. This enables the therapists to view both the patient's current and desired positions, and guide the patient into assuming the correct position. The method was evaluated using an in-house developed bolus-like breast phantom, mounted on a supporting platform, which could be tilted at various angles to simulate treatment-like geometries. Results: Our system allowed breast phantom alignment, with an accuracy of about 0.5 cm and 1 ± 0.5 degree. Better resolution could be possible using a camera with higher-zoom capabilities. Conclusion: We have developed an augmented-reality system, which combines a perspective projection of a CT image with a patient's real-time optical image. This system has the potential to improve patient setup accuracy during breast radiotherapy, and could possibly be

  7. Immune system augmentation by glatiramer acetate of peripheral nerve regeneration-crush versus transection models of rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Luria, Shai; Cohen, Avraham; Safran, Ori; Firman, Shimon; Liebergall, Meir

    2013-10-01

    Immune system augmentation, using the antigen glatiramer acetate (GA), which is known to affect cellular immunity, has been shown to have a positive effect on peripheral nerve regeneration. We aimed to compare the effect of GA on the regeneration of crushed versus transected nerves. Wild-type rats underwent crush or transection and repair of the sciatic nerve. They were examined 3 weeks postinjury histologically (axon count) and functionally (tibialis anterior muscle weight and footprint analysis). GA was found to augment regeneration both histologically and functionally. In the transected nerve, a significant increase in axon count distal to the injury site was seen in the GA group versus control. A similar yet statistically insignificant trend was found in the crushed nerve. Improvement was found in the footprint analysis between the GA and control groups in both crush and transected nerve groups. We found improvement in the footprint analysis in the crush versus transection group. GA was found to improve the regeneration of the peripheral nerve. Histologically, this was more pronounced in the transection injury. The discrepancy between the different functional measures examined may be explained by the distance of the reinnervated muscles evaluated from the injury site.

  8. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  9. An on-board surgical tracking and video augmentation system for C-arm image guidance.

    PubMed

    Reaungamornrat, S; Otake, Y; Uneri, A; Schafer, S; Mirota, D J; Nithiananthan, S; Stayman, J W; Kleinszig, G; Khanna, A J; Taylor, R H; Siewerdsen, J H

    2012-09-01

    Conventional tracker configurations for surgical navigation carry a variety of limitations, including limited geometric accuracy, line-of-sight obstruction, and mismatch of the view angle with the surgeon's-eye view. This paper presents the development and characterization of a novel tracker configuration (referred to as "Tracker-on-C") intended to address such limitations by incorporating the tracker directly on the gantry of a mobile C-arm for fluoroscopy and cone-beam CT (CBCT). A video-based tracker (MicronTracker, Claron Technology Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada) was mounted on the gantry of a prototype mobile isocentric C-arm next to the flat-panel detector. To maintain registration within a dynamically moving reference frame (due to rotation of the C-arm), a reference marker consisting of 6 faces (referred to as a "hex-face marker") was developed to give visibility across the full range of C-arm rotation. Three primary functionalities were investigated: surgical tracking, generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the perspective of a tracked tool or the current C-arm angle, and augmentation of the tracker video scene with image, DRR, and planning data. Target registration error (TRE) was measured in comparison with the same tracker implemented in a conventional in-room configuration. Graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated DRRs were generated in real time as an assistant to C-arm positioning (i.e., positioning the C-arm such that target anatomy is in the field-of-view (FOV)), radiographic search (i.e., a virtual X-ray projection preview of target anatomy without X-ray exposure), and localization (i.e., visualizing the location of the surgical target or planning data). Video augmentation included superimposing tracker data, the X-ray FOV, DRRs, planning data, preoperative images, and/or intraoperative CBCT onto the video scene. Geometric accuracy was quantitatively evaluated in each case, and qualitative assessment of clinical feasibility

  10. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  11. Modeling and Optimization of Recycled Water Systems to Augment Urban Groundwater Recharge through Underutilized Stormwater Spreading Basins.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Jonathan L; Luthy, Richard G

    2017-10-06

    Infrastructure systems that use stormwater and recycled water to augment groundwater recharge through spreading basins represent cost-effective opportunities to diversify urban water supplies. However, technical questions remain about how these types of managed aquifer recharge systems should be designed; furthermore, existing planning tools are insufficient for performing robust design comparisons. Addressing this need, we present a model for identifying the best-case design and operation schedule for systems that deliver recycled water to underutilized stormwater spreading basins. Resulting systems are optimal with respect to life cycle costs and water deliveries. Through a case study of Los Angeles, California, we illustrate how delivering recycled water to spreading basins could be optimally implemented. Results illustrate trade-offs between centralized and decentralized configurations. For example, while a centralized Hyperion system could deliver more recycled water to the Hansen Spreading Grounds, this system incurs approximately twice the conveyance cost of a decentralized Tillman system (mean of 44% vs 22% of unit life cycle costs). Compared to existing methods, our model allows for more comprehensive and precise analyses of cost, water volume, and energy trade-offs among different design scenarios. This model can inform decisions about spreading basin operation policies and the development of new water supplies.

  12. Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA): a new systems approach to identify therapeutic targets for human genetic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, David J.; Juan, Ilona; Le, Hao; Cai, Xiaodong; Baumbach, Lisa; Beattie, Christine; D'Urso, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic interaction networks that underlie most human diseases are highly complex and poorly defined. Better-defined networks will allow identification of a greater number of therapeutic targets. Here we introduce our Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA) approach and test it with the X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene UBA1. First, we express UBA1 and a mutant variant in fission yeast and use high-throughput methods to identify fission yeast genetic modifiers of UBA1. Second, we analyze available protein-protein interaction network databases in both fission yeast and human to construct UBA1 genetic networks. Third, from these networks we identified potential therapeutic targets for SMA. Finally, we validate one of these targets in a vertebrate (zebrafish) SMA model. This study demonstrates the power of combining synthetic and chemical genetics with a simple model system to identify human disease gene networks that can be exploited for treating human diseases. PMID:25075304

  13. 3D optical see-through head-mounted display based augmented reality system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue; Xiang, Li

    2015-07-01

    The combination of health and entertainment becomes possible due to the development of wearable augmented reality equipment and corresponding application software. In this paper, we implemented a fast calibration extended from SPAAM for an optical see-through head-mounted display (OSTHMD) which was made in our lab. During the calibration, the tracking and recognition techniques upon natural targets were used, and the spatial corresponding points had been set in dispersed and well-distributed positions. We evaluated the precision of this calibration, in which the view angle ranged from 0 degree to 70 degrees. Relying on the results above, we calculated the position of human eyes relative to the world coordinate system and rendered 3D objects in real time with arbitrary complexity on OSTHMD, which accurately matched the real world. Finally, we gave the degree of satisfaction about our device in the combination of entertainment and prevention of cervical vertebra diseases through user feedbacks.

  14. Augmenting Surgery via Multi-scale Modeling and Translational Systems Biology in the Era of Precision Medicine: A Multidisciplinary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Ghassan S.; An, Gary; Sander, Edward A.; Miga, Michael; Guccione, Julius M.; Ji, Songbai; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    In this era of tremendous technological capabilities and increased focus on improving clinical outcomes, decreasing costs, and increasing precision, there is a need for a more quantitative approach to the field of surgery. Multiscale computational modeling has the potential to bridge the gap to the emerging paradigms of Precision Medicine and Translational Systems Biology, in which quantitative metrics and data guide patient care through improved stratification, diagnosis, and therapy. Achievements by multiple groups have demonstrated the potential for 1) multiscale computational modeling, at a biological level, of diseases treated with surgery and the surgical procedure process at the level of the individual and the population; along with 2) patient-specific, computationally-enabled surgical planning, delivery, and guidance and robotically-augmented manipulation. In this perspective article, we discuss these concepts, and cite emerging examples from the fields of trauma, wound healing, and cardiac surgery. PMID:27015816

  15. Current and future possibilities of V2V and I2V technologies: an analysis directed toward Augmented Reality systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. A.; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Arnedo, Aida; Yarce Botero, Andrés.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, it is very important to explore the qualitative characteristics of autonomous mobility systems in automobiles, especially disruptive technology like Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Infrastructure to Vehicle (I2V), in order to comprehend how the next generation of automobiles will be developed. In this sense, this research covers a general review about active safety in automobiles where V2V and I2V systems have been implemented; identifying the more realistic possibilities related to V2V and I2V technology and analyzing the current applications, some systems in development process and some future conceptual proposals. Mainly, it is notorious the potential development of mixing V2V and I2V systems pointing to increase the driver's attention; therefore, a configuration between these two technologies and some augmented reality system for automobiles (Head-Up Display and Head-Down Display) is proposed. There is a huge potential of implementation for this kind of configuration once the normative and the roadmap for its development can be widely established.

  16. An assistive navigation system based on augmented reality and context awareness for people with mild cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Ramón; Bravo, José; Fontecha, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system for supplying spatial orientation and support to cognitively impaired people in their daily activities. The system is a technological solution based on external aid at a practical level (substitution-based rehabilitation). In particular, we propose a model focused on points of interest or well-known places, in which user-friendly routes to a destination are generated based on the user context rather than the conventional street names and quantitative distances. Moreover, the system offers augmented reality views that include contextual information. This philosophy of navigation more closely matches the needs of the user than do conventional navigation systems; the proposal is especially useful for users who are not accustomed to using new technologies (e.g., elderly people), people experiencing disorientation and, more generally, individuals with a slight cognitive deficit. The system also includes an application that allows the relatives of the user to establish tasks that must be performed at a specific location and to monitor the activities of the user to detect potentially risky situations.

  17. Various expression-augmenting DNA elements benefit from STAR-Select, a novel high stringency selection system for protein expression.

    PubMed

    Otte, Arie P; Kwaks, Ted H J; van Blokland, Rik J M; Sewalt, Richard G A B; Verhees, John; Klaren, Vincent N A; Siersma, Tjalling K; Korse, Hans W M; Teunissen, Nannette C; Botschuijver, Sara; van Mer, Charl; Man, Sue Y

    2007-01-01

    The creation of highly productive mammalian cell lines often requires the screening of large numbers of clones, and even then expression levels are often low. Previously, we identified DNA elements, anti-repressor or STAR elements, that increase protein expression levels. These positive effects of STAR elements are most apparent when stable clones are established under high selection stringency. We therefore developed a very high selection system, STAR-Select, that allows the formation of few but highly productive clones. Here we compare the influence of STAR and other expression-augmenting DNA elements on protein expression levels in CHO-K1 cells. The comparison is done in the context of the often-used cotransfection selection procedure and in the context of the STAR-Select system. We show that STAR elements, as well as MAR elements induce the highest protein expression levels with both selection systems. Furthermore, in trans cotransfection of multiple copies of STAR and MAR elements also results in higher protein expression levels. However, highest expression levels are achieved with the STAR-Select selection system, when STAR elements or MARs are incorporated in a single construct. Our results also show that the novel STAR-Select selection system, which was developed in the context of STAR elements, is also very beneficial for the use of MAR elements.

  18. Augmenting U.S. Army Warrant Officer Expertise with Expert Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    a model describing the selection criteria for expert system applications was developed. This model, called the Expert System Application Criteria... expert system applications. A survey, with questions designed to measure the variables indicated, was sent to personnel, supply and intelligence warrant...expertise used by intelligence warrant officers was not suitable for expert system application. Supply and personnel warrant expertise are prime candidates

  19. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements.

  20. A real-time 3D end-to-end augmented reality system (and its representation transformations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, Donny; Aerts, Maarten; De Busser, Jeroen; Lievens, Sammy; Rondao Alface, Patrice; Macq, Jean-Francois

    2016-09-01

    The new generation of HMDs coming to the market is expected to enable many new applications that allow free viewpoint experiences with captured video objects. Current applications usually rely on 3D content that is manually created or captured in an offline manner. In contrast, this paper focuses on augmented reality applications that use live captured 3D objects while maintaining free viewpoint interaction. We present a system that allows live dynamic 3D objects (e.g. a person who is talking) to be captured in real-time. Real-time performance is achieved by traversing a number of representation formats and exploiting their specific benefits. For instance, depth images are maintained for fast neighborhood retrieval and occlusion determination, while implicit surfaces are used to facilitate multi-source aggregation for both geometry and texture. The result is a 3D reconstruction system that outputs multi-textured triangle meshes at real-time rates. An end-to-end system is presented that captures and reconstructs live 3D data and allows for this data to be used on a networked (AR) device. For allocating the different functional blocks onto the available physical devices, a number of alternatives are proposed considering the available computational power and bandwidth for each of the components. As we will show, the representation format can play an important role in this functional allocation and allows for a flexible system that can support a highly heterogeneous infrastructure.

  1. Modeling of aerodynamic forces in the Laplace domain with minimum number of augmented states for the design of active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed by which an aeroservoelastic problem is brought to a state-space form with a minimum number of augmented aerodynamic terms. The examples treated in this work relate to NASA's Drone for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing-Aerodynamic Research Wing 1 (DAST-ARW1) and to the YF-17 fighter model. It is shown that in all cases considered, the method yields a very good accuracy regarding the flutter parameters and the dynamic behavior of the systems, using only two augmented aerodynamic states. The method should prove useful in the design of lower order control laws based on optimal control theory.

  2. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    system (referred to as “ CFE ”, for Convergent Field Elastography), to include determine bulk tissue speed and attenuation. Such data would provide...measurement system. Bulk speed and attenuation in the 1-3 MHz range will be estimated using transmission and scattering data in the CFE system’s primary...the CFE system force generation transducer. Methods in both frequency ranges will make use of reference measurements made on tissue phantoms whose

  3. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  4. Establishing an Environmental Scanning/Forecasting System to Augment College and University Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The major benefit of an environmental scanning/forecasting system is in providing critical information for strategic planning. Such a system allows the institution to detect social, technological, economic, and political trends and potential events. The environmental scanning database developed by United Way of America is described. (MLW)

  5. Developing Environmental Scanning/Forecasting Systems To Augment Community College Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Held, William G.

    A description is provided of a conference session that was conducted to explore the structure and function of an environmental scanning/forecasting system that could be used in a community college to facilitate planning. Introductory comments argue that a college that establishes an environmental scanning and forecasting system is able to identify…

  6. Using a Recommender System and Hyperwave Attributes To Augment an Electronic Resource Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, B.; Lennon, J.

    There has been increasing interest over the past few years in systems that help users exchange recommendations about World Wide Web documents. Programs have ranged from those that rely totally on user pre-selection, to others that are based on artificial intelligence. This paper proposes a system that falls between these two extremes, providing…

  7. A decision support system and rule-based algorithm to augment the human interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Andrew W; Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Badilini, Fabio; Libretti, Guido; Peace, Aaron J; Leslie, Stephen J

    2017-08-09

    The 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to detect cardiac abnormalities in the same format for more than 70years. However, due to the complex nature of 12-lead ECG interpretation, there is a significant cognitive workload required from the interpreter. This complexity in ECG interpretation often leads to errors in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We have previously reported on the development of an ECG interpretation support system designed to augment the human interpretation process. This computerised decision support system has been named 'Interactive Progressive based Interpretation' (IPI). In this study, a decision support algorithm was built into the IPI system to suggest potential diagnoses based on the interpreter's annotations of the 12-lead ECG. We hypothesise semi-automatic interpretation using a digital assistant can be an optimal man-machine model for ECG interpretation. To improve interpretation accuracy and reduce missed co-abnormalities. The Differential Diagnoses Algorithm (DDA) was developed using web technologies where diagnostic ECG criteria are defined in an open storage format, Javascript Object Notation (JSON), which is queried using a rule-based reasoning algorithm to suggest diagnoses. To test our hypothesis, a counterbalanced trial was designed where subjects interpreted ECGs using the conventional approach and using the IPI+DDA approach. A total of 375 interpretations were collected. The IPI+DDA approach was shown to improve diagnostic accuracy by 8.7% (although not statistically significant, p-value=0.1852), the IPI+DDA suggested the correct interpretation more often than the human interpreter in 7/10 cases (varying statistical significance). Human interpretation accuracy increased to 70% when seven suggestions were generated. Although results were not found to be statistically significant, we found; 1) our decision support tool increased the number of correct interpretations, 2) the DDA algorithm suggested the correct

  8. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  9. Neck Torque Study Induced by Head-Borne Visual Augmentation Systems (VAS) in Ground-Based Applications. Version V1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A While providing a critical capability to conduct missions under the cover of darkness, Night Vision Goggles ( NVG ) are a recognized...characterize the mass, Center of Gravity (CG) and neck torque generated by existing NVG and Visual Augmentation Systems (VAS) in order to understand the...potential for neck pain and injury created by existing systems and provide insight on the mass and CG properties needed for future systems. NVG use

  10. A comprehensive assessment of ionospheric gradients observed in Ecuador during 2013 and 2014 for ground based augmentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Naranjo, S.; Rincón, W.; Ramos-Pollán, R.; González, F. A.; Soley, S.

    2017-04-01

    Ground Based Augmentation Systems GBAS provide differential corrections to approaching and landing aircrafts in the vicinities of an airport. The ionosphere can introduce an error not accountable by those differential corrections, and a threat model for the Conterminous United States region CONUS was developed in order to consider the highest gradients measured. This study presents the first extensive analysis of ionospheric gradients for Ecuador, from data fully covering 2013 and 2014 collected by their national Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS monitoring network (REGME). In this work it is applied an automated methodology adapted for low latitudes for processing data from dual frequency receivers networks, by considering data from all available days in the date range of the study regardless the geomagnetic indices values. The events found above the CONUS threat model occurred during days of nominal geomagnetic indices, confirming: (1) the higher bounds required for an ionospheric threat model for Ecuador, and (2) that geomagnetic indices are not enough to indicate relevant ionospheric anomalies in low latitude regions, reinforcing the necessity of a continuous monitoring of ionosphere. As additional contribution, the events database is published online, making it available to other researchers.

  11. Continuous coloured light altered human brain haemodynamics and oxygenation assessed by systemic physiology augmented functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Metz, A J; Klein, S D; Scholkmann, F; Wolf, U

    2017-08-30

    Exposure to artificial coloured light is unavoidable in our modern life, but we are only just beginning to understand the impact of coloured light on human physiology. The aim of the present study was to determine effects of coloured light exposure on human systemic and brain physiology using systemic physiology augmented functional near-infrared spectroscopy (SPA-fNIRS). We measured changes in haemoglobin concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the left and right prefrontal cortices (L-PFC, R-PFC) by fNIRS, and also recorded skin conductance (SC), partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and heart-rate variability variables. 17 healthy adults (median age: 29 years, range: 25-65 years, 6 women) were exposed to blue, red, green, or yellow light for 10 minutes. Pre-light and post-light conditions were in darkness. In the L-PFC the yellow evoked a brain activation. SC and PETCO2 did not change during any of the coloured light exposures, but SC increased and PETCO2 decreased for all colours (except green) in the post-light period. Changes in L-PFC haemoglobin concentration were also observed during the post-light period but have to be interpreted with care, because heart rate and SC increased while PETCO2 decreased. The detected effects are potentially of high relevance for choosing room lighting and may possibly be applied therapeutically.

  12. Least cost pathways to a low carbon electricity system for Australia: impacts of transmission augmentation and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargaville, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Designing the pathway to a low carbon energy system is complex, requiring consideration of the variable nature of renewables at the hourly timescale, emission intensity and ramp rate constraints of dispatchable technologies (both fossil and renewable) and transmission and distribution network limitations. In this work, an optimization framework taking into account these considerations has been applied to find the lowest cost ways to reduce carbon emissions by either 80% or 100% in 2050 while keeping the system operating reliably along the way. Technologies included are existing and advanced coal and gas technologies (with and without carbon capture and storage), rooftop PV, utility scale PV, concentrating solar thermal, hydro with and without pumped storage, bioenergy, and nuclear. In this study we also also the optimisation to increase transmission capacity along existing lines, and to extend key trunk lines into currently unserved areas. These augementations and extensions come at a cost. The otpimisation chooses these options when the benefits of accessing high quality renewable energy resources outweights the costs. Results show that for the 80% emission reduction case, there is limited need for transmission capacity increase, and that the existing grid copes well with the increased flows due to conversion to distrubuted renewable energy resources. However, in the 100% case the increased reliance on renewables means that signficant transmission augmentation is beneficial to the overall cost. This strongly suggests that it is important to understand the long term emission target early so that infrastructure investments can be optimised.

  13. Vision-based markerless registration using stereo vision and an augmented reality surgical navigation system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Tran, Huy Hoang; Liao, Hongen; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-02

    This study evaluated the use of an augmented reality navigation system that provides a markerless registration system using stereo vision in oral and maxillofacial surgery. A feasibility study was performed on a subject, wherein a stereo camera was used for tracking and markerless registration. The computed tomography data obtained from the volunteer was used to create an integral videography image and a 3-dimensional rapid prototype model of the jaw. The overlay of the subject's anatomic site and its 3D-IV image were displayed in real space using a 3D-AR display. Extraction of characteristic points and teeth matching were done using parallax images from two stereo cameras for patient-image registration. Accurate registration of the volunteer's anatomy with IV stereoscopic images via image matching was done using the fully automated markerless system, which recognized the incisal edges of the teeth and captured information pertaining to their position with an average target registration error of < 1 mm. These 3D-CT images were then displayed in real space with high accuracy using AR. Even when the viewing position was changed, the 3D images could be observed as if they were floating in real space without using special glasses. Teeth were successfully used for registration via 3D image (contour) matching. This system, without using references or fiducial markers, displayed 3D-CT images in real space with high accuracy. The system provided real-time markerless registration and 3D image matching via stereo vision, which, combined with AR, could have significant clinical applications.

  14. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  15. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  16. Internet virtual studio: low-cost augmented reality system for WebTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, Robert; Pasko, Slawomir; Karaszewski, Maciej; Witkowski, Marcin

    2008-02-01

    In this paper a concept of a Internet Virtual Studio as a modern system for production of news, entertainment, educational and training material is proposed. This system is based on virtual studio technology and integrated with multimedia data base. Its was developed for web television content production. In successive subentries the general system architecture, as well as the architecture of modules one by one is discussed. The authors describe each module by presentation of a brief information about work principles and technical limitations. The presentation of modules is strictly connected with a presentation of their capabilities. Results produced by each of them are shown in the form of exemplary images. Finally, exemplary short production is presented and discussed.

  17. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  18. Study of onboard expert systems to augment space shuttle and space station autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, C. R.; Akin, D. L.; Kranzler, D.; Erlanson, E.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of onboard crew activity planning was examined. The use of expert systems technology to aid crewmembers in locating stowed equipment was also investigated. The crew activity planning problem, along with a summary of past and current research efforts, was discussed in detail. The requirements and specifications used to develop the crew activity planning system was also defined. The guidelines used to create, develop, and operate the MFIVE Crew Scheduler and Logistics Clerk were discussed. Also discussed is the mathematical algorithm, used by the MFIVE Scheduler, which was developed to aid in optimal crew activity planning.

  19. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Introduction The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Human Sciences Campaign calls out the topic of Virtual /Mixed and Augmented Reality as one of the...type of virtual environment. In virtual reality (VR), the totality of the environment is computer generated. In AR, the real world is augmented by...effectively. 20 17. References Alexander T. Visualisation of geographic data in virtual environments - what is essential for virtual reality systems

  20. Improving Literacy Skills in Students with Complex Communication Needs Who Use Augmentative/Alternative Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    A structured intervention package including direct, scaffolded, instructional lessons was implemented using an error correction learning system and a picture book-based phonological and phonemic awareness activity for four participants with complex communication needs, ranging from 12 to 15 years, in a junior high school setting. Although…

  1. Eurofix: Test Results of a Cost-Effective DGNSS Augmentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermans, G. W. A.; Helwig, A. W. S.; van Willigen, D.

    Eurofix is an integrated navigation system, which combines Differential GNSS and Loran-C. The Loran-C system is used to provide differential corrections for the GNSS pseudo-range measurements and integrity information by additionally modulating the transmitted signals. This modulation, however, is not allowed to degrade normal Loran-C operations. As data transmission is hindered by the aggressive Loran-C signal environment, special modulation patterns and Forward Error Correcting codes are designed to fulfil the requirements. Compared to other DGNSS services, Eurofix has a number of advantages: It covers a large area, its implementation in an already existing infrastructure is basically low-cost, it offers enhanced datalink availability in urban and mountainous environment, it has wide-area capabilities and, finally, it provides a free backup navigation system in case either Loran-C or GPS fails.The paper describes the Eurofix system, focusing on the Loran-C data channel. A modified RTCM type-9 message format is used with special Forward Error Correction. At Delft University a real-life test set-up has been built to evaluate the Eurofix performance for different scenarios. The results on datalink and DGNSS performance are presented. It is shown that metre-level DGNSS performance is achievable with low bit rate data channels, using Loran-C stations at up to 1000 km distance.

  2. Development of the Regulatory Commission and Knowledge Base System and Investigation of Possible Augmentation Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    1987. Gary Zuckerman, personal communication, Software A& E , Marketing Representative, March, 1987. 7 Zuckerman, personal communication. * 18"KES for...Today’s Knowledge Based Systems," (Software A&E, 1986). 𔃽Ricki Kleist, personal communication, Software A& E , Marketing Representative, March, 1987. 20

  3. High-Quality See-Through Surgical Guidance System Using Enhanced 3-D Autostereoscopic Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinran; Chen, Guowen; Liao, Hongen

    2017-08-01

    Precise minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significant advantages over traditional open surgery in clinic. Although pre-/intraoperative diagnosis images can provide necessary guidance for therapy, hand-eye discoordination occurs when guidance information is displayed away from the surgical area. In this study, we introduce a real three-dimensional (3-D) see-through guidance system for precision surgery. To address the resolution and viewing angle limitation as well as the accuracy degradation problems of autostereoscopic 3-D display, we design a high quality and high accuracy 3-D integral videography (IV) medical image display method. Furthermore, a novel see-through microscopic device is proposed to assist surgeons with the superimposition of real 3-D guidance onto the surgical target is magnified by an optical visual magnifier module. Spatial resolutions of 3-D IV image in different depths have been increased 50%∼70%, viewing angles of different image sizes have been increased 9%∼19% compared with conventional IV display methods. Average accuracy of real 3-D guidance superimposed on surgical target was 0.93 mm ± 0.41 mm. Preclinical studies demonstrated that our system could provide real 3-D perception of anatomic structures inside the patient's body. The system showed potential clinical feasibility to provide intuitive and accurate in situ see-through guidance for microsurgery without restriction on observers' viewing position. Our system can effectively improve the precision and reliability of surgical guidance. It will have wider applicability in surgical planning, microscopy, and other fields.

  4. Embedded Augmented Reality Training System for Dynamic Human-Robot Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    www.nvidia.com/object/nvidia_physx.html, 2009. [21] Firelight Technologies: FMOD Music & Sound Effects System. Home Page: http://www.fmod.org/. [22] Angeles...26] Grossman , T.; Balakrishnan, R.: Pointing at trivariate targets in 3D environments. In: CHI 2004: Conference on Human Factors in Computing

  5. Urban Terrain Modeling for Augmented Reality Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in wearable computers have begun to make mobile augmented reality systems a reality (Feiner, 1997; Piekarski, 1999, Julier, 2000...Augmented Reality Applications 3 Figure 1. A wearable augmented reality system. The large size of the system is the result of the fact that it is...for the light to travel out to the target and back to the LIDAR is used to determine the range of the target. LIDAR operates in the ultraviolet , visible

  6. Performance-oriented antiwindup for a class of linear control systems with augmented neural network controller.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Guido; Turner, Matthew C; Postlethwaite, Ian

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a conditioning scheme for a linear control system which is enhanced by a neural network (NN) controller and subjected to a control signal amplitude limit. The NN controller improves the performance of the linear control system by directly estimating an actuator-matched, unmodeled, nonlinear disturbance, in closed-loop, and compensating for it. As disturbances are generally known to be bounded, the nominal NN-control element is modified to keep its output below the disturbance bound. The linear control element is conditioned by an antiwindup (AW) compensator which ensures performance close to the nominal controller and swift recovery from saturation. For this, the AW compensator proposed is of low order, designed using convex linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) optimization.

  7. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  8. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  9. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  10. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  11. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    by which wave motion in soft tissues is generated and measured. The measurement concept thus developed, called convergent field elastography ( CFE ...Figure 1. CFE concept. Color contour plots illustrate soft tissue displacements parallel to the transducer beam axes. (A) The annular force generation...together enable CFE to image 2-3 times deeper than existing systems. WORK COMPLETED Ultrasonic data collected on live cetaceans was used to

  12. Augmented Feedback System to Support Physical Therapy of Non-specific Low Back Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodbeck, Dominique; Degen, Markus; Stanimirov, Michael; Kool, Jan; Scheermesser, Mandy; Oesch, Peter; Neuhaus, Cornelia

    Low back pain is an important problem in industrialized countries. Two key factors limit the effectiveness of physiotherapy: low compliance of patients with repetitive movement exercises, and inadequate awareness of patients of their own posture. The Backtrainer system addresses these problems by real-time monitoring of the spine position, by providing a framework for most common physiotherapy exercises for the low back, and by providing feedback to patients in a motivating way. A minimal sensor configuration was identified as two inertial sensors that measure the orientation of the lower back at two points with three degrees of freedom. The software was designed as a flexible platform to experiment with different hardware, and with various feedback modalities. Basic exercises for two types of movements are provided: mobilizing and stabilizing. We developed visual feedback - abstract as well as in the form of a virtual reality game - and complemented the on-screen graphics with an ambient feedback device. The system was evaluated during five weeks in a rehabilitation clinic with 26 patients and 15 physiotherapists. Subjective satisfaction of subjects was good, and we interpret the results as encouraging indication for the adoption of such a therapy support system by both patients and therapists.

  13. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Mercury and Saturn Propulsion Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed. In-situ resource utilization was found to be critical in making Mercury missions more amenable for human visits. At Saturn, refueling using local atmospheric mining was found to be difficult to impractical, while refueling the Saturn missions from Uranus was more practical and less complex.

  14. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashurin, V. P.; Budnikov, I. N.; Hatunkin, V. Yu; Klevtsov, V. A.; Ktitorov, L. V.; Lazareva, A. S.; Meshkov, E. E.; Novikova, I. A.; Pletenev, F. A.; Yanbaev, G. M.

    2016-04-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines.

  15. A Classification System for the Spread of Polymethyl Methacrylate in Vertebral Bodies Treated with Vertebral Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Frankl, Joseph; Sakata, Michael P.; Choudhary, Gagandeep; Hur, Seung; Peterson, Andrew; Hennemeyer, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a classification system for describing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spread in vertebral bodies after kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and for assessing whether PMMA spread varies between operators, VCF etiology, or vertebral level. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images of 198 vertebral levels were reviewed in 137 patients (women, 84; men, 53; mean age, 75.8 ± 12.5; and those with a diagnosis of osteoporosis, 63%) treated with kyphoplasty between January 01, 2015 and May 31, 2015 at a single center to create a 5-class descriptive system. PMMA spread patterns in the same images were then classified by 2 board-certified radiologists, and a third board-certified radiologist resolved conflicts. A total of 2 primary PMMA spread patterns were identified, namely, acinar and globular, with subtypes of localized acinar, diffuse globular, and mixed, to describe an equal combination of patterns. Interrater reliability using the system was moderate (κ = 0.47). After resolving conflicts, the most common spread class was globular (n = 63), followed by mixed (n = 58), diffuse globular (n = 30), acinar (n = 27), and localized acinar (n = 20). The spread class after treatment by the 2 most frequent operators differed significantly (n1 = 63, n2 = 70; P < .0001). There was no difference in the spread class between VCF etiologies or vertebral levels. PMMA spread may, therefore, be a modifiable parameter that affects kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty efficacy and adverse events. PMID:27795998

  16. Development of a 12-Thrust Chamber Kerosene /Oxygen Primary Rocket Sub-System for an Early (1964) Air-Augmented Rocket Ground-Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, D.; Hyde, E. H.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing/Rocket combined-cycle, and specifically rocket-based combined- cycle (RBCC), propulsion systems, typically employ an internal engine flow-path installed primary rocket subsystem. To achieve acceptably short mixing lengths in effecting the "air augmentation" process, a large rocket-exhaust/air interfacial mixing surface is needed. This leads, in some engine design concepts, to a "cluster" of small rocket units, suitably arrayed in the flowpath. To support an early (1964) subscale ground-test of a specific RBCC concept, such a 12-rocket cluster was developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The small primary rockets used in the cluster assembly were modified versions of an existing small kerosene/oxygen water-cooled rocket engine unit routinely tested at MSFC. Following individual thrust-chamber tests and overall subsystem qualification testing, the cluster assembly was installed at the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for RBCC systems testing. (The results of the special air-augmented rocket testing are not covered here.) While this project was eventually successfully completed, a number of hardware integration problems were met, leading to catastrophic thrust chamber failures. The principal "lessons learned" in conducting this early primary rocket subsystem experimental effort are documented here as a basic knowledge-base contribution for the benefit of today's RBCC research and development community.

  17. Development of a 12-Thrust Chamber Kerosene /Oxygen Primary Rocket Sub-System for an Early (1964) Air-Augmented Rocket Ground-Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, D.; Hyde, E. H.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing/Rocket combined-cycle, and specifically rocket-based combined- cycle (RBCC), propulsion systems, typically employ an internal engine flow-path installed primary rocket subsystem. To achieve acceptably short mixing lengths in effecting the "air augmentation" process, a large rocket-exhaust/air interfacial mixing surface is needed. This leads, in some engine design concepts, to a "cluster" of small rocket units, suitably arrayed in the flowpath. To support an early (1964) subscale ground-test of a specific RBCC concept, such a 12-rocket cluster was developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The small primary rockets used in the cluster assembly were modified versions of an existing small kerosene/oxygen water-cooled rocket engine unit routinely tested at MSFC. Following individual thrust-chamber tests and overall subsystem qualification testing, the cluster assembly was installed at the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for RBCC systems testing. (The results of the special air-augmented rocket testing are not covered here.) While this project was eventually successfully completed, a number of hardware integration problems were met, leading to catastrophic thrust chamber failures. The principal "lessons learned" in conducting this early primary rocket subsystem experimental effort are documented here as a basic knowledge-base contribution for the benefit of today's RBCC research and development community.

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy and Brief Supportive Psychotherapy for Augmentation of Antidepressant Nonresponse in Chronic Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Klein, Daniel N.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Manber, Rachel; Keller, Martin B.; Leon, Andrew C.; Wisniewski, Steven R.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Markowitz, John C.; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have found that few chronically depressed patients remit with antidepressant medications alone. Objective To determine the role of adjunctive psychotherapy in the treatment of chronically depressed patients with less than complete response to an initial medication trial. Design This trial compared 12 weeks of (1) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), (2) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), and (3) continued optimized pharmacotherapy (MEDS) alone. We hypothesized that adding CBASP would produce higher rates of response and remission than adding BSP or continuing MEDS alone. Setting Eight academic sites. Participants Chronically depressed patients with a current DSM-IV–defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years. Interventions Phase 1 consisted of open-label, algorithm-guided treatment for 12 weeks based on a history of antidepressant response. Patients not achieving remission received next-step pharmacotherapy options with or without adjunctive psychotherapy (phase 2). Individuals undergoing psychotherapy were randomized to receive either CBASP or BSP stratified by phase 1 response, ie, as nonresponders (NRs) or partial responders (PRs). Main Outcome Measures Proportions of remitters, PRs, and NRs and change on Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores. Results In all, 808 participants entered phase 1, of which 491 were classified as NRs or PRs and entered phase 2 (200 received CBASP and MEDS, 195 received BSP and MEDS, and 96 received MEDS only). Mean HAM-D scores dropped from 25.9 to 17.7 in NRs and from 15.2 to 9.9 in PRs. No statistically significant differences emerged among the 3 treatment groups in the proportions of phase 2 remission (15.0%), partial response (22.5%), and non-response (62.5%) or in changes on HAM-D scores. Conclusions Although 37.5% of the

  19. Comparisons of intervention components within augmentative and alternative communication systems for individuals with developmental disabilities: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark F; Rojeski, Laura; Sammarco, Nicolette; Lang, Russell; Lancioni, Giulio E; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2013-12-01

    Decisions regarding augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with developmental disabilities (e.g. what AAC to use and how to teach a person to use a specific AAC modality) should involve consideration of different intervention component options. In an effort to elucidate such decisions and options, this review synthesized 14 studies, published between 2004 and 2012, comparing different AAC intervention components including different symbol sets, instructional strategies, or speech output within aided AAC systems, and different verbal operants within unaided AAC. Evidence supported the following: (a) different instructional strategies such as building motivation, using errorless learning, or adding video models to picture exchange interventions may improve the acquisition or rate of acquisition of picture exchange mands, (b) limited data supports training mimetic (imitated) or mand signs over tacts and (c) differences in symbol sets and speech output levels appeared to have little effect on AAC-based mand acquisition, but listener-based differences should be considered. These findings have implications for future research and clinical practice.

  20. Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chinese herb Radix, augmented the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital through serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Chen, Bao-Qiong; Chu, Qing-Ping; Yao, Hai-Yan; Ku, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Yong-He

    2004-12-15

    This is the first study of hypnotic activity of tetrandrine (a major component of Stephania tetrandrae) in mice by using synergism with pentobarbital as an index for the hypnotic effect. The results showed that tetrandrine potentiated pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hypnosis significantly by reducing sleep latency and increasing sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was potentiated by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). In the subhypnotic dosage of pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice, tetrandrine (60 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the rate of sleep onset and also showed synergic effect with 5-HTP. Pretreatment of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, significantly decreased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and tetrandrine abolished this effect. From these results, it should be presumed that serotonergic system may be involved in the augmentative effect of tetrandrine on pentobarbital-induced sleep.

  1. Preliminary control law and hardware designs for a ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Linse, D. J.; Suikat, R.; Entz, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    The continued investigation of the design of Ride Quality Augmentation Systems (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is described. The purpose of these RQAS is the reduction of the vertical and lateral acceleration response of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The current investigations include the refinement of the sample data feedback control laws based on the control-rate-weighting and output-weighting optimal control design techniqes. These control designs were evaluated using aircraft time simulations driven by Dryden spectra turbulence. Fixed gain controllers were tested throughout the aircrft operating envelope. The preliminary design of the hardware modifications necessary to implement and test the RQAS on a commuter aircraft is included. These include a separate surface elevator and the flap modifications to provide both direct lift and roll control. A preliminary failure mode investigation was made for the proposed configuration. The results indicate that vertical acceleration reductions of 45% and lateral reductions of more than 50% are possible. A fixed gain controller appears to be feasible with only minor response degradation.

  2. Ground and flight test methods for determining limit cycle and structural resonance characteristics of aircraft stability augmentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Sitterle, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Performance criteria and test techniques are applied to stability augmentation systems (SAS) during ground testing to predict objectionable limit cycles and preclude structural resonance during flight. Factors that give rise to these problems, means of suppressing their effects, trade-offs to be considered, and ground test methods that have been developed are discussed. SAS performance predicted on the basis of these tests is compared with flight data obtained from three lifting body vehicles and the X-15 research airplane. Limit cycle and structural resonance test criteria, based upon ground and flight experience and data, were successfully applied to these vehicles. The criteria used were: The limit cycle amplitude (SAS gain multiplied by peak-to-peak angular rate) shall not exceed 0.5 deg for the highest product of control power and SAS gain that will be used in flight; the maximum in-flight SAS gain should never exceed 50 percent of the value at which a structural resonance can be sustained during ground test.

  3. Understanding the fascial supporting network of the breast: key ligamentous structures in breast augmentation and a proposed system of nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Simone A; Corlett, Russell J; Ashton, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    The fascial system of the breast has, to date, only been described in general terms. This anatomical study has developed two distinct methods for better defining existing breast structures such as the inframammary fold, as well as defining previously unnamed ligamentous structures. The authors harvested and examined 40 frozen, entire chest wall cadavers. Initially, 15 embalmed cadavers were studied with a combination of blunt and sharp dissection, which proved to be inaccurate. A further 20 fresh and five embalmed chest walls were harvested, frozen, and then sectioned with a bandsaw (3-cm slices) and knife (1.5- to 4-cm slices) depending on the area studied. Sagittal, horizontal, and oblique sections along the length of the ribs were created and then dissolved using either sodium hydroxide or alcohol dehydration followed by xylene immersion. Constant fascial connections between the breast parenchyma, superficial fascia, pectoralis muscle (deep) fascia, and bone were observed. Specimens clearly demonstrated internal structures responsible for the surface landmarks of the breast. The precise configuration of the infra mammary fold was clearly visible, and new ligamentous structures were identified and named. Knowing the location and interrelationship of these structures is particularly important in breast augmentation. Reappraisal of the anatomy in this area has enabled precise identification of ligamentous structures in the breast. Correlation of the findings in this article to specific clinical conditions or modes of treatment can be proven only by a clinical series that scientifically addresses the necessity and efficacy of preserving, releasing, or repositioning any of these structures.

  4. A Canadian Pilot Project for a GPS-Augmented Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragert, H.; Schmidt, M.; Wang, K.; Bock, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Whether a tsunami has been generated from a large earthquake immediately offshore cannot be determined within a crucial time window from seismic or tide gauge data alone. Geological and geodetic data show that coseismic motions of the Earth's surface even hundreds of kilometers from the fault can be used to determine the nature of the rupture and whether the earthquake is tsunamigenic. High-rate (1 sps or greater), totally autonomous GPS stations located along the coast can provide on-line streamed data that can be analyzed in real time to provide an update of relative positions to an accuracy of 1-2 cm horizontally and 3-5 cm vertically with a latency of a few seconds. Regional ground displacements along the coast at the time of a major offshore earthquake could therefore point to the certainty of a tsunami within less than a minute. The Geological Survey of Canada is currently setting up a prototype network to facilitate real-time positioning along the coast of the Canadian segment of the Cascadia subduction zone. The aim is to evaluate the realizability and effectiveness of automatically determining major vertical and horizontal motion at coastal versus inland GPS stations that would unambiguously and rapidly indicate tsunami generation. A network of GPS receivers purchased by the Canadian Hydrographic Service is currently being deployed at geodetic quality installations with continuous on-line communications. As part of this system, we are implementing real-time GPS technology previously applied to seismic (Bock et al., 2004; Langbein and Bock, 2004; Yamagiwa et al., 2004) and volcanic (Mattia et al., 2004) monitoring applications. The target date to have a prototype system operating is December 2005. It is hoped that this relatively low cost technique can become a mainstream tool of tsunami warning systems worldwide.

  5. Cissus quadrangularis augments IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Krishnamoorthy, Senthilkumar; Govindan, Ramajayam; Narasimhan, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Growth factors are produced locally in the bone and control cellular events such as induction of bone growth. Signaling through the Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-IR) by locally synthesized IGF - I or IGF-II in osteoblast is considered crucial for normal development and for bone remodeling. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders have been documented, however its regulatory effects on IGF system components remain largely unknown. The present study is employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the regulation of IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis when compared with control cells. The mRNA expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) did not differ significantly between control and C. quadrangularis treated cells. Immunoradiometric analysis revealed increased levels of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in the conditioned medium of C. quadrangularis treated cultures when compared with control. Western blotting analysis revealed increase in protein levels of IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the IGF system components of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Humectants To Augment Current From Metallized Zinc Cathodic Protection Systems on Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino Jr., Bernard S.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H. Russell; Bullard, Sophie J.; Collins, W. Keith; Bennett, Jack E.; Soltesz, Steven M.; Laylor, H. Martin

    2002-12-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) systems using thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are employed to mitigate the corrosion process in reinforced concrete structures. However, the performance of the anodes is improved by moisture at the anode-concrete interface. Research was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrophilic chemical additives, humectants, on the electrical performance and service life of zinc anodes. Lithium bromide and lithium nitrate were identified as feasible humectants with lithium bromide performing better under galvanic CP and lithium nitrate performing better under impressed current CP. Both humectants improved the electrical operating characteristics of the anode and increased the service life by up to three years.

  7. Augmentation of Solar Thermal Propulsion Systems Via Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage and Thermal Electric Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    USC solar furnace currently has a two stage design using a 5.75 m2 heliostat and 1 m2 acrylic Fresnel lens. Previous versions of the USC furnace used a...slight sagging of the heliostat which consists of two separate rectangular mirror panels further degrades the focal spot. When the system is imaged at...the apparent “visual” fo- cus (i.e. the smallest apparent spot), images of the two sep- arate panels of the heliostat can clearly be seen and a peak

  8. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore; Tarantino, Umberto; Nano, Giovanni; Iundusi, Riccardo; Fiori, Roberto Da Ros, Valerio Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

  9. Tactile stimulations and wheel rotation responses: toward augmented lane departure warning systems.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Burle, Borís; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    When an on-board system detects a drift of a vehicle to the left or to the right, in what way should the information be delivered to the driver? Car manufacturers have so far neglected relevant results from Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we show that this situation possibly led to the sub-optimal design of a lane departure warning system (AFIL, PSA Peugeot Citroën) implemented in commercially available automobile vehicles. Twenty participants performed a two-choice reaction time task in which they were to respond by clockwise or counter-clockwise wheel-rotations to tactile stimulations of their left or right wrist. They performed poorer when responding counter-clockwise to the right vibration and clockwise to the left vibration (incompatible mapping) than when responding according to the reverse (compatible) mapping. This suggests that AFIL implements the worse (incompatible) mapping for the operators. This effect depended on initial practice with the interface. The present research illustrates how basic approaches in Cognitive Science may benefit to Human Factors Engineering and ultimately improve man-machine interfaces and show how initial learning can affect interference effects.

  10. Tactile stimulations and wheel rotation responses: toward augmented lane departure warning systems

    PubMed Central

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Burle, Borís; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    When an on-board system detects a drift of a vehicle to the left or to the right, in what way should the information be delivered to the driver? Car manufacturers have so far neglected relevant results from Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we show that this situation possibly led to the sub-optimal design of a lane departure warning system (AFIL, PSA Peugeot Citroën) implemented in commercially available automobile vehicles. Twenty participants performed a two-choice reaction time task in which they were to respond by clockwise or counter-clockwise wheel-rotations to tactile stimulations of their left or right wrist. They performed poorer when responding counter-clockwise to the right vibration and clockwise to the left vibration (incompatible mapping) than when responding according to the reverse (compatible) mapping. This suggests that AFIL implements the worse (incompatible) mapping for the operators. This effect depended on initial practice with the interface. The present research illustrates how basic approaches in Cognitive Science may benefit to Human Factors Engineering and ultimately improve man-machine interfaces and show how initial learning can affect interference effects. PMID:25324791

  11. Human Pacman: A Mobile Augmented Reality Entertainment System Based on Physical, Social, and Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter details the Human Pacman system to illuminate entertainment computing which ventures to embed the natural physical world seamlessly with a fantasy virtual playground by capitalizing on infrastructure provided by mobile computing, wireless LAN, and ubiquitous computing. With Human Pacman, we have a physical role-playing computer fantasy together with real human-social and mobile-gaming that emphasizes on collaboration and competition between players in a wide outdoor physical area that allows natural wide-area human-physical movements. Pacmen and Ghosts are now real human players in the real world experiencing mixed computer graphics fantasy-reality provided by using the wearable computers on them. Virtual cookies and actual tangible physical objects are incorporated into the game play to provide novel experiences of seamless transitions between the real and virtual worlds. This is an example of a new form of gaming that anchors on physicality, mobility, social interaction, and ubiquitous computing.

  12. Augmented Z scheme blueprint for efficient solar water splitting system using quaternary chalcogenide absorber material.

    PubMed

    Sarswat, Prashant K; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Free, Michael L; Misra, Mano

    2016-02-07

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen (H2) production from water is a key method of addressing energy needs using an environmentally friendly approach. In the last two decades we have witnessed the evolution of many different expensive catalysts, photoelectrodes and related technologies, especially those involving precious metals and use of acidic or basic electrolytes for hydrogen production. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a relatively new candidate in the category of efficient photocathodes, due to its high absorption coefficient and near optimal energy band gap. In this paper, we demonstrate photoelectrochemical viability of CZTS in combination with other photoanodes such as TiO2, BiVO4, and WO3 for H2 production with the use of an electrolyte of near neutral pH, a single redox mediator, and insignificant potential biasing. A systematic study was performed to understand CZTS performance with each photoanode, band energetics of CZTS with other photoanodes, impedance behavior of each photoelectrode, and utility of a CZTS photocell in place of a CZTS photocathode. Our assessment indicates that a protected CZTS photocell performs well when used in a Z-scheme containing TiO2 nanotubular array-CZTS or nanocrystalline WO3-CZTS. Preliminary experiments indicated that apart from band energetics, porosity and effective surface area of the photoanodes play a crucial role in determining the photoelectrochemical performance of the system.

  13. Gravimetric wear analysis and particulate characterization of bilateral facet-augmentation system--PercuDyn™.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanghita; Nayak, Aniruddh; Goel, Vijay K; Warren, Chris; Schlaegle, Steve; Ferrara, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic stabilization systems are emerging as an alternative to fusion instrumentation. However, cyclic loading and micro-motion at various interfaces may produce wear debris leading to adverse tissue reactions such as osteolysis. Ten million cycles of wear test was performed for PercuDyn™ in axial rotation and the wear profile and the wear rate was mapped. A validation study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of wear debris collection which accounted for experimental errors. The mean wear debris measured at the end of 10 million cycles was 4.01 mg, based on the worst-case recovery rate of 68.2%. Approximately 40% of the particulates were less than 5 μm; 92% less than 10 μm. About 43% of particulates were spherical in shape, 27% particulates were ellipsoidal and the remaining particles were of irregular shapes. The PercuDyn™ exhibited an average polymeric wear rate of 0.4 mg/million cycles; substantially less than the literature derived studies for other motion preservation devices like the Bryan disc and Charité disc. Wear debris size and shape were also similar to these devices.

  14. Augmenting an operational forecasting system for the North and Baltic Seas by in situ T and S data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losa, Svetlana; Danilov, Sergey; Schröter, Jens; Nerger, Lars; Maßmann, Silvia; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the hydrography forecast of the North and Baltic Seas, the operational circulation model of the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) has been augmented by a data assimilation (DA) system. The DA system has been developed based on the Singular Evolution Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter algorithm (Pham, 1998) coded within the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (Nerger et al., 2004, Nerger and Hiller, 2012). Previously the only data assimilated were sea surface temperature (SST) measurements obtained with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA's polar orbiting satellites. While the quality of the forecast has been significantly improved by assimilating the satellite data (Losa et al., 2012, Losa et al., 2014), assimilation of in situ observational temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles has allowed for further improvement. Assimilating MARNET time series and CTD and Scanfish measurements, however, required a careful calibration of the DA system with respect to local analysis. The study addresses the problem of the local SEIK analysis accounting for the data within a certain radius. The localisation radius is considered spatially variable and dependent on the system local dynamics. As such, we define the radius of the data influence based on the energy ratio of the baroclinic and barotropic flows. D. T. Pham, J. Verron, L. Gourdeau, 1998. Singular evolutive Kalman filters for data assimilation in oceanography, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 326, 255-260. L. Nerger, W. Hiller, J. Schröter, 2004. PDAF - The Parallel Data Assimilation Framework: Experiences with Kalman Filtering, In: Zwieflhofer, W., Mozdzynski, G. (Eds.), Use of high performance computing in meteorology: proceedings of the Eleventh ECMWF Workshop on the Use of High Performance Computing in Meteorology. Singapore: World Scientific, Reading, UK, 63-83. L. Nerger, W. Hiller, 2012. Software for Ensemble-based Data

  15. A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality Yohan Baillot and Simon J. Julier ITT Advanced Engineering & Sciences 2560 Huntington Ave...with as few as three measurements. 1. Introduction Almost all Augmented Reality (AR) systems use a track- ing system to capture motion of objects in...DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  16. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this research, Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR), was to research the design and development of experimental... augmented reality systems for maintenance job aiding. The goal was to explore and evaluate the feasibility of developing prototype adaptive augmented ... reality systems that can be used to investigate how real time computer graphics, overlaid on and registered with the actual equipment being maintained, can

  17. Precision insertion of percutaneous sacroiliac screws using a novel augmented reality-based navigation system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Leong, Anthony Peng Yew; Xu, Lu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wang, Qiugen

    2016-09-01

    Augmented reality (AR) enables superimposition of virtual images onto the real world. The aim of this study is to present a novel AR-based navigation system for sacroiliac screw insertion and to evaluate its feasibility and accuracy in cadaveric experiments. Six cadavers with intact pelvises were employed in our study. They were CT scanned and the pelvis and vessels were segmented into 3D models. The ideal trajectory of the sacroiliac screw was planned and represented visually as a cylinder. For the intervention, the head mounted display created a real-time AR environment by superimposing the virtual 3D models onto the surgeon's field of view. The screws were drilled into the pelvis as guided by the trajectory represented by the cylinder. Following the intervention, a repeat CT scan was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the system, by assessing the screw positions and the deviations between the planned trajectories and inserted screws. Post-operative CT images showed that all 12 screws were correctly placed with no perforation. The mean deviation between the planned trajectories and the inserted screws was 2.7 ± 1.2 mm at the bony entry point, 3.7 ± 1.1 mm at the screw tip, and the mean angular deviation between the two trajectories was 2.9° ± 1.1°. The mean deviation at the nerve root tunnels region on the sagittal plane was 3.6 ± 1.0 mm. This study suggests an intuitive approach for guiding screw placement by way of AR-based navigation. This approach was feasible and accurate. It may serve as a valuable tool for assisting percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion in live surgery.

  18. A Synthesis of Relevant Literature on the Development of Emotional Competence: Implications for Design of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji Young; Wilkinson, Krista; Karny, Meredith; Blackstone, Sarah; Stifter, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Emotional competence refers to the ability to identify, respond to, and manage one's own and others' emotions. Emotional competence is critical to many functional outcomes, including making and maintaining friends, academic success, and community integration. There appears to be a link between the development of language and the development of emotional competence in children who use speech. Little information is available about these issues in children who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In this article, we consider how AAC systems can be designed to support communication about emotions and the development of emotional competence. Because limited research exists on communication about emotions in a context of aided AAC, theory and research from other fields (e.g., psychology, linguistics, child development) is reviewed to identify key features of emotional competence and their possible implications for AAC design and intervention. The reviewed literature indicated that the research and clinical attention to emotional competence in children with disabilities is encouraging. However, the ideas have not been considered specifically in the context of aided AAC. On the basis of the reviewed literature, we offer practical suggestions for system design and AAC use for communication about emotions with children who have significant disabilities. Three key elements of discussing emotions (i.e., emotion name, reason, and solution) are suggested for inclusion in order to provide these children with opportunities for a full range of discussion about emotions. We argue that supporting communication about emotions is as important for children who use AAC as it is for children who are learning speech. This article offers a means to integrate information from other fields for the purpose of enriching AAC supports.

  19. Analysis of Correlation between Ionospheric Spatial Gradients and Space Weather Intensity under Nominal Conditions for Ground-Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by providing differential GPS corrections to aviation users. For GBAS applications, most of ionospheric errors are removed by applying the differential corrections. However, ionospheric correction errors may exist due to ionosphere spatial decorrelation between GBAS ground facility and users. Thus, the standard deviation of ionosphere spatial decorrelation (σvig) is estimated and included in the computation of error bounds on user position solution. The σvig of 4mm/km, derived for the Conterminous United States (CONUS), bounds one-sigma ionospheric spatial gradients under nominal conditions (including active, but not stormy condition) with an adequate safety margin [1]. The conservatism residing in the current σvig by fixing it to a constant value for all non-stormy conditions could be mitigated by subdividing ionospheric conditions into several classes and using different σvig for each class. This new concept, real-time σvig adaptation, will be possible if the level of ionospheric activity can be well classified based on space weather intensity. This paper studies correlation between the statistics of nominal ionospheric spatial gradients and space weather indices. The analysis was carried out using two sets of data collected from Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS) Network; 9 consecutive (nominal and ionospherically active) days in 2004 and 19 consecutive (relatively 'quiet') days in 2010. Precise ionospheric delay estimates are obtained using the simplified truth processing method and vertical ionospheric gradients are computed using the well-known 'station pair method' [2]. The remaining biases which include carrier-phase leveling errors and Inter-frequency Bias (IFB) calibration errors are reduced by applying linear slip detection thresholds. The σvig was inflated to overbound the distribution of vertical ionospheric gradients with the required confidence

  20. Further studies on control synthesis of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems via augmented multi-indexed matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangpeng; Yue, Dong; Ma, Tiedong; Zhu, Xunlin

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with further studies on control synthesis of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems. To do this, a novel slack variable technique, which is homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent on both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions with arbitrary degrees, is presented by developing an efficient augmented multi-indexed matrix approach. Under the framework of homogenous matrix polynomials, the algebraic properties of both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions are collected into sets of augmented multi-indexed matrices. Thus, more information about the underlying normalized fuzzy weighting functions is involved into control synthesis. Consequently, the relaxation quality of control synthesis of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems is improved significantly. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Yeast virus-derived stimulator of the innate immune system augments the efficacy of virus vector-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Claudepierre, Marie-Christine; Hortelano, Julie; Schaedler, Emmanuelle; Kleinpeter, Patricia; Geist, Michel; Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Brandely, Renée; Tosch, Caroline; Laruelle, Laurence; Jawhari, Anass; Menguy, Thierry; Marchand, Jean-Baptiste; Romby, Pascale; Schultz, Patrick; Hartmann, Gunther; Rooke, Ronald; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Preville, Xavier; Rittner, Karola

    2014-05-01

    To identify novel stimulators of the innate immune system, we constructed a panel of eight HEK293 cell lines double positive for human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and an NF-κB-inducible reporter gene. Screening of a large variety of compounds and cellular extracts detected a TLR3-activating compound in a microsomal yeast extract. Fractionation of this extract identified an RNA molecule of 4.6 kb, named nucleic acid band 2 (NAB2), that was sufficient to confer the activation of TLR3. Digests with single- and double-strand-specific RNases showed the double-strand nature of this RNA, and its sequence was found to be identical to that of the genome of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) L-BC virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A large-scale process of production and purification of this RNA was established on the basis of chemical cell lysis and dsRNA-specific chromatography. NAB2 complexed with the cationic lipid Lipofectin but neither NAB2 nor Lipofectin alone induced the secretion of interleukin-12(p70) [IL-12(p70)], alpha interferon, gamma interferon-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, or IL-6 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. While NAB2 activated TLR3, Lipofectin-stabilized NAB2 also signaled via the cytoplasmic sensor for RNA recognition MDA-5. A significant increase of RMA-MUC1 tumor rejection and survival was observed in C57BL/6 mice after prophylactic vaccination with MUC1-encoding modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and NAB2-Lipofectin. This combination of immunotherapies strongly increased at the injection sites the percentage of infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), cell types which can modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Virus-based cancer vaccines offer a good alternative to the treatment of cancer but could be improved. Starting from a screening approach, we have identified and characterized an unexplored biological molecule with immunomodulatory characteristics which augments

  2. Yeast Virus-Derived Stimulator of the Innate Immune System Augments the Efficacy of Virus Vector-Based Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Claudepierre, Marie-Christine; Hortelano, Julie; Schaedler, Emmanuelle; Kleinpeter, Patricia; Geist, Michel; Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Brandely, Renée; Tosch, Caroline; Laruelle, Laurence; Jawhari, Anass; Menguy, Thierry; Marchand, Jean-Baptiste; Romby, Pascale; Schultz, Patrick; Hartmann, Gunther; Rooke, Ronald; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Preville, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    characteristics which augments the efficacy of an MVA-based immunotherapeutic agent. The immune modulator consists of the purified dsRNA genome isolated from a commercially used yeast strain, NAB2, mixed with a cationic lipid, Lipofectin. NAB2-Lipofectin stimulates the immune system via TLR3 and MDA-5. When it was injected at the MVA vaccination site, the immune modulator increased survival in a preclinical tumor model. We could demonstrate that NAB2-Lipofectin augments the MVA-induced infiltration of natural killer and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. We suggest indirect mechanisms of activation of these cell types by the influence of NAB2-Lipofectin on innate and adaptive immunity. Detailed analysis of cell migration at the vaccine injection site and the appropriate choice of an immune modulator should be considered to achieve the rational improvement of virus vector-based vaccination by immune modulators. PMID:24574403

  3. Flight evaluation of stabilization and command augmentation system concepts and cockpit displays during approach and landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the effectiveness of manual control concepts and various cockpit displays in improving altitude (pitch, roll, and yaw) and longitudinal path control during short takeoff aircraft approaches and landings. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrared to minimum decision heights of 30 m (100 ft) for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. Precise landings at low touchdown sink rates were achieved with a gentle flare maneuver.

  4. Developing an Interactive Augmented Reality System as a Complement to Plant Education and Comparing Its Effectiveness with Video Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Rong-Chi; Chung, Liang-Yi; Huang, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The learning of plants has garnered considerable attention in recent years, but students often lack the motivation to learn about the process of plant growth. Also, students are not able to apply what they have learned in class in the form of observation, since plant growth takes a long time. In this study, we use augmented reality (AR) technology…

  5. Developing an Interactive Augmented Reality System as a Complement to Plant Education and Comparing Its Effectiveness with Video Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Rong-Chi; Chung, Liang-Yi; Huang, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The learning of plants has garnered considerable attention in recent years, but students often lack the motivation to learn about the process of plant growth. Also, students are not able to apply what they have learned in class in the form of observation, since plant growth takes a long time. In this study, we use augmented reality (AR) technology…

  6. The Effectiveness of Grammar Instruction for Individuals Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Shelley K.; Light, Janice

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an instructional program designed to teach grammar skills to individuals who communicated via augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A single-subject, multiple probe across behaviors design was used to measure the effect of the instructional program on the acquisition and maintenance of the…

  7. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  8. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  9. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  10. Augmented reality for anatomical education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhys Gethin; John, Nigel William; Delieu, John Michael

    2010-03-01

    The use of Virtual Environments has been widely reported as a method of teaching anatomy. Generally such environments only convey the shape of the anatomy to the student. We present the Bangor Augmented Reality Education Tool for Anatomy (BARETA), a system that combines Augmented Reality (AR) technology with models produced using Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology, to provide the student with stimulation for touch as well as sight. The principal aims of this work were to provide an interface more intuitive than a mouse and keyboard, and to evaluate such a system as a viable supplement to traditional cadaver based education.

  11. An MDO augmented value-based systems engineering approach to holistic design decision-making: A satellite system case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Hanumanthrao

    The design of large scale complex engineered systems (LSCES) involves hundreds or thousands of designers making decisions at different levels of an organizational hierarchy. Traditionally, these LSCES are designed using systems engineering methods and processes, where the preferences of the stakeholder are flowed down the hierarchy using requirements that act as surrogates for preference. Current processes do not provide a system level guidance to subsystem designers. Value-Driven Design (VDD) offers a new perspective on complex system design, where the value preferences of the stakeholder are communicated directly through a decomposable value function, thereby providing a mechanism for improved system consistency. Requirements-based systems engineering approaches do not offer a mathematically rigorous way to capture the couplings present in the system. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) was specifically developed to address couplings in both analysis and optimization thereby enabling physics-based consistency. MDO uses an objective function with constraints but does not provide a way to formulate the objective function. Current systems engineering processes do not provide a mathematically sound way to make design decisions when designers are faced with uncertainties. Designers tend to choose designs based on their preferences towards risky/uncertain designs, and past research has shown that there needs to be a consistency in risk preferences to enable design decisions that are consistent with stakeholder's desires. This research exploits the complimentary nature of VDD, MDO and Decision Analysis (DA) to enable consistency in communication of system preferences, consistency in physics and consistency in risk preferences. The role of VDD in this research is in formulating a value function for true preferences, whereas the role of MDO is to capture couplings and enable optimization using the value function, and the role of DA is to enable consistent design

  12. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Augments Arsenic Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Strengthening Antioxidant Defense System and Thiol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surbhi; Anand, Garima; Singh, Neeraja; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant. Mycorrhizal plants continued to display better growth than NM plants. Formation of AM helped the host plant to overcome As-induced P deficiency and maintained favorable P:As ratio. Inoculation of AMF had variable effects on the distribution of As in plant tissues. While As translocation factor decreased in low As (25 mg kg(-1) soil), it increased under high As (50 and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Further As translocation to grain was reduced (As grain:shoot ratio) in M plants compared with NM plants. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress (generation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation) in plants reduced significantly by AMF inoculation. The alleviation potential of AM was more evident with increase in severity of As stress. Colonization of AMF resulted in higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase). It increased the concentrations of the antioxidant molecules (carotenoids, proline, and α-tocopherol) than their NM counterparts at high As addition level. Comparatively higher activities of enzymes of glutathione-ascorbate cycle in M plants led to higher ascorbate:dehydroascorbate (AsA:DHA) and glutathione:glutathione disulphide (GSH:GSSG) ratios. Inoculation by AMF also augmented the glyoxalase system by increasing the activities of both glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II enzymes. Mycorrhizal

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Augments Arsenic Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Strengthening Antioxidant Defense System and Thiol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surbhi; Anand, Garima; Singh, Neeraja; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant. Mycorrhizal plants continued to display better growth than NM plants. Formation of AM helped the host plant to overcome As-induced P deficiency and maintained favorable P:As ratio. Inoculation of AMF had variable effects on the distribution of As in plant tissues. While As translocation factor decreased in low As (25 mg kg-1 soil), it increased under high As (50 and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Further As translocation to grain was reduced (As grain:shoot ratio) in M plants compared with NM plants. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress (generation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation) in plants reduced significantly by AMF inoculation. The alleviation potential of AM was more evident with increase in severity of As stress. Colonization of AMF resulted in higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase). It increased the concentrations of the antioxidant molecules (carotenoids, proline, and α-tocopherol) than their NM counterparts at high As addition level. Comparatively higher activities of enzymes of glutathione-ascorbate cycle in M plants led to higher ascorbate:dehydroascorbate (AsA:DHA) and glutathione:glutathione disulphide (GSH:GSSG) ratios. Inoculation by AMF also augmented the glyoxalase system by increasing the activities of both glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II enzymes. Mycorrhizal

  14. Simulator investigations of side-stick controller/stability and control augmentation systems for night nap-of-earth flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    Several night nap-of-the-earth mission tasks were evaluated using a helmet-mounted display which provided a limited field-of-view image with superimposed flight control symbology. A wide range of stability and control augmentation designs was investigated. Variations in controller force-deflection characteristics and the number of axes controlled through an integrated side-stick controller were studied. In general, a small displacement controller is preferred over a stiffstick controller particularly for maneuvering flight. Higher levels of stability augmentation were required for IMC tasks to provide handling qualities comparable to those achieved for the same tasks conducted under simulated visual flight conditions. Previously announced in STAR as N82-23216

  15. Study of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Velocity-vector Based Command Augmentation System (V-CAS) on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Dahai; Goodric, Ken; Peak, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of synthetic vision system (SVS) concepts and advanced flight controls on single pilot performance (SPP). Specifically, we evaluated the benefits and interactions of two levels of terrain portrayal, guidance symbology, and control-system response type on SPP in the context of lower-landing minima (LLM) approaches. Performance measures consisted of flight technical error (FTE) and pilot perceived workload. In this study, pilot rating, control type, and guidance symbology were not found to significantly affect FTE or workload. It is likely that transfer from prior experience, limited scope of the evaluation task, specific implementation limitations, and limited sample size were major factors in obtaining these results.

  16. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons.

  17. Systems development of a stall/spin research facility using remotely controlled/augmented aircraft models. Volume 1: Systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Jai, A. R.; Parker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    A ground based, general purpose, real time, digital control system simulator (CSS) is specified, developed, and integrated with the existing instrumentation van of the testing facility. This CSS is built around a PDP-11/55, and its operational software was developed to meet the dual goal of providing the immediate capability to represent the F-18 drop model control laws and the flexibility for expansion to represent more complex control laws typical of control configured vehicles. Overviews of the two CSS's developed are reviewed as well as the overall system after their integration with the existing facility. Also the latest version of the F-18 drop model control laws (REV D) is described and the changes needed for its incorporation in the digital and analog CSS's are discussed.

  18. Embedding Augmentative Communication within Early Childhood Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia; Banajee, Meher; Stricklin, Sarintha Buras

    2000-01-01

    This article first describes various augmentative communication systems including sign language, picture symbols, and voice output communication devices. It then explains ways to embed augmentative communication within four types of early childhood classroom activities: (1) special or planned activities, (2) meal time, (3) circle time, and (4)…

  19. Information Filtering for Mobile Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Augmented reality is a potentially powerful paradigm for annotating the environment with computer-generated material. These benefits will be even...greater when augmented reality systems become mobile and wearable. However, to minimize the problem of clutter and maximize the effectiveness of the

  20. Information Filtering for Mobile Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-02

    Augmented Reality (AR) has the potential to revolutionise the way in which information is delivered to a user. By tracking the user s position and...on the problem of developing mobile augmented reality systems which can be worn by an individual user operating in a large, complicated environment

  1. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  2. A CT-ultrasound-coregistered augmented reality enhanced image-guided surgery system and its preliminary study on brain-shift estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. H.; Hsieh, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Huang, W. C.; Lee, S. T.; Wu, C. T.; Sun, Y. N.; Wu, Y. T.

    2012-08-01

    With the combined view on the physical space and the medical imaging data, augmented reality (AR) visualization can provide perceptive advantages during image-guided surgery (IGS). However, the imaging data are usually captured before surgery and might be different from the up-to-date one due to natural shift of soft tissues. This study presents an AR-enhanced IGS system which is capable to correct the movement of soft tissues from the pre-operative CT images by using intra-operative ultrasound images. First, with reconstructing 2-D free-hand ultrasound images to 3-D volume data, the system applies a Mutual-Information based registration algorithm to estimate the deformation between pre-operative and intra-operative ultrasound images. The estimated deformation transform describes the movement of soft tissues and is then applied to the pre-operative CT images which provide high-resolution anatomical information. As a result, the system thus displays the fusion of the corrected CT images or the real-time 2-D ultrasound images with the patient in the physical space through a head mounted display device, providing an immersive augmented-reality environment. For the performance validation of the proposed system, a brain phantom was utilized to simulate brain-shift scenario. Experimental results reveal that when the shift of an artificial tumor is from 5mm ~ 12mm, the correction rates can be improved from 32% ~ 45% to 87% ~ 95% by using the proposed system.

  3. Data Distribution for Mobile Augmented Reality in Simulation and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    The Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) is a mobile augmented reality system that displays head-up battlefield intelligence information to a...constraints, we present a robust event-based data distribution mechanism for mobile augmented reality and virtual environments. It is based on replicated...its name, a plan of its interior, icons to represent reported hazard locations, and the names of adjacent streets. The full power of mobile augmented

  4. Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory applied to extended systems. I. Within the projector-augmented-wave formalism using a plane wave basis set.

    PubMed

    Marsman, M; Grüneis, A; Paier, J; Kresse, G

    2009-05-14

    We present an implementation of the canonical formulation of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory within the projector-augmented-wave method under periodic boundary conditions using a plane wave basis set. To demonstrate the accuracy of our approach we show that our result for the atomization energy of a LiH molecule at the Hartree-Fock+MP2 level is in excellent agreement with well converged Gaussian-type-orbital calculations. To establish the feasibility of employing MP2 perturbation theory in its canonical form to systems that are periodic in three dimensions we calculated the cohesive energy of bulk LiH.

  5. Augmented-reality visualization of brain structures with stereo and kinetic depth cues: system description and initial evaluation with head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Sauer, Frank; Hu, Bo; Bascle, Benedicte; Geiger, Bernhard; Wenzel, Fabian; Recchi, Filippo; Rohlfing, Torsten; Brown, Christopher R.; Bakos, Robert J.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Bani-Hashemi, Ali R.

    2001-05-01

    We are developing a video see-through head-mounted display (HMD) augmented reality (AR) system for image-guided neurosurgical planning and navigation. The surgeon wears a HMD that presents him with the augmented stereo view. The HMD is custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture a stereo view of the real-world scene. We are concentrating specifically at this point on cranial neurosurgery, so the images will be of the patient's head. A third video camera, operating in the near infrared, is also attached to the HMD and is used for head tracking. The pose (i.e., position and orientation) of the HMD is used to determine where to overlay anatomic structures segmented from preoperative tomographic images (e.g., CT, MR) on the intraoperative video images. Two SGI 540 Visual Workstation computers process the three video streams and render the augmented stereo views for display on the HMD. The AR system operates in real time at 30 frames/sec with a temporal latency of about three frames (100 ms) and zero relative lag between the virtual objects and the real-world scene. For an initial evaluation of the system, we created AR images using a head phantom with actual internal anatomic structures (segmented from CT and MR scans of a patient) realistically positioned inside the phantom. When using shaded renderings, many users had difficulty appreciating overlaid brain structures as being inside the head. When using wire frames, and texture-mapped dot patterns, most users correctly visualized brain anatomy as being internal and could generally appreciate spatial relationships among various objects. The 3D perception of these structures is based on both stereoscopic depth cues and kinetic depth cues, with the user looking at the head phantom from varying positions. The perception of the augmented visualization is natural and convincing. The brain structures appear rigidly anchored in the head, manifesting little or no apparent swimming or jitter. The initial

  6. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  8. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.

  9. Initial clinical experience with a novel vertebral augmentation system for treatment of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures: A case series of 26 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat vertebral compression fractures although procedural polymethylmethacrylate cement leakage remains common. We report herein our initial experience with a novel vertebral augmentation technique designed to treat symptomatic vertebral osteoporotic fractures and osteolytic metastases with minimal cement extravasation. Methods Forty-two vertebral fractures were identified in 26 consecutive patients (mean age 74 ± 9 years). All patients were treated with a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation device (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Indications for surgery included recent (≤ 3 months) symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fracture (n = 34) and pathologic vertebral fractures (e.g. metabolic bone disease, myeloma, metastasis) (n = 8) located between T10 and S1. Patient outcomes were evaluated pre-treatment and at 2- and 6-month follow-up visits. Postoperative cement extravasation was assessed with computed tomography. Patient-reported back pain was quantified using an 11-point numeric scale. Back-specific functional disability was self-reported with the Oswestry Disability Index on a 0 to 100% scale. Results No cases of intraoperative hypotension, respiratory disturbance, neurological deterioration, infection, or death were observed. There were 2 (4.8%) levels where anterior cement leakage was visible radiographically in patients with osteolyses. No intracanal leakage was observed. Back pain scores improved 71% (p < 0.001) from pre-treatment to the 6-month follow-up. Back function improved 56% from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions The initial clinical experience with the Kiva® System demonstrated significant improvements in back pain and function with minimal and clinically insignificant procedural cement leakage. PMID:21939548

  10. On the ionospheric impact of recent storm events on satellite-based augmentation systems in middle and low-latitude sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Sparks, Lawrence; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Pi, Xiaoqing

    2003-01-01

    The Ionospheric correction algorithms have been characterized extensively for the mid-latitude region of the ionosphere where benign conditions usually exist. The United States Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) for civil aircraft navigation is focused primarily on the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Other Satellite-based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) include the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) and the Japanese Global Navigation Satellite System (MSAS). Researchers are facing a more serious challenge in addressing the ionospheric impact on navigation using SBAS in other parts of the world such as the South American region on India. At equatorial latitudes, geophysical conditions lead to the so-called Appleton-Hartree (equatorial) anomaly phenomenon, which results in significantly larger ionospheric range delays and range delay spatial gradients than is observed in the CONUS or European sectors. In this paper, we use GPS measurements of geomagnetic storm days to perform a quantitative assessment of WAAS-type ionospheric correction algorithms in other parts of the world such as the low-latitude Brazil and mid-latitude Europe. For the study, we access a world-wide network of 400+ dual frequency GPS receivers.

  11. On the ionospheric impact of recent storm events on satellite-based augmentation systems in middle and low-latitude sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Sparks, Lawrence; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Pi, Xiaoqing

    2003-01-01

    The Ionospheric correction algorithms have been characterized extensively for the mid-latitude region of the ionosphere where benign conditions usually exist. The United States Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) for civil aircraft navigation is focused primarily on the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Other Satellite-based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) include the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) and the Japanese Global Navigation Satellite System (MSAS). Researchers are facing a more serious challenge in addressing the ionospheric impact on navigation using SBAS in other parts of the world such as the South American region on India. At equatorial latitudes, geophysical conditions lead to the so-called Appleton-Hartree (equatorial) anomaly phenomenon, which results in significantly larger ionospheric range delays and range delay spatial gradients than is observed in the CONUS or European sectors. In this paper, we use GPS measurements of geomagnetic storm days to perform a quantitative assessment of WAAS-type ionospheric correction algorithms in other parts of the world such as the low-latitude Brazil and mid-latitude Europe. For the study, we access a world-wide network of 400+ dual frequency GPS receivers.

  12. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  13. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  14. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  15. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  16. Photon management for augmented photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Dinh, Cao Thang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sinton, David

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are some of nature's finest examples of solar energy conversion systems, effortlessly transforming inorganic carbon into complex molecules through photosynthesis. The efficiency of energy-dense hydrocarbon production by photosynthetic organisms is determined in part by the light collected by the microorganisms. Therefore, optical engineering has the potential to increase the productivity of algae cultivation systems used for industrial-scale biofuel synthesis. Herein, we explore and report emerging and promising material science and engineering innovations for augmenting microalgal photosynthesis.

  17. Augment railgun and sequential discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.

  18. Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.

  19. Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.

  20. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  1. Concepts and analysis for Milsatcom augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Keith D.; Davis, John C.

    1992-03-01

    An account is given of the options being considered by the USAF Space Systems Division to meet emerging operational requirements; these options encompass polar coverage for intelligence-gathering and tactical-augmentation coverage, using satellites that can be launched by either existing or planned launch vehicles smaller than Titan IV. Attention is presently given to the terminal and mission-control aspects of these concepts. The augmentation options are intended to facilitate triservice, operational theater-wide services. The communications services needed for augmentation are primarily data lines trunked together. Integrated simulation is the essential means to successful system development.

  2. Connectome and molecular pharmacological differences in the dopaminergic system in restless legs syndrome (RLS): plastic changes and neuroadaptations that may contribute to augmentation.

    PubMed

    Earley, Christopher J; Uhl, George R; Clemens, Stefan; Ferré, Sergi

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is primarily treated with levodopa and dopaminergics that target the inhibitory dopamine receptor subtypes D3 and D2. The initial success of this therapy led to the idea of a hypodopaminergic state as the mechanism underlying RLS. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest that this simplified concept of a reduced dopamine function as the basis of RLS is incomplete. Moreover, long-term medication with the D2/D3 agonists leads to a reversal of the initial benefits of dopamine agonists and augmentation, which is a worsening of symptoms under therapy. The recent findings on the state of the dopamine system in RLS that support the notion that a dysfunction in the dopamine system may in fact induce a hyperdopaminergic state are summarized. On the basis of these data, the concept of a dynamic nature of the dopamine effects in a circadian context is presented. The possible interactions of cell adhesion molecules expressed by the dopaminergic systems and their possible effects on RLS and augmentation are discussed. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate a significantly increased risk for RLS in populations with genomic variants of the cell adhesion molecule receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD), and PTPRD is abundantly expressed by dopamine neurons. PTPRD may play a role in the reconfiguration of neural circuits, including shaping the interplay of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) homomers and heteromers that mediate dopaminergic modulation. Recent animal model data support the concept that interactions between functionally distinct dopamine receptor subtypes can reshape behavioral outcomes and change with normal aging. Additionally, long-term activation of one dopamine receptor subtype can increase the receptor expression of a different receptor subtype with opposite modulatory actions. Such dopamine receptor interactions at both spinal and supraspinal levels appear to play important roles in RLS. In addition, these

  3. Motion simulator study of longitudinal stability requirements for large delta wing transport airplanes during approach and landing with stability augmentation systems failed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Fry, E. B.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Forrest, R. D.; Scott, B. C.; Benefield, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A ground-based simulator investigation was conducted in preparation for and correlation with an-flight simulator program. The objective of these studies was to define minimum acceptable levels of static longitudinal stability for landing approach following stability augmentation systems failures. The airworthiness authorities are presently attempting to establish the requirements for civil transports with only the backup flight control system operating. Using a baseline configuration representative of a large delta wing transport, 20 different configurations, many representing negative static margins, were assessed by three research test pilots in 33 hours of piloted operation. Verification of the baseline model to be used in the TIFS experiment was provided by computed and piloted comparisons with a well-validated reference airplane simulation. Pilot comments and ratings are included, as well as preliminary tracking performance and workload data.

  4. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  5. Augmented reality building operations tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  8. The effectiveness of grammar instruction for individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication systems: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Shelley K; Light, Janice

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an instructional program designed to teach grammar skills to individuals who communicated via augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A single-subject, multiple probe across behaviors design was used to measure the effect of the instructional program on the acquisition and maintenance of the skills learned. Two adults with cerebral palsy participated in the study. The instructional program was used to teach 2 grammatical forms to each participant. Word order in adjective phrases and inversion of the auxiliary do in wh- questions was targeted for 1 participant; use of possessive pronouns and inclusion of to when using infinitives as modal verbs was targeted for the second participant. The instructional program was shown to be effective. Both participants learned to produce the grammatical forms taught. One participant maintained these skills for at least 2 months after the completion of instruction; the other participant required additional instruction in order to maintain the skills learned. Although based on a small sample, the results suggest that intervention can help individuals who use AAC improve their grammar skills. Limitations of the study are discussed, along with directions for future research.

  9. Augmented railgun using a permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.; Eguchi, N.; Sueda, T.; Soejima, M.; Maeda, S.; Sato, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    The use of a permanent magnet instead of an electromagnet has been proposed for the augmentation of the magnetic field of a railgun driven by a current of approximately 20 kA. A permanent magnet has the following advantages in comparison with conventional augmentations using additional turns: (1) simple configuration of the system, (2) temporally and spatially constant magnetic fields, and (3) high efficiency. Here, the operation of a conventional railgun and that of an augmented railgun using a permanent magnet are compared experimentally, and the usefulness of the permanent magnet is described. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100009.htm Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  11. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100205.htm Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  12. Ten-fold augmentation of endothelial uptake of vascular endothelial growth factor with ultrasound after systemic administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Wong, J.; Griffin, B.; Ellis, S. G.; Porter, T.; Sen, S.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the feasibility of delivering and enhancing the uptake of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the intact endothelium by using ultrasound (US) facilitation was determined. BACKGROUND: A limitation of tissue-targeted drug delivery is the need for direct arterial cannulation. We postulate a mechanism by which agents injected intravenously may be targeted to a tissue using US and ultrasonic contrast agents. METHODS: We used a rat model to test the ability of US and an ultrasonic contrast agent perflurocarbon exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) to increase uptake of VEGF in the myocardium. Continuous wave Doppler US (0.6 W/cm2 at 1 MHz for 15 min) was applied to the chest wall overlying the myocardium during intravenous injection with either VEGF (100 microg/kg) alone or a combination of VEGF and PESDA (0.1%). Control rats had VEGF infused without US or PESDA. The VEGF uptake was measured quantitatively in the heart, lung, liver and kidneys by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ng/g of tissue) and morphologically by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: There was an eight-fold increase in VEGF uptake in the heart by US alone (16.86 +/- 1.56 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.953 ng/g of tissue, p < 0.0001) and a 13-fold increase with US + PESDA (26.78 +/- 2.88 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.953 ng/g of tissue, p < 0.0001) compared with control rats. Fluorescence microscopy revealed deposition of VEGF in the endothelium of small intramyocardial arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a marked increase in endothelial VEGF uptake with US and US + PESDA. Thus, US may be used to augment endothelial VEGF uptake 10-fold to 13-fold.

  13. Ten-fold augmentation of endothelial uptake of vascular endothelial growth factor with ultrasound after systemic administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Wong, J.; Griffin, B.; Ellis, S. G.; Porter, T.; Sen, S.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the feasibility of delivering and enhancing the uptake of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the intact endothelium by using ultrasound (US) facilitation was determined. BACKGROUND: A limitation of tissue-targeted drug delivery is the need for direct arterial cannulation. We postulate a mechanism by which agents injected intravenously may be targeted to a tissue using US and ultrasonic contrast agents. METHODS: We used a rat model to test the ability of US and an ultrasonic contrast agent perflurocarbon exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) to increase uptake of VEGF in the myocardium. Continuous wave Doppler US (0.6 W/cm2 at 1 MHz for 15 min) was applied to the chest wall overlying the myocardium during intravenous injection with either VEGF (100 microg/kg) alone or a combination of VEGF and PESDA (0.1%). Control rats had VEGF infused without US or PESDA. The VEGF uptake was measured quantitatively in the heart, lung, liver and kidneys by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ng/g of tissue) and morphologically by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: There was an eight-fold increase in VEGF uptake in the heart by US alone (16.86 +/- 1.56 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.953 ng/g of tissue, p < 0.0001) and a 13-fold increase with US + PESDA (26.78 +/- 2.88 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.953 ng/g of tissue, p < 0.0001) compared with control rats. Fluorescence microscopy revealed deposition of VEGF in the endothelium of small intramyocardial arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a marked increase in endothelial VEGF uptake with US and US + PESDA. Thus, US may be used to augment endothelial VEGF uptake 10-fold to 13-fold.

  14. Augmented reality and training for airway management procedures.

    PubMed

    Davis, Larry; Ha, Yonggang; Frolich, Seth; Martin, Glenn; Meyer, Catherine; Pettitt, Beth; Norfleet, Jack; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Rolland, Jannick P

    2002-01-01

    Augmented reality is often used for interactive, three-dimensional visualization within the medical community. To this end, we present the integration of an augmented reality system that will be used to train military medics in airway management. The system demonstrates how a head-mounted projective display can be integrated with a desktop PC to create an augmented reality visualization. Furthermore, the system, which uses a lightweight optical tracker, demonstrates the low cost and the portability of the application.

  15. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  16. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  17. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V. . Physics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 {minus} {phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system.

  18. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  19. Feasibility of a responsive, hybrid propulsion augmented, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.

    1996-03-01

    A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named HYP-SSTO, is presented in this paper. This launch vehicle system concept uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, with a hybrid auxiliary propulsion system which is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. By using a hybrid propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing, this launch system concept has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LOX/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. Because hybrid propulsion systems are relatively simple and inert by their nature, this concept has the potential to support short turnaround times between launches, be economical to develop, and be competitive in terms of overall system life-cycle cost. This paper provides a technical description of the novel, reusable HYP-SSTO launch system concept. Launch capability performance, as well as major design and operational system attributes, are identified and discussed.

  20. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation is a well-known technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduce by the extra conductors required. It is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1-{phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system. Additions to the electrical system are required to establish the shunt current and to control its magnitude during projectile acceleration. The relationship between muzzle shunt augmentation and conventional series augmentation is developed and various techniques is developed and various techniques for establishing and controlling the shunt current are illustrated with a practical example. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) v5: Augmentations, Motivations, and Directions for Aeronautics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    As automation and advanced technologies are introduced into transport systems ranging from the Next Generation Air Transportation System termed NextGen, to the advanced surface transportation systems as exemplified by the Intelligent Transportations Systems, to future systems designed for space exploration, there is an increased need to validly predict how the future systems will be vulnerable to error given the demands imposed by the assistive technologies. One formalized approach to study the impact of assistive technologies on the human operator in a safe and non-obtrusive manner is through the use of human performance models (HPMs). HPMs play an integral role when complex human-system designs are proposed, developed, and tested. One HPM tool termed the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is a NASA Ames Research Center HPM software tool that has been applied to predict human-system performance in various domains since 1986. MIDAS is a dynamic, integrated HPM and simulation environment that facilitates the design, visualization, and computational evaluation of complex man-machine system concepts in simulated operational environments. The paper will discuss a range of aviation specific applications including an approach used to model human error for NASA s Aviation Safety Program, and what-if analyses to evaluate flight deck technologies for NextGen operations. This chapter will culminate by raising two challenges for the field of predictive HPMs for complex human-system designs that evaluate assistive technologies: that of (1) model transparency and (2) model validation.

  2. Development and Flight Test of an Augmented Thrust-Only Flight Control System on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Pappas, Drew

    1996-01-01

    An emergency flight control system using only engine thrust, called Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA), has been developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. In this thrust-only control system, pilot flight path and track commands and aircraft feedback parameters are used to control the throttles. The PCA system was installed on the MD-11 airplane using software modifications to existing computers. Flight test results show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds and altitudes. The PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any non-nal flight controls have been demonstrated, including instrument landing system-coupled hands-off landings. The PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. In addition, PCA was tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control; describes the MD-11 airplane and systems; and discusses PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  3. Functional Reflective Polarizer for Augmented Reality and Color Vision Deficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-03

    Functional reflective polarizer for augmented reality and color vision deficiency Ruidong Zhu, Guanjun Tan, Jiamin Yuan, and Shin-Tson Wu* College...polarizer that can be incorporated into a compact augmented reality system. The design principle of the functional reflective polarizer is explained and...augment reality system is relatively high as compared to a polarizing beam splitter or a conventional reflective polarizer. Such a functional reflective

  4. A meta-analysis of single case research studies on aided augmentative and alternative communication systems with individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L; Heath, Amy K; Parker, Richard I; Rispoli, Mandy J; Duran, Jaime B

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single case research on the use of aided AAC with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four single-case studies were analyzed via an effect size measure, the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD). Three research questions were investigated concerning the overall impact of AAC interventions on targeted behavioral outcomes, effects of AAC interventions on individual targeted behavioral outcomes, and effects of three types of AAC interventions. Results indicated that, overall, aided AAC interventions had large effects on targeted behavioral outcomes in individuals with ASD. AAC interventions had positive effects on all of the targeted behavioral outcome; however, effects were greater for communication skills than other categories of skills. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System and speech-generating devices were larger than those for other picture-based systems, though picture-based systems did have small effects.

  5. The MEDIGATE graphical user interface for entry of physical findings: design principles and implementation. Medical Examination Direct Iconic and Graphic Augmented Text Entry System.

    PubMed

    Yoder, J W; Schultz, D F; Williams, B T

    1998-10-01

    The solution to many of the problems of the computer-based recording of the medical record has been elusive, largely due to difficulties in the capture of those data elements that comprise the records of the Present Illness and of the Physical Findings. Reliable input of data has proven to be more complex than originally envisioned by early work in the field. This has led to more research and development into better data collection protocols and easy to use human-computer interfaces as support tools. The Medical Examination Direct Iconic and Graphic Augmented Text Entry System (MEDIGATE System) is a computer enhanced interactive graphic and textual record of the findings from physical examinations designed to provide ease of user input and to support organization and processing of the data characterizing these findings. The primary design objective of the MEDIGATE System is to develop and evaluate different interface designs for recording observations from the physical examination in an attempt to overcome some of the deficiencies in this major component of the individual record of health and illness.

  6. A robust data fusion scheme for integrated navigation systems employing fault detection methodology augmented with fuzzy adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushaq, Muhammad; Fang, Jiancheng

    2013-10-01

    Integrated navigation systems for various applications, generally employs the centralized Kalman filter (CKF) wherein all measured sensor data are communicated to a single central Kalman filter. The advantage of CKF is that there is a minimal loss of information and high precision under benign conditions. But CKF may suffer computational overloading, and poor fault tolerance. The alternative is the federated Kalman filter (FKF) wherein the local estimates can deliver optimal or suboptimal state estimate as per certain information fusion criterion. FKF has enhanced throughput and multiple level fault detection capability. The Standard CKF or FKF require that the system noise and the measurement noise are zero-mean and Gaussian. Moreover it is assumed that covariance of system and measurement noises remain constant. But if the theoretical and actual statistical features employed in Kalman filter are not compatible, the Kalman filter does not render satisfactory solutions and divergence problems also occur. To resolve such problems, in this paper, an adaptive Kalman filter scheme strengthened with fuzzy inference system (FIS) is employed to adapt the statistical features of contributing sensors, online, in the light of real system dynamics and varying measurement noises. The excessive faults are detected and isolated by employing Chi Square test method. As a case study, the presented scheme has been implemented on Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) integrated with the Celestial Navigation System (CNS), GPS and Doppler radar using FKF. Collectively the overall system can be termed as SINS/CNS/GPS/Doppler integrated navigation system. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the presented scheme with significantly enhanced precision, reliability and fault tolerance. Effectiveness of the scheme has been tested against simulated abnormal errors/noises during different time segments of flight. It is believed that the presented scheme can be

  7. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system for electric utility peak load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak load power plant dependence on petroleum based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal fired fluidized bed combustor/compressed air energy storage systems was performed and is described.

  8. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  9. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  10. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  11. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J.; Fields, Ryan C.; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging.

  12. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    B. Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J.; Fields, Ryan C.; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging. PMID:26179014

  13. Loss of ZNF32 augments the regeneration of nervous lateral line system through negative regulation of SOX2 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuyan; Li, Kai; Yao, Shaohua; Gao, Junping; Li, Jun; Shang, Yanna; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Le; Li, Yanyan; Mo, Xianming; Meng, Wentong; Xiang, Rong; Hu, Jiankun; Lin, Ping; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Human zinc finger protein 32 (ZNF32) is a Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cell fate, yet much of its function remains unknown. Here, we reveal that the zebrafish ZNF32 homologue zfZNF32 is expressed in the nervous system, particularly in the lateral line system. ZfZNF32 knock-out zebrafish (zfZNF−/−) were generated using the CRISPR-associated protein 9 system. We found that the regenerative capacity of the lateral line system was increased in zfZNF−/− upon hair cell damage compared with the wild type. Moreover, SOX2 was essential for the zfZNF32-dependent modulation of lateral line system regeneration. Mechanistic studies showed that ZNF32 suppressed SOX2 transcription by directly binding to a consensus sequence (5′-gcattt-32) in the SOX2 promoter. In addition, ZNF32 localizes to the nucleus, and we have identified that amino acids 1-169 (Aa 1-169) and each of three independent nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in ZNF32 are indispensable for ZNF32 nuclear trafficking. Mutating the NLSs disrupted the inhibitory effect of ZNF32 in SOX2 expression, highlighting the critical role of the NLSs in ZNF32 function. Our findings reveal a pivotal role for ZNF32 function in SOX2 expression and regeneration regulation. PMID:27626680

  14. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  15. Optimizing indoor illumination quality and energy efficiency using a spectrally tunable lighting system to augment natural daylight.

    PubMed

    Hertog, W; Llenas, A; Carreras, J

    2015-11-30

    This article demonstrates the benefits of complementing a daylight-lit environment with a spectrally tunable illumination system. The spectral components of daylight present in the room are measured by a low-cost miniature spectrophotometer and processed through a number of optimization algorithms, carefully trading color fidelity for energy efficiency. Spectrally-tunable luminaires provide only those wavelengths that ensure that either the final illumination spectrum inside the room is kept constant or carefully follows the dynamic spectral pattern of natural daylight. Analyzing the measured data proves that such a hybrid illumination system brings both unprecendented illumination quality and significant energy savings.

  16. Liquid-liquid phase separation in atmospheric aerosol particles: dependence on organic functionalities and mixture complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Zuend, A.; Peter, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the troposphere, aerosol particles undergo phase transitions such as deliquescence and efflorescence during humidity cycles (Marcolli and Krieger, 2006). In addition, interactions between organic and inorganic compounds lead to liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) (Ciobanu et al., 2009). Recent studies on a limited number of model systems have shown that oxygen-to-carbon ratios (O:C) of the organic aerosol fraction might be a good predictor for LLPS in mixed organic/ammonium sulfate (AS) particles (Bertram et al., 2011; Song et al., 2011). However, in order to corroborate this hypothesis experiments with an organic fraction that consists of a higher number of components with different O:C ratios and functional groups are needed. In order to determine the influence of O:C ratio, the specific organic functionalities and the mixture complexity on LLPS, we subjected organic/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate to relative humidity (RH) cycles and observed phase changes using optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. To determine the influence of mixture complexity, we mixed together up to 10 organic compounds. We also prepared mixtures that were rich in different types of functional groups like polyols, aromatics and dicarboxylic acids which were identified from field measurements. We screened for a miscibility gap by varying the organic-to-inorganic ratio from 2:1 to 1:6. AS in the investigated single particles effloresced at 27 - 50 %RH and deliquesced at 72 - 79 %RH during humidity cycles. The occurrence of LLPS is determined to a high degree by the O:C of the organics: there was no LLPS for mixtures with O:C > 0.8 and there was always LLPS for mixtures with O:C < 0.57. In the range in between, we observed a dependence on the specific functional groups: a high share of aromatic functionalities shifts the range of O:C for which LLPS occurs to lower values. A correlation was also found for the onset RH of LLPS as a function of O

  17. A failure effects simulation of a low authority flight control augmentation system on a UH-1H helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, L. D.; Talbot, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    A two-pilot moving base simulator experiment was conducted to assess the effects of servo failures of a flight control system on the transient dynamics of a Bell UH-1H helicopter. The flight control hardware considered was part of the V/STOLAND system built with control authorities of from 20-40%. Servo hardover and oscillatory failures were simulated in each control axis. Measurements were made to determine the adequacy of the failure monitoring system time delay and the servo center and lock time constant, the pilot reaction times, and the altitude and attitude excursions of the helicopter at hover and 60 knots. Safe recoveries were made from all failures under VFR conditions. Pilot reaction times were from 0.5 to 0.75 sec. Reduction of monitor delay times below these values resulted in significantly reduced excursion envelopes. A subsequent flight test was conducted on a UH-1H helicopter with the V/STOLAND system installed. Series servo hardovers were introduced in hover and at 60 knots straight and level. Data from these tests are included for comparison.

  18. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  19. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  20. An augmented dopamine system function is present prior to puberty in the methylazoxymethanol acetate rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease typically associated with an adolescent onset. Although there have been a considerable number of imaging studies investigating the transition to psychosis in prodromal patients, there are relatively few preclinical studies examining potential mechanisms that may contribute to adolescent onset. We have previously demonstrated, in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model of schizophrenia, that an enhanced activity within the ventral hippocampus may underlie the dopamine system hyperfunction, suggested to contribute to positive symptoms in patients. Here we demonstrate that the aberrant regulation of dopamine system function, in MAM-treated rats, is present prior to puberty. Furthermore, we now report that while the afferent regulation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons (from the hippocampus and pedunculopontine tegmental area) appears intact in preadolescent rats, the behavioral response to alterations in dopamine system function appears to be attenuated in preadolescent rats. Thus, we posit that the pathological alterations underlying psychosis may be present prior to symptom onset and that the "normal" development of the postsynaptic side of the dopamine system may underlie the transition to psychosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline.

  2. Mobile-health approach: a critical look on its capacity to augment health system of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Singh, Jai Vir

    2014-07-01

    The mobile-health approach is currently knocking the doors of public health to make use of this rapidly advancing technology in developing countries; therefore, it needs a critical look on its capacity in improving health system of developing countries. A systematic review of studies in literature published till 31(st) October 2013 of last 10 years on key search word: Capacity of mobile-health in improving health system of developing countries was done from medical search engines abstracting databases such as Pub-med, WHO, Cochrane database, Google scholar, and Bio-med Central. Both types of studies elucidating utility and no benefit of mobile-health in developing countries were included as main criteria for deciding the capacity of mobile-health approach in health system of developing countries. M-health studies on areas of impact, effectiveness, and evaluation and previous reviews, conferences data, and exploratory studies were the main study designs incorporated. Studies on m-health in developed world, Indian studies as well data from thesis or dissertation were excluded in this review. Multi-faceted mobile-health applications, strategies, and approaches currently lack proper regulation and standardization from health care authorities, and currently their results also vary from good to no beneficial effects as found in this review. Umbrella of mobile-health approaches must be used intelligently, keeping in mind the fact that, it can provide a greater access and quality health care to larger segments of a rural population and its potential to improve the capacity of health system in developing countries.

  3. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  4. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, planetary spacecraft, and astronomy, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions are presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Saturn moon exploration with chemical propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion options are discussed. Issues with using in-situ resource utilization on Mercury missions are discussed. At Saturn, the best locations for exploration and the use of the moons Titan and Enceladus as central locations for Saturn moon exploration is assessed.

  5. Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy and brief supportive psychotherapy for augmentation of antidepressant nonresponse in chronic depression: the REVAMP Trial.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, James H; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Klein, Daniel N; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Manber, Rachel; Keller, Martin B; Leon, Andrew C; Wisniewski, Steven R; Arnow, Bruce A; Markowitz, John C; Thase, Michael E

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have found that few chronically depressed patients remit with antidepressant medications alone. To determine the role of adjunctive psychotherapy in the treatment of chronically depressed patients with less than complete response to an initial medication trial. This trial compared 12 weeks of (1) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), (2) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), and (3) continued optimized pharmacotherapy (MEDS) alone. We hypothesized that adding CBASP would produce higher rates of response and remission than adding BSP or continuing MEDS alone. Eight academic sites. Chronically depressed patients with a current DSM-IV-defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years. Phase 1 consisted of open-label, algorithm-guided treatment for 12 weeks based on a history of antidepressant response. Patients not achieving remission received next-step pharmacotherapy options with or without adjunctive psychotherapy (phase 2). Individuals undergoing psychotherapy were randomized to receive either CBASP or BSP stratified by phase 1 response, ie, as nonresponders (NRs) or partial responders (PRs). Proportions of remitters, PRs, and NRs and change on Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores. In all, 808 participants entered phase 1, of which 491 were classified as NRs or PRs and entered phase 2 (200 received CBASP and MEDS, 195 received BSP and MEDS, and 96 received MEDS only). Mean HAM-D scores dropped from 25.9 to 17.7 in NRs and from 15.2 to 9.9 in PRs. No statistically significant differences emerged among the 3 treatment groups in the proportions of phase 2 remission (15.0%), partial response (22.5%), and nonresponse (62.5%) or in changes on HAM-D scores. Although 37.5% of the participants experienced partial response or remitted in phase 2, neither form of adjunctive psychotherapy

  6. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  7. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV+ individuals receiving HAART can be expanded ex vivo to augment systemic and mucosal immunity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Aude G; Casper, Corey; Kuntz, Steve; Zhu, Jia; Tjernlund, Annelie; Diem, Kurt; Turtle, Cameron J; Cigal, Melinda L; Velez, Roxanne; Riddell, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Greenberg, Philip D

    2011-05-19

    Most HIV+ individuals require lifelong highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to suppress HIV replication, but fail to eliminate the virus in part because of residual replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Naturally elicited HIV-specific CD8+ T cells generated in the acute and chronic infectious phases exhibit antiviral activity, but decrease in number after HAART. Therapeutic vaccines represent a potential strategy to expand cellular responses, although previous efforts have been largely unsuccessful, conceivably because of a lack of responding HIV-specific central-memory CD8+ T cells (Tcm). To determine whether patients receiving HAART possess CD8+ T cells with Tcm qualities that are amenable to augmentation, HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell clones were derived from HIV-reactive CD28+CD8+ T-cell lines isolated from 7 HIV+ HAART-treated patients, expanded ex vivo, and reinfused into their autologous host. Tracking of the cells in vivo revealed that clones could persist for ≥ 84 days, maintain expression and/or re-express CD28, up-regulate CD62L, secrete IL-2, proliferate on cognate Ag encounter and localize to the rectal mucosa. These results suggest some infused cells exhibited phenotypic and functional characteristics shared with Tcm in vivo, and imply that more effective therapeutic vaccination strategies targeting CD8+ Tcm in patients on HAART might provide hosts with expanded, long-lasting immune responses not only systemically but also in GALT.

  8. Picture Exchange Communication System and Pals: A Peer-Mediated Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention for Minimally Verbal Preschoolers With Autism.

    PubMed

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Brady, Nancy; McGuff, Sara; Stump, Keenan; Naylor, Amy

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a social intervention that integrates peer-mediated approaches and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Effects were evaluated using a series of A-B designs replicated across 4 children with severe autism and limited verbal skills. Seven peers without disabilities were trained to use PECS and facilitative social skills. Measures of changes included rates of communication behaviors, modes, functions, and engagement. Outcomes revealed an intervention effect for 1 child with autism, and this effect was replicated across 3 other children. All children improved in peer-directed communication, with greater increases for 2 children during snack time. For each child with autism, the primary communication behavior was to initiate with picture symbols to request; the peer's primary communication was to respond. Two children increased communicative functions to comment and to share, and all 4 children showed improved social engagement. All peers increased their communication with the children with autism. These findings add to the limited research on the benefits of teaching typically developing peers to be responsive listeners to preschoolers with autism by learning to use PECS. These results invite further investigation of teaching peers other augmentative and alternative communication approaches and how to increase children's communication with peers for different purposes.

  9. Experimental infection with Haemophilus ducreyi in persons who are infected with HIV does not cause local or augment systemic viral replication.

    PubMed

    Janowicz, Diane M; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Racz, Paul; Humphreys, Tricia L; Schnizlein-Bick, Carol; Fortney, Kate R; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Campbell, James J; Ho, David D; Spinola, Stanley M

    2007-05-15

    We infected 11 HIV-seropositive volunteers whose CD4(+) cell counts were >350 cells/ microL (7 of whom were receiving antiretrovirals) with Haemophilus ducreyi. The papule and pustule formation rates were similar to those observed in HIV-seronegative historical control subjects. No subject experienced a sustained change in CD4(+) cell count or HIV RNA level. The cellular infiltrate in biopsy samples obtained from the HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects did not differ with respect to the percentage of leukocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, or T cells. The CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in biopsy samples from the HIV-seropositive subjects was 1:3, the inverse of the ratio seen in the HIV-seronegative subjects (P<.0001). Although CD4(+) cells proliferated in lesions, in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for HIV RNA was negative. We conclude that experimental infection in HIV-seropositive persons is clinically similar to infection in HIV-seronegative persons and does not cause local or augment systemic viral replication. Thus, prompt treatment of chancroid may abrogate increases in viral replication associated with natural disease.

  10. Widening horizons through alternative and augmentative communication systems for managing children with special health care needs in a pediatric dental setup.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navneet; Sethi, Tanvi; Grewal, Sukrit

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and evaluated the efficacy of conventional low-tech and improvised high-tech alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) software in behavior management in the dental environment and oral hygiene activities performance of children with special health care needs as well as improving their communication skills with the dentist and caretakers. A total of 60 institutionalized children with special health care needs were divided into two groups of 30 each to be exposed to low-tech AAC and high-tech AAC systems (special smiles for special children material). Assessment of knowledge as well as behavior modification achieved before and after training was carried out on the basis of pretested proformas formatted through various peer reviewed articles. Rapid and enhanced assimilation of knowledge was observed in group 2 exposed to high-tech AAC improvised software after intergroup comparison of total scores at baseline, first, second, third, sixth, and ninth month of training. Oral hygiene performance was compared using PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) index and after training results revealed highly significant change in both groups. The subjects benefitted immensely from the programme as group 1 and group 2 children demonstrated good behavior after training compared to none at baseline. On the whole, this programme had a positive motivational impact. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The design of a solar energy collection system to augment heating and cooling for a commercial office building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basford, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical studies supported by experimental testing indicate that solar energy can be utilized to heat and cool commercial buildings. In a 50,000 square foot one-story office building at the Langley Research Center, 15,000 square feet of solar collectors are designed to provide the energy required to supply 79 percent of the building heating needs and 52 percent of its cooling needs. The experience gained from the space program is providing the technology base for this project. Included are some of the analytical studies made to make the building design changes necessary to utilize solar energy, the basic solar collector design, collector efficiencies, and the integrated system design.

  12. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Adam S; van Praag, Henriette; Santistevan, Nicholas; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal

    2011-06-24

    The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles, our findings define a functional

  13. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

  14. Ocean observer study: A proposed national asset to augment the future U.S. operational satellite system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, J.D.; Chambers, D.; Davis, C.O.; Gerber, A.; Helz, R.; McGuire, J.P.; Pichel, W.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of U.S. polar orbiting environmental satellites, are now under development. These satellites, jointly developed by the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Commerce (DOC), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), will be known as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). It is expected that the first of these satellites will be launched in 2010. NPOESS has been designed to meet the operational needs of the U.S. civilian meteorological, environmental, climatic, and space environmental remote sensing programs, and the Global Military Space and Geophysical Environmental remote sewing programs. This system, however, did not meet all the needs of the user community interested in operational oceanography (particularly in coastal regions). Beginning in the fall of 2000, the Integrated Program Office (IPO), a joint DoD, DOC, and NASA office responsible for the NPOESS development, initiated the Ocean Observer Study (OOS). The purpose of this study was to assess and recommend how best to measure the missing or inadequately sampled ocean parameters. This paper summarizes the ocean measurement requirements documented in the OOS, describes the national need to measure these parameters, and describes the satellite instrumentation required to make those measurements.

  15. Impaired parasympathetic augmentation under relaxation in patients with depression as assessed by a novel non-contact microwave radar system.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takemi; Kakisaka, Kota; Shinba, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    In order to conduct objective screening of major depressive disorder (MDD), a chair-based system was developed which measures alteration of parasympathetic activation induced by relaxing audio-visual exposure in a non-contact way using dual compact-radars attached to a chair back. The system determines autonomic activation by calculating low (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of heart rate variability (HRV) before and after relaxation. Forty-one subjects (28 normal subjects, 13 MDD subjects) were exposed to relaxing natural sounds and images for 10 min. In order to determine the possibility of MDD from autonomic alteration induced by relaxing, linear discriminant analysis was conducted using LF and HF before and after relaxation. F-test revealed the significance of derived linear discriminant function (p < 0.001). The Mahalanobis distance and U value were 3.2 and 0.89, respectively. The derived linear discriminant function achieved 85% sensitivity (11 out of 13 MDD patients) and 89% specificity (25 out of 28 normal subjects).

  16. A full-field and real-time 3D surface imaging augmented DOT system for in-vivo small animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven X.; Yang, Bingcheng; Yin, Gongjie

    2010-02-01

    A crucial parameter in Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is the construction of an accurate forward model, which greatly depends on tissue boundary. Since photon propagation is a three-dimensional volumetric problem, extraction and subsequent modeling of three-dimensional boundaries is essential. Original experimental demonstration of the feasibility of DOT to reconstruct absorbers, scatterers and fluorochromes used phantoms or tissues confined appropriately to conform to easily modeled geometries such as a slab or a cylinder. In later years several methods have been developed to model photon propagation through diffuse media with complex boundaries using numerical solutions of the diffusion or transport equation (finite elements or differences) or more recently analytical methods based on the tangent-plane method . While optical examinations performed simultaneously with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI provide well-defined boundaries, very limited progress has been done so far in extracting full-field (360 degree) boundaries for in-vivo three-dimensional DOT stand-alone imaging. In this paper, we present a desktop multi-spectrum in-vivo 3D DOT system for small animal imaging. This system is augmented with Technest's full-field 3D cameras. The built system has the capability of acquiring 3D object surface profiles in real time and registering 3D boundary with diffuse tomography. Extensive experiments are performed on phantoms and small animals by our collaborators at the Center for Molecular Imaging Research (CMIR) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School. Data has shown successful reconstructed DOT data with improved accuracy.

  17. Biomechanics in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Wang, X; Zeng, Y; Wu, W

    2005-01-01

    During the past 6 years, we have treated 406 patients with classical silicone augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation were examined. We have proposed that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. In order to improve our operation and prove our hypothesis, we performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 cases with satisfactory results. In order to determine scientifically which layer the silicone implant should be inserted into, we investigated the biomechanics of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation characters under uniaxial tension. Although having less failure strain, the periosteum has more tensile strength than the fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher and stiffer than the fascia, thus is more suitable for covering silicone implants.

  18. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In references 1 through 9, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. Figures 1 depicts program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system which included lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon. Figures 2 and 3 present the results for human Mercury missions, including LEO departure masses and round trip Mercury lander masses. Using in-situ resources, the missions become less burdensome to the LEO launch infrastructure. In one example using Mercury derived hydrogen, the LEO mass of the human Mercury missions can be reduced from 2,800 MT to 1,140 MT (Ref. 15). Additional analyses of staging options for human Mercury missions will be presented. Figures 4 shows an option for thermal control for long term in-space cryogenic storage and Figure 5 depicts the potentially deleterious elements emanating from Mercury that must be addressed, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented will be presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Human bases at Mercury may have to be resupplied from resources from regolith and water resources in permanently shadowed craters at its northern pole.

  19. Batten augmented triangular beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.

  20. Event-Based Data Distribution for Mobile Augmented Reality and Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    demonstrated in the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) situation awareness system, composed of several mobile augmented reality systems, immersive...connectivity and their bandwidth can be highly constrained. This paper presents a robust event-based data distribution mechanism for mobile augmented ... reality and virtual environments. It is based on replicated databases, pluggable networking protocols, and communication channels. The mechanism is