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Sample records for aureofaciens strain tx-1

  1. Altering the Ratio of Phenazines in Pseudomonas chlororaphis (aureofaciens) Strain 30-84: Effects on Biofilm Formation and Pathogen Inhibition▿

    PubMed Central

    Maddula, V. S. R. K.; Pierson, E. A.; Pierson, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 30-84 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that is able to control take-all disease of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The production of phenazines (PZs) by strain 30-84 is the primary mechanism of pathogen inhibition and contributes to the persistence of strain 30-84 in the rhizosphere. PZ production is regulated in part by the PhzR/PhzI quorum-sensing (QS) system. Previous flow cell analyses demonstrated that QS and PZs are involved in biofilm formation in P. chlororaphis (V. S. R. K. Maddula, Z. Zhang, E. A. Pierson, and L. S. Pierson III, Microb. Ecol. 52:289-301, 2006). P. chlororaphis produces mainly two PZs, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2-hydroxy-PCA (2-OH-PCA). In the present study, we examined the effect of altering the ratio of PZs produced by P. chlororaphis on biofilm formation and pathogen inhibition. As part of this study, we generated derivatives of strain 30-84 that produced only PCA or overproduced 2-OH-PCA. Using flow cell assays, we found that these PZ-altered derivatives of strain 30-84 differed from the wild type in initial attachment, mature biofilm architecture, and dispersal from biofilms. For example, increased 2-OH-PCA production promoted initial attachment and altered the three-dimensional structure of the mature biofilm relative to the wild type. Additionally, both alterations promoted thicker biofilm development and lowered dispersal rates compared to the wild type. The PZ-altered derivatives of strain 30-84 also differed in their ability to inhibit the fungal pathogen G. graminis var. tritici. Loss of 2-OH-PCA resulted in a significant reduction in the inhibition of G. graminis var. tritici. Our findings suggest that alterations in the ratios of antibiotic secondary metabolites synthesized by an organism may have complex and wide-ranging effects on its biology. PMID:18263718

  2. phzO, a Gene for Biosynthesis of 2-Hydroxylated Phenazine Compounds in Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Shannon M.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Certain strains of root-colonizing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. produce phenazines, a class of antifungal metabolites that can provide protection against various soilborne root pathogens. Despite the fact that the phenazine biosynthetic locus is highly conserved among fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., individual strains differ in the range of phenazine compounds they produce. This study focuses on the ability of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 to produce 2-hydroxyphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA) and 2-hydroxyphenazine from the common phenazine metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). P. aureofaciens 30-84 contains a novel gene located downstream from the core phenazine operon that encodes a 55-kDa aromatic monooxygenase responsible for the hydroxylation of PCA to produce 2-OH-PCA. Knowledge of the genes responsible for phenazine product specificity could ultimately reveal ways to manipulate organisms to produce multiple phenazines or novel phenazines not previously described. PMID:11114932

  3. Mutation of a LysR-Type Regulator of Antifungal Activity Results in a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase Phenotype in Pseudomonas aureofaciens PA147-2

    PubMed Central

    Silby, Mark W.; Giddens, Stephen R.; Mahanty, H. Khris

    2005-01-01

    The growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype was shown to be present in two mutants lacking the antifungal phenotype (Af− mutants) of Pseudomonas aureofaciens PA147-2. Complementation demonstrated a correlation between GASP and the antifungal defect in one strain but not in the second. Sequence analysis revealed the Af− GASP strain had a mutation in a gene (finR) encoding a LysR-type regulator. Antifungal-minus mutants arose in starved cultures, and those aged cultures had increased fitness. Taken together, the results show that there are at least two paths to the GASP phenotype in P. aureofaciens, one of which results in a concomitant loss of the antifungal phenotype. PMID:15640239

  4. Proton Testing of nVidia Jetson TX1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Single-Event Effects (SEE) testing was conducted on the nVidia Jetson TX1 System on Chip (SOC); herein referred to as device under test (DUT). Testing was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospitals (MGH) Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center on October 16th, 2016 using 200MeV protons. This testing trip was purposed to provide a baseline assessment of the radiation susceptibility of the DUT as no previous testing had been conducted on this component.

  5. Analysis of the site-specific integration system of the Streptomyces aureofaciens phage μ1/6.

    PubMed

    Farkašovská, Jarmila; Godány, Andrej

    2012-03-01

    The bacteriophage μ1/6 integrates its DNA into the chromosome of tetracycline producing strains of Streptomyces aureofaciens by a site-specific recombination process. A bioinformatic analysis of the μ1/6 genome revealed that orf5 encodes a putative integrase, a basic protein of 416 amino acids. The μ1/6 integrase was found to belong to the integrase family of site-specific tyrosine recombinases. The phage attachment site (attP) was localized downstream of the int gene. The attachment junctions (attL and attR) were determined, allowing identification of the bacterial attachment site (attB). All attachment sites shared a 46-bp common core sequence within which a site-specific recombination occurs. This core sequence comprises the 3' end of a putative tRNA(Thr) gene (anticodon TGT) which is completely restored in attL after integration of the phage into the host genome. An integration vector containing μ1/6 int-attP region was inserted stably into the S. aureofaciens B96, S. lividans TK24, and S. coelicolor A3. The μ1/6 integrase was shown to be functional in vivo in heterologous Escherichia coli without any other factors encoded by Streptomyces. In vitro recombination assay using purified μ1/6 integrase demonstrated its ability to catalyze integrative recombination in the presence of a crude extract of E. coli cells.

  6. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur isotopic change during heterotrophic (Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and autotrophic (Thiobacillus denitrificans) denitrification reactions.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Lin, In-Tian; Shimada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    In batch culture experiments, we examined the isotopic change of nitrogen in nitrate (δ(15)NNO3), carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)CDIC), and sulfur in sulfate (δ(34)SSO4) during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification of two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Thiobacillus denitrificans). Heterotrophic denitrification (HD) experiments were conducted with trisodium citrate as electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification (AD) experiments were carried out with iron disulfide (FeS2) as electron donor. For heterotrophic denitrification experiments, a complete nitrate reduction was accomplished, however bacterial denitrification with T. denitrificans is a slow process in which, after seventy days nitrate was reduced to 40% of the initial concentration by denitrification. In the HD experiment, systematic change of δ(13)CDIC (from -7.7‰ to -12.2‰) with increase of DIC was observed during denitrification (enrichment factor εN was -4.7‰), suggesting the contribution of C of trisodium citrate (δ(13)C=-12.4‰). No SO4(2-) and δ(34)SSO4 changes were observed. In the AD experiment, clear fractionation of δ(13)CDIC during DIC consumption (εC=-7.8‰) and δ(34)SSO4 during sulfur use of FeS2-S (around 2‰), were confirmed through denitrification (εN=-12.5‰). Different pattern in isotopic change between HD and AD obtained on laboratory-scale are useful to recognize the type of denitrification occurring in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AaTX1, from Androctonus australis scorpion venom: purification, synthesis and characterization in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Mlayah-Bellalouna, Saoussen; Dufour, Martial; Mabrouk, Kamel; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Carlier, Edmond; Othman, Houcemeddine; Belghazi, Maya; Tarbe, Marion; Goaillard, Jean Marc; Gigmes, Didier; Seagar, Michael; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Debanne, Dominique; Srairi-Abid, Najet

    2014-12-15

    We have purified the AaTX1 peptide from the Androctonus australis (Aa) scorpion venom, previously cloned and sequenced by Legros and collaborators in a venom gland cDNA library from Aa scorpion. AaTX1 belongs to the α-Ktx15 scorpion toxins family (αKTx15-4). Characterized members of this family share high sequence similarity and were found to block preferentially IA-type voltage-dependent K(+) currents in rat cerebellum granular cells in an irreversible way. In the current work, we studied the effects of native AaTX1 (nAaTX1) using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of IA current in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons. At 250 nM, AaTX1 induces 90% decrease in IA current amplitude. Its activity was found to be comparable to that of rAmmTX3 (αKTx15-3), which differs by only one conserved (R/K) amino acid in the 19th position suggesting that the difference between R19 and K19 in AaTX1 and AmmTX3, respectively, may not be critical for the toxins' effects. Molecular docking of both toxins with Kv4.3 channel is in agreement with experimental data and suggests the implication of the functional dyade K27-Y36 in toxin-channel interactions. Since AaTX1 is not highly abundant in Aa venom, it was synthesized as well as AmmTX3. Synthetic peptides, native AaTX1 and rAmmTX3 peptides showed qualitatively the same pharmacological activity. Overall, these data identify a new biologically active toxin that belongs to a family of peptides active on Kv4.3 channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Second Quorum-Sensing System Regulates Cell Surface Properties but Not Phenazine Antibiotic Production in Pseudomonas aureofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongge; Pierson, Leland S.

    2001-01-01

    The root-associated biological control bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 produces a range of exoproducts, including protease and phenazines. Phenazine antibiotic biosynthesis by phzXYFABCD is regulated in part by the PhzR-PhzI quorum-sensing system. Mutants defective in phzR or phzI produce very low levels of phenazines but wild-type levels of exoprotease. In the present study, a second genomic region of strain 30-84 was identified that, when present in trans, increased β-galactosidase activity in a genomic phzB::lacZ reporter and partially restored phenazine production to a phzR mutant. Sequence analysis identified two adjacent genes, csaR and csaI, that encode members of the LuxR-LuxI family of regulatory proteins. No putative promoter region is present upstream of the csaI start codon and no lux box-like element was found in either the csaR promoter or the 30-bp intergenic region between csaR and csaI. Both the PhzR-PhzI and CsaR-CsaI systems are regulated by the GacS-GacA two-component regulatory system. In contrast to the multicopy effects of csaR and csaI in trans, a genomic csaR mutant (30-84R2) and a csaI mutant (30-84I2) did not exhibit altered phenazine production in vitro or in situ, indicating that the CsaR-CsaI system is not involved in phenazine regulation in strain 30-84. Both mutants also produced wild-type levels of protease. However, disruption of both csaI and phzI or both csaR and phzR eliminated both phenazine and protease production completely. Thus, the two quorum-sensing systems do not interact for phenazine regulation but do interact for protease regulation. Additionally, the CsaI N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal was not recognized by the phenazine AHL reporter 30-84I/Z but was recognized by the AHL reporters Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136(pCF240). Inactivation of csaR resulted in a smooth mucoid colony phenotype and formation of cell aggregates in broth, suggesting that CsaR is involved in

  9. A γ-butyrolactone autoregulator-receptor system involved in the regulation of auricin production in Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239.

    PubMed

    Mingyar, Erik; Feckova, Lubomira; Novakova, Renata; Bekeova, Carmen; Kormanec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The γ-butyrolactone (GBL) autoregulator-receptor systems play a role in controlling secondary metabolism and/or morphological differentiation in many Streptomyces species. We previously identified the aur1 gene cluster, located on the Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239 large linear plasmid pSA3239, which is responsible for the production of the angucycline antibiotic auricin. Here, we describe the characterisation of two genes, sagA and sagR, encoding GBL autoregulatory signalling homologues, which lie in the upstream part of the aur1 cluster. SagA was similar to GBL synthases and SagR to GBL receptors. The expression of each gene is directed by its own promoter, sagAp for sagA and sagRp for sagR. Both genes were active mainly during the exponential phase, and their transcription was interdependent. The disruption of sagA abolished auricin production, while the disruption of sagR resulted in precocious but dramatically reduced auricin production. Transcription from the aur1Pp and aur1Rp promoters, which direct the expression of auricin-specific cluster-situated regulators (CSRs), was also precocious and increased in the sagR mutant strain. In addition, SagR was also shown to specifically bind both promoters in vitro. These results indicated that the SagA-SagR GBL system regulates auricin production. Unlike many other GBL receptors, SagR does not bind its own promoter, but Aur1R, an auricin-specific repressor from the family of pseudo GBL receptors, does bind both sagAp and sagRp promoters. Moreover, the expression of both promoters was deregulated in an aur1R mutant, indicating that the SagA-SagR GBL system is regulated by a feedback mechanism involving the auricin-specific CSR Aur1R, which regulates downstream.

  10. Negative Cross-Communication among Wheat Rhizosphere Bacteria: Effect on Antibiotic Production by the Biological Control Bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84

    PubMed Central

    Morello, J. E.; Pierson, E. A.; Pierson, L. S.

    2004-01-01

    Phenazine antibiotic production in the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 is regulated in part via the PhzR/PhzI N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) system. Previous work showed that a subpopulation of the wheat rhizosphere community positively affected phenazine gene expression in strain 30-84 via AHL signals (E. A. Pierson, D. W. Wood, J. A. Cannon, F. M. Blachere, and L. S. Pierson III, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 11:1078-1084, 1998). In the present work, a second subpopulation, one that negatively affected phenazine gene expression, was identified from this rhizosphere community. Strain 30-84 grown in conditioned medium (CM) from several strains produced lower levels of phenazines (1.5- to 9.3-fold) than control when grown in CM from the strain 30-84I1/I2. Growth of the phzB::lacZ reporter strain 30-84Z in this CM resulted in decreased lacZ expression (4.3- to 9.2-fold) compared to growth of the control strain in CM, indicating that inhibition of phzB occurred at the level of gene expression. Preliminary chemical and biological characterizations suggested that these signals, unlike other identified negative signals, were not extractable in ethyl acetate. Introduction of extra copies of phzR and phzI, but not phzI alone, in trans into strain 30-84Z reduced the negative effect on phzB::lacZ expression. The presence of negative-signal-producing strains in a mixture with strain 30-84 reduced strain 30-84's ability to inhibit the take-all disease pathogen in vitro. Together, the results from the previous work on the positive-signal subpopulation and the present work on the negative-signal subpopulation suggest that cross-communication among members of the rhizosphere community and strain 30-84 may control secondary metabolite production and pathogen inhibition. PMID:15128573

  11. On the use of Jetson TX1 board for parallel hyperspectral compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, José M. P.; Martin, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging instruments measure hundreds of spectral bands (at different wavelength channels) for the same area of the surface of the Earth. Typically the data cube collected by these sensors comprises several GBs per flight, which have attracted attention to on-board techniques for compression. Typically these compression techniques are expensive from the computational point of view. Due to this fact, a number of Compressive Sensing and Random Projection techniques have raised as an alternative to reduce the signal size on-board the sensor. The measuring process of these techniques usually consist on performing dot products between the signal and random vectors. The Compressive Sensing process is performed directly in the optic system, however, in this paper, we propose to perform the random projection measurement process on a low power consumption Graphic Processing Unit. The experiments are conducted on a Jetson TX1 board, which is well suited to perform vector operations such as dot products. These experiments have been performed to demonstrate the applicability, in terms of accuracy and time consuming, of these methods for onboard processing. The results show that by using this low power consumption GPU is it possible to obtain real-time performance with a very limited power requirement.

  12. A Novel Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent 2-Keto-d-Glucose Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Kiwamu; Takeda, Kouta; Ishida, Takuya; Sunagawa, Naoki; Makabe, Akiko; Isobe, Kazuo; Koba, Keisuke; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Samejima, Masahiro; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Igarashi, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    A gene encoding an enzyme similar to a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent sugar dehydrogenase from filamentous fungi, which belongs to new auxiliary activities (AA) family 12 in the CAZy database, was cloned from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned enzyme showed only low homology to previously characterized PQQ-dependent enzymes, and multiple-sequence alignment analysis showed that the enzyme lacks one of the three conserved arginine residues that function as PQQ-binding residues in known PQQ-dependent enzymes. The recombinant enzyme was heterologously expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system for further characterization. The UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum of the oxidized form of the holoenzyme, prepared by incubating the apoenzyme with PQQ and CaCl2, revealed a broad peak at approximately 350 nm, indicating that the enzyme binds PQQ. With the addition of 2-keto-d-glucose (2KG) to the holoenzyme solution, a sharp peak appeared at 331 nm, attributed to the reduction of PQQ bound to the enzyme, whereas no effect was observed upon 2KG addition to authentic PQQ. Enzymatic assay showed that the recombinant enzyme specifically reacted with 2KG in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, such as 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, when PQQ and CaCl2 were added. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis of reaction products revealed 2-keto-d-gluconic acid (2KGA) as the main product, clearly indicating that the recombinant enzyme oxidizes the C-1 position of 2KG. Therefore, the enzyme was identified as a PQQ-dependent 2KG dehydrogenase (Pa2KGDH). Considering the high substrate specificity, the physiological function of Pa2KGDH may be for production of 2KGA. PMID:25645559

  13. Enabling Noninvasive Systemic Delivery of the Kv1.3-Blocking Peptide HsTX1[R14A] via the Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; Larson, Ian C; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The peptide HsTX1[R14A] is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3, a well-recognized therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. To overcome the poor oral absorption and consequent need for regular injections, the potential of the buccal mucosa for systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] was investigated. For in vitro studies, FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A], in solution or formulated in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w), were applied to porcine buccal epithelium mounted between Ussing chambers and buccal mucosal permeation assessed. HsTX1[R14A] was also administered to Swiss outbred mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg in the same formulations. In vitro, administration of FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A] in the chitosan gel containing cetrimide resulted in detectable buccal permeation with 0.75% and 0.58%, respectively, of the applied dose appearing in the receptor chamber over 5 h. After buccal administration to mice, HsTX1[R14A] was detected in plasma, with the presence of cetrimide in the gel further enhancing plasma exposure, with area under the plasma concentration-time curve values of 77.9 ± 9.7 and 31.0 ± 2.3 nM·h, respectively. The buccal mucosa is a promising alternative administration route for the systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M. Harunur; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Chhabra, Sandeep; Khoo, Keith K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael W.; Beeton, Christine; Kuyucak, Serdar; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-03-01

    HsTX1 toxin, from the scorpion Heterometrus spinnifer, is a 34-residue, C-terminally amidated peptide cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. Here we describe new HsTX1 analogues with an Ala, Phe, Val or Abu substitution at position 14. Complexes of HsTX1 with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 were created using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, then umbrella sampling simulations were performed to construct the potential of mean force (PMF) of the ligand and calculate the corresponding binding free energy for the most stable configuration. The PMF method predicted that the R14A mutation in HsTX1 would yield a > 2 kcal/mol gain for the Kv1.3/Kv1.1 selectivity free energy relative to the wild-type peptide. Functional assays confirmed the predicted selectivity gain for HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14Abu], with an affinity for Kv1.3 in the low picomolar range and a selectivity of more than 2,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. This remarkable potency and selectivity for Kv1.3, which is significantly up-regulated in activated effector memory cells in humans, suggest that these analogues represent valuable leads in the development of therapeutics for autoimmune diseases.

  15. ASIC2a overexpression enhances the protective effect of PcTx1 and APETx2 against acidosis-induced articular chondrocyte apoptosis and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ren-Peng; Ni, Wen-Lin; Dai, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Sen; Xie, Ya-Ya; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Wei-Jie; Ge, Jin-Fang; Hu, Wei; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2018-02-05

    Acid hydrarthrosis is another important pathological character in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) plays a destructive role in acidosis-induced articular chondrocyte cytotoxicity. Recently, ASIC2a has been reported to possess neuroprotective effect on acidosis-induced injury of neuronal cells. However, whether ASIC2a has an enhanced effect on the protective effect of blocking ASIC1a and ASIC3 against acid-induced chondrocyte apoptosis is still unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the chondroprotective effect of ASIC2a with PcTx1 (ASIC1a specific blocker) and APETx2 (ASIC3 specific blocker) on acidosis-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. Our results revealed that acid (pH 6.0) decreased the cell viability and induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. PcTx1 and APETx2 combination significantly attenuated acidosis-induced chondrocyte cytotoxicity due to inhibit apoptosis, and this role could be enhanced by ASIC2a overexpression compared with the PcTx1 and APETx2 combination alone group. Moreover, both the [Ca 2+ ] i levels and the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 as well as p38 were further reduced in acidosis-induced chondrocytes after ASIC2a overexpression in the presence of PcTx1 and APETx2. Furthermore, ASIC2a overexpression also reduced acid-induced the expression of ASIC1a. In addition, ASIC2a overexpression further promoted the PcTx1 and APETx2-increased levels of type II collagen in acidosis-induced chondrocytes. Taken together, the current data suggested that ASIC2a overexpression might enhance the anti-apoptotic and protective role of PcTx1 and APETx2 against acid-induced rat articular chondrocyte apoptosis by regulating ASIC1a expression and the [Ca 2+ ] i levels and at least in part, suppressing p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analgesic Effects of GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 in a Mouse Model of NaV1.7-Mediated Pain.

    PubMed

    Deuis, Jennifer R; Wingerd, Joshua S; Winter, Zoltan; Durek, Thomas; Dekan, Zoltan; Sousa, Silmara R; Zimmermann, Katharina; Hoffmann, Tali; Weidner, Christian; Nassar, Mohammed A; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J; Vetter, Irina

    2016-03-17

    Loss-of-function mutations of Na(V)1.7 lead to congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare condition resulting in individuals who are otherwise normal except for the inability to sense pain, making pharmacological inhibition of Na(V)1.7 a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. We characterized a novel mouse model of Na(V)1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of the scorpion toxin OD1, which is suitable for rapid in vivo profiling of Na(V)1.7 inhibitors. Intraplantar injection of OD1 caused spontaneous pain behaviors, which were reversed by co-injection with Na(V)1.7 inhibitors and significantly reduced in Na(V)1.7(-/-) mice. To validate the use of the model for profiling Na(V)1.7 inhibitors, we determined the Na(V) selectivity and tested the efficacy of the reported Na(V)1.7 inhibitors GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 (raxatrigine). GpTx-1 selectively inhibited Na(V)1.7 and was effective when co-administered with OD1, but lacked efficacy when delivered systemically. PF-04856264 state-dependently and selectively inhibited Na(V)1.7 and significantly reduced OD1-induced spontaneous pain when delivered locally and systemically. CNV1014802 state-dependently, but non-selectively, inhibited Na(V) channels and was only effective in the OD1 model when delivered systemically. Our novel model of Na(V)1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of OD1 is thus suitable for the rapid in vivo characterization of the analgesic efficacy of Na(V)1.7 inhibitors.

  17. Analgesic Effects of GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 in a Mouse Model of NaV1.7-Mediated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Deuis, Jennifer R.; Wingerd, Joshua S.; Winter, Zoltan; Durek, Thomas; Dekan, Zoltan; Sousa, Silmara R.; Zimmermann, Katharina; Hoffmann, Tali; Weidner, Christian; Nassar, Mohammed A.; Alewood, Paul F.; Lewis, Richard J.; Vetter, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of NaV1.7 lead to congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare condition resulting in individuals who are otherwise normal except for the inability to sense pain, making pharmacological inhibition of NaV1.7 a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. We characterized a novel mouse model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of the scorpion toxin OD1, which is suitable for rapid in vivo profiling of NaV1.7 inhibitors. Intraplantar injection of OD1 caused spontaneous pain behaviors, which were reversed by co-injection with NaV1.7 inhibitors and significantly reduced in NaV1.7−/− mice. To validate the use of the model for profiling NaV1.7 inhibitors, we determined the NaV selectivity and tested the efficacy of the reported NaV1.7 inhibitors GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 (raxatrigine). GpTx-1 selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and was effective when co-administered with OD1, but lacked efficacy when delivered systemically. PF-04856264 state-dependently and selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and significantly reduced OD1-induced spontaneous pain when delivered locally and systemically. CNV1014802 state-dependently, but non-selectively, inhibited NaV channels and was only effective in the OD1 model when delivered systemically. Our novel model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of OD1 is thus suitable for the rapid in vivo characterization of the analgesic efficacy of NaV1.7 inhibitors. PMID:26999206

  18. [Possibility of the spectral analysis of heterogeneous biological systems. The determination of the mycelium concentration of Actinomyces aureofaciens, a producer of tetracycline, cultured on a medium with corn meal].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Iu N; Slugina, M D; Makarevich, V G; Telegin, N L

    1979-03-01

    A possibility of using spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection in the IR region for analysis of the heterogenic system consisting of the microorganisms and plant cells is discussed. The method of spectroscopy is proposed for estimating the mycelium concentration of Act. aureofaciens producing tetracycline in the presence of corn meal in the medium. The experimental data confirming this possibility are presented. The peculiar properties of the spectral analysis under these particular conditions are discussed. It is supposed that the method may be used for analysis of heterogenous systems including other microorganisms.

  19. Combination of Ambiguous and Unambiguous Data in the Restraint-driven Docking of Flexible Peptides with HADDOCK: The Binding of the Spider Toxin PcTx1 to the Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) 1a.

    PubMed

    Deplazes, Evelyne; Davies, Josephine; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; King, Glenn F; Mark, Alan E

    2016-01-25

    Peptides that bind to ion channels have attracted much interest as potential lead molecules for the development of new drugs and insecticides. However, the structure determination of large peptide-channel complexes using experimental methods is challenging. Thus structural models are often derived from combining experimental information with restraint-driven docking approaches. Using the complex formed by the venom peptide PcTx1 and the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a as a case study, we have examined the effect of different combinations of restraints and input structures on the statistical likelihood of (a) correctly predicting the structure of the binding interface and (b) the ability to predict which residues are involved in specific pairwise peptide-channel interactions. For this, we have analyzed over 200,000 water-refined docked structures obtained with various amounts and types of restraints of the peptide-channel complex predicted using the docking program HADDOCK. We found that increasing the number of restraints or even the use of pairwise interaction data resulted in only a modest improvement in the likelihood of finding a structure within a given accuracy. This suggests that shape complementarity and the force field make a large contribution to the accuracy of the predicted structure. The results also showed that there are large variations in the accuracy of the predicted structure depending on the precise combination of residues used as restraints. Finally, we reflect on the limitations of relying on geometric criteria such as root-mean square deviations to assess the accuracy of docking procedures. We propose that in addition to currently used measures, the likelihood of finding a structure within a given level of accuracy should be also used to evaluate docking methods.

  20. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  1. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  2. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  3. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  4. LC-MS/MS Detection of Karlotoxins Reveals New Variants in Strains of the Marine Dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum from the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bernd; Busch, Julia A.; García-Camacho, Francisco; Sánchez-Mirón, Asterio; Gallardo-Rodríguez, Juan J.; López-Rosales, Lorenzo; Andree, Karl B.; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Witt, Matthias; Place, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the detection and quantitation of karlotoxins in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This novel method was based upon the analysis of purified karlotoxins (KcTx-1, KmTx-2, 44-oxo-KmTx-2, KmTx-5), one amphidinol (AM-18), and unpurified extracts of bulk cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum strain CCMP2936 from Delaware (Eastern USA), which produces KmTx-1 and KmTx-3. The limit of detection of the SRM method for KmTx-2 was determined as 2.5 ng on-column. Collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of all putative karlotoxins were recorded to present fragmentation patterns of each compound for their unambiguous identification. Bulk cultures of K. veneficum strain K10 isolated from an embayment of the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, yielded five previously unreported putative karlotoxins with molecular masses 1280, 1298, 1332, 1356, and 1400 Da, and similar fragments to KmTx-5. Analysis of several isolates of K. veneficum from the Ebro Delta revealed small-scale diversity in the karlotoxin spectrum in that one isolate from Fangar Bay produced KmTx-5, whereas the five putative novel karlotoxins were found among several isolates from nearby, but hydrographically distinct Alfacs Bay. Application of this LC-MS/MS method represents an incremental advance in the determination of putative karlotoxins, particularly in the absence of a complete spectrum of purified analytical standards of known specific potency. PMID:29258236

  5. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  6. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  7. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strains and Sprains Print Strains are injuries to muscle due to overstretching, while sprains involve a stretch or a partial tear of ligaments (which connect two bones) or tendons (which connect muscle to bone). Sprains and strains happen more often ...

  8. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  9. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  10. Order parameter texture transition in superfluid 3He-B in strained aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. M.; Li, J. I. A.; Halperin, W. P.

    The introduction of anisotropic impurity scattering into superfluid 3He using high porosity silica aerogel has proven to be a fruitful method of engineering both the phase and the order parameter texture of the superfluid. We have observed an abrupt transition between two orthogonal order parameter textures at a temperature Tx ~ 1 . 9 mK, in 3He-B confined in aerogel samples with anisotropy induced by mechanical compression along an axis ɛ -->. At this transition the order parameter, characterized by the quantization axis of the orbital angular momentum l& circ;, changes from a configuration with l& circ; ∥ ɛ --> below Tx to l& circ; ⊥ ɛ --> above Tx. This transition is independent of the orientation of ɛ --> relative to the external magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the applied field. This indicates that the textural transition is due to strain alone, with the anisotropic scattering from the aerogel favoring different orientations of l& circ; above and below Tx. Research was supported by the NSF DMR-1103625.

  11. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... and strains Overview Sprains and strains are common injuries that share similar signs and symptoms, but involve different parts of your body. A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments — the tough bands of ...

  12. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Materials were evaluated that could be used in manufacturing electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures at or above 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a characteristic response to strain, temperature and time that is reproducible or that varies in a predictable manner within specified limits. Several metallic alloys were evaluated, as well as a series of transition metal carbides, nitrides and silicides.

  13. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  14. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least onemore » surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.« less

  15. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  16. Epitaxially strained strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegalski, Michael David

    Although SrTiO3 is normally not ferroelectric at any temperature, predictions that predate this thesis based on thermodynamic analysis concluded that a biaxial tensile strain of order 1% would shift the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature (Tc) of SrTiO3 to the vicinity of room temperature. In practice, uniformly straining SrTiO3 or related perovskite ferroelectrics to such strain levels is challenging and hitherto unheard of Nonetheless, using epitaxy and the misfit strain imposed by an underlying substrate, I have strained SrTiO 3 thin films to percent levels---far beyond where they would crack in bulk. Epitaxial ferroelectric films are often grown to thicknesses greatly exceeding their critical values, resulting in undesirable relaxation toward a zero-strain state by the introduction of dislocations. Dislocation densities of ˜1011 cm-2 are common in epitaxial ferroelectric films grown on lattice-mismatched substrates, and the resulting inhomogeneous strain smears out the ferroelectric phase transition. My approach to achieving the desired high strain levels in SrTiO3 films to assess strain predictions made use of new substrates (DyScO3 and GdScO3 ) that enabled the growth of uniformly strained SrTiO3 films below, or at least far closer to, the critical thickness for relaxation. The resulting strained SrTiO3 films have better structural perfection (narrower rocking curve widths) than the best bulk SrTiO3 single crystals. These films have the narrowest rocking curves ever reported for any heteroepeitaxial oxide thin film (6.5 arcsec). Modeling of ferroelectrics under these strain levels predicts dramatic shifts in the transition temperature and enhancement of the polarization. Indeed, in our strained SrTiO3, a ferroelectric state was induced with a Tc near room temperature. These films also exhibit a peak dielectric constant near room temperature of ˜20,000, comparable to that seen at very low temperatures (˜4K) in bulk SrTiO3. Unexpectedly, the

  17. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1985-02-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making same is disclosed wherein a beryllium-copper ring having four strain gages disposed thereon is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of the ring and providing an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A figure is provided which illustrates a pattern of a one-half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium-copper for chem-mill etch formation, prior to bending and welding of a pair of the segments to form a ring structure.

  18. Strained Silicon Photonics

    PubMed Central

    Schriever, Clemens; Bohley, Christian; Schilling, Jörg; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon. PMID:28817015

  19. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the goals of the HOST Program is the development of electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures equal to or greater than 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a reproducible or predictable response to temperature, time and strain. It is the objective of this research to investigate criteria for the selection of materials for such applications through electrical properties studies. The results of the investigation of two groups of materials, refractory compounds and binary alloy solid solutions are presented.

  20. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making the same is disclosed. A beryllium copper ring having four strain gages is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to the output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of a ring which provides an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A photographic pattern of a one half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium copper for chem-mill etch formation is illustrated.

  1. Geodetic Strain Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Sharon; Baxter, Sean C.; Parker, Jay W.; Webb, Frank H.; Owen, Susan E.; Sibthorpe, Anthony J.; Dong, Danan

    2011-01-01

    A geodetic software analysis tool enables the user to analyze 2D crustal strain from geodetic ground motion, and create models of crustal deformation using a graphical interface. Users can use any geodetic measurements of ground motion and derive the 2D crustal strain interactively. This software also provides a forward-modeling tool that calculates a geodetic velocity and strain field for a given fault model, and lets the user compare the modeled strain field with the strain field obtained from the user s data. Users may change parameters on-the-fly and obtain a real-time recalculation of the resulting strain field. Four data products are computed: maximum shear, dilatation, shear angle, and principal components. The current view and data dependencies are processed first. The remaining data products and views are then computed in a round-robin fashion to anticipate view changes. When an analysis or display parameter is changed, the affected data products and views are invalidated and progressively re-displayed as available. This software is designed to facilitate the derivation of the strain fields from the GPS and strain meter data that sample it to facilitate the understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the strain field derivation from continuous GPS (CGPS) and other geodetic data from a variety of tectonic settings, to converge on the "best practices" strain derivation strategy for the Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES) project given the CGPS station distribution in the western U.S., and to provide SESES users with a scientific and educational tool to explore the strain field on their own with user-defined parameters.

  2. Light intensity strain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process is described for the analysis of the strain field of structures subjected to large deformations involving a low modulus substrate having a high modulus, relatively thin coating. The optical properties of transmittance and reflectance are measured for the coated substrate while stressed and unstressed to indicate the strain field for the coated substrate.

  3. Chitinase producing Bt strains

    Treesearch

    Haim B. Gunner; Matthew Zimet; Sarah Berger

    1985-01-01

    Screening of 402 strains of more than 18 varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis showed chitinase to be inducible in virtually every serovar tested. Though the chitinase titre varied among strains, there was a strong correlation between enhanced lethality to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), and an increase in...

  4. Heat strain in cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu; Rissanen, Sirkka

    2006-07-01

    In spite of increased environmental cold stress, heat strain is possible also in a cold environment. The body heat balance depends on three factors: environmental thermal conditions, metabolic heat production and thermal insulation of clothing and other protective garments. As physical exercise may increase metabolic heat production from rest values by ten times or even more, the required thermal insulation of clothing may vary accordingly. However, in most outdoor work, and often in indoor cold work, too, the thermal insulation of clothing is impractical, difficult or impossible to adjust according to the changes in physical activity. This is especially true with whole body covering garments like chemical protective clothing. As a result of this imbalance, heat strain may develop. In cold all the signs of heat strain (core temperature above 38 degrees C, warm or hot thermal sensations, increased cutaneous circulation and sweating) may not be present at the same time. Heat strain in cold may be whole body heat strain or related only to torso or core temperature. Together with heat strain in torso or body core, there can be at the same time even cold strain in peripheral parts and/or superficial layers of the body. In cold environment both the preservation of insulation and facilitation of heat loss are important. Development of clothing design is still needed to allow easy adjustments of thermal insulation.

  5. Candida albicans strain delineation.

    PubMed Central

    Merz, W G

    1990-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major opportunistic pathogen causing a wide spectrum of disease in human beings. Methods for strain delineation of this species to assess or predict virulence or to conduct epidemiologic or pathogenetic investigations have been developed. Although factors associated with virulence have been identified, there is no rapid system to quantitate them in a clinical laboratory. Therefore, many typing methods are based on variable phenotypic characteristics within this species including morphotyping, serotyping, antibiogram, resistogram typing, biotyping, biotyping based on commercial carbon assimilation patterns, enzyme profiles, sensitivity to yeast killer toxins, and typing based on protein variability. Phenotypically defined strains generally do not correlate with the pathogenic potential of a strain with the exception of morphotyping. However, these methods can be useful in epidemiologic investigations; for example, they have revealed that most individuals harbor one strain and that infections are frequently due to an endogenous strain. Problems with these methods usually relate to their discriminatory power. When this is maximized, reproducibility (especially between laboratories) suffers. Recently, methods based on differences in DNA structure (genotyping) for strain delineation have been developed, including electrophoretic karyotyping and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphisms. The development of a computer-assisted data bank and analysis for these genotypic strain delineators will open investigations into the pathogenesis of this infection and permit epidemiologic studies previously not possible with this important human pathogen. PMID:1977511

  6. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, Lisa Marie

    1998-01-01

    A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

  7. Strain gage calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A temporary bonding system for accurately predetermining the individual apparent strain curve characteristics of the gages is used, and subsequently employs a computer to watch the apparent strain curves of the individual gages to determine which gages should be used together on transducers. The temporary bonding system requires a test block on which the gages are temporarily bonded, several thermocouples for monitoring temperature, and a data acquisition system for recording apparent strain data. Initially, a group of strain gages are attached to the test block using a bonding agent that disintegrates at high temperatures. The gages are then wired to an appropriate data acquisition and data, collected throughout a predetermined temperature excursion. Once the data is obtained, the test block is heated until the bonding agent disintegrates freeing the gages from the test block. The gages are then disconnected from the data acquisition system and cleaned, thereby ready for use on transducers.

  8. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sprains? Muscles contract and relax (almost like rubber bands) to help your body move. So a strain ... where your body bends and rotates. Strong, elastic bands of tissue called ligaments hold bones together in ...

  9. Strain Measurement - Unidirectional.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-20

    pressure is used for positioning and clamping. 3.4 Gage Wiring and Protection. Electrical conductors used to transmit signals from the strain gage to the...wires do not introduce significant resistance, cause resistance changes, or generate electrical signals that are not related to the strain gage...reduction, it is often desirable and es- sential for precision work with analog recording systems, to provide for an electrical simulation of known

  10. Photothermal strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-07-01

    Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of cardiovascular disease, but they are difficult to detect with conventional intravascular imaging techniques. Techniques are needed to identify plaque vulnerability based on the presence of lipids in plaque. Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed, which varies with the medium temperature. In TSI, the strain that occurs during tissue temperature change can be used for lipid detection because it has a different tendency depending on the type of tissue. Here, we demonstrate photothermal strain imaging (pTSI) using an intravascular ultrasound catheter. pTSI is performed by slightly and selectively heating lipid using a relatively inexpensive continuous laser source. We applied a speckle-tracking algorithm to US B-mode images for strain calculations. As a result, the strain produced in porcine fat was different from the strain produced in water-bearing gelatin phantom, which made it possible to distinguish the two. This suggests that pTSI could potentially be a way of differentiating lipids in coronary artery.

  11. Strain: Fact or Fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Ramsay's well known textbook "Folding and Fracturing of Rocks" - ... and the 30th anniversary of the rejection of a rather less well known paper entitled "Strain: Fact or Fiction?" submitted by Renée Panozzo to the Journal of Structural Geology. The gist of the paper was simple and straight forward: it was argued that not every fabric that can be observed in deformed rocks is necessarily a measure of the amount of strain the rock incurred. A distinction was made between a general "fabric", i.e., the traceable geometry of grain boundaries, for example, and a so-called "strain fabric", i.e., the model geometry that would result from homogeneously straining an initially isotropic fabric and that would exhibit at least orthorhombic symmetry. To verify if a given fabric was indeed a strain fabric it was therefore suggested to use the SURFOR method (published by Panozzo) and to carry out a so-called strain test, i.e., a check of symmetry, before interpreting the results of a fabric analysis in terms of strain. The problem with the paper was that it was very obviously written out of frustration. The frustration came form having reviewed a number of manuscripts which tried to use the then novel SURFOR method for strain analysis without first checking if the the fabric was a indeed a "strain fabric" or not, and then blaming the SURFOR method for producing ambiguous results. As a result, the paper was not exactly well balanced and carefully thought out. It was considered "interesting but not scholarly" by one of the reviewers and down-right offensive by the second. To tell the truth, however, the paper was not formally rejected. The editor Sue Treagus strongly encouraged Panozzo to revise the paper, ... and 30 years later, I will follow her advise and offer a revised paper as a tribute to John Ramsay. To quote from the original manuscript: "We should be a little more impressed that strain works so well, and less

  12. Strain superlattices in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Kim, Youngseok; Lyding, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Mason, Nadya

    Superlattices have been widely explored to tailor the electronic properties of two-dimensional electron systems. Previous approaches to create superlattices have been limited to periodic potential modulations, either in the form of electrostatic gating or moiré heterostructures. Here we present a new strategy to generate superlattices in 2D materials. We deposit these 2D membranes on a periodic array of dielectric nanospheres, and achieve superlattices with periodic strain modulations. We studied the electronic and magneto-transport properties of strained graphene superlattices, and observed salient features of Dirac point cloning and Hofstadter's butterfly. Furthermore, we were able to tune the transport properties by changing the magnitude of strain in the graphene superlattice. This new degree of freedom provides a novel platform both for fundamental studies of 2D electron correlations and for prospective applications in 2D electronic devices. Y.Z. and N.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ENG-1434147.

  13. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, L.M.

    1998-06-16

    A tool and a method are disclosed for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool. 6 figs.

  14. Radio frequency strain monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor); Holben, Jr., Milford S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A radio frequency strain monitor includes a voltage controlled oscillator for generating an oscillating signal that is input into a propagation path. The propagation path is preferably bonded to the surface of a structure to be monitored and produces a propagated signal. A phase difference between the oscillating and propagated signals is detected and maintained at a substantially constant value which is preferably a multiple of 90.degree. by changing the frequency of the oscillating signal. Any change in frequency of the oscillating signal provides an indication of strain in the structure to which the propagation path is bonded.

  15. The strained state cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behavior of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time reproduces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theories. The possible role of structure topological defects is also mentioned. The conclusion is that SSC is at least as good as the ΛCDM standard cosmology, giving a more intuitive interpretation of the physical nature of the phenomena.

  16. Occupational repetitive strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Stone, W E

    1984-09-01

    The incidence of repetitive strain injuries is rising; they are the most common cause of loss of time from work for women and third most common for men. A detailed history and careful examination are required to determine specifically the muscles and tendons affected by overuse; treatment is directed primarily at avoiding stress to these areas.

  17. Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages,more » as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.« less

  18. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  19. Strain Gage Signal Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    blades and vanes in many engines have been collected, played back and examined. The engine types encompass GE’s stable of turbine engines from the small...aeromechanical engineer . 1.3 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Strain gage signals from vibrating rotor blades and vanes were collected, examined, classified, and generalized...turboprops, to turbojets and to the large high bypass turbofan engines . Test conditions include all the phases that are investigated

  20. Well Conductor Strain Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY OFFICE OF COUNSEL NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIVISION 1176 HOWELL STREET NEWPORT Rl 02841-1708...more particularly to a plurality of Bragg gratings written onto an optical fiber that is integrated into an armored cable wrapped around the well... fiber optic Bragg grating sensors capable of measuring strain. The Bragg gratings are written onto a single optical fiber . The optical fiber is

  1. Strain measurement based battery testing

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  2. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Beck, J A; Lloyd, S; Hafezparast, M; Lennon-Pierce, M; Eppig, J T; Festing, M F; Fisher, E M

    2000-01-01

    The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each other, particularly in the light of available DNA polymorphism data from microsatellite and other markers. We describe the origins and relationships of inbred mouse strains, 90 years after the generation of the first inbred strain. Given the large collection of inbred strains available, and that published information on these strains is incomplete, we propose that all genealogical and genetic data on inbred strains be submitted to a common electronic database to ensure this valuable information resource is preserved and used efficiently.

  3. Compensated High Temperature Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring strain in substrates at high temperatures in which the thermally induced apparent strain is nulled is described. Two gages are used, one active gage and one compensating gage. Both gages are placed on the substrate to be gaged; the active gage is attached such that it responds to mechanical and thermally induced apparent strain while the compensating gage is attached such that it does not respond to mechanical strain and and measures only thermally induced apparent strain. A thermal blanket is placed over the two gages to maintain the gages at the same temperature. The two gages are wired as adjacent arms of a wheatstone bridge which nulls the thermally induced apparent strain giving a true reading of the mechanical strain in the substrate.

  4. Reconstruction of axisymmetric strain distributions via neutron strain tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Brian; Zhang, Shu Yan; Vorster, Wim; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of structural components under a particular set of loading conditions requires knowledge of the residual elastic strain distribution throughout the bulk of these components. Characterising the 3D strain state at any particular point involves the measurement of six independent components which make up the second order strain tensor. Mapping the complete strain distribution throughout large volumes thus presents significant practical challenges. One possible solution to this problem is to reconstruct the 3D variation of strain components using tomographic techniques. The basic principle underpinning this idea is that the multi-component strain tensor can be reconstructed from a redundant set of lower order projection data. Here we demonstrate this fundamental concept for two samples: a shrink fit 'ring-and-plug' sample, and a spray-quenched circular cylinder, both possessing axially symmetric internal strain distribution. We present and contrast different approaches to the strain tomography problem. The methods described here can also be readily applied to high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and represent an important step toward developing the tomographic reconstruction framework for strain tensor distributions of arbitrary complexity. The major benefit of neutron strain tomography is that the incident beam flux is utilised more fully, greatly reducing the data collection times. Using micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detectors, a spatial resolution of the order of 0.1 mm can be achieved [1].

  5. Repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    van Tulder, Maurits; Malmivaara, Antti; Koes, Bart

    2007-05-26

    Repetitive strain injury remains a controversial topic. The term repetitive strain injury includes specific disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon canal syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and tendonitis of the wrist or hand. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of history and clinical examination. Large high-quality studies using newer imaging techniques, such as MRI and ultrasonography are few. Consequently, the role of such imaging in diagnosis of upper limb disorders remains unclear. In many cases, no specific diagnosis can be established and complaints are labelled as non-specific. Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment options for upper limb disorders. Strong evidence for any intervention is scarce and the effect, if any, is mainly short-term pain relief. Exercise is beneficial for non-specific upper limb disorders. Immobilising hand braces and open carpal tunnel surgery release are beneficial for carpal tunnel syndrome, and topical and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections are helpful for lateral epicondylitis. Exercise is probably beneficial for neck pain, as are corticosteroid injections and exercise for shoulder pain. Although upper limb disorders occur frequently in the working population, most trials have not exclusively included a working population or assessed effects on work-related outcomes. Further high-quality trials should aim to include sufficient sample sizes, working populations, and work-related outcomes.

  6. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.

  7. Synchrotron strain mapping: Aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Richard Alexander

    Synchrotroh X-ray strain measurement is a relatively new technique for measuring strain in engineering components. The technique is currently being actively developed by scientists. The long term view is that engineers will use the technique as a routine tool for designing high value or safety critical components. The engineer should be able to simply mount a sample, tell the computer what to measure, press the "go" button and, after some hours of measurement time, be presented with a printed report to take away. This work helps to progress the synchrotron X-ray strain measurement technique towards that goal. This work compares the synchrotron technique against more conventional stress and strain measurement techniques showing that for light alloys (as used in the aerospace industry) the technique is fast, accurate and allows high spatial resolution of the strain field. This work investigates the various difficulties and obstructions faced when using the synchrotron strain measurement technique. Methods to overcome or control these difficulties are proposed and tested. As well as progressing technical developments of synchrotron strain measurement, this work uses the technique to investigate engineering problems of relevance to the aerospace industry. Synchrotron X-ray strain measurement is used to investigate the strain field surrounding an autogenous tungsten inert gas weld made in an Al-2024 alloy plate. The synchrotron strain measurements are used to discriminate between two finite element models of this welded plate. The technique is also used to investigate the strain field surrounding a cold expanded hole. The synchrotron strain measurements are compared favourably with neutron diffraction strain measurements from similar cold expanded hole samples. This work progresses the technical understanding of the synchrotron X-ray strain measurement technique and, by providing examples and comparisons, promotes the use of the technique to the aerospace engineering

  8. Direct Extraction and Amplification of DNA from Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Jack T.; Leung, K.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that describes the direct extraction and purification of DNA from a small soil sample. Also discusses the subsequent amplification of a 343-bp Tn7 transposate A gene fragment (tnsA) from a strain of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 3732RNL11. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  9. Geodetic strain measurements in Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two new geodetic measurements of strain accumulation in the state of Washington for the interval 1972-1979 are reported. Near Seattle the average principal strain rates are 0.07 + or - 0.03 mu strain/yr N19oW and -0.13 + or - 0.02 mu strain/yr N71oE, and near Richland (south central Washington) the average principal strain rates are -0.02 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N36oW and -0.04 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N54oE. Extension is taken as positive, and the uncertainties quoted are standard deviations. A measurement of shear strain accumulation (dilation not determined) in the epoch 1914- 1966 along the north coast of Vancouver Island by the Geodetic Survey of Canada indicates a marginally significant accumulation of right-lateral shear (0.06 + or - 0.03 mu rad/yr) across the plate boundary (N40oW strike). Although there are significant differences in detail, these strain measurements are roughly consistent with a crude dislocation model that represents subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate. The observed accumulation of strain implies that large, shallow, thrust earthquakes should be expected off the coast of Washington and British Columbia. However, this conclusion is not easily reconciled with either observations of elevation change along the Washington coast or the focal mechanism solutions for shallow earthquakes in Washington. -Authors

  10. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    DOEpatents

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  11. Thermal strain imaging: a review

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chi Hyung; Shi, Yan; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Thermal strain imaging (TSI) or temporal strain imaging is an ultrasound application that exploits the temperature dependence of sound speed to create thermal (temporal) strain images. This article provides an overview of the field of TSI for biomedical applications that have appeared in the literature over the past several years. Basic theory in thermal strain is introduced. Two major energy sources appropriate for clinical applications are discussed. Promising biomedical applications are presented throughout the paper, including non-invasive thermometry and tissue characterization. We present some of the limitations and complications of the method. The paper concludes with a discussion of competing technologies. PMID:22866235

  12. Strain in silicon nanowire beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, Ferran; Olsen, Sarah H.; Šiller, Lidija; Bhaskar, Umesh; Pardoen, Thomas; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    In this work, strain in silicon free standing beams loaded in uniaxial tension is experimentally and theoretically investigated for strain values ranging from 0 to 3.6%. The fabrication method allows multiple geometries (and thus strain values) to be processed simultaneously on the same wafer while being studied independently. An excellent agreement of strain determined by two non-destructive characterization techniques, Raman spectroscopy and mechanical displacement using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) markers, is found for all the sample lengths and widths. The measured data also show good agreement with theoretical predictions of strain based upon continuum mechanical considerations, giving validity to both measurement techniques for the entire range of strain values. The dependence of Young's modulus and fracture strain on size has also been analyzed. The Young's modulus is determined using SEM and compared with that obtained by resonance-based methods. Both methods produced a Young's modulus value close to that of bulk silicon with values obtained by resonance-based methods being slightly lower. Fracture strain is analyzed in 40 sets of samples with different beam geometries, yielding values up to 3.6%. The increase in fracture strain with decreasing beam width is compared with previous reports. Finally, the role of the surface on the mechanical properties is analyzed using UV and visible lasers having different penetration depths in silicon. The observed dependence of Raman shift on laser wavelength is used to assess the thermal conductivity of deformed silicon.

  13. Adaptor for Measuring Principal Strains with Tuckerman Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, A E

    1943-01-01

    An adapter is described which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.

  14. Biomechanical strain of goldsmiths.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Paula Emanuela Fernandes; Teixeira, Juliana Vieira Schmidt; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    The work of the goldsmiths consists in the manufacture of jewelry. The piece, be it an earring, bracelet or necklace, is hand-assembled. This task requires precision, skill, kindness and patience. In this work, we make use of tools such as cuticle clippers and rounded tip, beads or precious stones and also pieces of metal. This type of activity requires a biomechanical stress of hands and wrists. In order to quantify the biomechanical stress, we performed a case study to measure the movements performed by an assembly of pieces of jewelry. As method for research, filming was done during assembly of parts to a paste, using a Nikon digital camera, for 1 (one) hour. The film was edited by Kinovea software, and the task was divided into cycles, each cycle corresponds to a complete object. In one cycle, there are four two movements of supination and pronation movements of the forearm. The cycle lasts approximately sixteen seconds, totaling 1800 cycles in eight hours. Despite the effort required of the wrists, the activity shows no complaints from the employees, but this fact does not mischaracterizes the ability of employees to acquire repetitive strain injuries and work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  15. Difference Between Strain and Sprain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Provided in this description of the differences between a strain (damage to the muscle or tendon) and a sprain (damage to the ligament) are definitions of mild, moderate, and severe (first, second, and third degree) strains and sprains. A final caution is given that these are two separate and distinct problems and should be treated as such. (DC)

  16. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  17. Moire strain analysis of paper

    Treesearch

    R. E. Rowlands; P. K. Beasley; D. E. Gunderson

    1983-01-01

    Efficient use of paper products involves using modern aspects of materials science and engineering mechanics. This implies the ability to determine simultaneously different components of strain at multiple locations and under static or dynamic conditions. Although measuring strains in paper has been a topic of interest for over 40 years, present capability remains...

  18. Strain gage system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolleris, G. W.; Mazur, H. J.; Kokoszka, E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine the reliability of various strain gage systems when applied to rotating compressor blades in an aircraft gas turbine engine. A survey of current technology strain gage systems was conducted to provide a basis for selecting candidate systems for evaluation. Testing and evaluation was conducted in an F 100 engine. Sixty strain gage systems of seven different designs were installed on the first and third stages of an F 100 engine fan. Nineteen strain gage failures occurred during 62 hours of engine operation, for a survival rate of 68 percent. Of the failures, 16 occurred at blade-to-disk leadwire jumps (84 percent), two at a leadwire splice (11 percent), and one at a gage splice (5 percent). Effects of erosion, temperature, G-loading, and stress levels are discussed. Results of a post-test analysis of the individual components of each strain gage system are presented.

  19. Partnership dynamics and strain competition.

    PubMed

    Eames, Ken T D

    2006-11-21

    Models of epidemic spread that include partnership dynamics within the host population have demonstrated that finite length partnerships can limit the spread of pathogens. Here the influence of partnerships on strain competition is investigated. A simple epidemic and partnership formation model is used to demonstrate that, in contrast to standard epidemiological models, the constraint introduced by partnerships can influence the success of pathogen strains. When partnership turnover is slow, strains must have a long infectious period in order to persist, a requirement of much less importance when partnership turnover is rapid. By introducing a trade-off between transmission rate and infectious period it is shown that populations with different behaviours can favour different strains. Implications for control measures based on behavioural modifications are discussed, with such measures perhaps leading to the emergence of new strains.

  20. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  1. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications. PMID:27158476

  2. High temperature strain measurement with a resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Fichtel, ED; Mcdaniel, Amos

    1993-01-01

    A PdCr based electrical resistance strain gage was demonstrated in the laboratory to be a viable sensor candidate for static strain measurement at high temperatures. However, difficulties were encountered while transferring the sensor to field applications. This paper is therefore prepared for recognition and resolution of the problems likely to be encountered with PdCr strain gages in field applications. Errors caused by the measurement system, installation technique and lead wire attachment are discussed. The limitations and some considerations related to the temperature compensation technique used for this gage are also addressed.

  3. Radio Frequency (RF) strain monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor); Holben, Milford S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for measuring strain in a structure. In particular, the invention detects strain in parts per million to over ten percent along an entire length (or other dimension) of a structure measuring a few millimeters to several kilometers. By using a propagation path bonded to the structure, the invention is not limited by the signal attenuation characteristics of the structure and thus frequencies in the megahertz to gigahertz range may be used to detect strain in part per million to over ten percent with high precision.

  4. Low TCR nanocomposite strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); Chen, Ximing (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature thin film strain gage sensor capable of functioning at temperatures above 1400.degree. C. The sensor contains a substrate, a nanocomposite film comprised of an indium tin oxide alloy, zinc oxide doped with alumina or other oxide semiconductor and a refractory metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, W, Ir, NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY deposited onto the substrate to form an active strain element. The strain element being responsive to an applied force.

  5. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  6. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  7. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  8. Beryllium strain under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkov, Victor; Yurlov, Alexey; Okinchits, Andrew; Naydanova, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    There are some data (not much) on dynamic characteristics of beryllium that are important, for example, when estimating construction performance at NPP emergencies. A number of data on stress-strain curves, spall strength, shear strength, fracture and structure responses of shock loaded beryllium have obtained in US and Russian laboratories. For today the model description of this complex metal behavior does not have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, thus a wider spectrum of experimental data is required. This work presents data on dynamic compression-test diagrams of Russian beryllium. Experiments are performed using Hopkinson bar method (SHPB). Strain rates were ɛ ˜ 103 s-1.

  9. Strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans from clinical material.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, B; Snell, J J; Lapage, S P

    1977-01-01

    Eleven strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans have been received from among 1106 strains of Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacteria submitted to the National Collection of Type Cultures for computer-assisted identification since 1 January 1972. The strains showed resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents and five of the isolates possibly played a pathogenic role. The biochemical characteristics of these 11 strains were compared with those of three culture collection strains. Images PMID:886012

  10. Bacteriocins and novel bacterial strains.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry is thought to be a significant source of Campylobacter in human disease. We evaluated anti-Campylobacter activity among 365 Bacillus and Paenibacillus isolates from poultry. One novel antagonistic Bacillus circulans and three Paenibacillus polymyxa strains were identified and further studi...

  11. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus–like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Results Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non–conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra–specific comparison are sharp markers of inter–specific evolution: indeed, many events of non–conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. Conclusions The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to

  12. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Giulia; Battaglia, Giovanni; Grossi, Roberto; Pisanti, Nadia; Marangoni, Roberto

    2013-03-20

    Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus-like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non-conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra-specific comparison are sharp markers of inter-specific evolution: indeed, many events of non-conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to infer MGEs also for low coverage genomes

  13. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    PubMed

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  14. Material mechanical characterization method for multiple strains and strain rates

    DOEpatents

    Erdmand, III, Donald L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Simunovic, Srdjan; Wang, Yanli

    2016-01-19

    A specimen for measuring a material under multiple strains and strain rates. The specimen including a body having first and second ends and a gage region disposed between the first and second ends, wherein the body has a central, longitudinal axis passing through the first and second ends. The gage region includes a first gage section and a second gage section, wherein the first gage section defines a first cross-sectional area that is defined by a first plane that extends through the first gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis. The second gage section defines a second cross-sectional area that is defined by a second plane that extends through the second gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis and wherein the first cross-sectional area is different in size than the second cross-sectional area.

  15. Strains

    MedlinePlus

    Pulled muscle ... can include: Pain and difficulty moving the injured muscle Discolored and bruised skin Swelling ... if you still have pain. Rest the pulled muscle for at least a day. If possible, keep ...

  16. Modelling to very high strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, P. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Griera, A.; Evans, L. A.; Wilson, C. J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile strains in shear zones often reach extreme values, resulting in typical structures, such as winged porphyroclasts and several types of shear bands. The numerical simulation of the development of such structures has so far been inhibited by the low maximum strains that numerical models can normally achieve. Typical numerical models collapse at shear strains in the order of one to three. We have implemented a number of new functionalities in the numerical platform "Elle" (Jessell et al. 2001), which significantly increases the amount of strain that can be achieved and simultaneously reduces boundary effects that become increasingly disturbing at higher strain. Constant remeshing, while maintaining the polygonal phase regions, is the first step to avoid collapse of the finite-element grid required by finite-element solvers, such as Basil (Houseman et al. 2008). The second step is to apply a grain-growth routine to the boundaries of polygons that represent phase regions. This way, the development of sharp angles is avoided. A second advantage is that phase regions may merge or become separated (boudinage). Such topological changes are normally not possible in finite element deformation codes. The third step is the use of wrapping vertical model boundaries, with which optimal and unchanging model boundaries are maintained for the application of stress or velocity boundary conditions. The fourth step is to shift the model by a random amount in the vertical direction every time step. This way, the fixed horizontal boundary conditions are applied to different material points within the model every time step. Disturbing boundary effects are thus averaged out over the whole model and not localised to e.g. top and bottom of the model. Reduction of boundary effects has the additional advantage that model can be smaller and, therefore, numerically more efficient. Owing to the combination of these existing and new functionalities it is now possible to simulate the

  17. Anisotropic AC conductivity of strained graphene.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Leyva, M; Naumis, Gerardo G

    2014-03-26

    The density of states and the AC conductivity of graphene under uniform strain are calculated using a new Dirac Hamiltonian that takes into account the main three ingredients that change the electronic properties of strained graphene: the real displacement of the Fermi energy, the reciprocal lattice strain and the changes in the overlap of atomic orbitals. Our simple analytical expressions for the density of states and the AC conductivity generalize previous expressions for uniaxial strain. The results suggest a way to measure the Grüneisen parameter β that appears in any calculation of strained graphene, as well as the emergence of a sort of Hall effect due to shear strain.

  18. Virtual strain gage size study

    DOE PAGES

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2015-09-22

    DIC is a non-linear low-pass spatial filtering operation; whether we consider the effect of the subset and shape function, the strain window used in the strain calculation, of other post-processing of the results, each decision will impact the spatial resolution, of the measurement. More fundamentally, the speckle size limits, the spatial resolution by dictating the smallest possible subset. After this decision the processing settings are controlled by the allowable noise level balanced by possible bias errors created by the data filtering. This article describes a process to determine optimum DIC software settings to determine if the peak displacements or strainsmore » are being found.« less

  19. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  20. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  1. Strain Monitoring of Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litteken, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    , such as tensile testing, fatigue testing, and shear testing, but common measurement techniques cannot be used on fabric. Measuring strain in a material and during a test is a critical parameter for an engineer to monitor the structure during the test and correlate to an analytical model. The ability to measure strain in fabric structures is a challenge for NASA. Foil strain gauges, for example, are commonplace on metallic structures testing, but are extremely difficult to interface with a fabric substrate. New strain measuring techniques need to be developed for use with fabric structures. This paper investigates options for measuring strain in fabric structures for both ground testing and in-space structural health monitoring. It evaluates current commercially available options and outlines development work underway to build custom measurement solutions for NASA's fabric structures.

  2. Design of a strain-gage probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolba, V. M.; Vetter, D. L.

    1969-01-01

    Strain-gage spacer probe uses the deflection of a leaf spring to measure strain in a long, slender beam nondestructively. The selected gage is of the smallest practical size, as thin as possible and yet of a standard type.

  3. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases

  4. Matching of Apparent-Strain Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Strain gages are temporarily bonded to surface of test block. Apparent strain is recorded in excursion to -190 degrees C, and gages are disbonded following heating to elevated temperature. Matching strain gages for cryogenic use has several advantages. Initial accuracy for cryogenic transducers is greatly improved, less apparent-strain correction wire is required and there are smaller errors due to loop data caused by long pieces of correction wire.

  5. Optical Fibers Would Sense Local Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic transducers measure local strains. Includes lead-in and lead-out lengths producing no changes in phase shifts, plus short sensing length in which phase shift is sensitive to strain. Phase shifts in single-mode fibers vary with strains. In alternative version, multiple portions of optical fiber sensitive to strains characteristic of specific vibrational mode of object. Same principle also used with two-mode fiber.

  6. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Webb, Kristen M; Humphreys, Tricia L; Fortney, Kate R; Toh, Evelyn; Tai, Albert; Katz, Samantha S; Pillay, Allan; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Roberts, Sally A; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    Although cutaneous ulcers (CU) in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU) and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin? To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya) and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin. These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  7. Modal strain energies in COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, B. D.; Venkayya, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program was developed to take a NASTRAN output file from a normal modes analysis and calculate the modal strain energies of selected elements. The FORTRAN program can determine the modal strain energies for CROD, CBAR, CELAS, CTRMEM, CQDMEM2, and CSHEAR elements. Modal strain energies are useful in estimating damping in structures.

  8. Transgenic mouse models and prion strains.

    PubMed

    Telling, Glenn C

    2011-01-01

    Here we review the known strain profiles of various prion diseases of animals and humans, and how transgenic mouse models are being used to elucidate basic molecular mechanisms of prion propagation and strain variation and for assessing the zoonotic potential of various animal prion strains.

  9. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Henry O. Everitt, Martin S...technique to measure strain in opaque objects . Experiments were conducted utilizing metamaterials on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets to produce...Strain in Rod ............................................................................................................ 1 2. Object in

  10. Antigenic differentiation of classical swine fever vaccinal strain PAV-250 from other strains, including field strains from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Susana; Correa-Giron, Pablo; Aguilera, Edgar; Colmenares, Germán; Torres, Oscar; Cruz, Tonatiuh; Romero, Andres; Hernandez-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Ciprián, Abel

    2007-10-10

    Twenty-nine classical swine fever virus (CSFv) strains were grown in the PK15 or SK6 cell lines. Antigenic differentiation studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), produced at Lelystad (CDI-DLO), The Netherlands. The monoclonals which were classified numerically as monoclonals 2-13. Epitope map patterns that resulted from the reactivity with McAbs were found to be unrelated to the pathogenicity of the viruses studied. Antigenic determinants were recognized by McAbs 5 and 8, were not detected in some Mexican strains; however, sites for McAb 6 were absent in all strains. The PAV-250 vaccine strain was recognized by all MAbs, except by MAb 6. Furthermore, the Chinese C-S vaccine strain was found to be very similar to the GPE(-) vaccine. None of the studied Mexican vaccines or field strains was found to be similar to the PAV-250 vaccine strain.

  11. Radio-Frequency Strain Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Rogowski, Robert S.; Holben, Milford S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) strain monitor developed to measure lengths of objects. RF waveguide or cable bonded to structure monitored. Propagation of RF signal along waveguide results in phase shift proportional to length of path traveled. Impedance mismatches placed in RF cable at nodes of structure. Records mismatches and detects overall length of line and lengths of intervals between nodes. Used to detect changes in elements of large structure with single cable. Monitor has potential for many applications, including monitoring stability of such large structures as aircraft, bridges, and buildings in Earthquake zones.

  12. High Strain Rate Material Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    69 e. 7039-T64 aluminum 69 2.3 PLATE IMPACT EXPERIMENTS 75 2.3.1 Technique 75 2.3.2 Yield Strength and Spall Threshold 77 2.3.3 Test Results 78 a...as "post shot prediction"). This indirect method of obtaining material properties such as dynamic yield strength can often he misleading since error...strain-rates, and mean stresses by high speed photography of necking specimens. The plate-impact test provided spall threshold data and yield strength at

  13. Geminivirus strain demarcation and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Fauquet, C M; Briddon, R W; Brown, J K; Moriones, E; Stanley, J; Zerbini, M; Zhou, X

    2008-01-01

    Geminivirus taxonomy and nomenclature is growing in complexity with the number of genomic sequences deposited in sequence databases. Taxonomic and nomenclatural updates are published at regular intervals (Fauquet et al. in Arch Virol 145:1743-1761, 2000, Arch Virol 148:405-421, 2003). A system to standardize virus names, and corresponding guidelines, has been proposed (Fauquet et al. in Arch Virol 145:1743-1761, 2000). This system is now followed by a large number of geminivirologists in the world, making geminivirus nomenclature more transparent and useful. In 2003, due to difficulties inherent in species identification, the ICTV Geminiviridae Study Group proposed new species demarcation criteria, the most important of which being an 89% nucleotide (nt) identity threshold between full-length DNA-A component nucleotide sequences for begomovirus species. This threshold has been utilised since with general satisfaction. More recently, an article has been published to clarify the terminology used to describe virus entities below the species level [5]. The present publication is proposing demarcation criteria and guidelines to classify and name geminiviruses below the species level. Using the Clustal V algorithm (DNAStar MegAlign software), the distribution of pairwise sequence comparisons, for pairs of sequences below the species taxonomic level, identified two peaks: one at 85-94% nt identity that is proposed to correspond to "strain" comparisons and one at 92-100% identity that corresponds to "variant" comparisons. Guidelines for descriptors for each of these levels are proposed to standardize nomenclature under the species level. In this publication we review the status of geminivirus species and strain demarcation as well as providing updated isolate descriptors for a total of 672 begomovirus isolates. As a consequence, we have revised the status of some virus isolates to classify them as "strains", whereas several others previously classified as "strains" have

  14. High temperature static strain sensor development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C.; Bailey, R.; Grant, H.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical resistance strain gages useful for static strain measurements on nickel or cobalt superalloy parts inside a gas turbine engine on a test stand are being developed. Measurements of this type are of great importance in meeting the goals of the HOST program because, without reliable knowledge of the stresses and strains which exist in specific components, it will be difficult to fully appreciate where improvements in design and materials can be implemented. The first part of the effort consisted of a strain gage alloy development program which will be followed by an investigation of complete strain gage systems which will use the best of the alloys developed together with other system improvements.

  15. Probing the prodigious strain fringes from Lourdes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerden, Domingo G. A. M.; Sayab, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the kinematics of classic sigmoidal strain fringes from Lourdes (France) and review previous genetic models, strain methods and strain rates for these microstructures. Displacement controlled quartz and calcite fibers within the fringes yield an average strain of 195% with the technique of Ramsay and Huber (1983). This agrees well with strains measured from boudinaged pyrite layers and calcite veins in the same rocks, but conflicts with ca. ∼675% strain in previous analogue models for the studied strain fringes produced by progressive simple shear. We show that the detailed geometry and orientation of fiber patterns are insufficiently explained by simple shear but imply two successive, differently oriented strain fields. Although all strain fringes have the same overall asymmetry, considerable morphological variation resulted from different amounts of rotation of pyrite grains and fringes. Minor rotation led to sharply kinked fibers that record a ca. 70° rotation of the kinematic frame. Larger (up to 145°) rotations, accommodated by antithetic sliding on pyrite-fringe contacts, produced more strongly and smoothly curved fibers. Combined with published Rb-Sr ages for the studied microstructures, our new strain data indicate an average strain rate of 1.41 10-15 s-1 during ca. 37 Myr. continuous growth.

  16. Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) cause increasingly serious infections especially in immunosuppressive patients by direct transmission from the environment or after colonization. However, identification of these species is difficult because of the cost and difficulties in defining to species level. Identification and distribution of these species can help clinician in the choice of treatment. Materials and methods A total of 90 MOTT strains obtained from four different centers were included in the study. These strains were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and Hsp65 genetic regions. Results Accordingly, within the 90 MOTT strains, 17 different species were identified. In order of frequency, these species were M. gordonea (n = 21), M. abscessus (n = 13), M. lentiflavum (n = 9), M. fortuitum (n = 8), M. intracellulare (n = 6), M. kumamotonense (n = 6), M. neoaurum (n = 5), M. chimaera (n = 5), M. alvei (n = 5), M. peregrinum (n = 3), M. canariasense (n = 3), M. flavescens (n = 1), M. mucogenicum (n = 1), M. chelona (n = 1), M. elephantis (n = 1), M. terrae (n = 1) and M. xenopi (n = 1). Most frequently identified MOTT species according to the geographical origin were as follows: M. abscessus was the most common species either in Istanbul or Malatya regions (n = 6, n = 6, consequently). While M. kumamotonense was the most frequent species isolated from Ankara region (n = 6), M. gordonea was the most common for Samsun region (n = 14). Conclusion Our study revealed that frequency of MOTT varies depending on the number of clinical samples and that frequency of these species were affected by the newly identified species as a result of the use of novel molecular methods. In conclusion, when establishing diagnosis and treatment methods, it is important to know that infections caused by unidentified MOTT species may vary according to the regions in Turkey. The results

  17. Distribution of nontuberculous Mycobacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Murat; Yanik, Keramettin; Eroglu, Cafer; Sanic, Ahmet; Ceyhan, Ismail; Erturan, Zayre; Durmaz, Riza

    2013-11-21

    Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) cause increasingly serious infections especially in immunosuppressive patients by direct transmission from the environment or after colonization. However, identification of these species is difficult because of the cost and difficulties in defining to species level. Identification and distribution of these species can help clinician in the choice of treatment. A total of 90 MOTT strains obtained from four different centers were included in the study. These strains were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and Hsp65 genetic regions. Accordingly, within the 90 MOTT strains, 17 different species were identified. In order of frequency, these species were M. gordonea (n = 21), M. abscessus (n = 13), M. lentiflavum (n = 9), M. fortuitum (n = 8), M. intracellulare (n = 6), M. kumamotonense (n = 6), M. neoaurum (n = 5), M. chimaera (n = 5), M. alvei (n = 5), M. peregrinum (n = 3), M. canariasense (n = 3), M. flavescens (n = 1), M. mucogenicum (n = 1), M. chelona (n = 1), M. elephantis (n = 1), M. terrae (n = 1) and M. xenopi (n = 1). Most frequently identified MOTT species according to the geographical origin were as follows: M. abscessus was the most common species either in Istanbul or Malatya regions (n = 6, n = 6, consequently). While M. kumamotonense was the most frequent species isolated from Ankara region (n = 6), M. gordonea was the most common for Samsun region (n = 14). Our study revealed that frequency of MOTT varies depending on the number of clinical samples and that frequency of these species were affected by the newly identified species as a result of the use of novel molecular methods. In conclusion, when establishing diagnosis and treatment methods, it is important to know that infections caused by unidentified MOTT species may vary according to the regions in Turkey. The results of the study showed that there were

  18. Plasmids in avirulent strains of Agrobacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, D J; Nester, E W

    1977-01-01

    Twelve strains of Agrobacterium radiobacter isolated from naturally occurring crown galls or soil were found to be avirulent on sunflower, tomato, Kalanchoe, and carrot. Eleven strains contained plasmids of molecular weights 77 X 10(6) to 182 X 10(6) as determined by electron microscopy. One strain contained only a smaller plasmid (50 X 10(6) daltons). Several strains had both large and small (ca. 11 X 10(6) daltons) plasmids; one strain contained two large plasmids (112 X 10(6) and 136 X 10(6) daltons). Hybridization reactions of virulence plasmids from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains C58 and A6 with plasmids from each of the A. radiobacter strains revealed that some A. radiobacter plasmids had less than 10% homology to either the C58 or A6 plasmids. Plasmids from some strains had approximately 50% homology with the C58 plasmid, but only one A. radiobacter plasmid contained more than 10% homology to the A6 plasmid. The presence of large plasmids in A. radiobacter strains did not correlate with sensitivity to agrocin 84; however, the utilization of the amino acid derivatives octopine and nopaline was generally correlated to partial base sequence homology to the C58 plasmid. We conclude that all large plasmids found in Agrobacterium strains are not virulence associated, although they may share base sequence homology with a virulence-associated plasmid. Further, plasmids from tumorigenic strains may be more closely related by base sequence homology to plasmids from nonpathogenic strains than to plasmids from other pathogenic strains. PMID:830650

  19. Determining Micromechanical Strain in Nitinol

    SciTech Connect

    Strasberg, Matthew; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    Nitinol is a superelastic alloy made of equal parts nickel and titanium. Due to its unique shape memory properties, nitinol is used to make medical stents, lifesaving devices used to allow blood flow in occluded arteries. Micromechanical models and even nitinol-specific finite element analysis (FEA) software are insufficient for unerringly predicting fatigue and resultant failure. Due to the sensitive nature of its application, a better understanding of nitinol on a granular scale is being pursued through X-ray diffraction techniques at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Through analysis of powder diffraction patterns ofmore » nitinol under increasing tensile loads, localized strain can be calculated. We compare these results with micromechanical predictions in order to advance nitinol-relevant FEA tools. From this we hope to gain a greater understanding of how nitinol fatigues under multi-axial loads.« less

  20. Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile

    PubMed Central

    Mattmann, Corinne; Clemens, Frank; Tröster, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hysteresis, no ageing effects and a small dependance on the strain velocity. The total mean error caused by all these effects was ±5.5% in strain. Washing several times in a conventional washing machine did not influence the sensor properties. The paper finishes by showing an example application where 21 strain sensors were integrated into a catsuit. With this garment, 27 upper body postures could be recognized with an accuracy of 97%. PMID:27879904

  1. Equivalent strain in simple shear deformation described by using the Hencky strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Susumu

    2010-09-01

    The Hencky strain is an appropriate measure for large deformation where principal directions of strains rotate. In this study, the equivalent strain in large simple shear deformation is re-examined using the Hencky strain. When the amount of simple shear is γ, the equivalent strain of the Hencky strain becomes a logarithmic function of γ, which is the same as the result given by Eichinger [Festigkeitstheoretische untersuchungen, in Handbuch der Werkstoffprüfung, E. Siebel, ed., 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin, 1955, p.715].

  2. Semiquantitative strain elastography of liver masses.

    PubMed

    Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Poyraz, Ahmet Kursad; Ucak, Esra Ercin; Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Özercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ogur, Erkin

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the utility of semiquantitative strain elastography in differential diagnosis of solid liver masses. A total of 103 patients with focal liver masses underwent abdominal sonographic examinations and freehand elastography of focal hepatic lesions. Eighty-two patients (79.7%) with 93 focal hepatic lesions were included in the study. Twenty-one patients (20.3%) were excluded from the study because of technical limitations of semi-quantitative strain elastography and difficulty in detection of normal liver parenchyma on gray-scale sonography. We evaluated different focal hepatic lesions such as hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, metastases, and cholangiocarcinomas. The stiffness of the lesions was determined by measurement of strain values on semiquantitative strain elastography. The strain index value (strain ratio of liver parenchyma and focal lesions) of each lesion was calculated. Mean strain index values of benign and malignant liver lesions were compared. The mean strain index value of malignant liver lesions ± SD (2.82 ± 1.82) was significantly higher than that of benign liver lesions (1.45 ± 1.28; P< .0001). Hemangiomas had a significantly lower mean strain index value than other benign lesions (P < .0034). There was no statistically significant difference between strain index values of different types of malignant lesions (P > .05). Semiquantitative strain elastography may be helpful for differentiating benign and malignant liver masses. The substantial overlap between strain index values of benign and malignant liver masses limits clinical usefulness of this technique.

  3. [Conservation of Malassezia strains in blotting paper].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura; Ramadán, Silvana; López, Clara; Bulacio, Lucía; Mellado, Soledad

    2006-06-01

    Reference strains belonging to the genus Malassezia were analyzed to evaluate, by comparison, different preservation systems such us subculture, freezing at -80 degrees C in glycerol, and blotting paper-disc conservation. The viability, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the strains used in this study was evaluated. The blotting paper method was found to be advantageous to preserve Malassezia spp strains due to both, its simple implementation in the laboratory and its efficiency.

  4. AN ORGANOTYPIC UNIAXIAL STRAIN MODEL USING MICROFLUIDICS

    PubMed Central

    Dollé, Jean-Pierre; Morrison, Barclay; Schloss, Rene R.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries are the leading cause of disability each year in the US. The most common and devastating consequence is the stretching of axons caused by shear deformation that occurs during rotational acceleration of the brain during injury. The injury effects on axonal molecular and functional events are not fully characterized. We have developed a strain injury model that maintains the three dimensional cell architecture and neuronal networks found in vivo with the ability to visualize individual axons and their response to a mechanical injury. The advantage of this model is that it can apply uniaxial strains to axons that make functional connections between two organotypic slices and injury responses can be observed in real-time and over long term. This uniaxial strain model was designed to be capable of applying an array of mechanical strains at various rates of strain, thus replicating a range of modes of axonal injury. Long term culture, preservation of slice and cell orientation, and slice-slice connection on the device was demonstrated. The device has the ability to strain either individual axons or bundles of axons through the control of microchannel dimensions. The fidelity of the model was verified by observing characteristic responses to various strain injuries which included axonal beading, delayed elastic effects and breakdown in microtubules. Microtubule breakdown was shown to be dependent on the degree of the applied strain field, where maximal breakdown was observed at peak strain and minimal breakdown is observed at low strain. This strain injury model could be a powerful tool in assessing strain injury effects on functional axonal connections. PMID:23233120

  5. Cross protection studies with Eimeria maxima strains.

    PubMed

    Allen, Patricia C; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima isolates were related to their abilities to elicit cross-protective immunity. Immunizations were initiated by low-dose gavages of sporulated oocysts to day-old broiler chicks under conditions that allowed parasite recycling, and chickens were challenged with homologous and heterologous strains. Immunization efficacies were measured using a protective index calculated from weight gain, gross lesion score, plasma carotenoid, and NO2- + NO3- data. A 4x4 cross- immunization study of four E. maxima strains (designated A-D) showed that strain A, which displayed the lower fecundity, provided no cross-protection against the other three strains. Following several maintenance passages, the fecundity of strain A was increased to that of strain C, and infection with strain A oocysts was able to provide cross-immune protection against challenge with strain C. This study indicates that parasite fecundity is important in providing good immune stimulation, and should be carefully monitored when characterization of the unique immune potentials of Eimeria strains is undertaken.

  6. Microminiature temperature-compensated magnetoelastic strain gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arms, Steven W.; Townsend, Christopher P.

    2002-07-01

    Our objective was to demonstrate a microminiature magnetoelastic strain gauge that provides both strain and temperature signals without additional sensors. Iron based magnetoelastic materials were embedded within superelastic nickel/titanium (NiTi) tubing. NiTi stress was transferred to the ferrite, causing a permeability change sensed by a tiny coil. The coil/bridge was excited (70 KHz AC), synchronously demodulated, and amplified to produce a voltage output proportional to coil/ferrite impedance. A DC voltage was also applied and separately conditioned to provide an output proportional to coil resistance; this signal was used to provide thermal compensation. Controlled strains were applied and 6 Hz cyclic outputs recorded simultaneously from the magnetoelastic strain gauge and conventional foil strain gauges. The magnetoelastic strain gauge tracked the foil gauge with minimal hysteresis and good linearity over 600 microstrain; repeatability was approximately 1.5 microstrain. The magnetoelastic strain gauge's gauge factor was computed from delta inductance/original inductance under static strain conditions. Temperatures of 25-140 deg C resulted in an uncompensated shift of 15 microstrain/deg C, and compensated shift of 1.0 microstrain/deg C. A sensitive micro-magnetoelastic strain gauge was demonstrated using the same sensor to detect stress and temperature with no moving parts, high gauge factor, and good thermal stability.

  7. Optical fiber sensor technique for strain measurement

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Michael A.; Ginley, David S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser light from a common source is split and conveyed through two similar optical fibers and emitted at their respective ends to form an interference pattern, one of the optical fibers having a portion thereof subjected to a strain. Changes in the strain cause changes in the optical path length of the strain fiber, and generate corresponding changes in the interference pattern. The interference pattern is received and transduced into signals representative of fringe shifts corresponding to changes in the strain experienced by the strained one of the optical fibers. These signals are then processed to evaluate strain as a function of time, typical examples of the application of the apparatus including electrodeposition of a metallic film on a conductive surface provided on the outside of the optical fiber being strained, so that strains generated in the optical fiber during the course of the electrodeposition are measurable as a function of time. In one aspect of the invention, signals relating to the fringe shift are stored for subsequent processing and analysis, whereas in another aspect of the invention the signals are processed for real-time display of the strain changes under study.

  8. Using strain rates to forecast seismic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    One essential component in forecasting seismic hazards is observing the gradual accumulation of tectonic strain accumulation along faults before this strain is suddenly released as earthquakes. Typically, seismic hazard models are based on geologic estimates of slip rates along faults and historical records of seismic activity, neither of which records actively accumulating strain. But this strain can be estimated by geodesy: the precise measurement of tiny position changes of Earth’s surface, obtained from GPS, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or a variety of other instruments.

  9. [Characteristics of Lactobacillus strains contained in pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Banach, W; Bucholc, B; Wójcik, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are components of drugs administered orally in cases of intestinal disturbances, or antibiotic--related diarrhea. Biochemical properties, growth behavior, bile tolerance, and survival at low pH of six LAB strains (four strains L. rhamnosus and two L. acidophilus) were studied. The survival at low pH was determined in MRS broth (Difco) acidified to pH 1; 2; 3; and 4. Bile tolerance was tested on MRS broth with 0.3% oxgall (Difco). Between tested strains differences in ability to grow at low pH and survival in bile were observed. Only 0.01% inoculum of all examined strains survived at pH 1. Differences between strains in survival at low pH (pH 2 and pH 3) and tolerance of bile were observed. However, after 2 h incubation at pH 4, 100% of strains stayed alive. Examined strains demonstrated good 3% bile tolerance. All strains met the criteria for probiotic strains: ability to survive at pH 3 and in the presence of bile.

  10. Effect of Static Strains on Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girifalco, L. A.; Grimes, H. H.

    1961-01-01

    A theory is developed that gives the diffusion coefficient in strained systems as an exponential function of the strain. This theory starts with the statistical theory of the atomic jump frequency as developed by Vineyard. The parameter determining the effect of strain on diffusion is related to the changes in the inter-atomic forces with strain. Comparison of the theory with published experimental results for the effect of pressure on diffusion shows that the experiments agree with the form of the theoretical equation in all cases within experimental error.

  11. Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the strain is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the strain using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of strain using a parameter estimation technique together with an Autoregressive Moving Average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. shape sensing, fiber optic strain sensor, system equivalent reduction and expansion process.

  12. A comparison of eastern North American seismic strain-rates to glacial rebound strain-rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.

    1994-01-01

    Glacial rebound strain-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal strain-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed strain-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic strain-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional strain-rates. The predicted glacial rebound strain-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic strain-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound strain-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.

  13. Enzymes From Rare Actinobacterial Strains.

    PubMed

    Suriya, J; Bharathiraja, S; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Actinobacteria constitute rich sources of novel biocatalysts and novel natural products for medical and industrial utilization. Although actinobacteria are potential source of economically important enzymes, the isolation and culturing are somewhat tough because of its extreme habitats. But now-a-days, the rate of discovery of novel compounds producing actinomycetes from soil, freshwater, and marine ecosystem has increased much through the developed culturing and genetic engineering techniques. Actinobacteria are well-known source of their bioactive compounds and they are the promising source of broad range of industrially important enzymes. The bacteria have the capability to degrade a range of pesticides, hydrocarbons, aromatic, and aliphatic compounds (Sambasiva Rao, Tripathy, Mahalaxmi, & Prakasham, 2012). Most of the enzymes are mainly derived from microorganisms because of their easy of growth, minimal nutritional requirements, and low-cost for downstream processing. The focus of this review is about the new, commercially useful enzymes from rare actinobacterial strains. Industrial requirements are now fulfilled by the novel actinobacterial enzymes which assist the effective production. Oxidative enzymes, lignocellulolytic enzymes, extremozymes, and clinically useful enzymes are often utilized in many industrial processes because of their ability to catalyze numerous reactions. Novel, extremophilic, oxidative, lignocellulolytic, and industrially important enzymes from rare Actinobacterial population are discussed in this chapter. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation and Analysis of Strain Sensitivity of CNT-Based Strain Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapra, Gaurav; Vig, Renu; Sharma, Manu

    2016-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is turning out to be a replacement to all the existing traditional sensors due to their high gauge factor, multidirectional sensing capability, high flexibility, low mass density, high dynamic range and high sensitivity to strains at nano and macro- scales. The strain sensitivity of CNT-based strain sensors depends on number of parameters; quality and quantity of CNT used, type of polymer used, deposition and dispersion technique adopted and also on environmental conditions. Due to all these parameters, the piezoresistive behavior of CNT is diversified and it needs to be explored. This paper theoretically analyses the strain sensitivity of CNT-based strain sensors. The strain sensitivity response of CNT strain sensor is a result of change in total resistance of CNT network with respect to applied strain. The total resistance of CNT network consists of intrinsic resistance and inter-tube resistance. It has been found that the change in intrinsic resistance under strain is due to the variation of bandgap of individual, which depends on the chirality of the tube and it varies exponentially with strain. The inter-tube resistance of CNT network changes nonlinearly due to change in distance between neighboring CNTs with respect to applied strain. As the distance d between CNTs increases due to applied strain, tunneling resistance Rtunnel increases nonlinearly in exponential manner. When the concentration of CNTs in composite is close to percolation threshold, then the change of inter-tube resistances is more dominant than intrinsic resistance. At percolation threshold, the total resistance of CNT networks changes nonlinearly and this effect of nonlinearity is due to tunneling effect. The strain sensitivity of CNT-based strain sensors also varies nonlinearly with the change in temperature. For the change of temperature from -20∘C to 50∘C, there is more than 100% change in strain sensitivity of CNT/polymer composite strain sensor. This change is

  15. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  16. Pulsed Phase-Locked-Loop Strain Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Stone, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    P2sup.L2sup. strain monitor measures strain by monitoring change in phase of acoustic signal that passes through stressed sample. Phase sample causes shift in frequency of VCO. As with other monitors of this type, instrument is only accurate in elastic range of material. Monitor is expected to have broad application in materials testing, structural design, fabrication and assembly.

  17. Abortion Work: Strains, Coping Strategies, Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Carole

    1979-01-01

    Workers involved in counseling potential abortion recipients are subject to strains. The author uses observations made at one abortion clinic to conclude that these strains and methods of coping developed by staff and administration must be considered in formulating any policy on abortion. (Author)

  18. Validation of a Caregiver Strain Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Betsy C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the development of a Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) with spouses, family, friends, and neighbors who provided care to recently hospitalized hip surgery and heart patients over 65. Results indicate that the CSI is a brief, easily administered instrument which identifies strain within the sample of informal care providers. (Author/JAC)

  19. Medically Complex Home Care and Caregiver Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Sara M.; Macdonald, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To examine (a) whether the content of caregiving tasks (i.e., nursing vs. personal care) contributes to variation in caregivers' strain and (b) whether the level of complexity of nursing tasks contributes to variation in strain among caregivers providing help with such tasks. Design and methods: The data came from the Cash…

  20. Evaluation of Large Strains in Industrial Applications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of the orientations of the elements in question. These expressions are used to form a Mohr’s circle, which permits the transformation of strain from...measurement of direct strain in three directions. A numerical example of application to the mechanics of metal cutting is given. (Modified author abstract)

  1. Nanocomposite Strain Gauges Having Small TCRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto; Chen, Ximing

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic strain gauges in which the strain-sensitive electrically conductive strips made from nanocomposites of noble metal and indium tin oxide (ITO) are being developed for use in gas turbine engines and other power-generation systems in which gas temperatures can exceed 1,500 F (about 816 C). In general, strain gauges exhibit spurious thermally induced components of response denoted apparent strain. When temperature varies, a strain-gauge material that has a nonzero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) exhibits an undesired change in electrical resistance that can be mistaken for the change in resistance caused by a change in strain. It would be desirable to formulate straingauge materials having TCRs as small as possible so as to minimize apparent strain. Most metals exhibit positive TCRs, while most semiconductors, including ITO, exhibit negative TCRs. The present development is based on the idea of using the negative TCR of ITO to counter the positive TCRs of noble metals and of obtaining the benefit of the ability of both ITO and noble metals to endure high temperatures. The noble metal used in this development thus far has been platinum. Combinatorial libraries of many ceramic strain gauges containing nanocomposites of various proportions of ITO and platinum were fabricated by reactive co-sputtering from ITO and platinum targets onto alumina- and zirconia-based substrates mounted at various positions between the targets.

  2. Finite Strain Behavior of Polyurea for a Wide Range of Strain Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    accurate description of the loading phase, which validates the assumptions made with respect to strain-rate and pressure sensitiv - ity. However, the...and Radford, D. (2006) "The uniaxial stress versus strain response of pig skin and silicon rubber at low and high strain rates," International

  3. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Focusing on the Influences of Key Strain Characteristics on Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Blurton, David; McCluskey, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effects of recent, older, and chronic strains and of perceived injustice of strain on delinquency, sampling 777 Korean youth. Seven key strains most likely leading to delinquency, some of which were often overlooked in previous research, were included, and these are family conflict, parental punishment, teachers' punishment,…

  4. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    PubMed

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  5. Nanoscale strain mapping in battery nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, A.; Cho, H. M.; Harder, R.; Kim, J. W.; Dietze, S. H.; Fohtung, E.; Meng, Y. S.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2014-02-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging is used to map the local three dimensional strain inhomogeneity and electron density distribution of two individual LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cathode nanoparticles in both ex-situ and in-situ environments. Our reconstructed images revealed a maximum strain of 0.4%. We observed different variations in strain inhomogeneity due to multiple competing effects. The compressive/tensile component of the strain is connected to the local lithium content and, on the surface, interpreted in terms of a local Jahn-Teller distortion of Mn3+. Finally, the measured strain distributions are discussed in terms of their impact on competing theoretical models of the lithiation process.

  6. Strain hardening in the HEMP code

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W. L.

    1973-07-25

    The Prandtl--Reuss equations used in the HEMP elastic-plastic computer program are satisfied exactly for elastic, perfectly plastic materials, and are less exact for materials that strain harden. A new method is described for incorporating strain hardening into the flow law that is exact for linear strain hardening and very nearly exact for nonlinear strain hardenlng. A tensile test of a strain-hardening material is simulated using the present method and the previous method. The original approximate method has an accumulated error of less than 2% when compared with the present method. The present method agrees with exact calculations to within 0.05%.more » (auth)« less

  7. Pursuit of the Corynebacterium striatum type strain.

    PubMed

    Coyle, M B; Leonard, R B; Nowowiejski, D J

    1993-10-01

    The description of Corynebacterium striatum (Chester 1901) Eberson 1918AL in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology has many inconsistencies with the identification scheme from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We have studied the four C. striatum reference strains available from the American Type Culture Collection and the National Collection of Type Cultures and found that they fit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention description of this species. However, it appears that the wrong strains were deposited for this species, because none of the reference strains fits the descriptions in the original publications. This is a substantial case for declaring it a nomen dubium, but the name could be rescued if a careful search reveals a strain that was used in making the original description. It is hoped that some readers may have the missing strains labeled with the early names Bacillus striatus, Bacillus flavidus, or Corynebacterium flavidum.

  8. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr) from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus); one closed colony strain (ICR) from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms) from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation. PMID:18307817

  9. Strain analyis in Banda Sea using grid strain based on GPS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herawati, Yola Asis; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina Anggreni; Effendi, Jony

    2017-07-01

    Eastern Indonesia has very high deformation due to tectonic activity in triple junction area. Convergencing between plate in Eastern Indonesia trigger some microblocks. Tectonic block as one of deformation phenomenom due to the interaction of between plates can be understood by using strain analysis. Strain analysis shows the change of position, shape and dimension from an object. This research use 80 GPS from previous study by Koulali et al, (2015) and 7 continuous GPS in Bird's Head to calculate strain rates in order to find relation between tectonic activity and strain rates in Banda Sea, and to identify block boundary. The GPS data are calculated using GAMIT/GLOBK software to obtain time series in each station. Strain rates are calculated using softwae package named grid strain which calculate strain based on interpolation using discretized geodetic measurement resulting strain rates in grid system. The data distribution and algorithm in grid strain influence the result of strain rates from grid strain. The result from strain calculation is in ranges -16,421×10-8 to -0,194×10-8 for shortening parameter and 1,653×10-8 to 18,92×10-8 for extension parameter. From strain analysis known that strain rates can identify tectonic activity but not accurately for block boundary. Banda Block, Timor Block, and Bird's Head Block has different strain pattern especially in their boundary. Timor and eastern part of Banda Block dominated by shortening according to the back arc located in there, meanwhile western part of Banda Block and mostly of Bird's Head dominated by very low shortening according to collision between Eurasia and Australia Plates. For further analysis need some additional data such as density of GPS sites, sesimicity, and gravity data.

  10. Strain in the galago facial skull.

    PubMed

    Ravosa, M J; Johnson, K R; Hylander, W L

    2000-07-01

    Little experimental work has been directed at understanding the distribution of stresses along the facial skull during routine masticatory behaviors. Such information is important for understanding the functional significance of the mammalian circumorbital region. In this study, bone strain was recorded along the dorsal interorbit, postorbital bar, and mandibular corpus in Otolemur garnettii and O. crassicaudatus (greater galagos) during molar chewing and biting. We determined principal-strain magnitudes and directions, compared peak shear-strain magnitudes between various regions of the face, and compared galago strain patterns with similar experimental data for anthropoids. This suite of analyses were used to test the facial torsion model (Greaves [1985] J Zool (Lond) 207:125-136; [1991] Zool J Linn Soc 101:121-129; [1995] Functional morphology in vertebrate paleontology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 99-115). A comparison of galago circumorbital and mandibular peak strains during powerful mastication indicates that circumorbital strains are very low in magnitude. This demonstrates that, as in anthropoids, the strepsirhine circumorbital region is highly overbuilt for countering routine masticatory loads. The fact that circumorbital peak-strain magnitudes are uniformly low in both primate suborders undermines any model that emphasizes the importance of masticatory stresses as a determinant of circumorbital form, function, and evolution. Preliminary data also suggest that the difference between mandibular and circumorbital strains is greater in larger-bodied primates. This pattern is interpreted to mean that sufficient cortical bone must exist in the circumorbital region to prevent structural failure due to nonmasticatory traumatic forces. During unilateral mastication, the direction of epsilon(1) at the galago dorsal interorbit indicates the presence of facial torsion combined with bending in the frontal plane. Postorbital bar principal-strain

  11. Calculation of strain distributions in multiple-quantum-well strained-layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, James; Faux, David A.

    1995-03-01

    We present a simple method for calculating strain distributions in structures containing an arbitrary number and combination of strained layers of finite length buried in an infinite medium. This method is used to calculate the strain distributions for a quantum-well stack containing four compressive layers separated by barriers of different thicknesses and states of strain. It is found that the in-plane strain is relaxed along a significant length of each compressive layer if the barriers are unstrained. In contrast, if the barriers are in tension, the compressive strain is retained over most of the length of the layer. It is concluded that the judicial use of compressive and tensile layers in device structures would substantially reduce the region over which the strain is relaxed and possibly minimize the adverse effects of modified band structure or atomic diffusion arising due to the relaxation of strain. It is also confirmed that strain relaxation reduces the average strain within the square cross section of a single quantum wire to about one tenth of the misfit strain.

  12. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori Strains Go Extinct, as European Strains Expand Their Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Bello, Maria G.; Pérez, Maria E.; Bortolini, Maria C.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Pericchi, Luis R.; Zambrano-Guzmán, Orlisbeth; Linz, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes) of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1), all from Spanish were European (hpEurope) and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination). The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts. PMID:18830403

  13. Ultra High Strain Rate Nanoindentation Testing.

    PubMed

    Sudharshan Phani, Pardhasaradhi; Oliver, Warren Carl

    2017-06-17

    Strain rate dependence of indentation hardness has been widely used to study time-dependent plasticity. However, the currently available techniques limit the range of strain rates that can be achieved during indentation testing. Recent advances in electronics have enabled nanomechanical measurements with very low noise levels (sub nanometer) at fast time constants (20 µs) and high data acquisition rates (100 KHz). These capabilities open the doors for a wide range of ultra-fast nanomechanical testing, for instance, indentation testing at very high strain rates. With an accurate dynamic model and an instrument with fast time constants, step load tests can be performed which enable access to indentation strain rates approaching ballistic levels (i.e., 4000 1/s). A novel indentation based testing technique involving a combination of step load and constant load and hold tests that enables measurement of strain rate dependence of hardness spanning over seven orders of magnitude in strain rate is presented. A simple analysis is used to calculate the equivalent uniaxial response from indentation data and compared to the conventional uniaxial data for commercial purity aluminum. Excellent agreement is found between the indentation and uniaxial data over several orders of magnitude of strain rate.

  14. Tailoring Mechanically Tunable Strain Fields in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsche, Matthias; Sonntag, Jens; Khodkov, Tymofiy; Verbiest, Gerard Jan; Reichardt, Sven; Neumann, Christoph; Ouaj, Taoufiq; von den Driesch, Nils; Buca, Dan; Stampfer, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    There are a number of theoretical proposals based on strain engineering of graphene and other two-dimensional materials, however purely mechanical control of strain fields in these systems has remained a major challenge. The two approaches mostly used so far either couple the electrical and mechanical properties of the system simultaneously or introduce some unwanted disturbances due to the substrate. Here, we report on silicon micro-machined comb-drive actuators to controllably and reproducibly induce strain in a suspended graphene sheet, in an entirely mechanical way. We use spatially resolved confocal Raman spectroscopy to quantify the induced strain, and we show that different strain fields can be obtained by engineering the clamping geometry, including tunable strain gradients of up to 1.4 %/$\\mu$m. Our approach also allows for multiple axis straining and is equally applicable to other two-dimensional materials, opening the door to an investigating their mechanical and electromechanical properties. Our measurements also clearly identify defects at the edges of a graphene sheet as being weak spots responsible for its mechanical failure.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of lactobacillus strains against uropathogens.

    PubMed

    Shim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Seung Joo; Lee, Jung Won

    2016-10-01

    The use of lactobacillus probiotics has been proposed as an alternative to prophylactic antibiotics for preventing urinary tract infection (UTI) in the era of antibiotic resistance. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of lactobacillus strains against uropathogens, was evaluated and compared with that of antibiotics. To evaluate inhibitory activities of lactobacilli against uropathogens, six lactobacillus strains (L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. paracasei, L. acidophilus) and four representative uropathogens of infantile UTI (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL](-) Escherichia coli, ESBL(+) E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus fecalis) were selected. Lactobacillus strain in vitro inhibition of each uropathogen was evaluated on MRS agar well diffusion assay and compared with that of commercial antibiotic discs. Average inhibitory zone for each of the six lactobacillus strains against the four uropathogens showed slightly different but consistent inhibition (inhibitory zone diameter, 10.5-20.0 mm). This was different to that of the antibiotic discs, which had a wider range of inhibition (inhibitory zone diameter, <6.0-27.5 mm) depending on the uropathogen resistance pattern. The inhibitory zone of the six lactobacillus strains was between that of sensitive and resistant antibiotics (P < 0.05). Lactobacillus strains had similar moderate antimicrobial activities against uropathogens. Further research is needed to ascertain the strains with the best probiotic potential. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Specific identification of Bacillus anthracis strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thaiya; Deshpande, Samir; Hewel, Johannes; Liu, Hongbin; Wick, Charles H.; Yates, John R., III

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of human pathogens is the initial vital step in treating the civilian terrorism victims and military personnel afflicted in biological threat situations. We have applied a powerful multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) along with newly generated software termed Profiler to identify the sequences of specific proteins observed for few strains of Bacillus anthracis, a human pathogen. Software termed Profiler was created to initially screen the MudPIT data of B. anthracis strains and establish the observed proteins specific for its strains. A database was also generated using Profiler containing marker proteins of B. anthracis and its strains, which in turn could be used for detecting the organism and its corresponding strains in samples. Analysis of the unknowns by our methodology, combining MudPIT and Profiler, led to the accurate identification of the anthracis strains present in samples. Thus, a new approach for the identification of B. anthracis strains in unknown samples, based on the molecular mass and sequences of marker proteins, has been ascertained.

  17. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Escario, J A; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Gómez-Barrio, A

    2001-01-01

    Biological parameters of five Trypanosoma cruzi strains from different sources were determined in order to know the laboratory behaviour of natural populations. The parameters evaluated were growth kinetics of epimastigotes, differentiation into metacyclic forms, infectivity in mammalian cells grown in vitro and parasite susceptibility to nifurtimox, benznidazole and gentian violet. Differences in transformation to metacyclic, in the percentage of infected cells as well as in the number of amastigotes per cell were observed among the strains. Regarding to pharmacological assays, Y strain was the most sensitive to the three assayed compounds. These data demonstrate the heterogeneity of natural populations of T. cruzi, the only responsible of infection in humans.

  19. Self-diffusion in compressively strained Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Uematsu, Masashi; Hoshi, Yusuke; Sawano, Kentarou; Myronov, Maksym; Shiraki, Yasuhiro; Haller, Eugene E.; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2011-08-01

    Under a compressive biaxial strain of ˜ 0.71%, Ge self-diffusion has been measured using an isotopically controlled Ge single-crystal layer grown on a relaxed Si0.2Ge0.8 virtual substrate. The self-diffusivity is enhanced by the compressive strain and its behavior is fully consistent with a theoretical prediction of a generalized activation volume model of a simple vacancy mediated diffusion, reported by Aziz et al. [Phys. Rev. B 73, 054101 (2006)]. The activation volume of (-0.65±0.21) times the Ge atomic volume quantitatively describes the observed enhancement due to the compressive biaxial strain very well.

  20. [Pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci strains].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, A; Gutiérrez, J; Piédrola, G

    1995-04-01

    Enterococci resistance to antimicrobials has increased lately. We studied the susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials of 150 enterococci strains coming from hospitalized and outpatients, using the agar dilution method. Teicoplanin, followed by imipenem and amoxicilin-clavulanic acid had the lower minimal inhibitory concentrations. No strains of E faecalis was resistant to ampicillin, whereas 14% of E faecium had minimal inhibitory concentrations over 8 micrograms/ml. The high minimal inhibitory concentrations of cefpirome (64 micrograms/ml) renders this antimicrobial useless in the treatment of enterococcal infections. Betalactamase production and resistance to glucopeptides were not detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility of strains coming for hospitalized or outpatients were similar.

  1. Fiber optic strain and pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kent A.; Poland, Stephen H.

    1997-05-01

    Optical fiber sensors can be used to monitor many parameters such as strain on modern high-temperature alloys during cyclic loading and pressure in composite manufacturing processes. Presented are the application and operation of several fiber optic sensors based on the extrinsic Fabry- Perot interferometer technique. The results from strain measurements demonstrated that the fiber optic strain sensors are able to withstand extreme temperature [ambient to 2070 degree(s)F (1132 degree(s)C)] while maintaining a high level of performance. The capabilities of the fiber optic sensors make it possible to monitor many material property changes and measureands.

  2. A study of the effect of apparent strain on thermal stress measurement for two types of elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A weldable type strain gage was used to measure low level thermal stress in an elevated temperature environment. Foil strain gages used in a comparative manner reveal that the apparent strain of weldable strain gages is not sufficiently known to acquire accurate low level thermal stress data. Apparent strain data acquired from coupon tests reveals a large scatter in apparent strain characteristics among the weldable strain gages. It is concluded that apparent strain data for individual weldable strain gages must be required prior to installation if valid thermal stress data is to be obtained through the temperature range of room temperature to 755 K (900 F).

  3. Strain histograms are equal to strain ratios in predicting malignancy in breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Sletting, Susanne; Talman, Maj-Lis; Vejborg, Ilse; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether strain histograms are equal to strain ratios in predicting breast tumour malignancy and to see if either could be used to upgrade Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3 tumours for immediate biopsy. Methods Ninety-nine breast tumours were examined using B-mode BI-RADS scorings and strain elastography. Strain histograms and ratios were assessed, and areas- under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUROC) for each method calculated. In BI-RADS 3 tumours cut-offs for strain histogram and ratio values were calculated to see if some tumours could be upgraded for immediate biopsy. Linear regression was performed to evaluate the effect of tumour depth and size, and breast density on strain elastography. Results Forty-four of 99 (44.4%) tumours were malignant. AUROC of BI-RADS, strain histograms and strain ratios were 0.949, 0.830 and 0.794 respectively. There was no significant difference between AUROCs of strain histograms and strain ratios (P = 0.405), while they were both inferior to BI-RADS scoring (P<0.001, P = 0.008). Four out of 26 BI-RADS 3 tumours were malignant. When cut-offs of 189 for strain histograms and 1.44 for strain ratios were used to upgrade BI-RADS 3 tumours, AUROCS were 0.961 (Strain histograms and BI-RADS) and 0.941 (Strain ratios and BI-RADS). None of them was significantly different from BI-RADS scoring alone (P = 0.249 and P = 0.414). Tumour size and depth, and breast density influenced neither strain histograms (P = 0.196, P = 0.115 and P = 0.321) nor strain ratios (P = 0.411, P = 0.596 and P = 0.321) Conclusion Strain histogram analyses are reliable and easy to do in breast cancer diagnosis and perform comparably to strain ratio analyses. No significant difference in AUROCs between BI-RADS scoring and elastography combined with BI-RADS scoring was found in this study. PMID:29073170

  4. Solitary waves in morphogenesis: Determination fronts as strain-cued strain transformations among automatous cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Brian N.; Landis, Chad M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple theory of a strain pulse propagating as a solitary wave through a continuous two-dimensional population of cells. A critical strain is assumed to trigger a strain transformation, while, simultaneously, cells move as automata to tend to restore a preferred cell density. We consider systems in which the strain transformation is a shape change, a burst of proliferation, or the commencement of growth (which changes the shape of the population sheet), and demonstrate isomorphism among these cases. Numerical and analytical solutions describe a strain pulse whose height does not depend on how the strain disturbance was first launched, or the rate at which the strain transformation is achieved, or the rate constant in the rule for the restorative cell motion. The strain pulse is therefore very stable, surviving the imposition of strong perturbations: it would serve well as a timing signal in development. The automatous wave formulation is simple, with few model parameters. A strong case exists for the presence of a strain pulse during amelogenesis. Quantitative analysis reveals a simple relationship between the velocity of the leading edge of the pulse in amelogenesis and the known speed of migration of ameloblast cells. This result and energy arguments support the depiction of wave motion as an automatous cell response to strain, rather than as a response to an elastic energy gradient. The theory may also contribute to understanding the determination front in somitogenesis, moving fronts of convergent-extension transformation, and mitotic wavefronts in the syncytial drosophila embryo.

  5. A new radial strain and strain rate estimation method using autocorrelation for carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jihui; Kim, Hoonmin; Park, Jongho; Yeo, Sunmi; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Yoo, Yangmo

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is of clinical interest since it can prevent any adverse effects of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this paper, a new carotid artery radial strain estimation method based on autocorrelation is presented. In the proposed method, the strain is first estimated by the autocorrelation of two complex signals from the consecutive frames. Then, the angular phase from autocorrelation is converted to strain and strain rate and they are analyzed over time. In addition, a 2D strain image over region of interest in a carotid artery can be displayed. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed radial strain estimation method, radiofrequency (RF) data of 408 frames in the carotid artery of a volunteer were acquired by a commercial ultrasound system equipped with a research package (V10, Samsung Medison, Korea) by using a L5-13IS linear array transducer. From in vivo carotid artery data, the mean strain estimate was -0.1372 while its minimum and maximum values were -2.961 and 0.909, respectively. Moreover, the overall strain estimates are highly correlated with the reconstructed M-mode trace. Similar results were obtained from the estimation of the strain rate change over time. These results indicate that the proposed carotid artery radial strain estimation method is useful for assessing the arterial wall's stiffness noninvasively without increasing the computational complexity.

  6. Tropical Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum Outcompete Race 3 Biovar 2 Strains at Lowland Tropical Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Alejandra I.; Milling, Annett

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by members of the heterogenous Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, is an economically important vascular disease affecting many crops. Human activity has widely disseminated R. solanacearum strains, increasing their global agricultural impact. However, tropical highland race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) strains do not cause disease in tropical lowlands, even though they are virulent at warm temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature adaptation and competitive fitness explain the uneven geographic distribution of R. solanacearum strains. Using three phylogenetically and ecologically distinct strains, we measured competitive fitness at two temperatures following paired-strain inoculations of their shared host, tomato. Lowland tropical strain GMI1000 was only weakly virulent on tomato under temperate conditions (24°C for day and 19°C for night [24/19°C]), but highland tropical R3bv2 strain UW551 and U.S. warm temperate strain K60 were highly virulent at both 24/19°C and 28°C. Strain K60 was significantly more competitive than both GMI1000 and UW551 in tomato rhizospheres and stems at 28°C, and GMI1000 also outcompeted UW551 at 28°C. The results were reversed at cooler temperatures, at which highland strain UW551 generally outcompeted GMI1000 and K60 in planta. The superior competitive index of UW551 at 24/19°C suggests that adaptation to cool temperatures could explain why only R3bv2 strains threaten highland agriculture. Strains K60 and GMI1000 each produced different bacteriocins that inhibited growth of UW551 in culture. Such interstrain inhibition could explain why R3bv2 strains do not cause disease in tropical lowlands. PMID:25769835

  7. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1209 Section 180.1209... strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil when used in or on all food commodities...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1209 Section 180.1209... strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil when used in or on all food commodities...

  9. Strain-induced three-photon effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jae-Woo; Shin, Sung-Chul; Lyubchanskii, I. L.; Varyukhin, V. N.

    2000-11-01

    Strain-induced three-photon effects such as optical second-harmonic generation and hyper-Rayleigh light scattering, characterized by electromagnetic radiation at the double frequency of an incident light, are phenomenologically investigated by adopting a nonlinear photoelastic interaction. The relations between the strain and the nonlinear optical susceptibility for crystal surfaces with point symmetries of 4mm and 3m are described by a symmetry analysis of the nonlinear photoelastic tensor. We theoretically demonstrate a possibility of determining the strain components by measuring the rotational anisotropy of radiation at the second-harmonic frequency. Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering by dislocation strain is also described using a nonlinear photoelastic tensor. The angular dependencies of light scattered at the double frequency of an incident light for different scattering geometries are analyzed.

  10. Optical strain measurement system development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.; Qaqish, Walid

    1987-01-01

    A laser speckle, differential strain measurement system was built and tested for future applications in hostile environments. One dimensional electronic correlation of speckle pattern movement allows a quasi-real time measure of strain. The system was used successfully to measure uniaxial strain reaching into plastic deformation of a test specimen, at temperatures ranging to 450 C. A resolution of 16 microstrain is given by the photodiode array sensor pitch and the specimen to sensor separation. The strain measurement limit of the gauge is determined by air density perturbations causing decorrelation of the reference and shifted speckle patterns, and may be improved by limiting convective flow in the immediate vicinity of the test specimen.

  11. Thin film strain gage development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  12. Method of transferring strained semiconductor structure

    DOEpatents

    Nastasi, Michael A [Santa Fe, NM; Shao, Lin [College Station, TX

    2009-12-29

    The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the deposited multilayer structure is bonded to a second substrate and is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring a multilayer structure from one substrate to the other substrate. The multilayer structure includes at least one strained semiconductor layer and at least one strain-induced seed layer. The strain-induced seed layer can be optionally etched away after the layer transfer.

  13. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenhui

    2007-12-01

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 μ C m-1 for lead zirconate titanate to 100 μ C m-1 for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.

  14. Strained Hydrocarbons as Potential Hypergolic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A storable combination of high-energy hypergolic fuel and oxidizer is advantageous to the future of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The combination will allow an increase in energy per unit volume of fuel and eliminate the need for an external ignition system. Strained systems have been studied as potential high-density fuels. Adding hypergolic functional groups, such as amino groups, to these hydrocarbons will potentially allow auto ignition of strained systems with hydrogen peroxide. Several straight chain amines and their strained counterparts containing an equivalent number of carbon atoms have been purchased and synthesized. These amines provide initial studies to determine the effects of fuel vapor pressure, strain energy, fuel miscibility, and amine substitution upon fuel ignition time and hypergolicity with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer.

  15. Hospital strain colonization by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Blum-Menezes, D; Bratfich, O J; Padoveze, M C; Moretti, M L

    2009-03-01

    The skin and mucous membranes of healthy subjects are colonized by strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis showing a high diversity of genomic DNA polymorphisms. Prolonged hospitalization and the use of invasive procedures promote changes in the microbiota with subsequent colonization by hospital strains. We report here a patient with prolonged hospitalization due to chronic pancreatitis who was treated with multiple antibiotics, invasive procedures and abdominal surgery. We studied the dynamics of skin colonization by S. epidermidis leading to the development of catheter-related infections and compared the genotypic profile of clinical and microbiota strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. During hospitalization, the normal S. epidermidis skin microbiota exhibiting a polymorphic genomic DNA profile was replaced with a hospital-acquired biofilm-producer S. epidermidis strain that subsequently caused repetitive catheter-related infections.

  16. Can a strain yield a qubit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Colin

    2015-03-01

    A Josepshon qubit is designed via the application of a tensile strain to a topological insulator surface, sandwiched between two s-wave superconductors. The strain applied leads to a shift in Dirac point without changing the conducting states existing on the surface of a topological insulator. This strain applied can be tuned to form a π-junction in such a structure. Combining two such junctions in a ring architecture leads to the ground state of the ring being in a doubly degenerate state- ``0'' and ``1'' states of the qubit. A qubit designed this way is easily controlled via the tunable strain. We report on the conditions necessary to design such a qubit. Finally the operating time of a single qubit phase gate is derived. This work was supported by funds from Dept. of Science and Technology (Nanomission), Govt. of India, Grant No. SR/NM/NS-1101/2011.

  17. Strains and Sprains Are a Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sprains? Muscles contract and relax (almost like rubber bands) to help your body move. So a strain ... where your body bends and rotates. Strong, elastic bands of tissue, called ligaments (say: LIH-guh-muntz), ...

  18. High-Temperature Adhesive Strain Gage Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have developed a unique strain gage and adhesive system for measuring the mechanical properties of polymers and polymer composites at elevated temperatures. This system overcomes some of the problems encountered in using commercial strain gages and adhesives. For example, typical commercial strain gage adhesives require a postcure at temperatures substantially higher than the maximum test temperature. The exposure of the specimen to this temperature may affect subsequent results, and in some cases may be higher than the glass-transition temperature of the polymer. In addition, although typical commercial strain gages can be used for short times at temperatures up to 370 C, their long-term use is limited to 230 C. This precludes their use for testing some high-temperature polyimides near their maximum temperature capability. Lewis' strain gage and adhesive system consists of a nonencapsulated, unbacked gage grid that is bonded directly to the polymer after the specimen has been cured but prior to the normal postcure cycle. The gage is applied with an adhesive specially formulated to cure under the specimen postcure conditions. Special handling, mounting, and electrical connection procedures were developed, and a fixture was designed to calibrate each strain gage after it was applied to a specimen. A variety of tests was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the gages at elevated temperatures on PMR-15 neat resin and titanium specimens. For these tests, which included static tension, thermal exposure, and creep tests, the gage and adhesive system performed within normal strain gage specifications at 315 C. An example of the performance characteristics of the gage can be seen in the figure, which compares the strain gage measurement on a polyimide specimen at 315 C with an extensometer measurement.

  19. Geometric reconstruction using tracked ultrasound strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Ondrake, Janet E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2013-03-01

    The accurate identification of tumor margins during neurosurgery is a primary concern for the surgeon in order to maximize resection of malignant tissue while preserving normal function. The use of preoperative imaging for guidance is standard of care, but tumor margins are not always clear even when contrast agents are used, and so margins are often determined intraoperatively by visual and tactile feedback. Ultrasound strain imaging creates a quantitative representation of tissue stiffness which can be used in real-time. The information offered by strain imaging can be placed within a conventional image-guidance workflow by tracking the ultrasound probe and calibrating the image plane, which facilitates interpretation of the data by placing it within a common coordinate space with preoperative imaging. Tumor geometry in strain imaging is then directly comparable to the geometry in preoperative imaging. This paper presents a tracked ultrasound strain imaging system capable of co-registering with preoperative tomograms and also of reconstructing a 3D surface using the border of the strain lesion. In a preliminary study using four phantoms with subsurface tumors, tracked strain imaging was registered to preoperative image volumes and then tumor surfaces were reconstructed using contours extracted from strain image slices. The volumes of the phantom tumors reconstructed from tracked strain imaging were approximately between 1.5 to 2.4 cm3, which was similar to the CT volumes of 1.0 to 2.3 cm3. Future work will be done to robustly characterize the reconstruction accuracy of the system.

  20. The Development of Electrical Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Forest, A V; Leaderman, H

    1940-01-01

    The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance strain gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the strain gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.

  1. Greek Goat Encephalitis Virus Strain Isolated from Ixodes ricinus, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2008-01-01

    A strain of Greek goat encephaltitis virus was isolated from engorged Ixodes ricinus ticks that had fed on goats in northern Greece. The strain was almost identical to the prototype strain isolated 35 years ago. PMID:18258134

  2. Medically Complex Home Care and Caregiver Strain

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Sara M.; Macdonald, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To examine (a) whether the content of caregiving tasks (i.e., nursing vs. personal care) contributes to variation in caregivers’ strain and (b) whether the level of complexity of nursing tasks contributes to variation in strain among caregivers providing help with such tasks. Design and methods: The data came from the Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation study conducted in Arkansas, Florida, and New Jersey. The paper analyzes the physical and emotional strain of 1,926 paid American caregivers who helped adult Medicaid recipients with personal and nursing care in the home. Results: Over 80% of home caregivers were providing assistance with nursing care, and over 50% of those were providing help with moderate or high complexity tasks. Caregivers who were providing any type of nursing care reported significantly more strain than caregivers who were providing only personal care. Those providing highly or moderately complex nursing care exhibited more caregiver strain than did those providing low-complexity nursing care. Implications: Medical complexity is an important contributor to caregiver strain. Policymakers should consider medical complexity in the development of practices to assist the caregivers of Medicaid long-term care recipients, especially through consumer-directed supportive service programs. PMID:22563000

  3. Phenotypical characterization of Mongolian Yersinia pestis strains.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Daniel; Dalantai, Ganbold; Damdindorj, Tserennorov; Riehm, Julia M; Tomaso, Herbert; Zöller, Lothar; Dashdavaa, Otgonbaatar; Pfister, Kurt; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-03-01

    Although Mongolia is regarded as one of the possible places of plague radiation, only few data are available from Mongolian Yersinia pestis strains. In this study a total of 100 Mongolian Y. pestis strains isolated from wild mammals and their parasites between the years 1960 and 2007 were analyzed for their phenotype. All strains grew well on selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin agar and were positive for the F1-antigen, the F1-gene (caf1), and the plasminogen activator gene (pla). Biochemical analyses using the API20E® system identified 93% of the strains correctly as Y. pestis. The BWY in-house system consisting of 38 biochemical reactions was used to differentiate among Y. pestis subspecies pestis biovars Antiqua and Medievalis and also between the subspecies microtus biovars Ulegeica and Caucasica. Antibiotic susceptibility testing according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-guidelines identified one strain as being multiresistant. This strain was isolated from a wildlife rodent with no anthropogenic influence and thus suggests naturally acquired resistance.

  4. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibitedmore » by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).« less

  5. Strain-controlled electrocatalysis on multimetallic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingchuan; Guo, Shaojun

    2017-11-01

    Electrocatalysis is crucial for the development of clean and renewable energy technologies, which may reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. Multimetallic nanomaterials serve as state-of-the-art electrocatalysts as a consequence of their unique physico-chemical properties. One method of enhancing the electrocatalytic performance of multimetallic nanomaterials is to tune or control the surface strain of the nanomaterials, and tremendous progress has been made in this area in the past decade. In this Review, we summarize advances in the introduction, tuning and quantification of strain in multimetallic nanocrystals to achieve more efficient energy conversion by electrocatalysis. First, we introduce the concept of strain and its correlation with other key physico-chemical properties. Then, using the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen as a model reaction, we discuss the underlying mechanisms behind the strain-adsorption-reactivity relationship based on combined classical theories and models. We describe how this knowledge can be harnessed to design multimetallic nanocrystals with optimized strain to increase the efficiency of oxygen reduction. In particular, we highlight the unexpectedly beneficial (and previously overlooked) role of tensile strain from multimetallic nanocrystals in improving electrocatalysis. We conclude by outlining the challenges and offering our perspectives on the research directions in this burgeoning field.

  6. Emerging clinical role of strain imaging in echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Leung, Dominic Y; Ng, Arnold C T

    2010-03-01

    Myocardial strain is a measure of tissue deformation and strain rate is the rate at which deformation occurs. When applied to the heart, strain and strain rate give fundamental information on myocardial properties and mechanics that would otherwise be unavailable. Site specificity and angle independency are two unique characteristics of strain and strain rate data. Strain and strain rate can be obtained with tissue Doppler imaging or with 2D speck tracking. These two techniques derive information on strain and strain rate in two fundamentally different ways and each has its own advantages and limitations. Tissue Doppler imaging yields velocity information from which strain and strain rate are mathematically derived whereas 2D speckle tracking yields strain information from which strain rate and velocity data are derived. Data obtained from these two different techniques may not be equivalent due to limitations inherent with each technique. Strain and strain rate imaging have been used to assess myocardial function in a wide range of cardiac conditions. They are useful in detecting early left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in the setting of systemic diseases with cardiac involvement, in differentiating transmural from non-transmural infarction, and in identifying LV contractile reserve in regurgitant valve lesions. When used with dobutamine echocardiography, strain and strain rate imaging can identify viable myocardium and aid the detection of myocardial ischaemia. Strain and strain rate imaging can also be used to assess right ventricular and left atrial function. Despite significant promises, strain and strain rate imaging is technically challenging and signal to noise ratio may be potentially affected by a wide range of factors. As a result, strain and strain rate imaging have been slow to get incorporated into everyday clinical practice. Ongoing research and further technical development are likely to improve the quality of the data and the more general acceptance

  7. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  8. A resistance strain gage with repeatable and cancellable apparent strain for use to 800 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1990-01-01

    A temperature compensated static strain gage, which is fabricated from palladium-13w/o chromium (Pd13Cr) alloy and a platinum (Pt) compensator, is being developed and was tested over a temperature range to 800 C at NASA-Lewis. The PdCr compensated strain gage has significantly lower apparent strain to 800 C than other high temperature strain gages. The PdCr compensated gage is protected from oxidation by a flame-sprayed alumina-4w/o zirconia overcoating. Test results to 800 C indicate apparent strain variations of less than 300 micro-epsilon and reproducibility between thermal cycles within 50 micro-epsilon. Apparent strain of the coated PdCr compensated gage can be predicted and cancelled due to its reproducibility and low value.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Rat Cytomegalovirus Strain ALL-03 (Malaysian Strain)

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ashwaq Ahmed; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina; Quah, Yi Wan; Abba, Yusuf; Hani, Homayoun; Loh, Hwei San; Kamal, Farina Mustaffa; Zeenathul, Nazariah Allaudin; Aini, Ideris; Omar, A. R.; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha; Mohd Azmi, Mohd Lila

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the ALL-03 strain of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) has been determined. The RCMV genome has a length of 197,958 bp and is arranged as a single unique sequence flanked by 504-bp terminal direct repeats. This strain is closely related to the English strain of RCMV in terms of genetic arrangement but differs slightly in size. PMID:26044413

  10. Purification of Helicobacter suis Strains From Biphasic Cultures by Single Colony Isolation: Influence on Strain Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jungang; De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastritis and decreased weight gain in pigs. It is also the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in humans with gastric disease. H. suis is extremely fastidious, and so far, biphasic culture conditions were essential for isolation and culture, making it impossible to obtain single colonies. Hence, cultures obtained from an individual animal may contain multiple H. suis strains, which is undesirable for experiments aiming for instance at investigating H. suis strain differences. Pure cultures of H. suis were established by growing bacteria as colonies on 1% brucella agar plates, followed by purification and enrichment by biphasic subculture. Characteristics of these single colony-derived strains were compared with those of their parent strains using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and by studying bacterium-host interactions using a gastric epithelial cell line and Mongolian gerbil model. The purification/enrichment procedure required a nonstop culture of several weeks. For 4 of 17 H. suis strains, MLST revealed differences between parental and single colony-derived strains. For three of four single colony-derived strains tested, the cell death-inducing capacity was higher than for the parental strain. One single colony-derived strain lost its capacity to colonize Mongolian gerbils. For the four other strains tested, colonization capacity and histopathologic changes were similar to what has been described when using strains with only a history of limited biphasic culture. A method was developed to obtain single colony-derived H. suis strains, but this procedure may affect the bacterial genotype and phenotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intramyocardial strain estimation from cardiac cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Elnakib, Ahmed; Beache, Garth M; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2015-08-01

    Functional strain is one of the important clinical indicators for the quantification of heart performance and the early detection of cardiovascular diseases, and functional strain parameters are used to aid therapeutic decisions and follow-up evaluations after cardiac surgery. A comprehensive framework for deriving functional strain parameters at the endocardium, epicardium, and mid-wall of the left ventricle (LV) from conventional cine MRI data was developed and tested. Cine data were collected using short TR-/TE-balanced steady-state free precession acquisitions on a 1.5T Siemens Espree scanner. The LV wall borders are segmented using a level set-based deformable model guided by a stochastic force derived from a second-order Markov-Gibbs random field model that accounts for the object shape and appearance features. Then, the mid-wall of the segmented LV is determined based on estimating the centerline between the endocardium and epicardium of the LV. Finally, a geometrical Laplace-based method is proposed to track corresponding points on successive myocardial contours throughout the cardiac cycle in order to characterize the strain evolutions. The method was tested using simulated phantom images with predefined point locations of the LV wall throughout the cardiac cycle. The method was tested on 30 in vivo datasets to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed framework to index functional strain parameters. The cine MRI-based model agreed with the ground truth for functional metrics to within 0.30 % for indexing the peak systolic strain change and 0.29 % (per unit time) for indexing systolic and diastolic strain rates. The method was feasible for in vivo extraction of functional strain parameters. Strain indexes of the endocardium, mid-wall, and epicardium can be derived from routine cine images using automated techniques, thereby improving the utility of cine MRI data for characterization of myocardial function. Unlike traditional texture-based tracking, the

  12. Inexpensive Implementation of Many Strain Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkun, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed to develop arrays of strain gauges as arrays of ordinary metal film resistors and associated electronic readout circuitry on printed circuit boards or other suitable substrates. This proposal is a by-product of a development of instrumentation utilizing metal film resistors on printed-circuit boards to measure temperatures at multiple locations. In the course of that development, it was observed that in addition to being sensitive to temperature, the metal film resistors were also sensitive to strains in the printed-circuit boards to which they were attached. Because of the low cost of ordinary metal film resistors (typically <$0.01 apiece at 2007 prices), the proposal could enable inexpensive implementation of arrays of many (e.g., 100 or more) strain gauges, possibly concentrated in small areas. For example, such an array could be designed for use as a computer keyboard with no moving parts, as a device for sensing the shape of an object resting on a surface, or as a device for measuring strains at many points on a mirror, a fuel tank, an airplane wing, or other large object. Ordinarily, the effect of strain on resistance would be regarded as a nuisance in a temperature-measuring application, and the effect of temperature on resistance would be regarded as a nuisance in a strain-measuring application. The strain-induced changes in resistance of the metal film resistors in question are less than those of films in traditional strain gauges. The main novel aspect of present proposal lies in the use of circuitry affording sufficient sensitivity to measure strain plus means for compensating for the effect of temperature. For an array of metal film resistors used as proposed, the readout circuits would include a high-accuracy analog-to-digital converter fed by a low noise current source, amplifier chain, and an analog multiplexer chain. Corrections would be provided by use of high-accuracy calibration resistors and a temperature sensor. By use of

  13. Polarization Charge Density in Strained Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Noah

    Graphene, the world's first truly two-dimensional material, is unique for having an electronic structure described by an effective Lorentz invariant theory. One important consequence is that the ratio or Coulomb energy to kinetic energy is a constant, depending only on conditions within the lattice rather than on the average charge density as in a typical Galilean invariant material. Given this unusual property, a natural question would be how do phenomena, such as screening of a Coulomb impurity, happen in graphene? Moreover, how does the addition of uniaxial strain enhance or diminish this behavior? Here I discuss our work to calculate the charge density distribution in a lattice of strained graphene under the effect of an external Coulomb impurity. Graphene can have its band structure significantly altered by the application of uniaxial strain. Two cases are here explored: relatively weak strain at some finite chemical potential, and extreme strain with zero chemical potential. In the first system, the strain induces elliptic Dirac cones, engendering some inherent directionality to graphene's electronic properties that did not exist before. This anisotropy manifests itself in the polarization function, and so too in the screening charge density. A finite chemical potential in this case is necessary for any screening to take place in graphene since, without it, there are no electron states near the Fermi level to polarize. Both in the strained and unstrained case, decaying oscillations known as Friedel oscillations are observed. The result of strain is a multifaceted anisotropy of the charge distribution: the amplitude, frequency, and the position of the first peak in the oscillations are each varied depending on the direction one observes. In the second system, extreme strain in graphene leads to a merging of Dirac cones, yielding a transition to a new energy spectrum. This band structure is unusual in that it becomes quadratic along the direction of strain

  14. Stress-Strain Relation and strain-Induced Crystallization in Rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Toki,S.

    2006-01-01

    Rubber is composed of flexible chains and network points. Theory of rubber elasticity succeeds to elucidate stress-strain relation of rubber using the inverse Langevin equation of entropy modulus. However, actual rubber is much different from ideal networks composed of ideal rubber chains. Network points may not distribute homogeneously and the molecular weight between two network points may show wide distribution. Flexible chains show strain-induced crystallization. Recent synchrotron X-ray and simultaneous stress-strain measurements reveal that strain-induced crystallization reduces the stress by increasing the length of molecules along the stretching direction. Also, strain-induced crystals are created not at the middle of themore » network points, but at the close location to the network points. The hybrid structure of strain-induced crystallites and network points may be stronger than network points alone. Therefore, strain induced crystallization may increase the tensile strength of rubber by two mechanisms, they are, increase of elongation at break and reinforcement of network points. Natural rubber has biotic network points in nature. After vulcanization, the biotic network may contribute the superior toughness of NR, comparing to IR. Carbon filled NR also shows strain induced crystallization. In order to acquire high tensile strength, molecules should have higher flexibility to perform strain induced crystallization by selecting a kind of carbon blacks, an accelerator and a curing condition.« less

  15. Pathogenicity of rabies viruses isolated in China: two fixed strains and a street strain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Gong, Kai; Song, Bo; Liang, Guo Dong

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the virulence characteristics of two fixed strains (CTN and aG) and a street strain (HN10) of rabies viruses isolated in China. ICR mice of different age groups were inoculated with CTN, aG and HN10 rabies virus strains via the intracracerebral (i.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) routes, and observed for 20 days. The CTN strain was pathogenic to 7-day-old suckling mice that received i.c. inoculations and 3-day-old suckling mice that received i.m. inoculations. The aG strain was pathogenic to 4-week-old mice that received i.c. inoculations and 7-day-old suckling mice that received i.m. inoculations. The HN10 strain was pathogenic to mice of all age groups via both inoculation routes. In moribund mice, the viruses had spread to most regions of the brain. The CTN and HN10 strains had similar dissemination patterns in the brain; both viral antigens could be found in the dentate gyrus (DG), whereas few viral antigens were present in the DG from specimens that had been infected with the aG strain. A comprehensive sequence analysis of the G protein suggested that differences in gene sequences may be responsible for producing strain-specific differences in pathogenicity and distribution in the brain. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Thin film strain transducer. [suitable for in-flight measurement of scientific balloon strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making same is disclosed wherein a beryllium-copper ring having four strain gages disposed thereon is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of the ring and providing an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A figure is provided which illustrates a pattern of a one-half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium-copper for chem-mill etch formation, prior to bending and welding of a pair of the segments to form a ring structure.

  17. The influence of strain rate and hydrogen on the plane-strain ductility of Zircaloy cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Link, T.M.; Motta, A.T.; Koss, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    The authors studied the ductility of unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding under loading conditions prototypical of those found in reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), i.e.: near plane-strain deformation in the hoop direction (transverse to the cladding axis) at room temperature and 300 C and high strain rates. To conduct these studies, they developed a specimen configuration in which near plane-strain deformation is achieved in the gage section, and a testing methodology that allows one to determine both the limit strain at the onset of localized necking and the fracture strain. The experiments indicate that there is little effect of strain rate (10{sup {minus}3} tomore » 10{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}) on the ductility of unhydrided Zircaloy tubing deformed under near plane-strain conditions at either room temperature or 300 C. Preliminary experiments on cladding containing 190 ppm hydrogen show only a small loss of fracture strain but no clear effect on limit strain. The experiments also indicate that there is a significant loss of Zircaloy ductility when surface flaws are present in the form of thickness imperfections.« less

  18. Predicting hamstring strain injury in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Brockett, Camilla L; Morgan, David L; Proske, Uwe

    2004-03-01

    Eccentric exercise, where the contracting muscle is lengthened, produces microscopic damage in muscle fibers, and sensations of stiffness and soreness, the next day. These normally resolve within a week. A more major sports injury is the muscle strain. Because strain injuries are known to occur during eccentric contractions, it is hypothesized that the microscopic damage from eccentric exercise can, at times, progress to a muscle strain. As the amount of microscopic damage depends on the muscle's optimum length for active tension, it is further proposed that optimum length is a measure of susceptibility for muscle strains. The athletes most at risk of a hamstring strain are those with a previous history of such injuries. Here the prediction is tested that optimum lengths of previously injured hamstrings are shorter and therefore more prone to eccentric damage than uninjured muscles. Mean optimum angle for peak torque in a previously injured muscle of nine athletes with a history of unilateral hamstring strains was compared with the uninjured muscle of the other leg and with muscles of 18 uninjured athletes. Optimum angle was determined with isokinetic dynamometry. In previously injured muscles, torque peaked at significantly shorter lengths than for uninjured muscles. Peak torque and quadriceps:hamstrings torque ratios were not significantly different. The shorter optimum of previously injured muscles makes them more prone to damage from eccentric exercise than uninjured muscles and this may account for the high reinjury rate. The shorter optimum may reflect the muscle's preinjury state or be a consequence of the healing process. To reduce the incidence of strain injuries, it is recommended that a combined program of eccentric exercise and muscle testing be carried out.

  19. Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Crowell, Brendan W

    2017-01-01

    Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic strains at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004–2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic strain can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site–station effects and source–path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal‐type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high‐frequency strain data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic strains than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic strain prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku‐Oki earthquake, specifically continuous strain records derived from triangulation of 137 high‐rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the strain model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.

  20. Determination of Dynamic Recrystallization Process by Equivalent Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaomei; Deng, Wei

    Based on Tpнoвckiй's displacement field, equivalent strain expression was derived. And according to the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) critical strain, DRX process was determined by equivalent strain. It was found that equivalent strain distribution in deformed specimen is inhomogeneous, and it increases with increasing true strain. Under a certain true strain, equivalent strains at the center, demisemi radius or on tangential plane just below the surface of the specimen are higher than the true strain. Thus, micrographs at those positions can not exactly reflect the true microstructures under the certain true strain. With increasing strain rate, the initial and finish time of DRX decrease. The frozen microstructures of 20Mn23AlV steel with the experimental condition validate the feasibility of predicting DRX process by equivalent strain.

  1. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  2. The Effect of Ivermectin in Seven Strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Including a Genetically Diverse Laboratory Strain and Three Permethrin Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Deus, K. M.; Saavedra-rodriguez, K.; Butters, M. P.; Black, W. C.; Foy, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    Seven different strains of Aedes aegypti (L.), including a genetically diverse laboratory strain, three laboratory-selected permethrin-resistant strains, a standard reference strain, and two recently colonized strains were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. Ivermectin reduced adult survival, fecundity, and hatch rate of eggs laid by ivermectin-treated adults in all seven strains. The LC50 of ivermectin for adults and the concentration that prevented 50% of eggs from hatching was calculated for all strains. Considerable variation in adult survival after an ivermectin-bloodmeal occurred among strains, and all three permethrin-resistant strains were significantly less susceptible to ivermectin than the standard reference strain. The hatch rate after an ivermectin bloodmeal was less variable among strains, and only one of the permethrin-resistant strains differed significantly from the standard reference strain. Our studies suggest that ivermectin induces adult mortality and decreases the hatch rate of eggs through different mechanisms. A correlation analysis of log-transformed LC50 among strains suggests that permethrin and ivermectin cross-resistance may occur. PMID:22493855

  3. Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Seo, Jung-Hun; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Zhu, Ye; Celler, George K; Voyles, Paul M; Zhou, Weidong; Lagally, Max G; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fast flexible electronics operating at radio frequencies (>1 GHz) are more attractive than traditional flexible electronics because of their versatile capabilities, dramatic power savings when operating at reduced speed and broader spectrum of applications. Transferrable single-crystalline Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) are preferred to other materials for flexible electronics owing to their unique advantages. Further improvement of Si-based device speed implies significant technical and economic advantages. While the mobility of bulk Si can be enhanced using strain techniques, implementing these techniques into transferrable single-crystalline SiNMs has been challenging and not demonstrated. The past approach presents severe challenges to achieve effective doping and desired material topology. Here we demonstrate the combination of strained- NM-compatible doping techniques with self-sustained-strain sharing by applying a strain-sharing scheme between Si and SiGe multiple epitaxial layers, to create strained print-transferrable SiNMs. We demonstrate a new speed record of Si-based flexible electronics without using aggressively scaled critical device dimensions.

  4. Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Seo, Jung-Hun; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Zhu, Ye; Celler, George K.; Voyles, Paul M.; Zhou, Weidong; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fast flexible electronics operating at radio frequencies (>1 GHz) are more attractive than traditional flexible electronics because of their versatile capabilities, dramatic power savings when operating at reduced speed and broader spectrum of applications. Transferrable single-crystalline Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) are preferred to other materials for flexible electronics owing to their unique advantages. Further improvement of Si-based device speed implies significant technical and economic advantages. While the mobility of bulk Si can be enhanced using strain techniques, implementing these techniques into transferrable single-crystalline SiNMs has been challenging and not demonstrated. The past approach presents severe challenges to achieve effective doping and desired material topology. Here we demonstrate the combination of strained- NM-compatible doping techniques with self-sustained-strain sharing by applying a strain-sharing scheme between Si and SiGe multiple epitaxial layers, to create strained print-transferrable SiNMs. We demonstrate a new speed record of Si-based flexible electronics without using aggressively scaled critical device dimensions. PMID:23416347

  5. Genomics of Clostridium botulinum group III strains.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Oguma, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    In Clostridium botulinum, the characteristics of type C and D strains are quite different from other types, and they are classified as group III. They produce C2 binary toxin and C3 exoenzyme in addition to type C and D neurotoxins. Two different phages and many plasmids are identified in the organisms. The genes of neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme are converted from toxigenic strains to non-toxigenic strains by the specific bacteriophages (phages), whereas, the C2 toxin gene is carried by large or small plasmids. Classification of type C and D strains has been in confusion because 1) antigenicity of type C and D neurotoxins is complex, 2) the cells produce two types of toxins, neurotoxin and C2 toxin, and 3) some non-toxigenic strains can be converted to produce C or D neurotoxin by the infection with phages. Until now, entire nucleotide sequences of cell chromosomes, phages, and plasmids have been determined. Since both genetic and protein-chemical analyses have been clarifying the above confusions, these data are reviewed historically. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Interference Competition Among Household Strains of Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    France, Michael T; Remold, Susanna K

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial species exhibit biogeographical patterns like those observed in larger organisms. The distribution of bacterial species is driven by environmental selection through abiotic and biotic factors as well dispersal limitations. We asked whether interference competition, a biotic factor, could explain variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas species in the human home. To answer this question, we screened almost 8000 directional, pairwise interactions between 89 Pseudomonas strains including members of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 29), Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 21), and Pseudomonas putida (n = 39) species groups for the presence of killing. This diverse set of Pseudomonas strains includes those isolated from several different habitats within the home environment and includes combinations of strains that were isolated from different spatial scales. The use of this strain set not only allowed us to analyze the commonality and phylogenetic scale of interference competition within the genus Pseudomonas but also allowed us to investigate the influence of spatial scale on this trait. Overall, the probability of killing was found to decrease with increasing phylogenetic distance, making it unlikely that interference competition accounts for previously observed differential habitat use among Pseudomonas species and species groups. Strikingly, conspecific P. aeruginosa killing accounted for the vast majority of the observed killing, and this killing was found to differ across the habitat type and spatial scale of the strains' isolation. These data suggest that interference competition likely plays a large role in the within-species dynamics of P. aeruginosa but not other household Pseudomonas species.

  7. Return to play following muscle strains.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John; Best, Thomas M; Verrall, George M

    2005-11-01

    To assess return to play strategies following muscle strains with the desired outcomes of decreased competition play lost and minimized risk for recurrent injury. Literature review of previous studies that examine return to play criteria for the commonly seen muscle strain injuries in sport. There have been no studies directly comparing different return to play approaches. Studies have instead concentrated on recurrence risk factors and prognosis assessment, particularly for hamstring injuries. There is some literature support for risk factors for recurrence such as persisting strength deficits, larger injuries seen on diagnostic imaging, players in high-risk positions or sports, inability to complete functional tasks without pain, and strains of specific high-risk muscles (biceps femoris, central tendon of rectus femoris, medial head of gastrocnemius, adductor longus or magnus). There are no consensus guidelines or agreed-upon criteria for safe return to sport following muscle strains that completely eliminate the risk for recurrence and maximize performance. At this time, it may be a sensible strategy to allow earlier return to play in team sports and accept a low to moderate injury recurrence rate. Improved prognostic assessment of muscle strains with injury identification (MRI) and injury assessment (isokinetic testing) may be assist practitioners to lower, but not eliminate, recurrent injuries.

  8. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus plantarum mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Bove, Pasquale; Gallone, Anna; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Albenzio, Marzia; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum wild-type and derivative mutant strains was investigated. Bacterial survival was evaluated in an in vitro system, simulating the transit along the human oro-gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with human gut epithelial cells was studied by assessing bacterial adhesive ability to Caco-2 cells and induction of genes involved in innate immunity. L. plantarum strains were resistant to the combined stress at the various steps of the simulated gastrointestinal tract. Major decreases in the viability of L. plantarum cells were observed mainly under drastic acidic conditions (pH ≤ 2.0) of the gastric compartment. Abiotic stresses associated to small intestine poorly affected bacterial viability. All the bacterial strains significantly adhered to Caco-2 cells, with the ΔctsR mutant strain exhibiting the highest adhesion. Induction of immune-related genes resulted higher upon incubation with heat-inactivated bacteria rather than with live ones. For specific genes, a differential transcriptional pattern was observed upon stimulation with different L. plantarum strains, evidencing a possible role of the knocked out bacterial genes in the modulation of host cell response. In particular, cells from Δhsp18.55 and ΔftsH mutants strongly triggered immune defence genes. Our study highlights the relevance of microbial genetic background in host-probiotic interaction and might contribute to identify candidate bacterial genes and molecules involved in probiosis.

  9. Hepatitis E virus strains in rabbits and evidence of a closely related strain in humans, France.

    PubMed

    Izopet, Jacques; Dubois, Martine; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Lhomme, Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Boucher, Samuel; Kamar, Nassim; Abravanel, Florence; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. To determine HEV prevalence in rabbits and the strains' genetic characteristics, we tested bile, liver, and additional samples from farmed and wild rabbits in France. We detected HEV RNA in 7% (14/200) of bile samples from farmed rabbits (in 2009) and in 23% (47/205) of liver samples from wild rabbits (in 2007-2010). Full-length genomic sequences indicated that all rabbit strains belonged to the same clade (nucleotide sequences 72.2%-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4). Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit strain HEV. We found a 93-nt insertion in the X domain of open reading frame 1 of the human strain and all rabbit HEV strains. These findings indicate that the host range of HEV in Europe is expanding and that zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.

  10. Characterizing bone strain distributions in vivo using three triple rosette strain gages.

    PubMed

    Gross, T S; McLeod, K J; Rubin, C T

    1992-09-01

    Three triple-element rosette strain gages were attached to the equine third metacarpal midshaft to record site-specific strains engendered by locomotion. The distribution of strains acting upon the midshaft cross section were characterized using a combined beam theory and finite element model analysis that did not presume the manner by which the bone was inertially loaded. A medium-speed trot (3.6 ms-1) was chosen as a representative speed and gait, with normal and shear strains, and strain energy density (SED) distributions determined throughout the stance and subsequent swing phase. Importantly, the sites of maximum compression (-2400 mu epsilon), tension (810 mu epsilon), shear (1500 mu epsilon), and SED (54 kPa) were not located at any of the gage attachment sites, emphasizing that a minimum of three rosette gages are necessary to resolve the peaks and locations of functionally induced normal and shear strains. Considering the nonuniform strain distributions across the cortex, we conclude that the third metacarpal is subject to a complex loading milieu comprised of bending, axial compression, end shear, and torsion. As this complex manner of loading was consistent through the entire stance phase, it would appear that, at least during the trot, specific sites within the same cross section are subject to vastly different magnitudes of strain stimulus.

  11. Effect of strain isolator pad modulus on inplane strain in Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal protection system used on the Space Shuttle orbiter to determine strains in the reusable surface insulation tiles under simulated flight loads was investigated. The effects of changes in the strain isolator pad (SIP) moduli on the strains in the tile were evaluated. To analyze the SIP/tile system, it was necessary to conduct tests to determine inplane tension and compression modulus and inplane failure strain for the densified layer of the tiles. It is shown that densification of the LI-900 tile material increases the modulus by a factor of 6 to 10 and reduces the failure strain by about 50%. It is indicated that the inplane strain levels in the Shuttle tiles in the highly loaded regions are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than the failure strain of the material. It is concluded that most of the LI-900 tiles on the Shuttle could be mounted on a SIP with tensile and shear stiffnesses 10 times those of the present SIP without inplane strain failure in the tile.

  12. Wing Shape Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2015-01-01

    A new two step theory is investigated for predicting the deflection and slope of an entire structure using strain measurements at discrete locations. In the first step, a measured strain is fitted using a piecewise least squares curve fitting method together with the cubic spline technique. These fitted strains are integrated twice to obtain deflection data along the fibers. In the second step, computed deflection along the fibers are combined with a finite element model of the structure in order to extrapolate the deflection and slope of the entire structure through the use of System Equivalent Reduction and Expansion Process. The theory is first validated on a computational model, a cantilevered rectangular wing. It is then applied to test data from a cantilevered swept wing model.

  13. Test load verification through strain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.; Harrington, F.

    1995-01-01

    A traditional binding acceptance criterion on polycrystalline structures is the experimental verification of the ultimate factor of safety. At fracture, the induced strain is inelastic and about an order-of-magnitude greater than designed for maximum expected operational limit. At this extreme strained condition, the structure may rotate and displace at the applied verification load such as to unknowingly distort the load transfer into the static test article. Test may result in erroneously accepting a submarginal design or rejecting a reliable one. A technique was developed to identify, monitor, and assess the load transmission error through two back-to-back surface-measured strain data. The technique is programmed for expediency and convenience. Though the method was developed to support affordable aerostructures, the method is also applicable for most high-performance air and surface transportation structural systems.

  14. Self-diffusion in compressively strained Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Yoko; Uematsu, Masashi; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2011-08-01

    Under a compressive biaxial strain of {approx} 0.71%, Ge self-diffusion has been measured using an isotopically controlled Ge single-crystal layer grown on a relaxed Si{sub 0.2}Ge{sub 0.8} virtual substrate. The self-diffusivity is enhanced by the compressive strain and its behavior is fully consistent with a theoretical prediction of a generalized activation volume model of a simple vacancy mediated diffusion, reported by Aziz et al.[Phys. Rev. B 73, 054101 (2006)]. The activation volume of (-0.65{+-}0.21) times the Ge atomic volume quantitatively describes the observed enhancement due to the compressive biaxial strain very well.

  15. Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melik, Rohat; Unal, Emre; Perkgoz, Nihan Kosku; Puttlitz, Christian; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2009-07-01

    We proposed and demonstrated metamaterial-based strain sensors that are highly sensitive to mechanical deformation. Their resonance frequency shift is correlated with the surface strain of our test material and the strain data are reported telemetrically. These metamaterial sensors are better than traditional radio-frequency (rf) structures in sensing for providing resonances with high quality factors and large transmission dips. Using split ring resonators (SRRs), we achieve lower resonance frequencies per unit area compared to other rf structures, allowing for bioimplant sensing in soft tissue (e.g., fracture healing). In 5×5 SRR architecture, our wireless sensors yield high sensitivity (109 kHz/kgf, or 5.148 kHz/microstrain) with low nonlinearity error (<200 microstrain).

  16. Strain Elastography - How To Do It?

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Barr, Richard G.; Farrokh, André; Dighe, Manjiri; Hocke, Michael; Jenssen, Christian; Dong, Yi; Saftoiu, Adrian; Havre, Roald Flesland

    2017-01-01

    Tissue stiffness assessed by palpation for diagnosing pathology has been used for thousands of years. Ultrasound elastography has been developed more recently to display similar information on tissue stiffness as an image. There are two main types of ultrasound elastography, strain and shear wave. Strain elastography is a qualitative technique and provides information on the relative stiffness between one tissue and another. Shear wave elastography is a quantitative method and provides an estimated value of the tissue stiffness that can be expressed in either the shear wave speed through the tissues in meters/second, or converted to the Young’s modulus making some assumptions and expressed in kPa. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages and they are often complimentary to each other in clinical practice. This article reviews the principles, technique, and interpretation of strain elastography in various organs. It describes how to optimize technique, while pitfalls and artifacts are also discussed. PMID:29226273

  17. High sensitivity knitted fabric strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juan; Long, Hairu; Miao, Menghe

    2016-10-01

    Wearable sensors are increasingly used in smart garments for detecting and transferring vital signals and body posture, movement and respiration. Existing fabric strain sensors made from metallized yarns have low sensitivity, poor comfort and low durability to washing. Here we report a knitted fabric strain sensor made from a cotton/stainless steel (SS) fibre blended yarn which shows much higher sensitivity than sensors knitted from metallized yarns. The fabric feels softer than pure cotton textiles owing to the ultrafine stainless steel fibres and does not lose its electrical property after washing. The reason for the high sensitivity of the cotton/SS knitted fabric sensor was explored by comparing its sensing mechanism with the knitted fabric sensor made from metallized yarns. The results show that the cotton/SS yarn-to-yarn contact resistance is highly sensitive to strain applied to hooked yarn loops.

  18. Thermus diversity and strain loss during enrichment.

    PubMed

    Saul; Reeves; Morgan; Bergquist

    1999-10-01

    The diversity of Thermus strains isolated from each of two New Zealand hot pools was examined by isolating partial SSU (16S) rRNA genes and comparing their sequences. Although all of the sequences were similar, several variants were found in each pool. Standard methods for the enrichment of Thermus were then carried out and the gene isolation and sequencing procedure was performed on the enriched isolates. The enrichments resulted in the maintenance of a single dominant strain from each pool and there was a complete loss of heterogeneity in the sequences. These results demonstrate that minor differences in SSU rRNA sequence are indicative of a physiological variance between strains which is of sufficient significance to provide selective advantage or disadvantage during enrichment.

  19. Divorcing Strain Classification from Species Names.

    PubMed

    Baltrus, David A

    2016-06-01

    Confusion about strain classification and nomenclature permeates modern microbiology. Although taxonomists have traditionally acted as gatekeepers of order, the numbers of, and speed at which, new strains are identified has outpaced the opportunity for professional classification for many lineages. Furthermore, the growth of bioinformatics and database-fueled investigations have placed metadata curation in the hands of researchers with little taxonomic experience. Here I describe practical challenges facing modern microbial taxonomy, provide an overview of complexities of classification for environmentally ubiquitous taxa like Pseudomonas syringae, and emphasize that classification can be independent of nomenclature. A move toward implementation of relational classification schemes based on inherent properties of whole genomes could provide sorely needed continuity in how strains are referenced across manuscripts and data sets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MWCNTs based flexible and stretchable strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Gao, Min; Zhu, Yuechang; Yan, Zhuocheng; Lin, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes have potential applications in flexible and stretchable devices due to their remarkable electromechanical properties. Flexible and stretchable strain sensors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with aligned or random structures were fabricated on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with different techniques. It was observed that the spraycoatedtechniquebased strain sensor fabricated on PDMS substrate showed higher sensitivity higher stretchability, better linearity and excellent longer time stability than the sensor fabricated with other methods presented in this work. The scanning electron microscopy images indicated the spray coating technique can produce a better uniform and compact CNT network, which is the important role affecting the performance of CNT-based flexible strain sensors. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB351905), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306015), the Technology Innovative Research Team of Sichuan Province of China (No.2015TD0005), and “111” Project (No. B13042)

  1. Long-term crustal strength: Strain vs. strain-rate weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruh, Jonas B.

    2017-04-01

    In compressional systems, stress build-up in the continental crust is subject to horizontal forces. Upper differential stress thresholds in the Earth's crust are defined by the strength of brittle faults or ductile shear zones, depending of their rheological behavior. The longevity of such high strain rate zones is their mechanical weakness relative to surrounding, undeformed rocks. Whether weakening of brittle faults depends on accumulated strain (e.g., grain size reduction), strain rate (e.g., shear heating), or other effects is debated. I use a two-dimensional numerical code with a visco-elasto-plastic/brittle rheology to investigate the influence of strain and strain-rate weakening (often referred to as velocity weakening) on the long-term stress evolution of compressed continental crust. One of the main goals is to show whether average differential stresses remain similar during the formation of orogenic-scale fault zones of whether they occur in pulses.

  2. Quantitative assessment of viable cells of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in single, dual and multi-strain biofilms.

    PubMed

    Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Smid, Eddy J; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2017-03-06

    Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum are a potential source for contamination and recontamination of food products. Although biofilms have been mostly studied using single species or even single strains, it is conceivable that in a range of environmental settings including food processing areas, biofilms are composed of multiple species with each species represented by multiple strains. In this study six spoilage related L. plantarum strains FBR1-FBR6 and the model strain L. plantarum WCFS1 were characterised in single, dual and multiple strain competition models. A quantitative PCR approach was used with added propidium monoazide (PMA) enabling quantification of intact cells in the biofilm, representing the viable cell fraction that determines the food spoilage risk. Our results show that the performance of individual strains in multi-strain cultures generally correlates with their performance in pure culture, and relative strain abundance in multi-strain biofilms positively correlated with the relative strain abundance in suspended (planktonic) cultures. Performance of individual strains in dual-strain biofilms was highly influenced by the presence of the secondary strain, and in most cases no correlation between the relative contributions of viable planktonic cells and viable cells in the biofilm was noted. The total biofilm quantified by CV staining of the dual and multi-strain biofilms formed was mainly correlated to CV values of the dominant strain obtained in single strain studies. However, the combination of strain FBR5 and strain WCFS1 showed significantly higher CV values compared to the individual performances of both strains indicating that total biofilm formation was higher in this specific condition. Notably, L. plantarum FBR5 was able to outgrow all other strains and showed the highest relative abundance in dual and multi-strain biofilms. All the dual and multi-strain biofilms contained a considerable number of viable cells, representing a potential

  3. Nucleation versus instability race in strained films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kailang; Berbezier, Isabelle; David, Thomas; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Abbarchi, Marco; Voorhees, Peter; Aqua, Jean-Noël

    2017-10-01

    Under the generic term "Stranski-Krastanov" are grouped two different growth mechanisms of SiGe quantum dots. They result from the self-organized Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd (ATG) instability at low strain, while at high strain, from a stochastic nucleation. While these regimes are well known, we elucidate here the origin of the transition between these two pathways thanks to a joint theoretical and experimental work. Nucleation is described within the master equation framework. By comparing the time scales for ATG instability development and three-dimensional (3D) nucleation onset, we demonstrate that the transition between these two regimes is simply explained by the crossover between their divergent evolutions. Nucleation exhibits a strong exponential deviation at low strain while ATG behaves only algebraically. The associated time scale varies with exp(1 /x4) for nucleation, while it only behaves as 1 /x8 for the ATG instability. Consequently, at high (low) strain, nucleation (instability) occurs faster and inhibits the alternate evolution. It is then this different kinetic evolution which explains the transition from one regime to the other. Such a kinetic view of the transition between these two 3D growth regimes was not provided before. The crossover between nucleation and ATG instability is found to occur both experimentally and theoretically at a Ge composition around 50% in the experimental conditions used here. Varying the experimental conditions and/or the system parameters does not allow us to suppress the transition. This means that the SiGe quantum dots always grow via ATG instability at low strain and nucleation at high strain. This result is important for the self-organization of quantum dots.

  4. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Du-Ping; Ando, Tamie; Fankhauser, Rebecca L; Beard, R Suzanne; Glass, Roger I; Monroe, Stephan S

    2006-03-15

    Without a virus culture system, genetic analysis becomes the principal method to classify norovirus (NoV) strains. Currently, classification of NoV strains beneath the species level has been based on sequences from different regions of the viral genome. As a result, the phylogenetic insights of some virus were not appropriately interpreted, and no consensus has been reached to establish a uniform classification scheme. To provide a consistent and reliable scientific basis for classifying NoVs, we analyzed the amino acid sequences for the major capsid protein of 164 NoV strains by first using an alignment based on the predicted 3D structures. A Bayesian tree was generated, and the maximum likelihood pairwise distances of the aligned sequences were used to evaluate the results from the uncorrected pairwise distance method. Analyses of the pairwise distances demonstrated three clearly resolved peaks, suggesting that NoV strains beneath the species level can be classified at three levels: strain (S), cluster (C), and genogroup (G). The uncorrected pairwise distance ranges for S, C, and G were 0-14.1%, 14.3-43.8%, and 44.9-61.4%, respectively. A scheme with 29 genetic clusters [8 in genogroup 1 (G1), 17 in G2, 2 in G3, and 1 each in G4 and G5] was defined on the basis of the tree topology with the standards provided and was supported by the distance analysis. Of these, five clusters in G2 and one in G1 are newly described. This analysis can serve as the basis for a standardized nomenclature to genetically describe NoV strains.

  5. Episodic strain accumulation in southern california.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W

    1976-11-12

    Reexamination of horizontal geodetic data in the region of recently discovered aseismic uplift has demonstrated that equally unusual horizontal crustal deformation accompanied the development of the uplift. During this time interval compressive strains were oriented roughly normal to the San Andreas fault, suggesting that the uplift produced little shear strain accumulation across this fault. On the other hand, the orientation of the anomalous shear straining is consistent with strain accumulation across northdipping range-front thrusts like the San Fernando fault. Accordingly, the horizontal and vertical crustal deformation disclosed by geodetic observation is interpreted as a short epoch of rapid strain accumulation on these frontal faults. If this interpretation is correct, thrust-type earthquakes will eventually release the accumulated strains, but the geodetic data examined here cannot be used to estimate when these events might occur. However, observation of an unusual sequence of tilts prior to 1971 on a level line lying to the north of the magnitude 6.4 San Fernando earthquake offers some promise for precursor monitoring. The data are adequately explained by a simple model of up-dip aseismic slip propagation toward the 1971 epicentral region. These observations and the simple model that accounts for them suggest a conceptually straightforward monitoring scheme to search for similar uplift and tilt precursors within the uplifted region. Such premonitory effects could be detected by a combination of frequenlty repeated short (30 to 70 km in length) level line measurements, precise gravity traverses, and continuously recording gravimeters sited to the north of the active frontal thrust faults. Once identified, such precursors could be closely followed in space and time, and might then provide effective warnings of impending potentially destructive earth-quakes.

  6. Dynamic strain aging in magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Stoebe, T. G.

    1973-01-01

    Strain rate change transients are considered together with aspects of serrated flow, questions of flow stress and work hardening during dynamic strain aging, and time, temperature, and prestrain dependence of strain aging. On continuing the deformation process after aging for certain periods of time for a particular strain, a subsidiary load drop is sometimes observed in addition to the main yield drops.

  7. Ultrasound strain mapping of Achilles tendon compressive strain patterns during dorsiflexion.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Ruth L; Flemister, A Samuel; Ketz, John; Bucklin, Mary; Buckley, Mark R; Richards, Michael S

    2016-01-04

    Heel lifts are commonly prescribed to patients with Achilles tendinopathy, yet little is known about the effect on tendon compressive strain. The purposes of the current study were to (1) develop a valid and reliable ultrasound elastography technique and algorithm to measure compressive strain of human Achilles tendon in vivo, (2) examine the effects of ankle dorsiflexion (lowering via controlled removal of a heel lift and partial squat) on compressive strain of the Achilles tendon insertion and (3) examine the relative compressive strain between the deep and superficial regions of the Achilles tendon insertion. All tasks started in a position equivalent to standing with a 30mm heel lift. An ultrasound transducer positioned over the Achilles tendon insertion was used to capture radiofrequency images. A non-rigid image registration-based algorithm was used to estimate compressive strain of the tendon, which was divided into 2 regions (superficial, deep). The bland-Altman test and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to test validity and reliability. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare compressive strain between regions and across tasks. Compressive strain was accurately and reliably (ICC>0.75) quantified. There was greater compressive strain during the combined task of lowering and partial squat compared to the lowering (P=.001) and partial squat (P<.001) tasks separately. There was greater compressive strain in the deep region of the tendon compared to the superficial for all tasks (P=.001). While these findings need to be examined in a pathological population, heel lifts may reduce tendon compressive strain during daily activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  9. Strain measurement by diffraction at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, M. A. M.; Goldstone, J. A.; Robinson, R. A.

    1994-07-01

    Residual strains affect the structural integrity of components during both fabrication and service and consequently industrial manufacturers routinely invest considerable effort in their characterization and control. Neutron diffraction has proved to be a unique technique for non-destructive strain measurement within crystalline solids. The technique is achieving recognition but is limited by lack of beam time and compromises involved in using instruments designed for powder diffraction. This paper summarizes its importance, lists the capabilities of the Los Alamos (pulsed) neutron scattering center (LANSCE) and briefly describes a concept for a dedicated instrument.

  10. Giant flexoelectric effect through interfacial strain relaxation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daesu; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-10-28

    Interfacial strain gradients in oxide epitaxial thin films provide an interesting opportunity to study flexoelectric effects and their potential applications. Oxide epitaxial thin films can exhibit giant and tunable flexoelectric effects, which are six or seven orders of magnitude larger than those in conventional bulk solids. The strain gradient in an oxide epitaxial thin film can generate an electric field above 1 MV m(-1) by flexoelectricity, large enough to affect the physical properties of the film. Giant flexoelectric effects on ferroelectric properties are discussed in this overview of recent experimental observations.

  11. Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Strain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2017-01-01

    A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm.

  12. Flexible metamaterials for wireless strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melik, Rohat; Unal, Emre; Kosku Perkgoz, Nihan; Puttlitz, Christian; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2009-11-01

    We proposed and demonstrated flexible metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors that include arrays of split ring resonators (SRRs) to telemetrically measure strain. For these metamaterial sensors, we showed that a flexible substrate (e.g., Kapton tape) delivers greater sensitivity and a more linear response as compared to using silicon substrates. Specifically, these tape-based flexible SRR sensors exhibit a significantly improved sensitivity level of 0.292 MHz/kgf with a substantially reduced nonlinearity error of 3% for externally applied mechanical loads up to 250 kgf. These data represent a sixfold increase in sensitivity and a 16-fold reduction in error percentage.

  13. Strain variation and gene hunting in malaria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Y D; Fakruddin, J M; Bhutani, N; Kaushik, R; Raina, O K; Sharma, I

    1997-12-01

    Malaria still remains uncontrolled affecting millions and killing many. We have found the high chloroquine-resistance in Rajasthan epidemic which contains multipleP.falciparum strains. Large number of variantP.falciparum strains exist in India which should be taken into account for future malaria control strategies. We have characterised several parasite molecules which are involved in the hostparasite interaction. They can be used to develop the molecular therapy or antimalarial drugs for malaria. The parasite enzymes described by us will be quite useful in this regard, particularly in drug development.

  14. Propagating edge states in strained honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Grazia; Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the helically propagating edge states associated with pseudo-Landau levels in strained honeycomb lattices. We exploit chiral symmetry to derive a general criterion for the existence of these propagating edge states in the presence of only nearest-neighbor hoppings and we verify our criterion using numerical simulations of both uniaxially and trigonally strained honeycomb lattices. We show that the propagation of the helical edge state can be controlled by engineering the shape of the edges. Sensitivity to chiral-symmetry-breaking next-nearest-neighbor hoppings is assessed. Our result opens up an avenue toward the precise control of edge modes through manipulation of the edge shape.

  15. Development of high temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    High temperature electric resistance wire strain gages were developed and evaluated for use at temperatures exceeding 922 K (1200 F). A special high temperature strain gage alloy (Fe-25Cr-7.5A1), designated BCL-3, was used to fabricate the gages. Pertinent gage characteristics were determined at temperatures up to 1255 K (1800 F). The results of the evaluation were reported in graphical and tabular form. It was concluded that the gages will perform satisfactorily at temperatures to at least 1089 K (1500 F) for at least one hour.

  16. Attachment Techniques for High Temperature Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    2.1 PURPOSE 2 2.2 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART 2 2.2.1 Carbon Composites (Uncoated) 3 2.2.2 Carbon Composites (SiC Coated) 3 2.2.3 Rene’ 41 3...2.2 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART Existing resistive strain gages are usable to 1000°F short term static, 2400°F dynamic measurements. Current...of state-of-the- art gage types were tested. Two low profile GPD type capacitive strain gages were built and tested to 2000°F on Rene’ 41. Chinese

  17. Comparison of Ethanol Production by Different Zymomonas Strains

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, M. L.; Lee, K. J.; Tribe, D. E.; Rogers, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of the rates of growth and ethanol production by 11 different strains of Zymomonas revealed a wide range of characteristics, with some strains being more tolerant of high sugar or ethanol concentrations and high incubation temperatures than others. Some strains were unable to utilize sucrose; others produced large amounts of levan, and one strain grew well but produced no levan. One strain, CP4, was considerably better in all respects than most of the other strains and was chosen as a starting strain for genetic improvement of ethanol production. PMID:16345753

  18. Revisiting borehole strain, typhoons, and slow earthquakes using quantitative estimates of precipitation-induced strain changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ya-Ju; Chang, Yuan-Shu; Liu, Chi-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Ming; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn I.; Kitagawa, Genshio; Chen, Yue-Gau

    2015-06-01

    Taiwan experiences high deformation rates, particularly along its eastern margin where a shortening rate of about 30 mm/yr is experienced in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range. Four Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have been installed in this area since 2003. Liu et al. (2009) proposed that a number of strain transient events, primarily coincident with low-barometric pressure during passages of typhoons, were due to deep-triggered slow slip. Here we extend that investigation with a quantitative analysis of the strain responses to precipitation as well as barometric pressure and the Earth tides in order to isolate tectonic source effects. Estimates of the strain responses to barometric pressure and groundwater level changes for the different stations vary over the ranges -1 to -3 nanostrain/millibar(hPa) and -0.3 to -1.0 nanostrain/hPa, respectively, consistent with theoretical values derived using Hooke's law. Liu et al. (2009) noted that during some typhoons, including at least one with very heavy rainfall, the observed strain changes were consistent with only barometric forcing. By considering a more extensive data set, we now find that the strain response to rainfall is about -5.1 nanostrain/hPa. A larger strain response to rainfall compared to that to air pressure and water level may be associated with an additional strain from fluid pressure changes that take place due to infiltration of precipitation. Using a state-space model, we remove the strain response to rainfall, in addition to those due to air pressure changes and the Earth tides, and investigate whether corrected strain changes are related to environmental disturbances or tectonic-original motions. The majority of strain changes attributed to slow earthquakes seem rather to be associated with environmental factors. However, some events show remaining strain changes after all corrections. These events include strain polarity changes during passages of typhoons (a characteristic that is

  19. Detection and assessment of clarithromycin inducible resistant strains among Korean Mycobacterium abscessus clinical strains: PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Heon; Yoo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Seol Hee; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Chang Ki; Park, Young Kil; Kim, Hee Jin

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus group belongs to a group of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and, following Mycobacterium avium complex, is the second most common pathogen responsible for lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Clarithromycin is known to be the key drug in the treatment of M. abscessus group disease, but a high failure rate of treatment response is reported due to clarithromycin inducible resistance. Using the results from a clarithromycin susceptibility test we examined the proportion of clarithromycin inducible resistant M. abscessus (sensu stricto; hereafter referred to as M. abscessus) clinical strains. Also, we attempted to detect the clarithromycin resistant strains, using the amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS-PCR) and real-time PCR methods for rapid detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at position 28 (T or C) of the erm(41) gene of M. abscessus leading to resistance to clarithromycin. Of the 157 M. abscessus clinical strains, clarithromycin susceptible, resistant, and inducible resistant strains accounted for 10.83% (n = 17), 22.29% (n = 35), and 66.88% (n = 105), respectively. Clarithromycin resistant strains were able to separate from clarithromycin susceptible strains by ARMS-PCR and real-time PCR identical to DNA sequence analysis. Most M. abscessus clinical strains in Korea are resistant to clarithromycin, and ARMS-PCR and real-time PCR are useful tools for the rapid detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at position 28 of the erm(41) gene. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Genomic comparison between attenuated Chinese equine infectious anemia virus vaccine strains and their parental virulent strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Shuai; Lin, Yuezhi; Jiang, Chenggang; Ma, Jian; Zhao, Liping; Lv, Xiaoling; Wang, Fenglong; Shen, Rongxian; Kong, Xiangang; Zhou, Jianhua

    2011-02-01

    A lentiviral vaccine, live attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine, was developed in the 1970s, and this has made tremendous contributions to the control of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in China. Four key virus strains were generated during the attenuation of the EIAV vaccine: the original Liao-Ning strain (EIAV(LN40)), a donkey-adapted virulent strain (EIAV(DV117)), a donkey-leukocyte-attenuated vaccine strain (EIAV(DLV121)), and a fetal donkey dermal cell (FDD)-adapted vaccine strain (EIAV(FDDV13)). In this study, we analyzed the proviral genomes of these four EIAV strains and found a series of consensus substitutions among these strains. These mutations provide useful information for understanding the genetic basis of EIAV attenuation. Our results suggest that multiple mutations in a variety of genes in our attenuated EIAV vaccines not only provide a basis for virulence attenuation and induction of protective immunity but also greatly reduce the risk of reversion to virulence.

  1. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  2. The apparent strain stability and repeatability of a BCL3 resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at NASA-Lewis to study the effect of microstructural instability on the apparent strain stability and reproducibility of a BCL3 resistance strain gage. The resistance drift of the gage at various temperatures in the phase transition temperature range (PTTR) was measured. The effects of the heating and cooling rates with which the gage passed through the PTTR on the apparent strain characteristics of the gage were also studied. BCL3 gage, like other Fe-Cr-Al based gages, exhibited apparent strain instability in the temperature range of 700 to 1100 F due to the reversible microstructural transition the gage materials experienced in this temperature range. The BCL3 gage had a maximum apparent strain drift in the neighborhood of 770 F with an average drift rate of approx. -440 microstrain/hr in 2 hrs. The use of the BCL3 gage as well as other Fe-Cl-Al based gages for static strain measurements within the PTTR should be avoided unless the time durations in the PTTR are small enough to introduce a neglible drift. The microstructure transition that the BCL3 gage underwent occurred in the temperature range of 750 to 1050 F during heating and around 1000 to 800 F during cooling. The heating rate, and, in particular, the cooling rate with which the gage passed through the PTTR affected the shape and the repeatability of the apparent strain curve of the gage.

  3. Nanoscale patterning induced strain redistribution in ultrathin strained Si layers on oxide.

    PubMed

    Moutanabbir, O; Reiche, M; Hähnel, A; Erfurth, W; Gösele, U; Motohashi, M; Tarun, A; Hayazawa, N; Kawata, S

    2010-04-02

    We present a comparative study of the influence of the thickness on the strain behavior upon nanoscale patterning of ultrathin strained Si layers directly on oxide. The strained layers were grown on a SiGe virtual substrate and transferred onto a SiO(2)/Si substrate using wafer bonding and hydrogen ion induced exfoliation. The post-patterning strain was evaluated using UV micro-Raman spectroscopy for thin (20 nm) and thick (60 nm) nanostructures with lateral dimensions in the range of 80-400 nm. We found that about 40-50% of the initial strain is maintained in the 20 nm thick nanostructures, whereas this fraction drops significantly to approximately 2-20% for the 60 nm thick ones. This phenomenon of free surface induced relaxation is described using detailed three-dimensional finite element simulations. The simulated strain 3D maps confirm the limited relaxation in thin nanostructures. This result has direct implications for the fabrication and manipulation of strained Si nanodevices.

  4. Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Pinjiao; Zheng, Weijia; Chu, Liyang; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T), was isolated from moss, collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang province, north China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T). Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) are consistent with the description of the genus Actinoallomurus. Strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) was observed to form short spiral or looped spore chains on aerial hyphae. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The only phospholipid identified was phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acid was identified as iso-C16:0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supports the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Actinoallomurus, as it exhibits 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to that of Actinoallomurus yoronensis NBRC 103686(T). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the strain to be differentiated from its close relative. Moreover, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) could also be differentiated from A. yoronensis NBRC 103686(T) and other Actinoallomurus species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>98.0 %) by cultural and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the combination of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, and the DNA-DNA hybridization value, indicated that strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinoallomurus for which the name Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-TX1-15(T) (=CGMCC 4.7200(T) = JCM 30340(T)).

  5. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  6. High temperature static strain sensor development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C.; Lemkey, F.; Bailey, R.; Grant, H.

    1982-01-01

    The development of resistance strain gages which are useful for static strain measurements on nickel or cobalt superalloy parts inside a gas turbine engine on a test stand were examined. These measurements of a strain gage alloy development program which to be followed by an optional investigation of complete strain gage systems which will use the best of the alloys developed together with other system improvements is reviewed. The specific goal for the complete system is to make measurements to 2,000 micro epsilon with error of only + or - 10% over a 50 hour period. In addition to simple survival and stability, attaining a low thermal coefficient to resistivity, of order 100 ppm/K or less, is also a major goal. The first task was to select candidate alloys or alloy systems using a search of the literature and the available metallurgical theory. Alloy candidates were evaluated and compared by a grading system. Equipment and techniques were developed which are suitable for iterative studies of a variety of compositions. Many compositions were examined and significantly improved alloys were identified.

  7. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  8. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  9. Strains of Alcaligenes faecalis from clinical material.

    PubMed

    Bizet, J; Bizet, C

    1997-09-01

    Six strains of Alcaligenes faecalis, unusually isolated from clinical material, are described. Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod. It is commonly found in a watery environment and is rarely isolated from humans. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of the clinical A. faecalis isolates are presented.

  10. Comparison of Fiber Optic Strain Demodulation Implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing instrumentation based upon principles of Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) for the provision of large-scale, dense distribution of strain sensors using fiber optics embedded with Bragg gratings. Fiber Optic Bragg Grating technology enables the distribution of thousands of sensors immune to moisture and electromagnetic interference with negligible weight penalty. At Langley, this technology provides a key component for research and development relevant to comprehensive aerospace vehicle structural health monitoring. A prototype system is under development that includes hardware and software necessary for the acquisition of data from an optical network and conversion of the data into strain measurements. This report documents the steps taken to verify the software that implements the algorithm for calculating the fiber strain. Brief descriptions of the strain measurement system and the test article are given. The scope of this report is the verification of software implementations as compared to a reference model. The algorithm will be detailed along with comparison results.

  11. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions weremore » measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.« less

  12. Transient yielding in strain rate change tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, V.S.; Mishra, N.S.; Sen, S.K.

    1997-06-15

    Strain rate change (SRC) tests, during a tensile test, are carried out frequently to determine values of activation area and proper interpretation of these results may provide considerable information on dislocation activities during deformation. However, transient load drop is generally observed during low to high SRC and this drop increases with increasing deformation. This effect may thus be exacerbated, at least in principle, by conducting SRC tests on pre-crept samples. In the present work the authors report these results and also discuss the nature of transients during low to high SRC with reference to overall deformation processes. The material usedmore » for this work was a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel containing niobium and vanadium. All SRC tests were carried out at room temperature on an Instron by instantaneously changing the cross-head speed by a factor of 10. Strain gauges were used to not only continuously monitor the overall strain but also to obtain the magnitude of strain accompanying the change in cross head speed.« less

  13. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  14. Neutron apparatus for measuring strain in composites

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Majumdar, Saurindranath; Faber, Jr., John F.; Singh, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for orienting a pulsed neutron source and a multi-angle diffractometer toward a sample of a ceramic-matrix or metal-matrix composite so that the measurement of internal strain (from which stress is calculated) is reduced to uncomplicated time-of-flight measurements.

  15. Role Strain in University Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Bozeman, Barry

    2007-01-01

    One way in which university faculty members' professional lives have become more complex with the advent of contemporary university research centers is that many faculty have taken on additional roles. The authors' concern in this article is to determine the extent to which role strain is experienced by university faculty members who are…

  16. Cell Wall of Mycobacterium lepraemurium Strain Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Ichiro; Yamamura, Yuichi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kohsaka, Kenji; Mori, Tatsuo; Itoh, Tonetaro

    1973-01-01

    The chemical properties of the cell wall of Mycobacterium lepraemurium strain Hawaii were investigated. Five subunits of the cell wall, arabinose mycolate, mycolic acids, tetrapeptide (Ala-Gln-diaminopimelic acid-Ala), disaccharide (N-acetylglucosaminyl-β-1,4-N-glycolylmuramic acid), and arabinogalactan, were obtained, and their chemical structures were identified. PMID:4569700

  17. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  18. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Network of flexible capacitive strain gauges for the reconstruction of surface strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingzhe; Song, Chunhui; Saleem, Hussam S.; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of surface strain on mesosurfaces is a difficult task, often impeded by the lack of scalability of conventional sensing systems. A solution is to deploy large networks of flexible strain gauges, a type of large area electronics. The authors have recently proposed a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) as an economical skin-type solution for large-scale deployment onto mesosurfaces. The sensing principle is based on a measurable change in the sensor’s capacitance upon strain. In this paper, we study the performance of the sensor at reconstructing surface strain map and deflection shapes. A particular feature of the sensor is that it measures surface strain additively, because it is not utilized within a Wheatstone bridge configuration. An algorithm is proposed to decompose the additive in-plane strain measurements from the SEC into principal components. The algorithm consists of assuming a polynomial shape function, and deriving the strain based on Kirchhoff plate theory. A least-squares estimator (LSE) is used to minimize the error between the assumed model and the SEC signals after the enforcement of boundary conditions. Numerical simulations are conducted on a symmetric rectangular cantilever thin plate under symmetric and asymmetric static loads to demonstrate the accuracy and real-time applicability of the algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is further examined on an asymmetric cantilever laminated thin plate constituted with orthotropic materials mimicking a wind turbine blade, and subjected to a non-stationary wind load. Results from simulations show good performance of the algorithm at reconstructing the surface strain maps for both in-plane principal strain components, and that it can be applied in real time. However, its performance can be improved by strengthening assumptions on boundary conditions. The algorithm exhibits robustness in performance with respect to load and noise in signals, except when most of the sensors’ signals are

  20. Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection

  1. Colloid straining within saturated heterogeneous porous media.

    PubMed

    Porubcan, Alexis A; Xu, Shangping

    2011-02-01

    The transport of 0.46 μm, 2.94 μm, 5.1 μm and 6.06 μm latex particles in heterogeneous porous media prepared from the mixing of 0.78 mm, 0.46 mm and 0.23 mm quartz sands was investigated through column transport experiments. It was observed that the 0.46 μm particles traveled conservatively within the heterogeneous porous media, suggesting that under the experimental conditions employed in this research the strong repulsive interactions between the negatively charged latex particles and the clean quartz sands led to minimal colloid immobilization due to physicochemical filtration. The immobilization of the 2.94 μm, 5.1 μm and 6.06 μm latex particles was thus attributed to colloid straining. Experimental results showed that the straining of colloidal particles within heterogeneous sand mixtures increased when the fraction of finer sands increased. The mathematical model that was developed and tested based on results obtained using uniform sands (Xu et al., 2006) was found to be able to describe colloid straining within heterogeneous porous media. Examination of the relationship between the best-fit values of the clean-bed straining rate coefficients (k(0)) and the ratio of colloid diameter (d(p)) and sand grain size (d(g)) indicated that when number-average sizes were used to represent the size of the heterogeneous porous media, there existed a consistent relationship for both uniform sands and heterogeneous sand mixtures. Similarly, the use of the number-averaged sizes for the heterogeneous porous media produced a uniform relationship between the colloid straining capacity term (λ) and the ratio of d(p)/d(g) for all the sand treatments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Informal eldercare and work-related strain.

    PubMed

    Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.

  3. Biomechanical response to hamstring muscle strain injury.

    PubMed

    Schache, Anthony G; Wrigley, Tim V; Baker, Richard; Pandy, Marcus G

    2009-02-01

    Hamstring strains are common injuries, the majority of which occur whilst sprinting. An understanding of the biomechanical circumstances that cause the hamstrings to fail during sprinting is required to improve rehabilitation specificity. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the biomechanics of an acute hamstring strain. Bilateral kinematic and ground reaction force data were captured from a sprinting athlete prior to and immediately following a right hamstring strain. Ten sprinting trials were collected: nine normal (pre-injury) trials and one injury trial. Joint angles, torques and powers as well as hamstring muscle-tendon unit lengths were computed using a three-dimensional biomechanical model. For the pre-injury trials, the right leg compared to the left displayed greater knee extension and hamstring muscle-tendon unit length during terminal swing, an increased vertical ground reaction force peak and loading rate, and an increased peak hip extensor torque and peak hip power generation during initial stance. For the injury trial, significant biomechanical reactions were evident in response to the right hamstring strain, most notably for the right leg during the proceeding swing phase after the onset of the injury. The earliest kinematic deviations in response to the injury were displayed by the trunk and pelvis during right mid-stance. Taking into account neuromuscular latencies and electromechanical delays, the stimulus for the injury must have occurred prior to right foot-strike during the swing phase of the sprinting cycle. It is concluded that hamstring strains during sprinting most likely occur during terminal swing as a consequence of an eccentric contraction.

  4. Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop Ii, R Martin; Comerci, Diego J; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C; Baker, Kate S; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella . As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised.

  5. Brucella abortus Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773

  6. Strain differences in change in airway responsiveness after repeated antigenic challenge in three strains of rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Y; Misawa, M

    1993-09-01

    1. The strain differences in 2,4-dinitrophenylated-Ascaris antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were investigated in three strains of rats: Brown-Norway (BN), Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) and Wistar. 2. Fourty-eight hour-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis titers after repeated challenge were highest in BN and lowest in LEC. 3. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, a marked AHR and significant increase in wet/dry weight ratio of the main bronchus were observed only in Wistar. 4. Only the isolated bronchus of the challenged Wistar among the strains showed hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine. 5. Wistar may be the best strain for antigen-induced AHR.

  7. Gendered Responses to Serious Strain: The Argument for a General Strain Theory of Deviance

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper expands and builds on newer avenues in research on gender and general strain theory (GST). I accomplish this by focusing on serious strains that are relevant for males and females, including externalizing and internalizing forms of negative emotions, and including multiple gendered deviant outcomes. Using the Add Health dataset, I find strong support for the impact of serious strains on both types of negative emotions and different forms of deviance for males and females. However, the experience of serious strain, emotionally and behaviorally, is gendered. Depressive symptoms are particularly important for all types of deviance by females. Including multiple types of deviant outcomes offers a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender. These results support the utility of GST as a theory of deviance in general and support greater connections between GST, feminist theorizing, and the sociology of mental health. PMID:20625472

  8. Robust mutant strain design by pessimistic optimization.

    PubMed

    Apaydin, Meltem; Xu, Liang; Zeng, Bo; Qian, Xiaoning

    2017-10-03

    Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) based mathematical modeling enables in silico prediction of systems behavior for genome-scale metabolic networks. Computational methods have been derived in the FBA framework to solve bi-level optimization for deriving "optimal" mutant microbial strains with targeted biochemical overproduction. The common inherent assumption of these methods is that the surviving mutants will always cooperate with the engineering objective by overproducing the maximum desired biochemicals. However, it has been shown that this optimistic assumption may not be valid in practice. We study the validity and robustness of existing bi-level methods for strain optimization under uncertainty and non-cooperative environment. More importantly, we propose new pessimistic optimization formulations: P-ROOM and P-OptKnock, aiming to derive robust mutants with the desired overproduction under two different mutant cell survival models: (1) ROOM assuming mutants have the minimum changes in reaction fluxes from wild-type flux values, and (2) the one considered by OptKnock maximizing the biomass production yield. When optimizing for desired overproduction, our pessimistic formulations derive more robust mutant strains by considering the uncertainty of the cell survival models at the inner level and the cooperation between the outer- and inner-level decision makers. For both P-ROOM and P-OptKnock, by converting multi-level formulations into single-level Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) problems based on the strong duality theorem, we can derive exact optimal solutions that are highly scalable with large networks. Our robust formulations P-ROOM and P-OptKnock are tested with a small E. coli core metabolic network and a large-scale E. coli iAF1260 network. We demonstrate that the original bi-level formulations (ROOM and OptKnock) derive mutants that may not achieve the predicted overproduction under uncertainty and non-cooperative environment. The knockouts obtained by the

  9. Technique for Estimating Low Numbers of a Bacterial Strain(s) in Soil †

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, N. S.; Casida, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described for obtaining most probable number estimates of the number of cells of a bacterial strain(s) when it is present in low numbers in the soil. The technique is based on the bacteriophage response that is elicited when a known number of bacteriophage for the bacterium of interest is incubated with soil dilutions in a nutrient broth. The technique was evaluated for use with gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16347331

  10. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi: clones isolated from the Colombian strain, reproduce the parental strain characteristics, with ubiquitous histotropism

    PubMed Central

    Camandaroba, Edson; Thé, Torriceli S; Pessina, Daniel Huber; Andrade, Sonia G

    2006-01-01

    Clonal histotropism and biological characters of five clones isolated during the early acute phase of the infection of Swiss mice with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi I), Biodeme Type III, were investigated. Clones were isolated from mice at the 10th and the 30th day of infection with the Colombian strain. Isolation was performed by micromanipulation and injection of one trypomatigote blood form into newborn mice, followed by passages into suckling mice for obtaining the inocula for the experimental groups. Mice infected with parental strain were also studied. All the clones have shown the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemia, tissue tropism, morphological characters and isoenzymic profiles, such as the parental strain. Histotropism was most intense to myocardium and skeletal muscles, with intense lesions found in the advanced phase (20th to 30th day of infection). Both parental strain and the clones were seen to parasitize several organs and tissues; amastigote nests were identified in the cytoplasm of macrophages, adipose cells, smooth muscle of intestinal wall and Auerbach's neuronal plexus. The findings of the present study confirm the homology of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain, with predominance of a ‘principal clone’ and an ubiquitous distribution of parasites belonging to a same clone. PMID:16709229

  12. Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

    1998-01-01

    As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi: clones isolated from the Colombian strain, reproduce the parental strain characteristics, with ubiquitous histotropism.

    PubMed

    Camandaroba, Edson; Thé, Torriceli S; Pessina, Daniel Huber; Andrade, Sonia G

    2006-06-01

    Clonal histotropism and biological characters of five clones isolated during the early acute phase of the infection of Swiss mice with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi I), Biodeme Type III, were investigated. Clones were isolated from mice at the 10th and the 30th day of infection with the Colombian strain. Isolation was performed by micromanipulation and injection of one trypomatigote blood form into newborn mice, followed by passages into suckling mice for obtaining the inocula for the experimental groups. Mice infected with parental strain were also studied. All the clones have shown the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemia, tissue tropism, morphological characters and isoenzymic profiles, such as the parental strain. Histotropism was most intense to myocardium and skeletal muscles, with intense lesions found in the advanced phase (20th to 30th day of infection). Both parental strain and the clones were seen to parasitize several organs and tissues; amastigote nests were identified in the cytoplasm of macrophages, adipose cells, smooth muscle of intestinal wall and Auerbach's neuronal plexus. The findings of the present study confirm the homology of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain, with predominance of a 'principal clone' and an ubiquitous distribution of parasites belonging to a same clone.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bifidobacterium breve strains and genetic analysis of streptomycin resistance of probiotic B. breve strain Yakult.

    PubMed

    Kiwaki, Mayumi; Sato, Takashi

    2009-09-15

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 17 antimicrobials for 26 Bifidobacterium breve strains of various origins were determined by broth microdilution. MIC distributions for 17 antimicrobials except streptomycin and tetracycline were unimodal for all strains tested, whereas bimodal distributions were observed for streptomycin and tetracycline. The probiotic strain B. breve strain Yakult showed intrinsic susceptibility to all antimicrobials except streptomycin to which the strain showed an atypically higher MIC of >256 microg/ml. Because this strain is a commercial strain, which is often ingested by many consumers on a daily basis, it is very important to determine the genetic basis for streptomycin resistance of this strain. Molecular analysis revealed that a mutation of the rpsL gene for ribosomal protein S12 was responsible for this streptomycin resistance. The resistance of B. breve strain Yakult to streptomycin, therefore, is caused by a chromosomal mutation and very unlikely to be transferred to other microorganisms.

  15. Strain-dependent permeability of volcanic rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Jamie; Heap, Michael; Baud, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    We explore permeability evolution during deformation of volcanic materials using a suite of rocks with varying compositions and physical properties (such as porosity ϕ). 40 mm × 20 mm cylindrical samples were made from a range of extrusive rocks, including andesites from Colima, Mexico (ϕ˜0.08; 0.18; 0.21), Kumamoto, Japan (ϕ˜0.13), and Ruapehu, New Zealand (ϕ˜0.15), and basalt from Mt Etna, Italy (ϕ˜0.04). Gas permeability of each sample was measured before and after triaxial deformation using a steady-state benchtop permeameter. To study the strain-dependence of permeability in volcanic rocks, we deformed samples to 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 % axial strain at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1. Further, the influence of failure mode - dilatant or compactant - on permeability was assessed by repeating experiments at different confining pressures. During triaxial deformation, porosity change of the samples was monitored by a servo-controlled pore fluid pump. Below an initial porosity of ˜0.18, and at low confining pressures (≤ 20 MPa), we observe a dilatant failure mode (shear fracture formation). With increasing axial strain, stress is accommodated by fault sliding and the generation of ash-sized gouge between the fracture planes. In higher-porosity samples, or at relatively higher confining pressures (≥ 60 MPa), we observe compactant deformation characterised by a monotonous decrease in porosity with increasing axial strain. The relative permeability k' is given by the change in permeability divided by the initial reference state. When behaviour is dilatant, k' tends to be positive: permeability increases with progressive deformation. However, results suggest that after a threshold amount of strain, k' can decrease. k' always is negative (permeability decreases during deformation) when compaction is the dominant behaviour. Our results show that - in the absence of a sealing or healing process - the efficiency of a fault to transmit fluids is correlated to

  16. Attaching of strain gages to substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.; Pattee, H. E.

    1980-03-01

    A method and apparatus for attaching strain gages to substrates is described. A strain gage having a backing plate is attached to a substrate by using a foil of brazing material between the backing plate and substrate. A pair of electrodes that are connected to a current source, are applied to opposite sides of the backing plate, so that heating of the structure occurs primarily along the relatively highly conductive foil of brazing material. Field installations are facilitated by utilizing a backing plate with wings extending at an upward incline from either side of the backing plate, by attaching the electrodes to the wings to perform the brazing operation, and by breaking off the wings after the brazing is completed.

  17. Electronic transport in torsional strained Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Garrido, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    In a recent paper (Muñoz and Soto-Garrido 2017 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 29 445302) we have studied the effects of mechanical strain and magnetic field on the electronic transport properties in graphene. In this article we extended our work to Weyl semimetals (WSM). We show that although the WSM are 3D materials, most of the analysis done for graphene (2D material) can be carried out. In particular, we studied the electronic transport through a cylindrical region submitted to torsional strain and external magnetic field. We provide exact analytical expressions for the scattering cross section and the transmitted electronic current. In addition, we show the node-polarization effect on the current and propose a recipe to measure the torsion angle from transmission experiments.

  18. A Tunable Strain Sensor Using Nanogranular Metals

    PubMed Central

    Schwalb, Christian H.; Grimm, Christina; Baranowski, Markus; Sachser, Roland; Porrati, Fabrizio; Reith, Heiko; Das, Pintu; Müller, Jens; Völklein, Friedemann; Kaya, Alexander; Huth, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology for the fabrication of strain-sensor elements for MEMS and NEMS applications based on the tunneling effect in nano-granular metals. The strain-sensor elements are prepared by the maskless lithography technique of focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) employing the precursor trimethylmethylcyclopentadienyl platinum [MeCpPt(Me)3]. We use a cantilever-based deflection technique to determine the sensitivity (gauge factor) of the sensor element. We find that its sensitivity depends on the electrical conductivity and can be continuously tuned, either by the thickness of the deposit or by electron-beam irradiation leading to a distinct maximum in the sensitivity. This maximum finds a theoretical rationale in recent advances in the understanding of electronic charge transport in nano-granular metals. PMID:22163443

  19. Statistics of twinning in strained ferroelastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiangdong; Aktas, Oktay; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Suzhi; Zhao, Ziyuan; Zhang, Libo; He, Xiaomei; Lookman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh; Sun, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In this review, we show that the evolution of the microstructure and kinetics of ferroelastic crystals under external shear can be explored by computer simulations of 2D model materials. We find that the nucleation and propagation of twin boundaries in ferroelastics depend sensitively on temperature. In the plastic regime, the evolution of the ferroelastic microstructure under strain deformation maintains a stick-and-slip mechanism in all temperature regimes, whereas the dynamic behavior changes dramatically from power-law statistics at low temperature to a Kohlrausch law at intermediate temperature, and then to a Vogel-Fulcher law at high temperature. In the yield regime, the distribution of jerk energies follows power-law statistics in all temperature regimes for a large range of strain rates. The non-spanning avalanches in the yield regime follow a parabolic temporal profile. The changes of twin pattern and twin boundaries density represent an important step towards domain boundary engineering.

  20. Statistics of twinning in strained ferroelastics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangdong; Aktas, Oktay; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Suzhi; Zhao, Ziyuan; Zhang, Libo; He, Xiaomei; Lookman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh; Sun, Jun

    2017-10-04

    In this review, we show that the evolution of the microstructure and kinetics of ferroelastic crystals under external shear can be explored by computer simulations of 2D model materials. We find that the nucleation and propagation of twin boundaries in ferroelastics depend sensitively on temperature. In the plastic regime, the evolution of the ferroelastic microstructure under strain deformation maintains a stick-and-slip mechanism in all temperature regimes, whereas the dynamic behavior changes dramatically from power-law statistics at low temperature to a Kohlrausch law at intermediate temperature, and then to a Vogel-Fulcher law at high temperature. In the yield regime, the distribution of jerk energies follows power-law statistics in all temperature regimes for a large range of strain rates. The non-spanning avalanches in the yield regime follow a parabolic temporal profile. The changes of twin pattern and twin boundaries density represent an important step towards domain boundary engineering.

  1. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Raphael; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe

    2011-05-04

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tipmore » as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.« less

  2. Techniques for increasing boron fiber fracture strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Improvement in the strain-to-failure of CVD boron fibers is shown possible by contracting the tungsten boride core region and its inherent flaws. The results of three methods are presented in which etching and thermal processing techniques were employed to achieve core flaw contraction by internal stresses available in the boron sheath. After commercially and treatment induced surface flaws were removed from 203 micrometers (8 mil) fibers, the core flaw was observed to be essentially the only source of fiber fracture. Thus, fiber strain-to-failure was found to improve by an amount equal to the treatment induced contraction on the core flaw. Commercial feasibility considerations suggest as the most cost effective technique that method in which as-produced fibers are given a rapid heat treatment above 700 C. Preliminary results concerning the contraction kinetics and fracture behavior observed are presented and discussed both for high vacuum and argon gas heat treatment environments.

  3. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    PubMed

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Graphene based strain sensor with LCP substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, M.; Yang, H. S.; Xia, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    A flexible strain sensor constructed by an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy is presented in this paper. It is assembled by adhering grid-like graphene on LCP substrate. Kinds of measurement setup have been designed to verify that the proposed flexible sensor device is suitable to be used in health monitoring system. From the experiment results, it can be proved that the sensor exhibits the following features: ultra-light, relatively good sensitivity, high reversibility, superior physical robustness, easy fabrication. With the great performance of this flexible strain sensor, it is considered to play an important role in body monitoring, structural health monitoring system, fatigue detection and healthcare systems in the near future.

  5. Wing Shape Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2015-01-01

    A new two-step theory is investigated for predicting the deflection and slope of an entire structure using strain measurements at discrete locations. In the first step, a measured strain is fitted using a piecewise least-squares curve fitting method together with the cubic spline technique. These fitted strains are integrated twice to obtain deflection data along the fibers. In the second step, computed deflection along the fibers are combined with a finite element model of the structure in order to interpolate and extrapolate the deflection and slope of the entire structure through the use of the System Equivalent Reduction and Expansion Process. The theory is first validated on a computational model, a cantilevered rectangular plate wing. The theory is then applied to test data from a cantilevered swept-plate wing model. Computed results are compared with finite element results, results using another strain-based method, and photogrammetry data. For the computational model under an aeroelastic load, maximum deflection errors in the fore and aft, lateral, and vertical directions are -3.2 percent, 0.28 percent, and 0.09 percent, respectively; and maximum slope errors in roll and pitch directions are 0.28 percent and -3.2 percent, respectively. For the experimental model, deflection results at the tip are shown to be accurate to within 3.8 percent of the photogrammetry data and are accurate to within 2.2 percent in most cases. In general, excellent matching between target and computed values are accomplished in this study. Future refinement of this theory will allow it to monitor the deflection and health of an entire aircraft in real time, allowing for aerodynamic load computation, active flexible motion control, and active induced drag reduction..

  6. Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yeast strains endowed with robustness towards copper and/or enriched in intracellular Cu might find application in biotechnology processes, among others in the production of functional foods. Moreover, they can contribute to the study of human diseases related to impairments of copper metabolism. In this study, we investigated the molecular and physiological factors that confer copper tolerance to strains of baker's yeasts. Results We characterized the effects elicited in natural strains of Candida humilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the exposure to copper in the culture broth. We observed that, whereas the growth of Saccharomyces cells was inhibited already at low Cu concentration, C. humilis was naturally robust and tolerated up to 1 g · L-1 CuSO4 in the medium. This resistant strain accumulated over 7 mg of Cu per gram of biomass and escaped severe oxidative stress thanks to high constitutive levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Both yeasts were then "evolved" to obtain hyper-resistant cells able to proliferate in high copper medium. While in S. cerevisiae the evolution of robustness towards Cu was paralleled by the increase of antioxidative enzymes, these same activities decreased in evolved hyper-resistant Candida cells. We also characterized in some detail changes in the profile of copper binding proteins, that appeared to be modified by evolution but, again, in a different way in the two yeasts. Conclusions Following evolution, both Candida and Saccharomyces cells were able to proliferate up to 2.5 g · L-1 CuSO4 and to accumulate high amounts of intracellular copper. The comparison of yeasts differing in their robustness, allowed highlighting physiological and molecular determinants of natural and acquired copper tolerance. We observed that different mechanisms contribute to confer metal tolerance: the control of copper uptake, changes in the levels of enzymes involved in oxidative stress response and changes in the copper

  7. Problems and advances in monitoring horizontal strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, M.

    1978-01-01

    The modern instrumentation is described for use in geodesy for the detection of the deformations of the crust of the earth. Problems are listed. Needs are discussed for the survey of the physical quantities of interest in geodesy, geology, geophysics, and engineering such as the strain invariants, the optimal network of baselines and the accuracy. An analytic method is also given for the computation of the effect of a source of dilatation in a spherical earth.

  8. PNNL Stress/Strain Correlation for Zircaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Beyer, Carl E.; Luscher, Walter G.

    2008-07-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with incorporating cladding mechanical property data into the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel codes, FRAPCON-31 and FRAPTRAN2, by the NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Research. The objective of that task was to create a mechanical model that can calculate true stress, true strain, and the possible failure of the fuel rod cladding based on uniaxial test data.

  9. Small Fixture Strains Composites for Environmental Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tervet, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Fixture for long-term strain tests of composites is based on inexpensive tool for repairing motorcycle chains. (In normal use tool forces rivet out of chain element.) As modified for composite testing, tool has precision screw and shim. Qualification tests for graphite/epoxy composites are made less expensive by simple test fixture. Used in quantity, fixtures apply precisely similar loads to many samples.

  10. Embedded silicon nanocrystal interface structure and strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry; Hegde, G. M.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2018-01-01

    The structure of nanocrystal-matrix interface and strain in embedded nanocrystals are studied using large-scale atomistic simulations, with the examples of Si nanocrystal embedded in amorphous matrix of SiO2. Photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric matrix like SiO2 and Si3N4 are promising for Si-based optical devices. The nanocrystal-matrix interface plays a crucial role in understanding its optical and electrical properties. Nanocrystals with diameters varying from 2.17 to 4.56 nm are studied. A detailed quantitative analysis of the variation of Si/SiO2 interface structure and strain distribution with nanocrystal diameter is reported. A linear variation of the interface width with nanocrystal diameter is observed with thinner interfaces for larger nanocrystals. Local deformation analysis reveals that the smaller nanocrystals are highly strained, whereas the strain in the larger ones shifts to the interface. This is in accordance with observed increase in total percentage of defect states in the interface from 39 to 70 % for diameter increasing from 2.17 to 4.56 nm. Moreover, based on the atomic arrangements at the interface, optically active defects like Pb centres, E centres and non-bridging oxygen centres are identified and a dominance of Pb centres is observed for all the nanocrystals. The detailed structural characterization-related investigations using the proposed simulation approach will find useful application in designing system-level response of embedded nanocrystals and also to correlate various experimental observations.

  11. Spherical nanoindentation stress–strain curves

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2015-03-24

    Although indentation experiments have long been used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus, the utility of this technique in analyzing the complete elastic–plastic response of materials under contact loading has only been realized in the past few years – mostly due to recent advances in testing equipment and analysis protocols. This paper provides a timely review of the recent progress made in this respect in extracting meaningful indentation stress–strain curves from the raw datasets measured in instrumented spherical nanoindentation experiments. These indentation stress–strain curves have produced highly reliable estimates of the indentation modulus and the indentation yield strength inmore » the sample, as well as certain aspects of their post-yield behavior, and have been critically validated through numerical simulations using finite element models as well as direct in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements on micro-pillars. Much of this recent progress was made possible through the introduction of a new measure of indentation strain and the development of new protocols to locate the effective zero-point of initial contact between the indenter and the sample in the measured datasets. As a result, this has led to an important key advance in this field where it is now possible to reliably identify and analyze the initial loading segment in the indentation experiments.« less

  12. Controlled morphotropic phase transitions by strain doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Guo, Er-Jia; Wong, Anthony; Balke, Nina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    Transitions between rhombohedral and tetragonal phases of ferroelectric oxides are of great interest since the competition of these phases at so called morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) typically leads to extraordinary physical properties. Utilizing external parameters such as the material's composition or mechanical pressure has been the standard approach to functionalize these MPBs. Here, we demonstrate that strain doping via low-energy He implantation is an alternative, controllable, and highly flexible way to induce morphotropic phase transition in ferroelectric oxide thin films. We show that strain doping of rhombohedral BiFeO3 films leads to a gradual transition to a supertetragonal phase that can be reversibly tuned by controlling the He concentration in the film. The changes in structure are shown to dramatically affect physical properties. We argue that our approach to tailor phase coexistence by strain doping is not limited to BiFeO3 films, but should be widely applicable to ferroelectric thin films with competing morphotropic phases. This effort was wholly supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, with user projects supported at ORNL's Center for Nanophase Materials Research (CNMS).

  13. Strain and Vibration in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into any mesenchymal tissue, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. MSC differentiation can be influenced by a variety of stimuli, including environmental and mechanical stimulation, scaffold physical properties, or applied loads. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of vibration or cyclic tensile strain on MSCs towards developing a mechanically based method of differentiation, but there is no consensus between studies and each investigation uses different culture conditions, which also influence MSC fate. Here we present an overview of the response of MSCs to vibration and cyclic tension, focusing on the effect of various culture conditions and strain or vibration parameters. Our review reveals that scaffold type (e.g., natural versus synthetic; 2D versus 3D) can influence cell response to vibration and strain to the same degree as loading parameters. Hence, in the efforts to use mechanical loading as a reliable method to differentiate cells, scaffold selection is as important as method of loading. PMID:29545825

  14. Snowball: strain aware gene assembly of metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Gregor, I; Schönhuth, A; McHardy, A C

    2016-09-01

    Gene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the studied species to be available. We have developed Snowball, a novel strain aware gene assembler for shotgun metagenomic data that does not require closely related reference genomes to be available. It uses profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) of gene domains of interest to guide the assembly. Our assembler performs gene assembly of individual gene domains based on read overlaps and error correction using read quality scores at the same time, which results in very low per-base error rates. The software runs on a user-defined number of processor cores in parallel, runs on a standard laptop and is available under the GPL 3.0 license for installation under Linux or OS X at https://github.com/hzi-bifo/snowball AMC14@helmholtz-hzi.de,a.schoenhuth@cwi.nl Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Advanced high temperature static strain sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Stetson, K. A.; Grant, H. P.; Jameikis, S. M.; Morey, W. W.; Raymondo, P.; Grudkowski, T. W.; Bailey, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    An examination was made into various techniques to be used to measure static strain in gas turbine liners at temperatures up to 1150 K (1600 F). The methods evaluated included thin film and wire resistive devices, optical fibers, surface acoustic waves, the laser speckle technique with a heterodyne readout, optical surface image and reflective approaches and capacitive devices. A preliminary experimental program to develop a thin film capacitive device was dropped because calculations showed that it would be too sensitive to thermal gradients. In a final evaluation program, the laser speckle technique appeared to work well up to 1150 K when it was used through a relatively stagnant air path. The surface guided acoustic wave approach appeared to be interesting but to require too much development effort for the funds available. Efforts to develop a FeCrAl resistive strain gage system were only partially successful and this part of the effort was finally reduced to a characterization study of the properties of the 25 micron diameter FeCrAl (Kanthal A-1) wire. It was concluded that this particular alloy was not suitable for use as the resistive element in a strain gage above about 1000 K.

  16. Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger

    2015-01-01

    A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the strain is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the strain using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of strain using a parameter estimation technique together with an autoregressive moving average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. Simple harmonic motion is assumed for the acceleration computations, and the central difference equation with a linear autoregressive model is used for the computations of velocity. A cantilevered rectangular wing model is used to validate the simple approach. Quality of the computed deflection, acceleration, and velocity values are independent of the number of fibers. The central difference equation with a linear autoregressive model proposed in this study follows the target response with reasonable accuracy. Therefore, the handicap of the backward difference equation, phase shift, is successfully overcome.

  17. Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.

  18. Heat strain in Royal Navy helicopter aircrew.

    PubMed

    House, J R

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature on heat strain and aircrew and a questionnaire survey of Royal Navy aircrew have been completed. Aircrew appreciate, some 50% from first hand experience, that heat strain can reduce their operational endurance and performance. They are at greatest risk of developing it in the pre-flight period, especially when wearing Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical (NBC) protective equipment. Several techniques they use to reduce this risk are described. Some may be of particular assistance in the field should air conditioned facilities be unavailable. However, opportunities to improve the thermal environment within the aircraft on the ground and in flight are limited as the heat generated within it and high levels of solar radiation impinging on it severely challenge air conditioning units, themselves constrained by weight and size. Other demands placed on protective clothing offer little potential to increase the rate at which aircrew can lose accumulated heat. It is concluded that an appropriate micro-climate cooling system worn next to the skin may be required to achieve truly significant reductions in heat strain. Research at the Institute of Naval Medicine has identified liquid cooling techniques which may be suitable for aircrew in all but the smallest helicopters. Any views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the Department.

  19. A tale of two mechanisms. Strain-softening versus strain-hardening in single crystals under small stressed volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Bei, Hongbin; Xia, Yuzhi; Barabash, Rozaliya

    2015-08-10

    Pre-straining defect-free single crystals will introduce heterogeneous dislocation nucleation sources that reduce the measured strength from the theoretical value, while pre-straining bulk samples will lead to strain hardening. Their competition is investigated by nanoindentation pop-in tests on variously pre-strained Mo single crystals with several indenter radii (~micrometer). Pre-straining primarily shifts deformation mechanism from homogeneous dislocation nucleation to a stochastic behavior, while strain hardening plays a secondary role, as summarized in a master plot of pop-in strength versus normalized indenter radius.

  20. Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of mice: sixth listing.

    PubMed

    Staats, J

    1976-12-01

    Rules for designating inbred strains of mice are presented, along with a list of strains with their origins and characteristics, a table of biochemical polymorphisms, and standard subline designations.

  1. Whole Genome Analysis of a Wine Yeast Strain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Nicole C.; Fellenberg, Kurt; Gil, Rosario; Bastuck, Sonja; Hoheisel, Jörg D.

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, for example, while other industrial or laboratory strains fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast strains are poorly understood, however. As a first search of genetic differences between wine and laboratory strains, we performed DNA-array analyses on the typical wine yeast strain T73 and the standard laboratory background in S288c. Our analysis shows that even under normal conditions, logarithmic growth in YPD medium, the two strains have expression patterns that differ significantly in more than 40 genes. Subsequent studies indicated that these differences correlate with small changes in promoter regions or variations in gene copy number. Blotting copy numbers vs. transcript levels produced patterns, which were specific for the individual strains and could be used for a characterization of unknown samples. PMID:18628902

  2. Serological and genetic examination of some nontypical Streptococcus mutans strains.

    PubMed Central

    Coykendall, A L; Bratthall, D; O'Connor, K; Dvarskas, R A

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-four strains of Streptococcus mutans whose antigenic or genetic positions were unclear or unknown with respect to the serological scheme of Bratthall (1970) and Perch et al. (1974), or the genetic (deoxyribonucleic acid base sequence homology) scheme of Coykendall were analyzed to clarify their relationship to previously well-characterized strains. Strain OMZ175 of the "new" serotype f was genetically homologous with strains of S. mutans subsp. mutans. Strains of the "new" serotype g were homologous with serotype d strains (S. mutans subsp. sobrinus). Strains isolated from wild rats constituted a new genetic group but carried the c antigen. Thus, strains within a "genospecies" (subspecies) of S. mutans may not always carry a unique or characteristic antigen. We suggest that the existence of multiple serotypes within subspecies represents antigenic variation and adaptations to hosts. PMID:965091

  3. Evaluation of prestress cable strain in multiple beam configurations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-01

    A system to measure prestress cable strain was fabricated, software written, and the unit calibrated. Strain measurements were made by attaching four Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT) to prestress cable before they were stressed.

  4. Analysis of stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, O. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon is presented. A model to present entire process, dynamical Transit Analysis is developed. It is found that knowledge of past-strain history is significant in modeling activities.

  5. Introducing lattice strain to graphene encapsulated in hBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomori, Hikari; Hiraide, Rineka; Ootuka, Youiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    Due to the characteristic lattice structure, lattice strain in graphene produces an effective gauge field. Theories tell that by controlling spatial variation of lattice strain, one can tailor the electronic state and transport properties of graphene. For example, under uniaxial local strain, graphene exhibits a transport gap at low energies, which is attractive for a graphene application to field effect devices. Here, we develop a method for encapsulating a strained graphene film in hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN). It is known that the graphene carrier mobility is significantly improved by the encapsulation of graphene in hBN, which has never been applied to strained graphene. We encapsulate graphene in hBN using the van der Waals assembly method. Strain is induced by sandwiching a graphene film between patterned hBN sheets. Spatial variation of strain is confirmed with micro Raman spectroscopy. Transport measurement of encapsulated strained graphene is in progress.

  6. Strain gage network distinguishes between thermal and mechanical deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Strain gage network measures the thermal coefficient of linear expansion of composite metal structures. The network consists of a test gage and two dummy gages arranged to distinguish thermally induced deformation from mechanical strain.

  7. Evaluation of strains in bituminous surfaces : stiffness-fatigue investigation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-01-01

    The study was designed to determine if strains in Virginia's thin asphaltic pavements were high enough to cause early fatigue failure. Strains were computed with the Chevron multilayer computer program, and also measured on selected highways using el...

  8. Commonly administered BCG strains including an evolutionarily early strain and evolutionarily late strains of disparate genealogy induce comparable protective immunity against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Marcus A; Harth, Günter; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Maslesa-Galić, Sasa

    2009-01-14

    BCG has been administered to over 4 billion persons worldwide, but its efficacy in preventing tuberculosis in adults has been highly variable. One hypothesis for its variability is that different strains of BCG vary in protective efficacy, and moreover, that evolutionarily early strains are more efficacious than the more attenuated evolutionarily late strains, which lack region of deletion 2. To examine this hypothesis, we tested six widely used BCG strains--the evolutionarily early strain BCG Japanese, two evolutionarily late strains in DU2 Group III (BCG Danish and Glaxo), and three evolutionarily late strains in DU2 Group IV (BCG Connaught, Pasteur, and Tice)--in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. With the exception of BCG Glaxo, which had relatively poor efficacy, we found no substantial differences in efficacy between the early strain and the late strains, and only small differences in efficacy among late strains. BCG Tice was the most efficacious BCG vaccine, with significantly fewer Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung and spleen than BCG Danish and BCG Japanese, although absolute differences in the organ burden of M. tuberculosis among these three vaccines were small (< or =0.2 log). BCG Tice and Pasteur were not significantly different. rBCG30, a recombinant BCG Tice vaccine overexpressing the M. tuberculosis 30 kDa major secretory protein (Antigen 85B), was more potent than any BCG vaccine (P < 0.0001 for differences in organ burden). Our study shows that late strains are not less potent than an early strain and argues against strain differences as a major factor in the variability of outcomes in BCG vaccine trials.

  9. Measuring Lattice Strain in Three Dimensions through Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure of nanomaterials, including strain, is crucial to understand their properties. Here, we investigate lattice strain in Au nanodecahedra using electron tomography. Although different electron tomography techniques enabled 3D characterizations of nanostructures at the atomic level, a reliable determination of lattice strain is not straightforward. We therefore propose a novel model-based approach from which atomic coordinates are measured. Our findings demonstrate the importance of investigating lattice strain in 3D. PMID:26340328

  10. Actinobacillus actinomycetem-comitans: Fermentative Capabilities of 140 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Pulverer, G.; Ko, H. L.

    1970-01-01

    Fermentative capabilities of 140 strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetem-comitans were studied. Findings correspond closely with those reported previously by Heinrich and Pulverer (12 strains), and by King and Tatum (33 strains). All strains ferment glucose, levulose, and maltose and reduce nitrate to nitrite. Reactions with glycogen and starch are exceedingly diverse. Eight different biotypes have been identified on the basis of their reactions with galactose, mannitol, and xylose. PMID:4922079

  11. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Effects in Glassy Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-08

    Pressure Bar ( SHPB ); similarly, high strain rate tension experiments were per- formed using a Split Hopkinson Tension Bar (SHTB). In both configurations...PVC with (c) peak stress versus strain rate. For the SHPB system, the input and output bars are made of 6061-T6 aluminum. In the SHTB system, the input...The stress waves are measured using strain gauges mounted on the bars. The SHPB system uses two sets of strain gauges mounted mid-way along the length

  12. Second Generation Models for Strain-Based Design

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-30

    This project covers the development of tensile strain design models which form a key part of the strain-based design of pipelines. The strain-based design includes at least two limit states, tensile rupture, and compressive buckling. The tensile stra...

  13. New Orientia tsutsugamushi strain from scrub typhus in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Odorico, D. M.; Graves, S. R.; Currie, B.; Catmull, J.; Nack, Z.; Ellis, S.; Wang, L.; Miller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a recent case of scrub typhus in Australia, Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from the patient's blood was tested by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The sequence showed a strain of O. tsutsugamushi that was quite different from the classic Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains. The new strain has been designated Litchfield. PMID:9866742

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa Strain FGSC 73

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna; ...

    2015-04-02

    We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) strain FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant strain. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a strain. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa Strain FGSC 73

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna

    2015-03-05

    We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) strain FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant strain. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a strain. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.

  16. Screening of flocculant-producing strains by NTG mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Wu; Cheng, Wen; Hu, Yong-You

    2005-01-01

    Screening of new microorganism being able to produce efficiently flocculants was carried out. A new model for screening efficient flocculant-producing strains was designed and tested. The results showed that this model for screening efficient flocculant-producing strains is very reliable and can greatly shorten the screening period. 13 flocculant-producing strains were isolated from activated sludge by conventional method. A strain, designated as HHE6, produced the bioflocculant with the turbidity removal 98% for kaolin suspension. Six of 13 strains selected as the original strains were treated with NTG as mutagen, and five mutant strains (HHE-P7, HHE-A8, HHE-P21, HHE-P24, HHE-A26) with high flocculation efficiency was obtained by selection, which exhibited the flocculation rate for kaolin suspension above 90%. Strains HHE6, HHE-P7, and HHE-P24 were classified as Penicillium purpurogenum, HHE-P21 as Penicillium cyclopium, HHE-A26 as Aspergillus versicolor and HHE-A8 as Aspergillus fumigatus, and it is hitherto unreported for biofloccutant-producing strains of Penicillium. The growth of the six strains (HHE6, HHE-P7, HHE-A8, HHE-P21, HHE-P24, HHE-A26) had similar curves, i.e. firstly increasing rapidly, keeping relatively constant then and finally decreasing gradually with cultivation time. The production of bioflocculants by strains showed the similar pattern to strain growth.

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus Phage Type 92

    PubMed Central

    Schaefler, S.; Perry, W.; Jones, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant (Mecr) strains of Staphylococcus aureus received for phage typing from several hospitals in New York City were resistant to the international set of typing phages but susceptible to experimental phage 92. Subsequently, strains of type 92 were detected in two outbreaks with Mecr strains in two other locations in the United States. In all instances, type 92 was predominant among the Mecr strains isolated in each hospital. With the exception of one strain, the methicillin resistance of the Mecr strains investigated was homogeneous. In most instances, isolates from the same hospital were closely similar in their antibiotic resistance patterns. The strains isolated in New York City could be divided into three groups by the host range of their lysogenic phages and by antigenic structure. Transduction experiments indicated that the transfer of chromosomal tetracycline resistance from Mecr strains into a strain susceptible to several international typing phages renders the latter nontypable. However, the acceptor strain remains susceptible to experimental phages 92 and 88. Transduction of methicillin resistance had no effect on the phage susceptibility of the acceptor strain. It is possible that the presence of chromosomal tetracycline resistance is a determining factor in the phage susceptibility of Mecr strains isolated in New York City. PMID:154874

  18. Flexible Bond Wire Capacitive Strain Sensor for Vehicle Tyres.

    PubMed

    Cao, Siyang; Pyatt, Simon; Anthony, Carl J; Kubba, Ammar I; Kubba, Ali E; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2016-06-21

    The safety of the driving experience and manoeuvrability of a vehicle can be improved by detecting the strain in tyres. To measure strain accurately in rubber, the strain sensor needs to be flexible so that it does not deform the medium that it is measuring. In this work, a novel flexible bond wire capacitive strain sensor for measuring the strain in tyres is developed, fabricated and calibrated. An array of 25 micron diameter wire bonds in an approximately 8 mm × 8 mm area is built to create an interdigitated structure, which consists of 50 wire loops resulting in 49 capacitor pairs in parallel. Laser machining was used to pattern copper on a flexible printed circuit board PCB to make the bond pads for the wire attachment. The wire array was finally packaged and embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which acts as the structural material that is strained. The capacitance of the device is in a linear like relationship with respect to the strain, which can measure the strain up to at least ±60,000 micro-strain (±6%) with a resolution of ~132 micro-strain (0.013%). In-tyre testing under static loading has shown the ability of the sensor to measure large tyre strains. The technology used for sensor fabrication lends itself to mass production and so the design is considered to be consistent with low cost commercialisable strain sensing technology.

  19. Sources of Role Strain among Dual-Career Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Gloria W.; Ford, Rachel

    1985-01-01

    Examines the extent of role strain among husbands and wives in 69 dual-career couples. Results indicated that, for wives, number of children and importance of the parental role were significant predictors of role strain. For husbands, role strain was related to age of the youngest child and the extent to which child-care tasks were shared.…

  20. On strain-rate independent damping in continuum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Gerben

    2017-10-01

    Strain-rate independent damping is a theory of energy dissipation in solids. It is based on the assumption that an increase or decrease in the strain-energy density correlates with a multiplication of 1+η or 1-η respectively, of the material stiffness matrix, with 0≤ η <<1 with η either a constant or a function of the strain-energy density. This type of damping has a loss (Watt m-3) of η times the absolute value of the rate of change of the strain-energy density. For uni-axial strain and a suitable function of the strain-energy density, the energy dissipation (Joule m-3) due to an infinitesimal change of the strain is strain-rate independent and proportional to the absolute value of the strain raised to a power ranging from 1 to 2. This is an idealization of tests results, based on forced harmonic strain cycles, with an energy dissipation (Joule m-3 cycle-1) found to be nearly frequency independent and almost proportional to the strain amplitude raised to a power ranging from 2 to 3. The PDEs derived for strain-rate independent damping can be solved for 1, 2 or 3 dimensions via direct integration, provided that the software supports PDE coefficients that are functions of the solution and its space and time derivatives. A 3D problem with 22,000 DOF's and 10,000 time steps was solved successfully and convincingly.

  1. Draft genome sequence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain NCPPB2659

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work reports the draft genome of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain NCPPB2659 (also known as strain K599). The assembled genome contains 5,277,347 bp, and is composed of 1 circular chromosome, the Ri virulence plasmid, and 17 scaffolds pertaining to the linear chromosome. The wild type strain cau...

  2. Flexible Bond Wire Capacitive Strain Sensor for Vehicle Tyres

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Siyang; Pyatt, Simon; Anthony, Carl J.; Kubba, Ammar I.; Kubba, Ali E.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2016-01-01

    The safety of the driving experience and manoeuvrability of a vehicle can be improved by detecting the strain in tyres. To measure strain accurately in rubber, the strain sensor needs to be flexible so that it does not deform the medium that it is measuring. In this work, a novel flexible bond wire capacitive strain sensor for measuring the strain in tyres is developed, fabricated and calibrated. An array of 25 micron diameter wire bonds in an approximately 8 mm × 8 mm area is built to create an interdigitated structure, which consists of 50 wire loops resulting in 49 capacitor pairs in parallel. Laser machining was used to pattern copper on a flexible printed circuit board PCB to make the bond pads for the wire attachment. The wire array was finally packaged and embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which acts as the structural material that is strained. The capacitance of the device is in a linear like relationship with respect to the strain, which can measure the strain up to at least ±60,000 micro-strain (±6%) with a resolution of ~132 micro-strain (0.013%). In-tyre testing under static loading has shown the ability of the sensor to measure large tyre strains. The technology used for sensor fabrication lends itself to mass production and so the design is considered to be consistent with low cost commercialisable strain sensing technology. PMID:27338402

  3. Evaluation of Engineered Pichia stipitis Strains for Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the fermentation capabilities of five strains of Pichia stipitis that had been engineered for xylose fermentation to ethanol by USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. The strains tested were P. stipitis WT-1-11, WT-1-2, 14-2-6, 22-1-1, and 22-1-12. Strains w...

  4. Strain-Rate Dependency of Axonal Tolerance for Uniaxial Stretching.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Hiromichi; Kurtoglu, Evrim; Furukawa, Hidenori; Oikawa, Shoko; Aomura, Shigeru; Kakuta, Akira; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to clarify the relation between axonal deformation and the onset of axonal injury. Firstly, to examine the influence of strain rate on the threshold for axonal injury, cultured neurons were subjected to 12 types of stretching (strains were 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 and strain rates were 10, 30, 50, and 70 s -1 ). The formation of axonal swellings and bulbs increased significantly at strain rates of 50 and 30 s -1 with strains of 0.15 and 0.20, respectively, even though those formations did not depend on strain rates in cultures exposed to a strain of 0.10. Then, to examine the influence of the strain along an axon on axonal injury, swellings were measured at every axonal angle in the stretching direction. The axons that were parallel to stretching direction were injured the most. Finally, we proposed an experimental model that subjected an axon to more accurate strain. This model observed the process of axonal injury formation by detecting the same neuron before and after stretching. These results suggest that the strain-rate dependency of axonal tolerance is induced by a higher magnitude of loading strain and an experiment focusing on axonal strain is required for obtaining more detailed injury criteria for an axon.

  5. Fermentation of sugars and sugar alcohols by plaque Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Almståhl, Annica; Lingström, Peter; Eliasson, Lars; Carlén, Anette

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to analyse the ability of Lactobacillus strains isolated from supragingival plaque of subjects with hyposalivation and from healthy controls to ferment sugars and sugar alcohols. Fifty strains isolated from interproximal plaque from subjects with radiation-induced hyposalivation (25 strains), subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome (16 strains) and from subjects with normal salivary secretion rate (9 strains) were tested. Growth and pH were determined after 24 and 48 h of anaerobic incubation in vials containing basal media with 1 % of glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, sorbitol or xylitol. No differences between strains isolated from hyposalivated subjects and controls were detected. All strains lowered the pH to <5.0 from fructose and the majority of the strains from glucose and sucrose. A pH of <5.5 was seen for 52 % of the strains using mannitol, 50 % using sorbitol and 36 % using xylitol. The ability to produce acids from sugars and sugar alcohols was highest among strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei and lowest among Lactobacillus fermentum strains. A large number of Lactobacillus strains are able to ferment not only sugars but also the sugar substitutes mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol to pH levels critical for enamel demineralisation. Our findings suggest that products containing mannitol, sorbitol and/or xylitol may contribute to the acidogenic potential of the dental plaque and especially in hyposalivated subjects with high numbers of lactobacilli.

  6. Newly Isolated Lactobacilli strains from Algerian Human Vaginal Microbiota: Lactobacillus fermentum Strains Relevant Probiotic's Candidates.

    PubMed

    Ouarabi, Liza; Chait, Yasmina Ait; Seddik, Hamza Ait; Drider, Djamel; Bendali, Farida

    2017-11-28

    Lactobacilli strains are considered as a preventive means for treatment of vaginal infections or post-antibiotic treatment to repopulate the vaginal mucosa. This study aimed at establishing the vaginal lactobacillus profile of Algerian women with different vaginal diseases. Afterwards, lactobacilli isolated from swabs were in vitro characterized for their probiotic hallmarks. This prospective study allowed isolation of 44 Lactobacillus strains and 160 potentially pathogens, among which are Escherichia coli (50 isolates), Staphylococcus sp. (38 isolates), Enterococcus sp. (16 isolates), and Candida sp. (56 isolates). All Lactobacilli strains were characterized for their antagonism, adhesion to polystyrene, and resistance to acidity and bile. Consequently, six Lactobacillus strains (Lb. fermentum 5LB4, 5LB10, 5LB12, Lb. plantarum 5LB2, 5LB11, and Lactobacillus sp. 4LB9) were moderately or weakly adherent, and 35 potentially pathogens exhibited weak to strong adhesion to polystyrene. Antagonism was recorded for 36 Lactobacillus strains towards E. coli 6E2, S. aureus 7S3, Enterococcus sp. 5EN8, and Candida albicans C1 used as indicator organisms. Finally, Lb. fermentum 9LB6, 4LB16, and 10LB1 and Lb. plantarum 9LB4 were remarkable for their inhibitory activity, absence of hemolytic potential, and for their resistance to acidity (pH 1.5) and bile (0.5%) harsh conditions.

  7. Transcriptomics-based strain optimization tool for designing secondary metabolite overproducing strains of Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsuk; Yi, Jeong Sang; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Lee, Dong-Yup; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2016-03-01

    In silico model-driven analysis using genome-scale model of metabolism (GEM) has been recognized as a promising method for microbial strain improvement. However, most of the current GEM-based strain design algorithms based on flux balance analysis (FBA) heavily rely on the steady-state and optimality assumptions without considering any regulatory information. Thus, their practical usage is quite limited, especially in its application to secondary metabolites overproduction. In this study, we developed a transcriptomics-based strain optimization tool (tSOT) in order to overcome such limitations by integrating transcriptomic data into GEM. Initially, we evaluated existing algorithms for integrating transcriptomic data into GEM using Streptomyces coelicolor dataset, and identified iMAT algorithm as the only and the best algorithm for characterizing the secondary metabolism of S. coelicolor. Subsequently, we developed tSOT platform where iMAT is adopted to predict the reaction states, and successfully demonstrated its applicability to secondary metabolites overproduction by designing actinorhodin (ACT), a polyketide antibiotic, overproducing strain of S. coelicolor. Mutants overexpressing tSOT targets such as ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase and NADP-dependent malic enzyme showed 2 and 1.8-fold increase in ACT production, thereby validating the tSOT prediction. It is expected that tSOT can be used for solving other metabolic engineering problems which could not be addressed by current strain design algorithms, especially for the secondary metabolite overproductions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  9. Sb-induced strain fluctuations in a strained layer superlattice of InAs/InAsSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Honggyu; Meng, Yifei; Klem, John F.; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Kim, Jin K.; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    We show that Sb substitution for As in a MBE grown InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattice (SLS) is accompanied by significant strain fluctuations. The SLS was observed using scanning transmission electron microscopy along the [100] zone axis where the cation and anion atomic columns are separately resolved. Strain analysis based on atomic column positions reveals asymmetrical transitions in the strain profile across the SLS interfaces. The averaged strain profile is quantitatively fitted to the segregation model, which yields a distribution of Sb in agreement with the scanning tunneling microscopy result. The subtraction of the calculated strain reveals an increase in strain fluctuations with the Sb concentration, as well as isolated regions with large strain deviations extending spatially over ˜1 nm, which suggest the presence of point defects.

  10. Sb-induced strain fluctuations in a strained layer superlattice of InAs/InAsSb

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Honggyu; Meng, Yifei; Klem, John F.

    2018-04-28

    Here, we show that Sb substitution for As in a MBE grown InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattice (SLS) is accompanied by significant strain fluctuations. The SLS was observed using scanning transmission electron microscopy along the [100] zone axis where the cation and anion atomic columns are separately resolved. Strain analysis based on atomic column positions reveals asymmetrical transitions in the strain profile across the SLS interfaces. The averaged strain profile is quantitatively fitted to the segregation model, which yields a distribution of Sb in agreement with our scanning tunneling microscopy result. The subtraction of the calculated strain reveals an increase inmore » strain fluctuations with the Sb concentration, as well as isolated regions with large strain deviations extending spatially over ~1 nm, which suggest the presence of point defects.« less

  11. Evaluation of methods and materials used to attach strain gages to polymer grids for high strain conditions.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-12-01

    this report concerns the attachment of strain gages to polymer soil reinforcement grids (geogrids) for high elongation measurements, i.e. 5% and higher. Existing methods of attaching strain gages to geogrids are not suited for measurement of these hi...

  12. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  13. A New Global Geodetic Strain Rate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, C. W.; Klein, E. C.; Blewitt, G.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Rabaute, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) effort to improve global seismic hazard models, we present a new global geodetic strain rate model. This model (GSRM v. 2) is a vast improvement on the previous model from 2004 (v. 1.2). The model is still based on a finite-element type approach and has deforming cells in between the assumed rigid plates. While v.1.2 contained ~25,000 deforming cells of 0.6° by 0.5° dimension, the new models contains >136,000 cells of 0.25° by 0.2° dimension. We redefined the geometries of the deforming zones based on the definitions of Bird (2003) and Chamot-Rooke and Rabaute (2006). We made some adjustments to the grid geometry at places where seismicity and/or GPS velocities suggested the presence of deforming areas where those previous studies did not. As a result, some plates/blocks identified by Bird (2003) we assumed to deform, and the total number of plates and blocks in GSRM v.2 is 38 (including the Bering block, which Bird (2003) did not consider). GSRM v.1.2 was based on ~5,200 GPS velocities, taken from 86 studies. The new model is based on ~17,000 GPS velocities, taken from 170 studies. The GPS velocity field consists of a 1) ~4900 velocities derived by us for CPS stations publicly available RINEX data and >3.5 years of data, 2) ~1200 velocities for China from a new analysis of all CMONOC data, and 3) velocities published in the literature or made otherwise available to us. All studies were combined into the same reference frame by a 6-parameter transformation using velocities at collocated stations. Because the goal of the project is to model the interseismic strain rate field, we model co-seismic jumps while estimating velocities, ignore periods of post-seismic deformation, and exclude time-series that reflect magmatic and anthropogenic activity. GPS velocities were used to estimate angular velocities for most of the 38 rigid plates and blocks (the rest being taken from the literature), and these were used as boundary

  14. Wing Shape Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2015-01-01

    A new two-step theory is investigated for predicting the deflection and slope of an entire structure using strain measurements at discrete locations. In the first step, a measured strain is fitted using a piecewise least-squares curve fitting method together with the cubic spline technique. These fitted strains are integrated twice to obtain deflection data along the fibers. In the second step, computed deflection along the fibers are combined with a finite element model of the structure in order to interpolate and extrapolate the deflection and slope of the entire structure through the use of the System Equivalent Reduction and Expansion Process. The theory is first validated on a computational model, a cantilevered rectangular plate wing. The theory is then applied to test data from a cantilevered swept-plate wing model. Computed results are compared with finite element results, results using another strainbased method, and photogrammetry data. For the computational model under an aeroelastic load, maximum deflection errors in the fore and aft, lateral, and vertical directions are -3.2%, 0.28%, and 0.09%, respectively; and maximum slope errors in roll and pitch directions are 0.28% and -3.2%, respectively. For the experimental model, deflection results at the tip are shown to be accurate to within 3.8% of the photogrammetry data and are accurate to within 2.2% in most cases. In general, excellent matching between target and computed values are accomplished in this study. Future refinement of this theory will allow it to monitor the deflection and health of an entire aircraft in real time, allowing for aerodynamic load computation, active flexible motion control, and active induced drag reduction.

  15. Global proteomic profiling of Yersinia ruckeri strains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Hummel, Karin; Welch, Timothy J; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-09-20

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) of salmonids. There is little information regarding the proteomics of Y. ruckeri. Herein, we perform whole protein identification and quantification of biotype 1 and biotype 2 strains of Y. ruckeri grown under standard culture conditions using a shotgun proteomic approach. Proteins were extracted, digested and peptides were separated by a nano liquid chromatography system and analyzed with a high-resolution hybrid triple quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer coupled via a nano ESI interface. SWATH-MS technology and sophisticated statistical analyses were used to identify proteome differences among virulent and avirulent strains. GO annotation, subcellular localization, virulence proteins and antibiotic resistance ontology were predicted using bioinformatic tools. A total of 1395 proteins were identified in the whole cell of Y. ruckeri. These included proteases, chaperones, cell division proteins, outer membrane proteins, lipoproteins, receptors, ion binding proteins, transporters and catalytic proteins. In virulent strains, a total of 16 proteins were upregulated including anti-sigma regulatory factor, arginine deiminase, phosphate-binding protein PstS and superoxide dismutase Cu-Zu. Additionally, several virulence proteins were predicted such as Clp and Lon pro-teases, TolB, PPIases, PstS, PhoP and LuxR family transcriptional regulators. These putative virulence proteins might be used for development of novel targets for treatment of ERM in fish. Our study represents one of the first global proteomic reference profiles of Y. ruckeri and this data can be accessed via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005439. These proteomic profiles elucidate proteomic mechanisms, pathogenicity, host-interactions, antibiotic resistance ontology and localization of Y. ruckeri proteins.

  16. High temperature static strain gage development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Final results are presented from a program to develop a thin film static strain gage for use on the blades and vanes of running, test stand gas turbine engines with goals of an 3 x 3 mm gage area and total errors of less than 10 pct. of + or - 2,000 microstrain after 50 hrs at 1250 K. Pd containing 13 Wt. pct. Cr was previously identified as a new strain sensor alloy that appeared to be potentially usable to 1250 K. Subsequently, it was discovered, in contrast with its behavior in bulk, that Pd-13Cr suffered from oxidation attack when prepared as a 4.5 micron thick thin film. Continuing problems with electrical leakage to the substrate and the inability of sputtered alumina overcoats to prevent oxidation led to the discovery that sputtered alumina contains appreciable amounts of entrapped argon. After the argon has been exsolved by heating to elevated temperatures, the alumina films undergo a linear shrinkage of about 2 pct. resulting in formation of cracks. These problems can be largely overcome by sputtering the alumina with the substrate heated to 870 K. With 2 micron thick hot sputtered alumina insulation and overcoat films, total 50 hr drifts of about 100 microstrain (2 tests) and about 500 microstrain (1 test) were observed at 1000 and 1100 K, respectively. Results of tests on complete strain gage systems on constant moment bend bars with Pd temperature compensation grids revealed that oxidation of the Pd grid was a major problem even when the grid was overcoated with a hot or cold sputtered alumina overcoat.

  17. Identification of over-expressed genes in modified live vaccine strain of Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to virulent strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 41 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from a modified live vaccine strain (AQUAVAC-ESC, formerly RE-33) vs a virulent parent strain (EILO) of Edwardsiella ictaluri. Transcriptional levels of the 41 ESTs in the vaccine strain and th...

  18. A World Health Organization Human Hepatitis E Virus Reference Strain Related to Similar Strains Isolated from Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marco; Delaune, Déborah; Chazouillères, Olivier; Blümel, Johannes; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie; Baylis, Sally A

    2018-04-19

    We report here the genome sequence of a hepatitis E virus (HEV) strain from a chronically infected immunodeficient patient. Full-length sequence analysis revealed a distinct HEV strain, of a tentative new subgenotype, clustering with viruses from rabbits. It is a World Health Organization reference strain for validation of nucleic acid testing. Copyright © 2018 Kaiser et al.

  19. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  20. Forming limit strains for non-linear strain path of AA6014 aluminium sheet deformed at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, José Divo; Liewald, Mathias; Drotleff, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Forming limit strain curves of conventional aluminium alloy AA6014 sheets after loading with non-linear strain paths are presented and compared with D-Bressan macroscopic model of sheet metal rupture by critical shear stress criterion. AA6014 exhibits good formability at room temperature and, thus, is mainly employed in car body external parts by manufacturing at room temperature. According to Weber et al., experimental bi-linear strain paths were carried out in specimens with 1mm thickness by pre-stretching in uniaxial and biaxial directions up to 5%, 10% and 20% strain levels before performing Nakajima testing experiments to obtain the forming limit strain curves, FLCs. In addition, FLCs of AA6014 were predicted by employing D-Bressan critical shear stress criterion for bi-linear strain path and comparisons with the experimental FLCs were analyzed and discussed. In order to obtain the material coefficients of plastic anisotropy, strain and strain rate hardening behavior and calibrate the D-Bressan model, tensile tests, two different strain rate on specimens cut at 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction and also bulge test were carried out at room temperature. The correlation of experimental bi-linear strain path FLCs is reasonably good with the predicted limit strains from D-Bressan model, assuming equivalent pre-strain calculated by Hill 1979 yield criterion.

  1. An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.

  2. Selective enrichment media bias the types of salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the organism the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis Strain B6 and bv. intermedius Strain 642-21

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Roberto A.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Indjein, Léa; Venus, Bronwyn; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Power, John

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. We sequenced the genomes of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain B6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. The genetic variability of these Australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock. PMID:25278524

  4. Repeated Strains, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General Strain Theory in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    In Agnew's general strain theory, repeated strains can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated strains in school and at home on…

  5. Sequential acquisition of Potato virus Y strains by Myzus persicae favors the transmission of the emerging recombinant strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past decade recombinant strains of potato virus Y (PVY) have overtaken the ordinary strain, PVYO, as the predominant viruses affecting the US seed potato crop. Aphids may be a contributing factor in the emergence of the recombinant strains, but studies indicate that differences in transmissio...

  6. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xiao, Shaobo; Li, Mao; Guo, Shaohua; Li, Sha; Luo, Rui; Feng, Zhixin; Li, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Shao, Guoqing; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong

    2013-02-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form the foundation of future

  7. May the use of different background strains 'strain' the stress-related phenotype of GR+/- mice?

    PubMed

    Vogt, Miriam A; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Le Guisquet, Anne Marie; Brandwein, Christiane; Brizard, Bruno; Gass, Peter; Belzung, Catherine; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2017-09-29

    Genetically altered mice are available on different background strains. While respective backcrosses are often performed for pragmatic reasons, e.g. references, comparability, or existing protocols, the interaction between the mutations per se and the background strain often remains a neglected factor. The heterozygous mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) represents a well-examined model for depressive-like behavior in mice. To address the question in how far a robust depressive-like phenotype on a distinct background strain may allow a generalized conclusion, we analyzed respective phenotypes in two commonly used inbred strains: i.) C57BL/6N and ii.) BALB/c. Beside the use of different genetic models, we also extended our approach by applying two alternative paradigms to induce a depressive-like phenotype. Our study therefore comprised the model of 'unpredictable chronic mild stress' (UCMS) for four weeks and 'learned helplessness' (LH), which were used to study the role of GR, a key player in the development of depression. In the course of the experiment two cohorts of male GR +/- mice on either C57BL/6N or BALB/c background strain underwent a behavioral test battery to assess basal and depressive-like features. While both stress paradigms were functional in inducing depressive-like changes, the results were strictly strain-dependent. The genetic consequences became even more obvious under non-stress conditions with significant effects detected in BALB/c mice, which indicates a different basal stress predisposition due to differences in the genetic background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  9. Mortality of marine bacterial strains in seawater.

    PubMed

    Penón, F J; Martínez, J; Vives-Rego, J; García-Lara, J

    1991-04-01

    As an approach for assessing the dynamics of bacterial population in seawater, the survival of five isolated marine bacteria strains was assessed by the disappearance of radioactivity in the cold trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-insoluble fraction from a previously 3H-labeled culture. Metabolic activity during survival experiments was assessed by the measurement of electron transport system (ETS) activity. Fractionated filtration was used to assess the grazing mortality. The particulate fraction that passed 2.0 microns and was retained in 0.2 microns was the main cause of mortality.

  10. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kashif; Leland, J Martin

    2012-04-01

    Hamstring injuries continue to be very common for both elite and amateur athletes. Given their high recurrence rate, the ability to treat these injuries effectively is critical to helping athletes return to their previous level of activity without putting them at risk for future injury. Most hamstring strains can be treated with initial pain control and a course of rehabilitation focused on a gradual return to activity. However, an exact, evidence-based rehabilitation protocol has yet to be studied. Although surgery is rare and reserved for complete hamstring ruptures, results show high patient satisfaction and ability to return to play.

  11. Strained layer Fabry-Perot device

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Hammons, Burrell E.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflectance modulator (AFPM) consists of an active region between top and bottom mirrors, the bottom mirror being affixed to a substrate by a buffer layer. The active region comprises a strained-layer region having a bandgap and thickness chosen for resonance at the Fabry-Perot frequency. The mirrors are lattice matched to the active region, and the buffer layer is lattice matched to the mirror at the interface. The device operates at wavelengths of commercially available semiconductor lasers.

  12. Integration aspects of strained Ge pFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witters, L.; Eneman, G.; Mitard, J.; Vincent, B.; Hikavyy, A.; Milenin, A. P.; Mertens, S.; Thean, A.; Collaert, N.

    2014-08-01

    Strained Ge channel PFETs have the potential to outperform state-of-the-art strained Si channel PFETs. This paper describes the integration aspects for strained Ge channel devices based on TCAD simulations and experimental observations. The most scalable way of introducing channel stress is by the use of Si1-xGex strain relaxed buffers (SRB) and/or high Ge-content source/drain stressors, selectively grown in STI. Reduction of the thermal budget, damage and Ge loss during subsequent processing are key to maintain the high strain in the Ge channel till the end of processing.

  13. Hodographic approach to predicting inelastic strain at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovits, A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of continuous and discontinuous changes in strain rate on the relationship among strain rate, strain, and stress is described. Data from Udimet 700 in tension at 925 C were used in order to relate cyclic tensile creep to the monotonic properties of the material by means of the hodograph. The nature of modifications caused to the hodograph by discontinuous variation of the strain rate was determined from tests. Reloading at discontinuous strain rate caused reactivation of primary creep. A simple method, based on monotonic material properties, is proposed for predicting cyclic tensile creep response. Preliminary results of cyclic tests agree with predicted response.

  14. Strain measurement of spiral bevel gear using optical fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nianyun; Wang, Yiming; Zhou, Zude; Lou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a spiral bevel gear strain measurement using optical fiber gratings. High-speed and heavy-duty spiral bevel gear (SBG) is the key component of the power transmission of intersection axes. Its dynamic mechanical properties greatly influence the working performance of the machine. By building a strain detecting system based on FBG demodulation, we carried out real-time measurements of the distributed strain in the SBG with different torques and different rotation speed. The experimental results show a complete strain waveform from gear-in to gear-out, verifying the feasibility of measuring the strain of SBG using optical fiber gratings.

  15. X-Ray Moire Techniques For Measuring Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric Irvine

    1995-01-01

    X-ray moire method provides for measurement of strains throughout relatively large regions and in locations invisible or inaccessible to measurement by other techniques. For example, used to measure strains between layers of material in rubber tires. Method exploits body of knowledge already developed for optical moire measurement of strains. Offers advantages over optical methods of measuring strains within depths of objects, in that x-ray imaging not restricted to optically transparent materials. Also offers advantages over strain-gauge method that gauge wires not needed and measurements not limited to discrete gauge points.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using four connecting wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Allen R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new signal-conditioning technique for measuring strain and temperature which uses fewer connecting wires than conventional techniques. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain has been achieved by using thermocouple wire to connect strain gages to signal conditioning. This signal conditioning uses a new method for demultiplexing sampled analog signals and the Anderson current loop circuit. Theory is presented along with data to confirm that strain gage resistance change is sensed without appreciable error because of thermoelectric effects. Furthermore, temperature is sensed without appreciable error because of voltage drops caused by strain gage excitation current flowing through the gage resistance.

  17. [Genotypic differences between Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar gravis and mitis strains].

    PubMed

    Borisova, O Iu; Volozhantsev, N V; Mel'nikov, V G; Mazurova, I K; Kombarova, S Iu; Aleshkin, V A

    2013-01-01

    Study structure ofa genetic determinant of amylase activity (amygene) in Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar gravis and mitis strains. 87 C. diphtheriae strains (31 gravis biovar strains and 56 mitis biovar strains) as well as C. diphtheriae PW8 strain were analyzed to detect structural features of C. diphtheriae strains of various biovars. 10 pairs of primers were used in PCR that flank mutually overlapping regions within DIP0357 locus as well as additional primers that flank DIP0353-DIP0354, DIP0357 and DIP0358 loci. All the C. diphtheriae biovar gravis strains were established to contain a full-size DIP0357 locus (amy gene) whereas in all the mitis biovar strains this genome fragment is absent. All the studied C. diphtheriae biovar gravis strains do not have significant changes within DIP0354-DIP0357 loci (amy gene) whereas in genome of 57 studied C. diphtheriae biovar mitis strains the major part of this fragment including the complete nucleotide sequence of amy gene is absent. C. diphtheriae biovar gravis strains have a genetically determined ability to produce amylase that can be viewed as an additional pathogenicity factor giving microorganisms wider capabilities to colonize the mucous membrane of oropharynx.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi strains cause different myocarditis patterns in infected mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Hector O; Guerrero, Néstor A; Fortes, Alen; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Gironès, Núria; Fresno, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease pathology is dependent on the infecting Trypanosoma cruzi strain. However, the relationship between the extent and type of myocarditis caused by different T. cruzi strains in the acute and chronic phases of infection has not been studied in detail. To address this, we infected mice with three genetically distant T. cruzi strains as well as infected in vitro different cell types. Parasitemia was detected in mice infected with the Y and VFRA strains, but not with the Sc43 strain; however, only the Y strain was lethal. When infected with VFRA, mice showed higher inflammation and parasitism in the heart than with Sc43 strain. Y and VFRA caused homogeneous pancarditis with inflammatory infiltrates along the epicardium, whereas Sc43 caused inflammation preferentially in the auricles in association with intracellular parasite localization. We observed intramyocardic perivasculitis in mice infected with the VFRA and Y strains, but not with Sc43, during the acute phase, which suggests that endothelial cells may be involved in heart colonization by these more virulent strains. In in vitro infection assays, the Y strain had the highest parasite-cell ratio in epithelial, macrophage and endothelial cell lines, but Y and VFRA strains were higher than Sc43 in cardiomyocytes. This study supports parasite variability as a cause for the diverse cardiac outcomes observed in Chagas disease, and suggests that endothelial cells could be involved in heart infection during the acute phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA homology among diverse spiroplasma strains representing several serological groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, I M; Davis, R E

    1980-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) homology among 10 strains of spiroplasma associated with plants and insects was assessed by analysis of DNA-DNA hybrids with single strand specific S1 nuclease. Based on DNA homology, the spiroplasmas could be divided into three genetically distinct groups (designated I, II, and III), corresponding to three separate serogroups described previously. DNA sequence homology between the three groups was less than or equal to 5%. Based on DNA homology, group I could be divided into three subgroups (A, B, and C) that corresponded to three serological subgroups of serogroup I. Subgroup A contained Spiroplasma citri strains Maroc R8A2 and C 189; subgroup B contained strains AS 576 from honey bee and G 1 from flowers; subgroup C contained corn stunt spiroplasma strains I-747 and PU 8-17. There was 27-54% DNA sequence homology among these three subgroups. Group II contained strains 23-6 and 27-31 isolated from flowers of tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Group III contained strains SR 3 and SR 9, other isolates from flowers of tulip tree. Based on thermal denaturation, guanine plus cytosine contents of DNA from five type strains representing all groups and subgroups were estimated to be close to 26 mol% for group I strains, close to 25 mol% for group II strains, and close to 29 mol% for group III strains. The genome molecular weights of these five type strains were all estimated to bae about 10(9).

  20. Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.

    PubMed

    Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and β-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations.

  1. Colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris nodules by Agrobacterium-like strains.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Ridha; Mrabet, Moncef; Laguerre, Gisèle; Tiwari, Ravi; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi

    2005-02-01

    Non-nodulating Agrobacterium-like strains identified among root nodule isolates of common bean were labeled with gusA, a reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Bean plants were then co-inoculated with an infective Rhizobium strain and labeled transconjugants of Agrobacterium-like strains. Blue staining of nodules showed that Agrobacterium-like strains were able to colonize these symbiotic organs. Isolation and characterization by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed a mixed population of Rhizobium and Agrobacterium-like strains in all nodules showing GUS activity. PCR amplification of the nifH gene and nodulation tests did not show any evidence of acquisition of symbiotic gene by lateral transfer from Rhizobium to Agrobacterium-like strains. Moreover, these strains were able to invade mature nodules. Based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, one of these Agrobacterium-like strains showed 99.4% sequence similarity with Agrobacterium bv. 1 reference strains and 99% similarity with an Agrobacterium bv. 1 strain isolated from Acacia mollisima in Senegal. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and the disarmed variant AT123 did not show any ability to colonize nodules. Co-inoculation of bean seeds with Agrobacterium and Rhizobium strains did not enhance nodulation and plant yield under controlled conditions.

  2. Microstructural evolution in high strength materials at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassim, M. N.; Bolduc, M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Mirfarkraei, S.

    2006-08-01

    High strength materials such as used as armor plate have been investigated in torsion using Split Hopkinson Bars for the purpose of obtaining stress-strain curves and for examining the mechanism of plastic deformation in terms of mechanical instability due to thermal softening at high strain rates. A comparative study of the plastic deformation behavior of RHA steel, Aluminum 5083 H131 alloy and Tungsten A90S alloy under the loading condition at high strain rates is carried out and the effect of strain rate on shear flow stress and stress-strain profiles is presented. Strain rate sensitivities of the materials are evaluated and discussed with respect to mechanical instability and adiabatic shear strain localization.

  3. Patellar Strain in Three Models of Total Knee Prothesis

    PubMed Central

    McLain, Robert F.; Bargar, William L.

    1985-01-01

    Five normal adult cadaveric knees were prepared and mounted in a loading frame permitting a full range of motion under a constant quadriceps force. Strain over the anterior patella was plotted versus flexion angle, before and after capsulotomy, and after each of a series of arthroplasties. Three component systems, the Robert Brigham Total Condylar, the Total Condylar 1, and the Insall Burstein Posterior Stabilized Total Condylar Knee Prosthesis were serially implanted in each knee. Strains in the Robert Brigham were recorded both before and after sectioning of the posterior cruciate ligament. All components produced a significantly higher strain than in the intact knee, and peak strains were seen at the extremes of flexion in all components. Total Condylar 1 system yielded the highest strain throughout the range of motion. Over the functional range of motion the Robert Brigham component produced the lowest strains. Sectioning the PCL made no difference in anterior patellar strain in the Robert Brigham knee.

  4. Quantitative Study of Nodulation Competitiveness in Rhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Amarger, Noëlle; Lobreau, Jean Pierre

    1982-01-01

    We compared the nodulation competitiveness of three strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum by counting the number of nodules formed on faba bean plants after the application at sowing time of different concentrations of the strains to soils already containing Rhizobium strains of the same species. A relationship of type y = axn was found to exist between the ratio of the nodules formed by the applied inoculum strain to the nodules formed by the soil strains and the ratio of Rhizobium cells in the inoculum to the cells in the soil. This relationship was also confirmed in another competition experiment in which two R. meliloti strains of identical competitiveness were mixed in various proportions. The relationship can also be applied to the majority of results reported in the literature. Should it prove to be more widely applicable, it could be used to estimate the relative competitiveness of Rhizobium strains and thus predict the performance of an inoculum in a given soil. PMID:16346089

  5. Conjugative transfer of tetracycline resistance in rumen streptococcal strains.

    PubMed

    Jonecová, Z; Mareková, M; Kmeĭ, V

    1994-01-01

    In 11% of tested Streptococcus bovis strains a conjugative transfer of tetracycline resistance was observed when mating experiments were carried out on membrane filters. The recipient strain used was S. bovis BM114 with chromosomal resistance to rifampicin. In addition, in two strains tetracycline resistance was transferred also to recipient strain Enterococcus faecium AL6. The transfer frequencies were in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-3). The donor strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and one up to four bands of plasmid DNA in all tested strains were revealed. In spite of that isolation of plasmid DNA was successful only in 53/4/114 transconjugants. Transconjugant 32/114 contained amylase activity which was higher than in the donor strain.

  6. Strain relaxation of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuye; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Lei, Dian; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Dong, Yuan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Shengqiang; Tan, Chuan Seng; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2018-02-01

    Strain relaxation of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx layer when it is patterned into Ge1-xSnx fin structures is studied. Ge1-xSnx-on-insulator (GeSnOI) substrate was realized using a direct wafer bonding (DWB) technique and Ge1-xSnx fin structures were formed by electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and dry etching. The strain in the Ge1-xSnx fins having fin widths (WFin) ranging from 1 μm down to 80 nm was characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Raman measurements show that the strain relaxation increases with decreasing WFin. Finite element (FE) simulation shows that the strain component in the transverse direction relaxes with decreasing WFin, while the strain component along the fin direction remains unchanged. For various Ge1-xSnx fin widths, transverse strain relaxation was further extracted using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is consistent with the simulation results.

  7. Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melinda J.; Zhang, Jing; Edmonds, Judith H.; Prow, Natalie A.; Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney; Hornitzky, Christine; Arzey, Kathleen E.; Finlaison, Deborah; Hick, Paul; Read, Andrew; Hobson-Peters, Jody; May, Fiona J.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Haniotis, John; Russell, Richard C.; Hall, Roy A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. Results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant West Nile virus (WNV) strain, WNVNSW2011, that is most closely related to WNV Kunjin (WNVKUN), the indigenous WNV strain in Australia. Studies in mouse models for WNV pathogenesis showed that WNVNSW2011 is substantially more neuroinvasive than the prototype WNVKUN strain. In WNVNSW2011, this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNVKUN. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship of the WNVNSW2011 strain to currently and previously circulating WNVKUN strains and to confirm the cause of the increased virulence of this emerging WNV strain. PMID:22516173

  8. Strain compatibility assessment for SRB sprayable ablator MSA-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tensile and compressive strain compatibility testing was performed on as-sprayed samples of the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster external ablator material, MSA-1. Strain gages on the aluminum substrate were used to monitor strain. Strain compatibility was determined as the percent strain in the substrate at first visual evidence of MSA-1 failure. The 1/8-in. MSA-1, baselined for large areas of the SRB external skin, was characterized by a strain compatibility of 1.5 to 1.8 percent, which far exceeded the yield range of the metal substrate. Thicker MSA-1 applications (1.4 to 3/8 in.) were characterized by a lower level of strain compatibility, which appeared to be a manifestation of application limitations.

  9. Multilongitudinal mode fiber-ring laser sensor for strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengchun; Gu, Rong; Gao, Liang; Yin, Zuowei; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xiangfei; Cheng, Jianchun

    2011-05-01

    A multilongitudinal mode fiber ring laser sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by measuring the strain applied on the laser sensor head. The ring cavity of the laser is formed by a 3-dB coupler, a section of erbium-doped fiber, and one fiber Bragg grating. Photonic generation of beat signals and strain measurement theory are discussed in detail. The strain applied on the fiber ring cavity is obtained by measuring the beat frequency shift. The selection way of the optimal beat signal for strain measurement is obtained by experimental research and discussion. The root-mean-square deviation of the strain and the response of beat frequency to the strain are 2.7 μ and 1.5 kHz/μ at 1993 MHz, respectively. The proposed sensor scheme offers a cost-effective and high-stability device for strain measurement.

  10. Tuning Surface Properties of Low Dimensional Materials via Strain Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengchun; Liu, Fuzhu; Wu, Chao; Yang, Sen

    2016-08-01

    The promising and versatile applications of low dimensional materials are largely due to their surface properties, which along with their underlying electronic structures have been well studied. However, these materials may not be directly useful for applications requiring properties other than their natal ones. In recent years, strain has been shown to be an additionally useful handle to tune the physical and chemical properties of materials by changing their geometric and electronic structures. The strategies for producing strain are summarized. Then, the electronic structure of quasi-two dimensional layered non-metallic materials (e.g., graphene, MX2, BP, Ge nanosheets) under strain are discussed. Later, the strain effects on catalytic properties of metal-catalyst loaded with strain are focused on. Both experimental and computational perspectives for dealing with strained systems are covered. Finally, an outlook on engineering surface properties utilizing strain is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ineffective and non-nodulating mutant strains of Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, R J; Brill, W J

    1976-01-01

    Mutant strains of Rhizobium japonicum that were unable to allow the Corsoy cultivar of soybean to reduce acetylene or fix N2 were isolated. These strains grow as well as the wild type in a variety of media. Mutant strains SM1 and SM2 did not form nodules on the host plant; however, they reduced acetylene in the nonsymbiotic assay. Strains SM3 and SM4 produced nodules that did not have the characteristic pink pigment caused by leghemoglobin. The nodules formed by these strains also were small. One mutant strain, SM5, produced large pink nodules. The lesion in this strain seems to be in the gene that specifies nitrogenase component II. Images PMID:986388

  12. Strain sweeps from Oldroyd 8-constant framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saengow, Chaimongkol; Giacomin, Alan Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow is a popular experiment for studying the nonlinear physics of complex fluids. Specifically, the strain sweep is used routinely to identify when a complex fluid begins to exhibit nonlinear behavior. In this paper, we give the exact shear stress expression for the Oldroyd 8-constant framework evaluated for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS). We choose the Oldroyd 8-constant framework for its rich diversity of popular special cases (we list 14 of these cases). From our shear stress expression, we get exact expressions for the real and imaginary parts of the complex viscosity as functions of both the test frequency, and the shear rate amplitude. We then demonstrate the use of our results for our favorite special case of the Oldroyd 8-constant framework, the corotational Jeffreys model. In our Worked Example, we use this case to explore the influence of η∞ on the strain sweep response. We find that increasing η∞ raises the real part of the complex viscosity, and decreases its imaginary part.

  13. Fermentation characteristics of Dekkera bruxellensis strains.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Eberhard, Thomas; Schnürer, Johan; Passoth, Volkmar

    2010-07-01

    The influence of pH, temperature and carbon source (glucose and maltose) on growth rate and ethanol yield of Dekkera bruxellensis was investigated using a full-factorial design. Growth rate and ethanol yield were lower on maltose than on glucose. In controlled oxygen-limited batch cultivations, the ethanol yield of the different combinations varied from 0.42 to 0.45 g (g glucose)(-1) and growth rates varied from 0.037 to 0.050 h(-1). The effect of temperature on growth rate and ethanol yield was negligible. It was not possible to model neither growth rate nor ethanol yield from the full-factorial design, as only marginal differences were observed in the conditions tested. When comparing three D. bruxellensis strains and two industrial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae grew five times faster, but the ethanol yields were 0-13% lower. The glycerol yields of S. cerevisiae strains were up to six-fold higher compared to D. bruxellensis, and the biomass yields reached only 72-84% of D. bruxellensis. Our results demonstrate that D. bruxellensis is robust to large changes in pH and temperature and may have a more energy-efficient metabolism under oxygen limitation than S. cerevisiae.

  14. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy 2Ti 2O 7 and Dy 2Zr 2O 7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defectsmore » in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy 2Zr 2O 7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy 2Zr 2O 7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.« less

  15. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; ...

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy 2Ti 2O 7 and Dy 2Zr 2O 7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defectsmore » in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy 2Ti 2O 7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy 2Zr 2O 7. Lastly, these improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.« less

  16. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  17. Apparent-Strain Correction for Combined Thermal and Mechanical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; O'Neil, Teresa L.

    2007-01-01

    Combined thermal and mechanical testing requires that the total strain be corrected for the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the strain gage and the specimen or apparent strain when the temperature varies while a mechanical load is being applied. Collecting data for an apparent strain test becomes problematic as the specimen size increases. If the test specimen cannot be placed in a variable temperature test chamber to generate apparent strain data with no mechanical loads, coupons can be used to generate the required data. The coupons, however, must have the same strain gage type, coefficient of thermal expansion, and constraints as the specimen to be useful. Obtaining apparent-strain data at temperatures lower than -320 F is challenging due to the difficulty to maintain steady-state and uniform temperatures on a given specimen. Equations to correct for apparent strain in a real-time fashion and data from apparent-strain tests for composite and metallic specimens over a temperature range from -450 F to +250 F are presented in this paper. Three approaches to extrapolate apparent-strain data from -320 F to -430 F are presented and compared to the measured apparent-strain data. The first two approaches use a subset of the apparent-strain curves between -320 F and 100 F to extrapolate to -430 F, while the third approach extrapolates the apparent-strain curve over the temperature range of -320 F to +250 F to -430 F. The first two approaches are superior to the third approach but the use of either of the first two approaches is contingent upon the degree of non-linearity of the apparent-strain curve.

  18. A New Global Geodetic Strain Rate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.; Klein, E. C.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.; Estey, L.; Wier, S.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) effort to improve global seismic hazard models, we present a new global geodetic strain rate model. This model (GSRM v. 2) is a vast improvement on the previous model from 2004 (v. 1.2). The model is still based on a finite-element type approach and has deforming cells in between the assumed rigid plates. The new model contains ~144,700 cells of 0.25° by 0.2° dimension. We redefined the geometries of the deforming zones based on the definitions of Bird (2003) and Chamot-Rooke and Rabaute (2006). We made some adjustments to the grid geometry at places where seismicity and/or GPS velocities suggested either the presence of deforming areas or a rigid block where those previous studies did not. GSRM v.2 includes 50 plates and blocks, including many not considered by Bird (2003). The new GSRM model is based on over 20,700 horizontal geodetic velocities at over 17,000 unique locations. The GPS velocity field consists of a 1) Over 6500 velocities derived by the University of Nevada, Reno, for CGPS stations for which >2.5 years of RINEX data are available until April 2013, 2) ~1200 velocities for China from a new analysis of all data from the Crustal Movement Network of China (CMONOC), and 3) about 13,000 velocities from 212 studies published in the literature or made otherwise available to us. Velocities from all studies were combined into the same reference frame by a 6-parameter transformation using velocities at collocated stations. We model co-seismic jumps while estimating velocities, ignore periods of post-seismic deformation, and exclude time-series that reflect magmatic and anthropogenic activity. GPS velocities were used to estimate angular velocities for 36 of the 50 rigid plates and blocks (the rest being taken from the literature), and these were used as boundary conditions in the strain rate calculations. For the strain rate calculations we used the method of Haines and Holt. In order to fit the data equally well

  19. Application of strain gages to measure adhesive strains through the thickness of an adhesively-bonded stiffened strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, O. F.; Prabhakaran, R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the through-the-thickness strain distribution in an adhesively bonded stiffened strip subject to four-point bending and to compare the distribution with predicted results. Small-strain gages are used for measuring the normal strain in the adhesive layer of the strip. A total of 16 120-ohm encapsulated strain gages were mounted on the adhesive layer, and the specimen was loaded quasi-statistically and never to failure. Both the experimental and analytical results show good correlation and, in particular, a high strain gradient acting near the edge of the adhesive layer.

  20. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  1. Outbreak-Related Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains Similar to US Strains, South Korea, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    In late 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection recurred in South Korea. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates from the outbreaks were most closely related to emergent US strains of PEDV. These US strain–like PEDV variants are prevalent in South Korea and responsible for recent outbreaks in the country. PMID:24960370

  2. Strain specificity and simultaneous transmission of closely related strains of a Potyvirus by Myzus persicae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY), a Potyvirus, is transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. PVY severely affects potato production worldwide. Single and mixed infections of PVY strains, namely PVYO, PVYNTN, and PVYN:O are a common occurrence in potato systems. However, information available on the abi...

  3. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis Strains by Heteroduplex Analysis and Detection of Multiple Strains

    PubMed Central

    Leys, Eugene J.; Smith, James H.; Lyons, Sharon R.; Griffen, Ann L.

    1999-01-01

    Heteroduplex analysis has been used extensively to identify allelic variation among mammalian genes. It provides a rapid and reliable method for determining and cataloging minor differences between two closely related DNA sequences. We have adapted this technique to distinguish among strains or clonal types of Porphyromonas gingivalis. The ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ISR) was amplified directly from a subgingival plaque sample by PCR with species-specific primers, avoiding the need for culturing the bacteria. The PCR products were then directly compared by heteroduplex analysis with known strains of P. gingivalis for identification. We identified 22 distinct but closely related heteroduplex types of P. gingivalis in 1,183 clinical samples. Multiple strains were found in 34% of the samples in which P. gingivalis was detected. Heteroduplex types were identified from these multistrain samples without separating them by culturing or molecular cloning. PCR with species-specific primers and heteroduplex analysis makes it possible to reliably and sensitively detect and identify strains of P. gingivalis in large numbers of samples. PMID:10565905

  4. Total strain version of strainrange partitioning for thermomechanical fatigue at low strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is proposed for characterizing and predicting the thermal fatigue behavior of materials. The method is based on three innovations in characterizing high temperature material behavior: (1) the bithermal concept of fatigue testing; (2) advanced, nonlinear, cyclic constitutive models; and (3) the total strain version of traditional strainrange partitioning.

  5. Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Shidan; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Liu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    It is important to measure embryonic heart myocardial wall strain and strain rate for understanding the mechanisms of embryonic heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide depth resolved images with high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it have the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the early stage embryonic heart. We develop a novel method to measure strain in embryonic chick heart based on spectral domain OCT images and subsequent image processing. We perform 4D(x,y,z,t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in HH18 stage (~3 days of incubation). Only one image sequence acquired at the special position is selected based on the Doppler blood flow information where the probe beam penetrates through the OFT perpendicularly. For each image of the selected sequence, the cross-section of the myocardial wall can be approximated as an annulus. The OFT is segmented with a semi-automatic boundary detection algorithm, thus the area and mean circumference of the annular myocardial wall can be achieved. The myocardial wall thickness was calculated using the area divided by the mean circumference, and then the strain was obtained. The results demonstrate that OCT can be a useful tool to describe the biomechanical characteristics of the embryonic heart.

  6. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 32a as a source of lipopeptides for biocontrol of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, D; Frikha-Gargouri, O; Tounsi, S

    2015-07-01

    A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain, designated 32a, was used to identify new compounds active against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and to evaluate their efficiency to control crown gall on carrot discs. Based on PCR-assays, four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A, bacillomycin D and fengycin. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatant led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, except bacillomycin, with heterogeneous mixture of homologues. Antimicrobial assays using lipopeptides-enriched extract showed a strong inhibitory activity against several bacterial and fungal strains, including Ag. tumefaciens. Biological control assays on carrot discs using both 32a spores and extract resulted in significant protection against crown gall disease, similar to that provided by the reference antagonistic strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K1026. In contrast to all active compounds against Ag. tumefaciens that are of proteinaceous nature, this work enables for the first time to correlate the strong protective effect of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 32a towards crown gall disease with the production of a mixture of lipopeptides. The findings could be useful for growers and nursery men who are particularly interested in the biocontrol of the crown gall disease. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. A magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool for quantitative analysis of strain induced cellular reorientation and actin alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademolhosseini, F.; Liu, C.-C.; Lim, C. J.; Chiao, M.

    2016-08-01

    Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells.

  8. The MG1363 and IL1403 laboratory strains of Lactococcus lactis and several dairy strains are diploid.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G; Albrechtsen, Bjarne; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2010-02-01

    Bacteria are normally haploid, maintaining one copy of their genome in one circular chromosome. We have examined the cell cycle of laboratory strains of Lactococcus lactis, and, to our surprise, we found that some of these strains were born with two complete nonreplicating chromosomes. We determined the cellular content of DNA by flow cytometry and by radioactive labeling of the DNA. These strains thus fulfill the criterion of being diploid. Several dairy strains were also found to be diploid while a nondairy strain and several other dairy strains were haploid in slow-growing culture. The diploid and haploid strains differed in their sensitivity toward UV light, in their cell size, and in their D period, the period between termination of DNA replication and cell division.

  9. The MG1363 and IL1403 Laboratory Strains of Lactococcus lactis and Several Dairy Strains Are Diploid▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Albrechtsen, Bjarne; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria are normally haploid, maintaining one copy of their genome in one circular chromosome. We have examined the cell cycle of laboratory strains of Lactococcus lactis, and, to our surprise, we found that some of these strains were born with two complete nonreplicating chromosomes. We determined the cellular content of DNA by flow cytometry and by radioactive labeling of the DNA. These strains thus fulfill the criterion of being diploid. Several dairy strains were also found to be diploid while a nondairy strain and several other dairy strains were haploid in slow-growing culture. The diploid and haploid strains differed in their sensitivity toward UV light, in their cell size, and in their D period, the period between termination of DNA replication and cell division. PMID:20023021

  10. Strains and Stressors: An Analysis of Touchscreen Learning in Genetically Diverse Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Graybeal, Carolyn; Bachu, Munisa; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Sagalyn, Erica; Williams, Robert W.; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Touchscreen-based systems are growing in popularity as a tractable, translational approach for studying learning and cognition in rodents. However, while mouse strains are well known to differ in learning across various settings, performance variation between strains in touchscreen learning has not been well described. The selection of appropriate genetic strains and backgrounds is critical to the design of touchscreen-based studies and provides a basis for elucidating genetic factors moderating behavior. Here we provide a quantitative foundation for visual discrimination and reversal learning using touchscreen assays across a total of 35 genotypes. We found significant differences in operant performance and learning, including faster reversal learning in DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice. We then assessed DBA/2J and C57BL/6J for differential sensitivity to an environmental insult by testing for alterations in reversal learning following exposure to repeated swim stress. Stress facilitated reversal learning (selectively during the late stage of reversal) in C57BL/6J, but did not affect learning in DBA/2J. To dissect genetic factors underlying these differences, we phenotyped a family of 27 BXD strains generated by crossing C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. There was marked variation in discrimination, reversal and extinction learning across the BXD strains, suggesting this task may be useful for identifying underlying genetic differences. Moreover, different measures of touchscreen learning were only modestly correlated in the BXD strains, indicating that these processes are comparatively independent at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Finally, we examined the behavioral structure of learning via principal component analysis of the current data, plus an archival dataset, totaling 765 mice. This revealed 5 independent factors suggestive of “reversal learning,” “motivation-related late reversal learning,” “discrimination learning,” “speed to respond,” and

  11. Finite Element Modeling of the Behavior of Armor Materials Under High Strain Rates and Large Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzois, Ioannis

    For years high strength steels and alloys have been widely used by the military for making armor plates. Advances in technology have led to the development of materials with improved resistance to penetration and deformation. Until recently, the behavior of these materials under high strain rates and large strains has been primarily based on laboratory testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. With the advent of sophisticated computer programs, computer modeling and finite element simulations are being developed to predict the deformation behavior of these metals for a variety of conditions similar to those experienced during combat. In the present investigation, a modified direct impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus was modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS 6.8 for the purpose of simulating high strain rate compression of specimens of three armor materials: maraging steel 300, high hardness armor (HHA), and aluminum alloy 5083. These armor materials, provided by the Canadian Department of National Defence, were tested at the University of Manitoba by others. In this study, the empirical Johnson-Cook visco-plastic and damage models were used to simulate the deformation behavior obtained experimentally. A series of stress-time plots at various projectile impact momenta were produced and verified by comparison with experimental data. The impact momentum parameter was chosen rather than projectile velocity to normalize the initial conditions for each simulation. Phenomena such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands caused by deformation at high strains and strain rates were investigated through simulations. It was found that the Johnson-Cook model can accurately simulate the behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals such as steels. The maximum shear stress was calculated for each simulation at various impact momenta. The finite element model showed that shear failure first occurred in the center of the cylindrical specimen and

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 and Sediminibacterium sp. Strain C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Ayarza, Joaquín M; Figuerola, Eva L M; Erijman, Leonardo

    2014-01-16

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 (NBRC 103935) and Sediminibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation.

  13. Chlamydomonas Genome Resource for Laboratory Strains Reveals a Mosaic of Sequence Variation, Identifies True Strain Histories, and Enables Strain-Specific Studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a widely used reference organism in studies of photosynthesis, cilia, and biofuels. Most research in this field uses a few dozen standard laboratory strains that are reported to share a common ancestry, but exhibit substantial phenotypic differences. In order to facilitate ongoing Chlamydomonas research and explain the phenotypic variation, we mapped the genetic diversity within these strains using whole-genome resequencing. We identified 524,640 single nucleotide variants and 4812 structural variants among 39 commonly used laboratory strains. Nearly all (98.2%) of the total observed genetic diversity was attributable to the presence of two, previously unrecognized, alternate haplotypes that are distributed in a mosaic pattern among the extant laboratory strains. We propose that these two haplotypes are the remnants of an ancestral cross between two strains with ∼2% relative divergence. These haplotype patterns create a fingerprint for each strain that facilitates the positive identification of that strain and reveals its relatedness to other strains. The presence of these alternate haplotype regions affects phenotype scoring and gene expression measurements. Here, we present a rich set of genetic differences as a community resource to allow researchers to more accurately conduct and interpret their experiments with Chlamydomonas. PMID:26307380

  14. Resonant tunneling measurements of size-induced strain relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Can Deniz

    Lattice mismatch strain available in such semiconductor heterostructures as Si/SiGe or GaAs/AlGaAs can be employed to alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor structures and devices. When deep submicron structures are fabricated from strained material, strained layers relax by sidewall expansion giving rise to size- and geometry-dependent strain gradients throughout the structure. This thesis describes a novel experimental technique to probe the size-induced strain relaxation by studying the tunneling current characteristics of strained p-type Si/SiGe resonant tunneling diodes. Our current-voltage measurements on submicron strained p-Si/SiGe double- and triple-barrier resonant tunneling structures as a function of device diameter, D, provide experimental access to both the average strain relaxation (which leads to relative shifts in the tunneling current peak positions) and strain gradients (which give rise to a fine structure in the current peaks due to inhomogeneous strain-induced lateral quantization). We find that strain relaxation is significant, with a large fraction of the strain energy relaxed on average in D ≤ 0.25 m m devices. Further, the in-plane potentials that arise from inhomogeneous strain gradients are large. In the D ˜ 0.2 m m devices, the corresponding lateral potentials are approximately parabolic exceeding ˜ 25 meV near the perimeter. These potentials create discrete hole states in double-barrier structures (single well), and coupled hole states in triple-barrier structures (two wells). Our results are in excellent agreement with finite-element strain calculations in which the strained layers are permitted to relax to a state of minimum energy by sidewall expansion. Size-induced strain relaxation will undoubtedly become a serious technological issue once strained devices are scaled down to the deep submicron regime. Interestingly, our calculations predict and our measurements are consistent with the appearance of

  15. Compliant intracortical implants reduce strains and strain rates in brain tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Arati; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this research is to characterize the mechanical interactions of (1) soft, compliant and (2) non-compliant implants with the surrounding brain tissue in a rodent brain. Understanding such interactions will enable the engineering of novel materials that will improve stability and reliability of brain implants. Approach. Acute force measurements were made using a load cell in n = 3 live rats, each with 4 craniotomies. Using an indentation method, brain tissue was tested for changes in force using established protocols. A total of 4 non-compliant, bare silicon microshanks, 3 non-compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-coated silicon microshanks, and 6 compliant, nanocomposite microshanks were tested. Stress values were calculated by dividing the force by surface area and strain was estimated using a linear stress-strain relationship. Micromotion effects from breathing and vascular pulsatility on tissue stress were estimated from a 5 s interval of steady-state measurements. Viscoelastic properties were estimated using a second-order Prony series expansion of stress-displacement curves for each shank. Main results. The distribution of strain values imposed on brain tissue for both compliant nanocomposite microshanks and PVAc-coated, non-compliant silicon microshanks were significantly lower compared to non-compliant bare silicon shanks. Interestingly, step-indentation experiments also showed that compliant, nanocomposite materials significantly decreased stress relaxation rates in the brain tissue at the interface (p < 0.05) compared to non-compliant silicon and PVAc-coated silicon materials. Furthermore, both PVAc-coated non-compliant silicon and compliant nanocomposite shanks showed significantly reduced (by 4-5 fold) stresses due to tissue micromotion at the interface. Significance. The results of this study showed that soft, adaptive materials reduce strains and strain rates and micromotion induced stresses in the surrounding brain tissue

  16. Validation of Perceptual Strain Index to Evaluate the Thermal Strain in Experimental Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Ghanbary Sartang, Ayoub

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of heat stress is one of the most common problems in workplaces and industries. Many heat stress indices have been developed, and these indices have some disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to validate the perceptual strain index (PeSI) in experimental hot conditions. Methods: This study is of cross-sectional carried out on 15 men at five different thermal conditions (35°C, 30°C, 27°C, 24°C, and 21°C) in a climate chamber and on a treadmill at three levels of light (2.4 kph), medium (4.8 kph) and heavy activity (6.3 kph). Heart rate and oral temperature were respectively measured to calculate the physiological strain index. Also, thermal sensation and rate perceive exertion were respectively measured to calculate the PeSI. Finally, the correlation between the indices was analyzed using Pearson correlation test and regression analysis. Results: Pearson correlation test showed a high correlation (r = 0.94) between the PeSI and physiological strain index (P = 0/001). It was also observed a high correlation between the PeSI and the oral temperature (r = 0.78, P = 0/001) and the heart rate (r = 0.90, P = 0/001). In addition, there was found a moderate correlation (r = 0.71) between the PeSI and the wet bulb glob temperature (P = 0/001). However, there was no correlation between the PeSI and the body mass index (r = 0.0009, P = 0.79). Conclusions: The research findings showed when there is no access to other forms of methods to evaluate the heat stress, it can be used the PeSI in evaluating the strain because of its favorable correlation with the thermal strain. PMID:26425333

  17. Validation of Perceptual Strain Index to Evaluate the Thermal Strain in Experimental Hot Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Ghanbary Sartang, Ayoub

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of heat stress is one of the most common problems in workplaces and industries. Many heat stress indices have been developed, and these indices have some disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to validate the perceptual strain index (PeSI) in experimental hot conditions. This study is of cross-sectional carried out on 15 men at five different thermal conditions (35°C, 30°C, 27°C, 24°C, and 21°C) in a climate chamber and on a treadmill at three levels of light (2.4 kph), medium (4.8 kph) and heavy activity (6.3 kph). Heart rate and oral temperature were respectively measured to calculate the physiological strain index. Also, thermal sensation and rate perceive exertion were respectively measured to calculate the PeSI. Finally, the correlation between the indices was analyzed using Pearson correlation test and regression analysis. Pearson correlation test showed a high correlation (r = 0.94) between the PeSI and physiological strain index (P = 0/001). It was also observed a high correlation between the PeSI and the oral temperature (r = 0.78, P = 0/001) and the heart rate (r = 0.90, P = 0/001). In addition, there was found a moderate correlation (r = 0.71) between the PeSI and the wet bulb glob temperature (P = 0/001). However, there was no correlation between the PeSI and the body mass index (r = 0.0009, P = 0.79). The research findings showed when there is no access to other forms of methods to evaluate the heat stress, it can be used the PeSI in evaluating the strain because of its favorable correlation with the thermal strain.

  18. Compliant intracortical implants reduce strains and strain rates in brain tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Arati; Nguyen, Jessica K; Capadona, Jeffrey R; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the mechanical interactions of (1) soft, compliant and (2) non-compliant implants with the surrounding brain tissue in a rodent brain. Understanding such interactions will enable the engineering of novel materials that will improve stability and reliability of brain implants. Acute force measurements were made using a load cell in n = 3 live rats, each with 4 craniotomies. Using an indentation method, brain tissue was tested for changes in force using established protocols. A total of 4 non-compliant, bare silicon microshanks, 3 non-compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-coated silicon microshanks, and 6 compliant, nanocomposite microshanks were tested. Stress values were calculated by dividing the force by surface area and strain was estimated using a linear stress-strain relationship. Micromotion effects from breathing and vascular pulsatility on tissue stress were estimated from a 5 s interval of steady-state measurements. Viscoelastic properties were estimated using a second-order Prony series expansion of stress-displacement curves for each shank. The distribution of strain values imposed on brain tissue for both compliant nanocomposite microshanks and PVAc-coated, non-compliant silicon microshanks were significantly lower compared to non-compliant bare silicon shanks. Interestingly, step-indentation experiments also showed that compliant, nanocomposite materials significantly decreased stress relaxation rates in the brain tissue at the interface (p < 0.05) compared to non-compliant silicon and PVAc-coated silicon materials. Furthermore, both PVAc-coated non-compliant silicon and compliant nanocomposite shanks showed significantly reduced (by 4-5 fold) stresses due to tissue micromotion at the interface. The results of this study showed that soft, adaptive materials reduce strains and strain rates and micromotion induced stresses in the surrounding brain tissue. Understanding the material behavior at the site

  19. Compliant Intracortical Implants Reduce Strains and Strain Rates in Brain Tissue In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Arati; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this research is to characterize the mechanical interactions of (1) soft, compliant and (2) non-compliant implants with the surrounding brain tissue in a rodent brain. Understanding such interactions will enable the engineering of novel materials that will improve stability and reliability of brain implants. Approach Acute force measurements were made using a load cell in n=3 live rats, each with 4 craniotomies. Using an indentation method, brain tissue was tested for changes in force using established protocols. A total of 4 non-compliant, bare silicon microshanks, 3 non-compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-coated silicon microshanks, and 6 compliant, nanocomposite microshanks were tested. Stress values were calculated by dividing the force by surface area and strain was estimated using a linear stress-strain relationship. Micromotion effects from breathing and vascular pulsatility on tissue stress were estimated from a 5 sec interval of steady-state measurements. Viscoelastic properties were estimated using a second-order Prony series expansion of stress-displacement curves for each shank. Main results The distribution of strain values imposed on brain tissue for both compliant nanocomposite microshanks and PVAc-coated, non-compliant silicon microshanks were significantly lower compared to non-compliant bare silicon shanks. Interestingly, step-indentation experiments also showed that compliant, nanocomposite materials significantly decreased stress relaxation rates in the brain tissue at the interface (p<0.05) compared to non-compliant silicon and PVAc-coated silicon materials. Further, both PVAc-coated non-compliant silicon and compliant nanocomposite shanks showed significantly reduced (by 4–5 fold) stresses due to tissue micromotion at the interface. Significance The results of this study showed that soft, adaptive materials reduce strains and strain rates and micromotion induced stresses in the surrounding brain tissue

  20. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory activities of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains against antibiotic susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, L; Gergova, G; Markovska, R; Yordanov, D; Mitov, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to detect anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GLB) strains by four cell-free supernatant (CFS) types. Activity of non-neutralized and non-heat-treated (CFSs1), non-neutralized and heat-treated (CFSs2), pH neutralized, catalase-treated and non-heat-treated (CFSs3), or neutralized, catalase- and heat-treated (CFSs4) CFSs against 18 H. pylori strains (11 of which with antibiotic resistance) was evaluated. All GLB strains produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs), the neutralized CFSs of two GLB strains inhibited >81% of test strains and those of four GLB strains were active against >71% of antibiotic resistant strains. Two H. pylori strains were BLIS resistant. The heating did not reduce the CFS activity. Briefly, all GLB strains evaluated produced heat-stable BLISs, although GLB and H. pylori strain susceptibility patterns exhibited differences. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance activity can be an advantage for the probiotic choice for H. pylori infection control. In this study, anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GLB) strains was evaluated by four cell-free supernatant (CFS) types. The GLB strains produced heat-stable bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs) with a strong anti-H. pylori activity and some neutralized, catalase- and heat-treated CFSs inhibited >83% of the test strains. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance production of GLB strains can render them valuable probiotics in the control of H. pylori infection. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Strain Analysis of Wall Motion in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, we used ultrasound speckle-tracking methods, originally used for analyzing cardiac wall motion, to evaluate aortic wall motion. Materials and Methods: We compared 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients with 10 healthy volunteers (diameter, 48 mm vs. 15 mm). Motion pictures of the axial view of the aneurysm using ultrasonography were analyzed. Circumferential strain and strain rate at 6 equally divided segments of the aorta were semiautomatically calculated. We termed ‘peak’ strain and strain rate as the maximum of strain and strain rate in a cardiac cycle for each segment. We also evaluated the coefficient of variation of peak strain rate for the six segments. Results: In the aneurysm and control groups, the mean values of peak strain along the 6 segments were 1.5% ± 0.6% vs. 4.7% ± 1.6% (p <0.0001), respectively. The coefficient of variation of the peak strain rate was higher in the AAA group (0.74 ± 0.20) than in the control group (0.56 ± 0.12; p <0.05). Conclusions: Aortic wall compliance decreased in the more atherosclerotic AAA group. The higher relative dispersion of strain rates in the AAA group is indicative of the inhomogeneous movement of the aortic wall. PMID:25593624

  2. Thoracolumbar spinal ligaments exhibit negative and transverse pre-strain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Daniel J; Von Forell, Gregory A; Alsup, Jeremy; Bowden, Anton E

    2013-07-01

    The present work represents the first reported bi-axial spinal ligament pre-strain data for the thoracic and lumbar spine. Ligament pre-strain (in-situ strain) is known to significantly alter joint biomechanics. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive data with regards to spinal ligament pre-strain. The current work determined the pre-strain of 71 spinal ligaments (30 anterior longitudinal ligaments, 27 supraspinous ligaments and 14 interspinous ligaments). The interspinous ligament and the anterior longitudinal ligament exhibited bi-axial pre-strain distributions, demonstrating they are not uniaxial structures. The supraspinous ligament frequently exhibited large amounts of negative pre-strain or laxity suggesting it makes no mechanical contribution to spinal stability near the neutral posture. Upon implementing multi-axial pre-strain results into a finite element model of the lumbar spine, large differences in spinal biomechanics were observed. These results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for ligament pre-strain in biomechanical models. In addition, the authors present a unique experimental method for obtaining ligament pre-strain that presents a number of advantages when compared to standard techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A homozygous diploid subset of commercial wine yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John E; Richards, Keith D; Niederer, Heather A; Lee, Soon A; Rod Dunbar, P; Gardner, Richard C

    2006-01-01

    Genetic analysis was performed on 45 commercial yeasts which are used in winemaking because of their superior fermentation properties. Genome sizes were estimated by propidium iodide fluorescence and flow cytometry. Forty strains had genome sizes consistent with their being diploid, while five had a range of aneuploid genome sizes that ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 times larger. The diploid strains are all Saccharomyces cerevisiae, based on genetic analysis of microsatellite and minisatellite markers and on DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA of four strains. Four of the five aneuploid strains appeared to be interspecific hybrids between Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the fifth a hybrid between two S. cerevisiae strains. An identification fingerprint was constructed for the commercial yeast strains using 17 molecular markers. These included six published trinucleotide microsatellites, seven new dinucleotide microsatellites, and four published minisatellite markers. The markers provided unambiguous identification of the majority of strains; however, several had identical or similar patterns, and likely represent the same strain or mutants derived from it. The combined use of all 17 polymorphic loci allowed us to identify a set of eleven commercial wine yeast strains that appear to be genetically homozygous. These strains are presumed to have undergone inbreeding to maintain their homozygosity, a process referred to previously as 'genome renewal'.

  4. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Spus, M; Li, M; Alexeeva, S; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J C M; Zwietering, M H; Abee, T; Smid, E J

    2015-08-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic lineages, simple blends of Lactococcus lactis strains were made and subsequently propagated for 152 generations in the absence and presence of selected bacteriophages. We first screened 102 single-colony isolates (strains) from the complex cheese starter for resistance to bacteriophages isolated from this starter. The collection of isolates represents all lactococcal genetic lineages present in the culture. Large differences were found in bacteriophage resistance among strains belonging to the same genetic lineage and among strains from different lineages. The blends of strains were designed such that 3 genetic lineages were represented by strains with different levels of phage resistance. The relative abundance of the lineages in blends with phages was not stable throughout propagation, leading to continuous changes in composition up to 152 generations. The individual resistance of strains to phage predation was confirmed as one of the factors influencing starter culture diversity. Furthermore, loss of proteolytic activity of initially proteolytic strains was found. Reconstituted blends with only 4 strains with a variable degree of phage resistance showed complex behavior during prolonged propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strain-dependent carotenoid productions in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chae, Han Seung; Kim, Kong-Hwan; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2010-12-01

    Seven Escherichia coli strains, which were metabolically engineered with carotenoid biosynthetic pathways, were systematically compared in order to investigate the strain-specific formation of carotenoids of structural diversity. C30 acyclic carotenoids, diaponeurosporene and diapolycopene were well produced in all E. coli strains tested. However, the C30 monocyclic diapotorulene formation was strongly strain dependent. Reduced diapotorulene formation was observed in the E. coli strain Top10, MG1655, and MDS42 while better formation was observed in the E. coli strain JM109, SURE, DH5a, and XL1-Blue. Interestingly, C40 carotenoids, which have longer backbones than C30 carotenoids, also showed strain dependency as C30 diapotorulene did. Quantitative analysis showed that the SURE strain was the best producer for C40 acyclic lycopene, C40 dicyclic β-carotene, and C30 monocyclic diapotorulene. Of the seven strains examined, the highest volumetric productivity for most of the carotenoids structures was observed in the recombinant SURE strain. In conclusion, we showed that recombinant hosts and carotenoid structures influenced carotenoid productions significantly, and this information can serve as the basis for the subsequent development of microorganisms for carotenoids of interest.

  6. Identification of Iron-reducing Thermus strains as Thermus scotoductus

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, David L.; Kieft, T L.; Tsukuda, Toyoko

    2004-02-01

    Thermus strain SA-01, previously isolated from a deep (3.2) South African gold mine, is closely related to Thermus strains NMX2 A.1 and VI-7 (previously isolated from thermal springs in New Mexico USA and Portugal, respectively). Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 have also been shown previously to grow using nitrate, Fe(III), , Mn(IV) or So as terminal electron acceptors and to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), U(VI), Co(III), and the quinine-containing compound anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate. The objectives of this study were to determine the phylogenetic positions of the three known metal-reducing Thermus strains and to determine the phylogenetic significance of metal reductionmore » within the genus Thermus. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences, BOX PCR genomic fingerprinting, and DNA-DNA reassociation analyses indicated that these strains belong to the previously described genospecies T. scotoductus. The morphologies and lipid fatty acid profiles of these metal-reducing strains are consistent with their identification as T. scotoductus; however, the T. scotoductus strains tested in this study evinced a wide intraspecies variability in some other phenotypic traits, e.g., carbon substrate utilization and pigmentation. Iron reduction occurred in all strains of T. scotoductus tested except the mixotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing strain IT-7254. Thermus strains belonging to other species did not reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) or reduced it only poorly.« less

  7. [Isolation and characterization of Bdellovibrio strains from the ocean].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zonghui; Cai, Junpeng; Wu, Bing; Yuan, Erdong

    2008-11-01

    To isolate and identify the new Bdellovibrio strains from the sea mud of Shenzhen bay and to preliminarily study their biological characteristics. We isolated Bdellovibrio strains by DNB(dilute nutrient broth) double-layer plate method. Their 16S rDNAs were sequenced and their morphologies were examined under electron microscope. We identified these strains according to the ninth edition of Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. We also studied their biological characteristics through physiological tests. We isolated 2 strains of Bdellovibrio sp. (5#-12 and 5#-sh06) from sea mud of Shenzhen bay. Both strains grew between 209C and 35 degrees C, with 259C and 309C as optimal temperature for 5#-12 and 5#-sh06, respectively. They grew between pH 6.1 and 8.6, and the opticCmal pH for both was 7.2. Lysis experiments on 58 strains of pathogens were conducted and the results showed that 5#-12 and 5#-sh06 lysed 46 and 48 strains, corresponding to 79.3% and 82.8% of lysis abilities. Taken both two Bdellovibrio strains together, they lysed 96.6% (56 strains) of tested pathogens and 100% of tested vibrios (39 strains). The results demonstrated that Bdellovibrio have potential and significant application prospect for elimination of pathogens.

  8. High strain rate deformation in particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, G.; Lin, Z.

    1996-03-01

    A micromechanics study is carried out for the high strain rate deformation of ceramic particle reinforced metal matrix composites. The ceramic particles are taken to be elastic, equal-sized, spherical and uniformly distributed in the matrix. The stress-strain behavior of the matrix material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic or power-law strain hardening of the Ramberg-Osgood type, coupled with power-law strain rate hardening. Systematic predictions are made of the composite flow stress as determined by inclusion volume fraction, the applied strain rate and the strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity of the matrix. It is found that the effect ofmore » strain rate is coupled with inclusion volume fraction; the strain rate hardening of the composite can be significantly higher than that of the matrix due to the constraining effect of the inclusions.A simple constitutive expression is obtained which allows one to predict readily the rate-dependent plastic flow behavior of the composite. Comparison between the model predictions and experimental measurements for the strain rate dependence of an Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite shows good agreement.« less

  9. Miniature, shielded electrical connector with strain relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diep, Chuong H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electrical connector assembly includes a wire bundle having at least one wire with a metal shield surrounding at least a portion of the wire. The shield has an end portion and provides electromagnetic interference protection to the wire. A backshell includes a body and a cover secured to the body together defining an internal cavity with the wire at least partially arranged within the cavity. The backshell provides EMI protection for the portion of the wire bundle not covered by the shield. The backshell includes a hole in a wall of either the body or the cover with the end portion of the shield extending through the hole. The clamp is secured about the body and the cover with the end portion of the shield arranged between the clamp and the backshell grounding the shield to the backshell. The clamp forces the backshell into engagement with the wire bundle to provide strain relief for the wire bundle.

  10. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  11. Indices of Psychological Strain During Hypoxis Bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Nektarios A.; McDonnell, Adam C.; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.

    2013-02-01

    Much attention has been devoted to the physiological changes that occur during bed rest. However, there has been a lack of focus on the psychological aspects per se. We investigated indices of psychological strain during three 10-d interventions, designed to assess the combined effects of inactivity/unloading and normobaric hypoxia on several physiological systems. Eleven male participants underwent three 10-d campaigns in a randomized manner: 1) normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB), 2) normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and 3) normoxic bed rest (NBR). The most negative psychological profile appeared on BR10 of HBR and HAmb conditions (hypoxic conditions). Concomitantly a decrease in positive emotions was observed from BR-2 to BR10. Bed rest and exposure to hypoxic environments seems to exert a negative effect on person’s psychological mood.

  12. Associations between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains and Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Velji, Preya

    2010-01-01

    To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Beijing family was strongly associated with multidrug resistance (p = 0.0001), and VNTR allelic variants showed strong associations with spoligotyping families: >5 copies at exact tandem repeat (ETR) A, >2 at mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 24, and >3 at ETR-B associated with the East African–Indian and M. bovis strains. All M. tuberculosis isolates were differentiated into 4 major lineages, and a maximum parsimony tree was constructed suggesting a more complex phylogeny for M. africanum. These findings can be used as a model of pathogen global diversity. PMID:20113558

  13. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  14. Strain engineering of diamond silicon vacancy centers in MEMS cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesala, Srujan; Sohn, Young-Ik; Atikian, Haig; Holzgrafe, Jeffrey; Zhang, Mian; Burek, Michael; Loncar, Marko

    2016-05-01

    The silicon vacancy (SiV) center in diamond has recently attracted attention as a solid state quantum emitter due to its attractive optical properties. We fabricate diamond MEMS cantilevers, and use electrostatic actuation to apply controlled strain fields to single SiV centers implanted in these devices. The strain response of the four electronic transitions of the SiV at 737 nm is measured via cryogenic (4 K) photoluminescence excitation. We demonstrate over 300 GHz of tuning for the mean transition frequency between the ground and excited states, and over 100 GHz of tuning for the orbital splittings within the ground and excited states. The interaction Hamiltonian for strain fields is inferred, and large strain susceptibilities of the order 1 PHz/strain are measured. We discuss prospects to utilize our device to reduce phonon-induced decoherence in SiV spin qubits, and to exploit the large strain susceptibilities for hybrid quantum systems based on nanomechanical resonators.

  15. Rate-Dependent Large Strain Behavior of a Structural Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soo Jae; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a nonlinear viscoelastic modelthat can account for rate dependence at large strains. The model wasbased on tensile and shear experiments on a urethane structuraladhesive. The most striking observation was that the stress-strainbehavior at large strains was rate dependent. As a result, a rate-dependent rubbery shear modulus was added to Popelar’s shear modifiedfree volume model. This was very effective in predicting ramp shearbehavior over a range of strain rates and temperatures. Thecorrespondence of model results and tensile data was reasonable below20% strain. At higher strains, the model over predicted the stresslevels for a given strain. This may have been due to the accumulation ofdamage, which has yet to be included in the model. The model was unableto capture the effect of salt water on the tensile behavior of theurethane.

  16. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-01-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials. PMID:27283872

  17. Do foliation refraction patterns around buckle folds represent finite strain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, M.; Exner, U.

    2012-04-01

    Buckle folds in the field commonly feature a characteristic syn-deformational foliation, which is sub-parallel to the fold axial plane; hence it is called axial plane foliation. As the foliation is not perfectly parallel to the axial plane, it may exhibit either a divergent or convergent fan around the fold. Convergent fans most commonly occur in the stronger rocks (the folded layer) while divergent fans rather occur in the mechanically weaker rocks (the matrix). The foliation orientation is usually thought to reflect the long axes of the finite strain ellipses, a hypothesis that we investigate in our study. To study the strain distribution around folds, we use the finite-element method to simulate two-dimensional single-layer viscous buckling. The numerical simulations allow to calculate the strain evolution during the folding process and to visualize its distribution and orientation around the fold. We use different measures of strain: (1) the finite strain (recording the strain history from the beginning of the simulation until the end), (2) the infinitesimal strain (capturing only the very last moment of the simulation), (3) the incremental strain (recording the strain history from a certain shortening value during the simulation until the end), and (4) initially layer-orthogonal passive marker lines. The shortening value, from which the incremental strain is calculated, can be anything between the beginning and the end of the simulation. The first three strain measures are tensor fields that are used to calculate and visualize the orientation of the long axis of the strain ellipses around the fold. We find that all strain measures result in a divergent fan in the mechanically weak matrix at the outer arc of the fold and that this divergent fan has almost the same geometry for all strain measures. Also, for the case of the incremental strain, the divergent fan does hardly depend on the moment from which the incremental strain is calculated. This observation

  18. Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non–S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

  19. Strain effects on rotational property in nanoscale rotation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianzhang; Han, Qiang

    2018-01-11

    This paper presents a study of strain effects on nanoscale rotation system consists of double-walls carbon nanotube and graphene. It is found that the strain effects can be a real-time controlling method for nano actuator system. The strain effects on rotational property as well as the effect mechanism is studied systematically through molecular dynamics simulations, and it obtains valuable conclusions for engineering application of rotational property management of nanoscale rotation system. It founds that the strain effects tune the rotational property by influencing the intertube supporting effect and friction effect of double-walls carbon nanotube, which are two critical factors of rotational performance. The mechanism of strain effects on rotational property is investigated in theoretical level based on analytical model established through lattice dynamics theory. This work suggests great potentials of strain effects for nanoscale real-time control, and provides new ideas for design and application of real-time controllable nanoscale rotation system.

  20. Rhodococcus jostii: a home for Rhodococcus strain RHA1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda L; Davies, Julian; Fukuda, Masao; Brown, Roselyn; Lim, Jesmine; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic position of Rhodococcus strain RHA1, an effective degrader of polychlorinated biphenyls with a large linear chromosome, was established using a polyphasic approach. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were typical of members of the genus Rhodococcus. The strain shared a high level of 16S rRNA sequence similarity (99.9 %) with the type strain of Rhodococcus jostii, a member of the Rhodococcus erythropolis subclade. The two strains shared a DNA:DNA relatedness value well above the cut-off point recommended for the circumscription of genomic species and had a broad range of phenotypic properties in common. The combination of genomic and phenotypic data show strain RHA1 to be a bona fide member of the species Rhodococcus jostii.

  1. Premixed Edge-Flames in Spatially-Varying Straining Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jian-Bang; Ronney, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Flames subject to temporally and spatially uniform hydrodynamic strain are frequently used to model the local interactions of flame fronts with turbulent flow fields (Williams, 1985; Peters, 1986; Bradley, 1992). The applicability of laminar flamelet models in strongly turbulent flows have been questioned recently (Shay and Ronney, 1998) because in turbulent flows the strain rate (sigma) changes at rates comparable to sigma itself and the scale over which the flame front curvature and sigma changes is comparable to the curvature scale itself. Therefore quasi-static, local models of turbulent strain and curvature effects on laminar flamelets may not be accurate under conditions where the strain and curvature effects are most significant. The purpose of this study is to examine flames in spatially-varying strain and compare their properties to those of uniformly strained flames.

  2. Abnormal response to minor histocompatibility antigens in Obese strain chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobisiak, M; Sundick, R S; Bacon, L D; Rose, N R

    1976-01-01

    Obese strain chickens, which spontaneously develop autoimmune thyroiditis, were tested for their ability to tolerate skin allografts. Several procedures known to prolong graft survival in normal strains were employed. These included the use of skin matched at the major histocompatibility locus, grafting on the day of hatching, thymectomy, and x-irradiation. A dramatic difference between the Obese and the normal Cornell strain (the strain from which Obese was derived) was detected when both were thymectomized and grafted at hatching. Under these conditions eight of 13 normal but only one of 16 Obese strain birds retained their grafts for 50 days. This suggests the presence of an abnormal thymus or thymus-derived suppressor T cells in Obese strain chickens. PMID:785474

  3. Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and dividing by the distance between them. Two GPS stations 1 km apart, each providing displacement information accurate to the nearest millimeter, could detect strain as small as 2 mm km-1, or 2 × 10-6. It is possible, however, to measure strains at least three orders of magnitude smaller using borehole strainmeters. In fact, it is even possible to measure strains as small as 10-8 using observations of groundwater levels in boreholes.

  4. Biaxial Compressive Strain Engineering in Graphene/Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wei; Xiao, Jianliang; Zhu, Junwei; Yu, Chenxi; Zhang, Gang; Ni, Zhenhua; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2012-01-01

    Strain engineered graphene has been predicted to show many interesting physics and device applications. Here we study biaxial compressive strain in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures after thermal cycling to high temperatures likely due to their thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The appearance of sub-micron self-supporting bubbles indicates that the strain is spatially inhomogeneous. Finite element modeling suggests that the strain is concentrated on the edges with regular nano-scale wrinkles, which could be a playground for strain engineering in graphene. Raman spectroscopy and mapping is employed to quantitatively probe the magnitude and distribution of strain. From the temperature-dependent shifts of Raman G and 2D peaks, we estimate the TEC of graphene from room temperature to above 1000K for the first time. PMID:23189242

  5. Applying uniform reversible strain to epitaxial oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Michael D; Dorr, Kathrin; Kim, Dae Ho

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate using four-circle x-ray diffraction that the piezoelectric substrate of Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.72}Ti{sub 0.28}O{sub 3}(001) induces uniform reversible in-plane strain to epitaxially-grown oxide films and bilayers. The biaxial in-plane strain depends linearly on the applied electrical voltage. Utilizing the reversible strain, the strain-dependent lattice structure and the Poisson number characterizing the elastic response is determined for 200 nm thick SrTiO{sub 3}, LaScO{sub 3}, and BiFeO{sub 3} films. The uniformity and reversibility of the strain provides access to the direct quantitative measurement of strain-dependent properties of epitaxial oxide films.

  6. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form

  7. Tensile response of elastoplastic lattices at finite strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankasala, H. C.; Deshpande, V. S.; Fleck, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The finite strain, uniaxial tensile response of two-dimensional (2D) elastoplastic lattices is investigated using finite element simulations and analytical models, taking into full account the macroscopic stiffening due to cell wall alignment. Four morphologies of 2D lattice are considered: triangular, Kagome, hexagonal, and diamond. The cell walls are treated as Timoshenko beams made from an elastoplastic solid with a strain hardening characteristic that resembles Ramberg-Osgood at low strains and exponential hardening at large strains. This description captures the response of metallic lattices at small strain and selected polymeric lattices at large strain. The use of beam theory is validated by additional continuum element simulations. The dependence of macroscopic ductility and tensile strength of each lattice is determined as a function of relative density, cell wall rupture strain and cell wall strain-hardening. Two failure criteria are invoked: (i) maximum value of local tensile strain anywhere in the lattice attains a pre-defined failure strain, or (ii) maximum value of average tensile strain across any section of the lattice attains the failure strain. The sensitivity of macroscopic ductility and ultimate tensile strength to geometric imperfection is explored by considering: (i) random topologies in which the joints are randomly perturbed in position, and (ii) a finite crack formed by an array of broken cell walls. The notion of a transition flaw size for the lattices is validated by means of a notch sensitivity analysis, and the significance of crack-tip blunting by cell wall alignment is highlighted for the hexagonal honeycomb.

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica 08 "American strain" isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Martini, A; Fantasia, M; Raballo, A

    1989-10-01

    A strain of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 08: b,e,f,i, "American strain", was isolated from a child suffering from febrile enteritis, without any history of foreign travel. Such a strain, very uncommon in Italy, though isolated from a sick child, lacked both in vivo and in vitro virulence-associated characteristics as lethality in mice, spontaneous autoagglutination and calcium dependency, traits correlated to a lack of the virulence plasmid.

  9. Resistance fail strain gage technology as applied to composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Existing strain gage technologies as applied to orthotropic composite materials are reviewed. The bonding procedures, transverse sensitivity effects, errors due to gage misalignment, and temperature compensation methods are addressed. Numerical examples are included where appropriate. It is shown that the orthotropic behavior of composites can result in experimental error which would not be expected based on practical experience with isotropic materials. In certain cases, the transverse sensitivity of strain gages and/or slight gage misalignment can result in strain measurement errors.

  10. Genome Sequence of Human Rhinovirus A22, Strain Lancaster/2015.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Kate V; Bishop, Lisa A; Rhodes, Glenn; Salez, Nicolas; McEwan, Neil R; Hegarty, Matthew J; Robey, Julie; Harding, Nicola; Wetherell, Simon; Lauder, Robert M; Pickup, Roger W; Wilkinson, Mark; Gatherer, Derek

    2017-03-23

    The genome of human rhinovirus A22 (HRV-A22) was assembled by deep sequencing RNA samples from nasopharyngeal swabs. The assembled genome is 8.7% divergent from the HRV-A22 reference strain over its full length, and it is only the second full-length genome sequence for HRV-A22. The new strain is designated strain HRV-A22/Lancaster/2015. Copyright © 2017 Atkinson et al.

  11. Strain-tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Li, Baoyue; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Miao; Ma, Tianxing

    2017-09-13

    Using the determinant quantum Monte-Carlo method, we elucidate the strain tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Our intensive numerical results show that a relatively weak Coulomb interaction may induce a ferromagnetic-like behaviour with a proper strain, and the edge magnetism can be enhanced greatly as the strain along the zigzag edge increases, which provides another way to control graphene magnetism even at room temperature.

  12. Optical fiber strain sensor with improved linearity range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A strain sensor is constructed from a two mode optical fiber. When the optical fiber is surface mounted in a straight line and the object to which the optical fiber is mounted is subjected to strain within a predetermined range, the light intensity of any point at the output of the optical fiber will have a linear relationship to strain, provided the intermodal phase difference is less than 0.17 radians.

  13. Regional tidal lung strain in mechanically ventilated normal lungs

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Luis Felipe; Wellman, Tyler J.; Winkler, Tilo; Spieth, Peter M.; Güldner, Andreas; Venegas, Jose G.; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Carvalho, Alysson R.

    2016-01-01

    Parenchymal strain is a key determinant of lung injury produced by mechanical ventilation. However, imaging estimates of volumetric tidal strain (ε = regional tidal volume/reference volume) present substantial conceptual differences in reference volume computation and consideration of tidally recruited lung. We compared current and new methods to estimate tidal volumetric strains with computed tomography, and quantified the effect of tidal volume (VT) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on strain estimates. Eight supine pigs were ventilated with VT = 6 and 12 ml/kg and PEEP = 0, 6, and 12 cmH2O. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans were analyzed in eight regions of interest along the ventral-dorsal axis. Regional reference volumes were computed at end-expiration (with/without correction of regional VT for intratidal recruitment) and at resting lung volume (PEEP = 0) corrected for intratidal and PEEP-derived recruitment. All strain estimates demonstrated vertical heterogeneity with the largest tidal strains in middependent regions (P < 0.01). Maximal strains for distinct estimates occurred at different lung regions and were differently affected by VT-PEEP conditions. Values consistent with lung injury and inflammation were reached regionally, even when global measurements were below critical levels. Strains increased with VT and were larger in middependent than in nondependent lung regions. PEEP reduced tidal-strain estimates referenced to end-expiratory lung volumes, although it did not affect strains referenced to resting lung volume. These estimates of tidal strains in normal lungs point to middependent lung regions as those at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. The different conditions and topography at which maximal strain estimates occur allow for testing the importance of each estimate for lung injury. PMID:27445302

  14. Regional tidal lung strain in mechanically ventilated normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Paula, Luis Felipe; Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Venegas, Jose G; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Carvalho, Alysson R; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2016-12-01

    Parenchymal strain is a key determinant of lung injury produced by mechanical ventilation. However, imaging estimates of volumetric tidal strain (ε = regional tidal volume/reference volume) present substantial conceptual differences in reference volume computation and consideration of tidally recruited lung. We compared current and new methods to estimate tidal volumetric strains with computed tomography, and quantified the effect of tidal volume (V T ) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on strain estimates. Eight supine pigs were ventilated with V T = 6 and 12 ml/kg and PEEP = 0, 6, and 12 cmH 2 O. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans were analyzed in eight regions of interest along the ventral-dorsal axis. Regional reference volumes were computed at end-expiration (with/without correction of regional V T for intratidal recruitment) and at resting lung volume (PEEP = 0) corrected for intratidal and PEEP-derived recruitment. All strain estimates demonstrated vertical heterogeneity with the largest tidal strains in middependent regions (P < 0.01). Maximal strains for distinct estimates occurred at different lung regions and were differently affected by V T -PEEP conditions. Values consistent with lung injury and inflammation were reached regionally, even when global measurements were below critical levels. Strains increased with V T and were larger in middependent than in nondependent lung regions. PEEP reduced tidal-strain estimates referenced to end-expiratory lung volumes, although it did not affect strains referenced to resting lung volume. These estimates of tidal strains in normal lungs point to middependent lung regions as those at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. The different conditions and topography at which maximal strain estimates occur allow for testing the importance of each estimate for lung injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Genotypic comparison of Pantoea agglomerans plant and clinical strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pantoea agglomerans strains are among the most promising biocontrol agents for a variety of bacterial and fungal plant diseases, particularly fire blight of apple and pear. However, commercial registration of P. agglomerans biocontrol products is hampered because this species is currently listed as a biosafety level 2 (BL2) organism due to clinical reports as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study compares plant-origin and clinical strains in a search for discriminating genotypic/phenotypic markers using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) fingerprinting. Results Majority of the clinical isolates from culture collections were found to be improperly designated as P. agglomerans after sequence analysis. The frequent taxonomic rearrangements underwent by the Enterobacter agglomerans/Erwinia herbicola complex may be a major problem in assessing clinical associations within P. agglomerans. In the P. agglomerans sensu stricto (in the stricter sense) group, there was no discrete clustering of clinical/biocontrol strains and no marker was identified that was uniquely associated to clinical strains. A putative biocontrol-specific fAFLP marker was identified only in biocontrol strains. The partial ORF located in this band corresponded to an ABC transporter that was found in all P. agglomerans strains. Conclusion Taxonomic mischaracterization was identified as a major problem with P. agglomerans, and current techniques removed a majority of clinical strains from this species. Although clear discrimination between P. agglomerans plant and clinical strains was not obtained with phylogenetic analysis, a single marker characteristic of biocontrol strains was identified which may be of use in strain biosafety determinations. In addition, the lack of Koch's postulate fulfilment, rare retention of clinical strains for subsequent confirmation, and the polymicrobial nature of P. agglomerans clinical reports

  16. Genotypic comparison of Pantoea agglomerans plant and clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Montesinos, Emilio; Frey, Jürg E; Duffy, Brion

    2009-09-22

    Pantoea agglomerans strains are among the most promising biocontrol agents for a variety of bacterial and fungal plant diseases, particularly fire blight of apple and pear. However, commercial registration of P. agglomerans biocontrol products is hampered because this species is currently listed as a biosafety level 2 (BL2) organism due to clinical reports as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study compares plant-origin and clinical strains in a search for discriminating genotypic/phenotypic markers using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) fingerprinting. Majority of the clinical isolates from culture collections were found to be improperly designated as P. agglomerans after sequence analysis. The frequent taxonomic rearrangements underwent by the Enterobacter agglomerans/Erwinia herbicola complex may be a major problem in assessing clinical associations within P. agglomerans. In the P. agglomerans sensu stricto (in the stricter sense) group, there was no discrete clustering of clinical/biocontrol strains and no marker was identified that was uniquely associated to clinical strains. A putative biocontrol-specific fAFLP marker was identified only in biocontrol strains. The partial ORF located in this band corresponded to an ABC transporter that was found in all P. agglomerans strains. Taxonomic mischaracterization was identified as a major problem with P. agglomerans, and current techniques removed a majority of clinical strains from this species. Although clear discrimination between P. agglomerans plant and clinical strains was not obtained with phylogenetic analysis, a single marker characteristic of biocontrol strains was identified which may be of use in strain biosafety determinations. In addition, the lack of Koch's postulate fulfilment, rare retention of clinical strains for subsequent confirmation, and the polymicrobial nature of P. agglomerans clinical reports should be considered in

  17. Health-promoting properties exhibited by Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Gustaw, Waldemar; Waśko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many strains belonging to lactobacilli exert a variety of beneficial health effects in humans and some of the bacteria are regarded as probiotic microorganisms. Adherence and capabilities of colonization by Lactobacillus strains of the intestinal tract is a prerequisite for probiotic strains to exhibit desired functional properties. The analysis conducted here aimed at screening strains of Lactobacillus helveticus possessing a health-promoting potential. The molecular analysis performed, revealed the presence of a slpA gene encoding the surface S-layer protein SlpA (contributing to the immunostimulatory activity of L. helveticus M 92 probiotic strain) in all B734, DSM, T80, and T105 strains. The product of gene amplification was also identified in a Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 probiotic strain. SDS-PAGE of a surface protein extract demonstrated the presence of a protein with a mass of about 50 kDa in all strains, which refers to the mass of the S-layer proteins. These results are confirmed by observations carried with transmission electron microscopy, where a clearly visible S-layer was registered in all the strains analyzed. The in vitro study results obtained indicate that the strongest adhesion capacity to epithelial cells (HT-29) was demonstrated by L. helveticus B734, while coaggregation with pathogens was highly diverse among the tested strains. The percentage degree of coaggregation was increasing with the incubation time. After 5 h of incubation, the strongest ability to coaggregate with Escherichia coli was expressed by T104. The T80 strain demonstrated a significant ability to co-aggregate with Staphylococcus aureus, while DSM with Bacillus subtilis. For B734, the highest values of co-aggregation coefficient was noted in samples with Salmonella. The capability of autoaggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to increasing salt concentrations, and strain survival in simulated small intestinal juice were also analyzed.

  18. EDITORIAL: Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-08-01

    A little stress or strain has been known to improve the performance of athletes, actors and of course nanomaterials alike. In fact strain in silicon is now a major engineering tool for improving the performance of devices, and is ubiquitously used in device design and fabrication. Strain engineering alters a material's band structure, a model of electron behaviour that describes how as atoms come together in a solid, their discrete electron orbitals overlap to ultimately give rise to bands of allowed energy levels. In a strained crystal lattice of silicon or silicon germanium the distance between atoms in the lattice is greater than usual and the bands of allowed energy levels change. This July marks 100 years since Bohr submitted his paper 'On the constitution of atoms and molecules' [1] where he describes the structure of the atom in terms of discrete allowed energy levels. The paper was a seminal contribution to the development of quantum mechanics and laid the initial theoretical precepts for band gap engineering in devices. In this issue Nrauda and a collaboration of researchers in Europe and Australia study the growth of defect-free SiGe islands on pre-patterned silicon [2]. They analyse the strain in the islands and determine at what point lattice dislocations set in with a view to informing implementation of strain engineering in devices. The effects of strain on band structure in silicon and germanium were already studied and reported in the 1950s [3, 4]. Since then the increasing focus on nanoscale materials and the hunger for control of electronic properties has prompted further study of strain effects. The increased surface area to volume ratio in nanostructures changes the strain behaviour with respect to bulk materials, and this can also be exploited for handling and fine tuning strain to manipulate material properties. It is perhaps no surprise that graphene, one of the most high-profile materials in current nanotechnology research, has attracted

  19. [Sensitivity of corynebacterium diphtheriae strains to antibacterial preparations].

    PubMed

    Chagina, I A; Borisova, O Iu; Mel'nikov, V G; Ivashinnikova, G A; Pimenova, A S; Donskikh, E E; Kafarskaia, L I; Aleshkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    Study the prevalence and mechanisms of resistance in circulating C. diphtheriae strains. 664 C. diphtheriae strains isolated in 1987 - 2013 in various regions of Russia and sent to the reference center of Gabrichevsky Moscow Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology were the object of the study. Antibiotic sensitivity of the strains was studied by disk-diffusion and E-test methods using 10 antimicrobial preparations. Nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out by using BLAST program and EMBL/GenBank database. Most of the studied strains turned out to be sensitive to all the antibacterial preparations used. 1.2% of C. diphtheriae strains turned out to be resistant to penicillin and 6.0% had intermediate level of resistance. 0.4 - 0.6% of the strains had intermediate level of resistance to macrolides, and 4.0 - 4.4% were resistant. 2.0% of the strains had multiple resistance. Erm(X)-specific PCR carried out in this study showed that all the C. diphtheriae strains resistant to macrolide antibiotics carry erm(X) gene. The results of the study indicate a fairly high level of prevalence for C. diphtheriae strains resistant to antibiotics.

  20. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on strain transfer of embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rujun; Zheng, Bailin; Fu, Kunkun; He, Pengfei; Tan, Yuegang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a theoretical model of embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors was developed to provide predictions of the strain transfer rate and average strain transfer rate without the assumption that the host material is subjected to uniform axial stress. Further, a finite element (FE) analysis was performed to validate the present model. It was shown that the theoretical results with the present model are in good agreement with those by FE analysis. Finally, the parametric analysis was used to quantitatively investigate the effect of the parameters of the adhesive layer and host material on the strain transfer rate and average strain transfer rate.

  2. Applications of mutant yeast strains with low glycogen storage capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Schubert, W. W.; Stokes, B. O.

    1981-01-01

    Several strains of Hansenula polymorpha were selected for possible low glycogen storage characteristics based on a selective I2 staining procedure. The levels of storage carbohydrates in the mutant strains were found to be 44-70% of the levels in the parent strain for cultures harvested in stationary phase. Similar differences generally were not found for cells harvested in exponential phase. Yeast strains deficient in glycogen storage capability are valuable in increasing the relative protein value of microbial biomass and also may provide significant cost savings in substrate utilization in fermentative processes.

  3. Development of a fiber optic high temperature strain sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, E. O.; Murphy, K. E.; Brookshire, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    From 1 Apr. 1991 to 31 Aug. 1992, the Georgia Tech Research Institute conducted a research program to develop a high temperature fiber optic strain sensor as part of a measurement program for the space shuttle booster rocket motor. The major objectives of this program were divided into four tasks. Under Task 1, the literature on high-temperature fiber optic strain sensors was reviewed. Task 2 addressed the design and fabrication of the strain sensor. Tests and calibration were conducted under Task 3, and Task 4 was to generate recommendations for a follow-on study of a distributed strain sensor. Task 4 was submitted to NASA as a separate proposal.

  4. Strain Induced Martensitic Transformation in Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. H.; Saal, P.; Gan, W. M.; Landesberger, M.; Hoelzel, M.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-09-01

    The strain induced martensitic transformation in austempered ductile iron (ADI) has been investigated using high resolution neutron diffraction on samples compressed ex-situ to different plastic strains. In addition bulk texture measurements using neutron diffraction have been performed to calculate the orientation distribution of ferrite and austenite phases for different strain levels. Combing the detailed texture information with neutron diffraction pattern proved to be essential for quantitative phase analysis and extraction of martensite phase fractions. The martensite content induced by strain in ADI depends on austempering temperature and degree of deformation.

  5. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    PubMed Central

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  6. Influence of pore pressure change on coseismic volumetric strain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Barbour, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Coseismic strain is fundamentally important for understanding crustal response to changes of stress after earthquakes. The elastic dislocation model has been widely applied to interpreting observed shear deformation caused by earthquakes. The application of the same theory to interpreting volumetric strain, however, has met with difficulty, especially in the far field of earthquakes. Predicted volumetric strain with dislocation model often differs substantially, and sometimes of opposite signs, from observed coseismic volumetric strains. The disagreement suggests that some processes unaccounted for by the dislocation model may occur during earthquakes. Several hypotheses have been suggested, but none have been tested quantitatively. In this paper we first examine published data to highlight the difference between the measured and calculated static coseismic volumetric strains; we then use these data to provide quantitative test of the model that the disagreement may be explained by the change of pore pressure in the shallow crust. The test allows us to conclude that coseismic change of pore pressure may be an important mechanism for coseismic crustal strain and, in the far field, may even be the dominant mechanism. Thus in the interpretation of observed coseismic crustal strain, one needs to account not only for the elastic strain due to fault rupture but also for the strain due to coseismic change of pore pressure.

  7. Attenuated recombinant strains of Vibrio cholerae for oral immunization*

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Brahm S.; Sinha, V. B.; Srivastava, Ranjana

    1979-01-01

    Two attenuated strains of Vibrio cholerae, CD1 and CD3, have been isolated that have remained stable since 1976. These strains are motile, adhere to and multiply in rabbit intestine, and colonize the gut of infant mice for 6-7 days. Both strains are antigenic and provide protection to challenge in the mouse protection test and in the rabbit ileal loop model. Because of their ability to adhere to and colonize the gut, and since they are antigenic, strains CD1 and CD3 have the potentiality of oral vaccines. PMID:316742

  8. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P.; Nishio, Erick K.; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections. PMID:25170683

  9. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  10. Influence of pore pressure change on coseismic volumetric strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.; Barbour, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Coseismic strain is fundamentally important for understanding crustal response to transient changes of stress. The elastic dislocation model has been widely applied to interpreting observed shear deformation caused by earthquakes. The application of this model to interpreting volumetric strain, however, has met with difficulty, especially in the far field of earthquakes. Predicted volumetric strain with dislocation model often differs substantially, and sometimes of opposite signs, from observed coseismic volumetric strains. The disagreement suggests that some processes unaccounted for by the dislocation model may occur during earthquakes. Several hypotheses have been suggested, but none have been tested quantitatively. In this study we first assemble published data to highlight the significant difference between the measured and predicted coseismic volumetric strains from the dislocation theory. We then show that the disagreement may largely be explained by coseismic change of pore pressure in the shallow crust. We provide a quantitative test of the model with the assembled data, which allows us to conclude that coseismic change of pore pressure may be an important mechanism for coseismic crustal strain and, in the far field, may even be the controlling mechanism. Thus in the interpretation of observed coseismic crustal strain, one needs to account not only for the elastic strain due to fault rupture but also for the strain due to coseismic change of pore pressure.

  11. Influence of pore pressure change on coseismic volumetric strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Barbour, Andrew J.

    2017-10-01

    Coseismic strain is fundamentally important for understanding crustal response to changes of stress after earthquakes. The elastic dislocation model has been widely applied to interpreting observed shear deformation caused by earthquakes. The application of the same theory to interpreting volumetric strain, however, has met with difficulty, especially in the far field of earthquakes. Predicted volumetric strain with dislocation model often differs substantially, and sometimes of opposite signs, from observed coseismic volumetric strains. The disagreement suggests that some processes unaccounted for by the dislocation model may occur during earthquakes. Several hypotheses have been suggested, but none have been tested quantitatively. In this paper we first examine published data to highlight the difference between the measured and calculated static coseismic volumetric strains; we then use these data to provide quantitative test of the model that the disagreement may be explained by the change of pore pressure in the shallow crust. The test allows us to conclude that coseismic change of pore pressure may be an important mechanism for coseismic crustal strain and, in the far field, may even be the dominant mechanism. Thus in the interpretation of observed coseismic crustal strain, one needs to account not only for the elastic strain due to fault rupture but also for the strain due to coseismic change of pore pressure.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori Strains in Japanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Seiichi; Fujimura, Shigeru; Udagawa, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Maisawa, Shunichi; Ozawa, Kyoko; Iinuma, Kazuie

    2002-01-01

    The resistance of Helicobacter pylori to the recently available antibiotic treatment regimens has been a growing problem. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin among 51 H. pylori isolates from Japanese children. In addition, the mutations of the corresponding gene were studied by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was detected in 29, 24, and 0% of strains, respectively. The eradication rates in clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant strains were 89 and 56%, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of strains with acquired resistance to clarithromycin (78%) was higher than that of strains with primary resistance (P < 0.01). Among the clarithromycin-resistant strains studied, 92% showed cross-resistance to azithromycin. No acquired resistance to amoxicillin was demonstrated. The A2144G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was detected in 11 of 12 (92%) clarithromycin-resistant strains tested, whereas the mutation was not detected in any of the 15 susceptible strains. The deletion of the rdxA gene was not demonstrated in any of the strains. The results indicate that a high prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant strains is associated with eradication failure. Testing of susceptibility to clarithromycin is recommended. PMID:11825987

  13. 5-Fluorouracil-resistant strain of Methanobacterium thermoautortrophicum

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, D.P. Jr.; Teal, R.; Eisenbraun, A.

    1987-09-01

    Growth of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg is inhibited by the pyrimidine, 5-fluorouracil (FU). It was shown previously that methanogenesis is not inhibited to the same extent as growth. A spontaneously occurring FU-resistant strain (RTAE-1) was isolated from a culture of strain Marburg. The growth of both strains was inhibited by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine but not 5-fluorocytosine, and the wild type was more susceptible to inhibition by 5-azauracil and 6-azauracil than was strain RTAE-1. The cellular targets for the pyrimidine analogs are not known. When the accumulation of /sup 14/C-labeled uracil or FU by the two strains was compared, the wilt type took upmore » 15-fold more radiolabel per cell than did the FU-resistant strain. In the wild type, radiolabel from uracil was incorporated into the soluble pool, RNA, and DNA. The metabolism of uracil appeared to involve a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Strain Marburg extracts contained this enzyme, whereas FU-resistant strain RTAE-1 extracts had less than 1/10 as much activity. Although it is possible that a change in permeability to the compounds plays a role in the stable resistance of strain RTAE-1, the fact that it lacks the ability to metabolize pyrimidines to nucleotides is sufficient to account for its phenotype.« less

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance probe head design for precision strain control

    DOE PAGES

    Kissikov, T.; Sarkar, R.; Bush, B. T.; ...

    2017-10-03

    Here, we present the design and construction of an NMR probe to investigate single crystals under strain at cryogenic temperatures. The probe head incorporates a piezoelectric-based apparatus from Razorbill Instruments that enables both compressive and tensile strain tuning up to strain values on the order of 0.3% with a precision of 0.001%. 75As NMR in BaFe 2As 2 reveals large changes to the electric field gradient and indicates that the strain is homogeneous to within 16% over the volume of the NMR coil.

  15. Analysis of 3D strain in the human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kolaczek, S; Hewison, C; Caterine, S; Ragbar, M X; Getgood, A; Gordon, K D

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a method to evaluate three-dimensional strain in meniscal tissue using medical imaging. Strain is calculated by tracking small teflon markers implanted within the meniscal tissue using computed tomography imaging. The results are presented for strains in the middle and posterior third of the medial menisci of 10 human cadaveric knees, under simulated physiologically relevant loading. In the middle position, an average compressive strain of 3.4% was found in the medial-lateral direction, and average tensile strains of 1.4% and 3.5% were found in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions respectively at 5° of knee flexion with an applied load of 1× body weight. In the posterior position, under the same conditions, average compressive strains of 2.2% and 6.3% were found in the medial-lateral and superior-inferior directions respectively, and an average tensile strain of 3.8% was found in the anterior-posterior direction. No statistically significant difference between strain in the middle or posterior of the meniscus or between the global strains is uncovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of sil Locus in Clinical Streptococcus pyogenes Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plainvert, Céline; Dinis, Márcia; Ravins, Miriam; Hanski, Emanuel; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Fouet, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. Mutations in regulatory components have been implicated in the switch from colonization to invasive phenotypes. The inactivation of the sil locus, composed of six genes encoding a quorum-sensing complex, gives rise to a highly invasive strain. However, studies conducted on limited collections of GAS strains suggested that sil prevalence is around 15%; furthermore, whereas a correlation between the presence of sil and the genetic background was suggested, no link between the presence of a functional sil locus and the invasive status was assessed. We established a collection of 637 nonredundant strains covering all emm genotypes present in France and of known clinical history; 68%, 22%, and 10% were from invasive infections, noninvasive infections, and asymptomatic carriage, respectively. Among the 637 strains, 206 were sil positive. The prevalence of the sil locus varied according to the emm genotype, being present in >85% of the emm4, emm18, emm32, emm60, emm87, and emm90 strains and absent from all emm1, emm28, and emm89 strains. A random selection based on 2009 French epidemiological data indicated that 16% of GAS strains are sil positive. Moreover, due to mutations leading to truncated proteins, only 9% of GAS strains harbor a predicted functional sil system. No correlation was observed between the presence or absence of a functional sil locus and the strain invasiveness status. PMID:24671796

  17. Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented

  18. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P < .05) in Manipur than other three strains. Amplitude (P < .05) and duration of P wave and QRS complex differed (P < .01) among the strains. Mizoram strain had the highest amplitude and duration of P wave and QRS complex. On the other hand, higher (P < .05) amplitude and duration of T wave were recorded in Arunachalee and Mizoram strains. The mean electrical axis of QRS complex that were recorded for Arunachalee and Manipur strains were similar to that reported for other bovine species; whereas the electrical axis of QRS for Nagamese and Mizoram strains were more close to feline and caprine species, respectively. In conclusion, electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  19. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R.; Qu, Fanyao

    2014-09-21

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance ofmore » ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.« less

  20. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2009-08-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production.

  2. Helping those who help others: the Modified Caregiver Strain Index.

    PubMed

    Onega, Lisa L

    2008-09-01

    The Modified Caregiver Strain Index can be given to family members caring for disabled older adults. It helps to determine their level of strain-a combination of stress and burden that has consequences on caregivers' overall health. The index assesses 13 aspects of physical health, family finances, social interactions, time demands, and employment. By pinpointing the sources and degree of strain, the index can guide in the selection of interventions that might be used to alleviate caregivers' strain and improve the lives of caregivers and care recipients. To watch a free video demonstrating the use of the index, go to http://links.lww.com/A291.

  3. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nanoscale strain characterization.

    PubMed

    Tarun, Alvarado; Hayazawa, Norihiko; Kawata, Satoshi

    2009-08-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), which utilizes the strong localized optical field generated at the apex of a metallic tip when illuminated, has been shown to successfully probe the vibrational spectrum of today's and tomorrow's state-of-the-art silicon and next-generation semiconductor devices, such as quantum dots. Collecting and analyzing the vibrational spectrum not only aids in material identification but also provides insight into strain distributions in semiconductors. Here, the potential of TERS for nanoscale characterization of strain in silicon devices is reviewed. Emphasis will be placed on the key challenges of obtaining spectroscopic images of strain in actual strained silicon devices.

  4. Biaxial load effects on the crack border elastic strain energy and strain energy rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Subramonian, N.; Liebowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the singular solution (first term of a series representation) is investigated for the crack tip stress and displacement field in an infinite sheet with a flat line crack with biaxial loads applied to the outer boundaries. It is shown that if one retains the second contribution to the series approximations for stress and displacement in the calculation of the local elastic strain energy density and elastic strain energy rate in the crack border region, both these quantities have significant biaxial load dependency. The value of the J-integral does not depend on the presence of the second term of the series expansion for stress and displacement. Thus J(I) is insensitive to the presence of loads applied parallel to the plane of the crack.

  5. Evaluation of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and strain 19 in pronghorn antelope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elzer, P.H.; Smith, J.; Roffe, T.; Kreeger, T.; Edwards, J.; Davis, D.

    2002-01-01

    Free-roaming elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain the only wildlife reservoirs for Brucella abortus in the United States, and the large number of animals and a lack of holding facilities make it unreasonable to individually vaccinate each animal. Therefore, oral delivery is being proposed as a possible option to vaccinate these wild ungulates. One of the main problems associated with oral vaccination is the potential exposure of nontarget species to the vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two Brucella vaccines, strain 19 (S19) and the rough strain RB51 (SRB51), in pregnant pronghorn antelope. We conclude that S19 and SRB51 rarely colonize maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant pronghorn and were not associated with fetal death. Oral delivery of either vaccine at this dose appears to be nonhazardous to pregnant pronghorn.

  6. The Houghton strain of Eimeria tenella: a review of the type strain selected for genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D; Shirley, M W

    2003-04-01

    A landmark decision was taken in 2002 by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) in the UK to fund the genome sequencing of an eimerian (apicomplexan) parasite from the fowl. The project is a joint collaboration between the Institute for Animal Health (IAH) at Compton, UK and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK (see http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/E_tenella/ and http://www.iah.bbsrc.ac.uk/eimeria/). The species chosen, Eimeria tenella, is the best known member of the genus and the Houghton (H) strain is one of the most widely studied. The H strain was isolated in 1949 in the UK. It was maintained initially at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS), Houghton, and, following closure of that laboratory in 1992, thereafter at the IAH in Compton. At various times the parasite has been provided to other institutions and research groups carrying out coccidiosis research in the fowl. The H strain has been utilised in many fundamental studies on the eimerian life cycle and its relationship with the host. It has also been used to investigate the nature of drug resistance, and to derive attenuated lines-one of which, a "precocious line", is a component of a multivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine (Paracox vaccine, Schering-Plough Animal Health). In this article, some immunological, epidemiological, genetic, and chemotherapeutic investigations with the H strain are reviewed, a summary is provided of the biological characteristics of the parasite and some of the core methods used to prepare purified extracellular life cycle stages for experimental studies or passage are given.

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Nicotine Degradation by a Newly Isolated Strain, Ochrobactrum sp. Strain SJY1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Zhu, Xiongyu; Li, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    A newly isolated strain, SJY1, identified as Ochrobactrum sp., utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Strain SJY1 could efficiently degrade nicotine via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway), which highlights bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation. A 97-kbp DNA fragment containing six nicotine degradation-related genes was obtained by gap closing from the genome sequence of strain SJY1. Three genes, designated vppB, vppD, and vppE, in the VPP pathway were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the related proteins were characterized. The vppB gene encodes a flavin-containing amine oxidase converting 6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Although VppB specifically catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxynicotine rather than nicotine, it shares higher amino acid sequence identity with nicotine oxidase (38%) from the pyrrolidine pathway than with its isoenzyme (6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase, 24%) from the pyridine pathway. The vppD gene encodes an NADH-dependent flavin-containing monooxygenase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. VppD shows 62% amino acid sequence identity with the hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida strain S16, whereas the specific activity of VppD is ∼10-fold higher than that of HspB. VppE is responsible for the transformation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VPP pathway, which evolved independently from nicotinic acid degradation, might have a closer relationship with the pyrrolidine pathway. The proteins and functional pathway identified here provide a sound basis for future studies aimed at a better understanding of molecular principles of nicotine degradation. PMID:25344232

  8. Direct Strain Tensor Approximation for Full-Field Strain Measurement Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the image acquisition noise. Unfortunately, because not all noise can be removed, there is still room for improving the accuracy levels of full-field...sensor, a simple sensitivity study was conducted for various levels of noise. To inves- tigate the effect, the actual strain field might have on both... mathematical theory of elasticity. In fact, the general solution to this problem for an elliptic hole is known [35] and is implemented here for an ellipse of

  9. Modified metabolic inhibition test for serotyping strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-strain Mycoplasma).

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J A; Stemke, G W

    1979-01-01

    Antisera prepared against the eight recognized serotypes of Ureaplasma urealyticum were tested against the homologous and heterologous antigens by a modified metabolic inhibition test that used bromothymol blue broth in microtiter plates. The method gives clear endpoint determinations which are usually maintained on continued incubation. Antisera against serotype 8 showed cross-reactions with types 2 and 4. The ninth strain, Vancouver, when tested by this method did not fit the recognized serotyping scheme and may represent a new serotype. PMID:500800

  10. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains and Their Comparison with Strain GG

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Taija E.; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Messing, Marcel; Randazzo, Cinzia L.; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia; Ritari, Jarmo; Caggia, Cinzia; Lähteinen, Tanja; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects. PMID:23966868

  11. Characterization of Strain-Induced Anisotropy in Titanium at Large Strains under Monotonic and Bauschinger Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-15

    1966), Texture Strenthening, Metals Engineering Quaterly –American Society Vol 6 , No 4 . W. Terry (2008), TEM investigation of Titanium based sheet...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 November 2007 - 01-Nov-08 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of strain-induced anisotropy in Titanium at...CNRS - CONFIDENTIAL - Privileged Information - EOARD & CNRS’s proprietary information" 6 Introduction Titanium based materials deform by twinning

  12. Vega interstage strain measurements: comparison between conventional strain gauges and fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lun; Ahlers, Berit

    2017-11-01

    Europe is developing a new generation launcher, called Vega, a small launcher with a capacity to place satellites into polar and low-Earth orbits, which are used for many scientific and Earth observation missions. Its first launch is scheduled for early 2008. Dutch Space is responsible for the development, qualification and manufacturing of the Vega Interstage 1/2. This all-aluminium conically shaped section is designed as a monocoque structure. This subsystem of Vega has undergone its first qualification tests of force loading combined with an extensive programme of measurements (forces, displacements and strains), at TNO in Delft. In parallel to conventional strain gauges Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) in the form of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor arrays, consisting of five strain sensors and one temperature sensor, have been installed on different locations of the interstage. Direct comparisons of the results with conventional sensors during load tests up to several hundred tons are therefore possible. A self-evident benefit of FBG sensors in an array application is that each sensing FBG can have a different Bragg wavelength to reflect. Thus, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) can conveniently be used to distinguish the different sensing FBG's at the receiving side. First test results from load measurements performed on the Qualification Model (QM) of the Vega Interstage 1/2 are presented in this paper as well as an outlook to future integration of the FBG in this field.

  13. Conversion of the BASE Prion Strain into the BSE Strain: The Origin of BSE?

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Raffaella; Casalone, Cristina; Suardi, Silvia; Mangieri, Michela; Miccolo, Claudia; Limido, Lucia; Catania, Marcella; Rossi, Giacomina; Fede, Giuseppe Di; Giaccone, Giorgio; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Minati, Ludovico; Corona, Cristiano; Acutis, Pierluigi; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lombardi, Guerino; Groschup, Martin H; Buschmann, Anne; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Monaco, Salvatore; Caramelli, Maria; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Atypical neuropathological and molecular phenotypes of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently been identified in different countries. One of these phenotypes, named bovine “amyloidotic” spongiform encephalopathy (BASE), differs from classical BSE for the occurrence of a distinct type of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP), termed PrPSc, and the presence of PrP amyloid plaques. Here, we show that the agents responsible for BSE and BASE possess different biological properties upon transmission to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP and inbred lines of nontransgenic mice. Strikingly, serial passages of the BASE strain to nontransgenic mice induced a neuropathological and molecular disease phenotype indistinguishable from that of BSE-infected mice. The existence of more than one agent associated with prion disease in cattle and the ability of the BASE strain to convert into the BSE strain may have important implications with respect to the origin of BSE and spongiform encephalopathies in other species, including humans. PMID:17352534

  14. Numerical Simulations of Turbulence Subjected to a Straining and De-Straining Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, Paolo; Meneveau, Charles

    2007-11-01

    In most applications turbulent flows develop in geometrically complex devices where interactions between fluctuations and mean velocity gradients occur in non equilibrium conditions, i.e. turbulence is subjected to a significant large-scale deformation. The simplest flow which retains this physical aspect is turbulence subjected to homogenous straining flow. Non-equilibrium effects may be studied by varying the applied straining as function of time. To simulate such a flow numerically, a spectral code with the Rogallo transformation and stochastic forcing is employed. Direct and Large-Eddy Simulations of initially isotropic turbulence subjected to a straining and destraining cycle are performed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data obtained in similar conditions [Chen, Meneveau & Katz, J. Fluid Mech.562 (2006)]. The role played by the initial energy spectra is discussed in relation with the position of the random forcing within the inertial range. The response of the system is characterized both in terms of velocity variances and turbulent kinetic energy production. In agreement with experimental data, numerical simulations provide significant backscatter of turbulent kinetic energy during the destraining phase explained in terms of anisotropy persistency in the Reynolds stresses.

  15. Genome differences between Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols and T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A.

    PubMed

    Strouhal, Michal; Smajs, David; Matejková, Petra; Sodergren, Erica; Amin, Anita G; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M

    2007-12-01

    The genome of Treponema paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A was compared to the genome of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols using DNA microarray hybridization, whole-genome fingerprinting, and DNA sequencing. A DNA microarray of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols containing all 1,039 predicted open reading frame PCR products was used to identify deletions and major sequence changes in the Cuniculi A genome. Using these approaches, deletions, insertions, and prominent sequence changes were found in 38 gene homologs and six intergenic regions of the Cuniculi A genome when it was compared to the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Most of the observed differences were localized in tpr loci and the vicinity of these loci. In addition, 14 other genes were found to contain frameshift mutations resulting in major changes in protein sequences. Analysis of restriction target sites representing 0.34% of the total genome length and DNA sequencing of three PCR products (0.46% of the total genome length) amplified from Cuniculi A chromosomal regions and comparison to the Nichols genome revealed a sequence similarity of 98.6 to 99.3%. These results are consistent with a close genetic relationship among the T. pallidum strains and subspecies and a strong, but relatively divergent connection between the human and rabbit pathogens.

  16. Effects of gauge volume on pseudo-strain induced in strain measurement using time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Abe, Jun; Xu, Pingguang; Aizawa, Kazuya; Akita, Koichi

    2013-07-01

    Spurious or pseudo-strains observed in time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction due to neutron attenuation, surface-effects and a strain distribution within the gauge volume were investigated. Experiments were carried out on annealed and bent ferritic steel bars to test these effects. The most representative position in the gauge volume corresponds to the neutron-weighted center of gravity (ncog), which takes into account variations in intensity within the gauge volume due to neutron attenuation and/or absence of material in the gauge volume. The average strain in the gauge volume was observed to be weighted towards the ncog position but following an increase in the size of the gauge volume the weighted average strain was changed because of the change in the ncog position when a strain gradient appeared within the gauge volume. On the other hand, typical pseudo-strains, which are well known, did appear in through-surface strain measurements when the gauge volume was incompletely filled by the sample. Tensile pseudo-strains due to the surface-effect increased near the sample surface and exhibited a similar trend regardless of the size of the gauge volume, while the pseudo-strains increased faster for the smaller gauge volume. Furthermore, a pseudo-strain due to a change in the ncog position was observed even when the gauge volume was perfectly filled in the sample, and it increased with an increase in the size of the gauge volume. These pseudo-strains measured were much larger than those simulated by the conventional modeling, whereas they were simulated by taking into account an incident neutron beam divergence additionally in the model. Therefore, the incident divergence of the incident neutron beam must be carefully designed to avoid pseudo-strains in time-of-flight neutron diffractometry.

  17. Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms. PMID:24808734

  18. Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2014-03-01

    A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms.

  19. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gears and Strain Wave Gear Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a strain wave gear includes: a wave generator; a flexspline that itself includes a first set of gear teeth; and a circular spline that itself includes a second set of gear teeth; where at least one of the wave generator, the flexspline, and the circular spline, includes a bulk metallic glass-based material.

  20. Iron and Aluminum at Ultrahigh Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, techniques based on table-top laser systems have shown promise for investigating dynamic material behavior at high rates of both compressive and tensile strain. Common to these techniques is a laser pulse (the ``pump'') that is used in some manner to rapidly deliver energy to the sample; while the energy itself is often comparatively very small, the intensity can be made high by tightly focusing the pump light. In this way pressures or stresses can be obtained that are sufficiently large to have relevance to a wide range of basic and applied fields. Inherent to these techniques too, is relatively low cost and high throughput. Also, by using additional laser pulses (the ``probe'') to measure the response of the sample, very high time resolution can be achieved. The latter in particular is desirable when studying, for example shock waves, in which the time for the material to pass from undisturbed to fully compressed (the ``rise time'') can be extremely short (order 10 ps or less) even at fairly small peaks stresses. Since much of the most interesting physics comes into play during this process it is important to be able to adequately resolve the shock rise. Furthermore, the associated time scale is comparable to that typically considered in state-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations which are emerging as the theoretical tool of choice for investigating shock waves in condensed matter. It should be pointed out however, that a general drawback to these techniques is that, depending on the aim of the experiment, a small pump energy imposes limits on the nature of the sample; if for example the aim is to study steady shock waves, the compressed region has to be thin, and its internal structure cannot vary on a scale that is not much smaller than the compressed dimensions. We consider and illustrate these concepts in the context of various metals, primarily aluminum and iron, and show how current methods are capable of making meaningful and useful

  1. The Genetically Remote Pathogenic Strain NVH391-98 of the Bacillus cereus Group Represents the Cluster of Thermophilic Strains

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Bidnenko, Elena

    2007-10-02

    Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group are known to cause food poisoning. A rare phylogenetically remote strain, NVH391-98, was recently characterized to encode a particularly efficient cytotoxin K presumably responsible for food poisoning. This pathogenic strain and its close relatives can be phenotypically distinguished from other strains of the B. cereus group by the inability to grow at temperatures below 17 degrees C and by the ability to grow at temperatures from 48 to 53 degrees C. A temperate phage, phBC391A2, residing in the genome of NVH391-98 allows us to distinguish the three known members of this thermophilic strain cluster.

  2. Origin of the Strain Sensitivity for an Organic Heptazole Thin-Film and Its Strain Gauge Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Heesun; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Kimoon

    2018-04-01

    The authors report on the origin of the strain sensitivity for an organic C26H16N2 (heptazole) thinfilm and its application for the detection of tensile strain. From the electrical characterization on the thin-film transistor adopting a heptazole channel, heptazole film exhibits p-channel conduction with a relatively low value of field-effect mobility (0.05 cm2/Vs), suggesting a hopping conduction behavior via hole carriers. By analyzing the strain and temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity, we reveal that the electrical conduction for a heptazole thin-film is dominated by the variable range hopping process with quite a large energy separation (224.9 meV) between the localized states under a relatively long attenuation length (10.46 Å). This indicates that a change in the inter-grain spacing that is much larger than the attenuation length is responsible for the reversible modification of electrical conductivity depending on strain for the heptazole film. By utilizing our heptazole thin-film both as a strain sensitive passive resistor and an active semiconducting channel layer, we can achieve a strain gauge device exhibiting reversible endurance for tensile strains up to 2.12%. Consequently, this study advances the understanding of the fundamental strain sensing mechanism in a heptazole thin-film toward finding a promise material with a strain gauge for applications as potential flexible devices and/or wearable electronics.

  3. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    PubMed

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  4. Intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus sakei response to oxidative stress and variability of strain performance in mixed strains challenges.

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Morgan; Zagorec, Monique; Chaillou, Stéphane; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a meat-borne lactic acid bacterium species exhibiting a wide genomic diversity. We have investigated the diversity of response to various oxidative compounds, between L. sakei strains, among a collection representing the genomic diversity. We observed various responses to the different compounds as well as a diversity of response depending on the aeration conditions used for cell growth. A principal component analysis revealed two main phenotypic groups, partially correlating with previously described genomic clusters. We designed strains mixes composed of three different strains, in order to examine the behavior of each strain, when cultured alone or in the presence of other strains. The strains composing the mixtures were chosen as diverse as possible, i.e. exhibiting diverse responses to oxidative stress and belonging to different genomic clusters. Growth and survival rates of each strain were monitored under various aeration conditions, with or without heme supplementation. The results obtained suggest that some strains may act as "helper" or "burden" strains depending on the oxidative conditions encountered during incubation. This study confirms that resistance to oxidative stress is extremely variable within the L. sakei species and that this property should be considered when investigating starter performance in the complex meat bacterial ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role strain in collegiate athletic training approved clinical instructors.

    PubMed

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    Certified athletic trainers who serve as Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs) in the collegiate setting are balancing various roles (eg, patient care and related administrative tasks, clinical education). Whether this balancing act is associated with role strain in athletic trainers has not been examined. To examine the degree of, and contributing factors (eg, socialization experiences, professional and employment demographics, job congruency) to, role strain in collegiate ACIs. Cross-sectional survey design. Geographically stratified random sample of ACIs affiliated with accredited athletic training education programs at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, II, and III institutions. 118 collegiate ACIs (47 head athletic trainers, 45 assistant athletic trainers, 26 graduate assistant athletic trainers). The Athletic Training ACI Role Strain Inventory, which measures total degree of role strain, 7 subscales of role strain, socialization experiences, professional and employment characteristics, and congruency in job responsibilities. A total of 49% (n = 58) of the participants experienced a moderate to high degree of role strain. Role Overload was the highest contributing subscale to total role strain. No differences were noted between total role strain and role occupant groups, NCAA division, or sex. Graduate assistant athletic trainers experienced a greater degree of role incompetence than head athletic trainers did (P = .001). Division II ACIs reported a greater degree of inter-role conflict than those in Division I (P = .02). Female ACIs reported a greater degree of role incompetence than male ACIs (P = .01). Those ACIs who stated that the ACI training provided by their institution did not adequately prepare them for the role as an ACI experienced greater role strain (P < .001). The ACIs in the collegiate setting are experiencing role strain in balancing their roles as health care providers, clinical educators, and administrators. Methods

  6. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  7. Strain-Dependent Transcriptome Signatures for Robustness in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Annereinou R.; Alkema, Wynand; Starrenburg, Marjo J. C.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Bron, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that fermentation conditions have a strong impact on subsequent survival of Lactococcus lactis strain MG1363 during heat and oxidative stress, two important parameters during spray drying. Moreover, employment of a transcriptome-phenotype matching approach revealed groups of genes associated with robustness towards heat and/or oxidative stress. To investigate if other strains have similar or distinct transcriptome signatures for robustness, we applied an identical transcriptome-robustness phenotype matching approach on the L. lactis strains IL1403, KF147 and SK11, which have previously been demonstrated to display highly diverse robustness phenotypes. These strains were subjected to an identical fermentation regime as was performed earlier for strain MG1363 and consisted of twelve conditions, varying in the level of salt and/or oxygen, as well as fermentation temperature and pH. In the exponential phase of growth, cells were harvested for transcriptome analysis and assessment of heat and oxidative stress survival phenotypes. The variation in fermentation conditions resulted in differences in heat and oxidative stress survival of up to five 10-log units. Effects of the fermentation conditions on stress survival of the L. lactis strains were typically strain-dependent, although the fermentation conditions had mainly similar effects on the growth characteristics of the different strains. By association of the transcriptomes and robustness phenotypes highly strain-specific transcriptome signatures for robustness towards heat and oxidative stress were identified, indicating that multiple mechanisms exist to increase robustness and, as a consequence, robustness of each strain requires individual optimization. However, a relatively small overlap in the transcriptome responses of the strains was also identified and this generic transcriptome signature included genes previously associated with stress (ctsR and lplL) and novel genes, including nan

  8. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  9. Role Strain in Collegiate Athletic Training Approved Clinical Instructors

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    Context: Certified athletic trainers who serve as Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs) in the collegiate setting are balancing various roles (eg, patient care and related administrative tasks, clinical education). Whether this balancing act is associated with role strain in athletic trainers has not been examined. Objective: To examine the degree of, and contributing factors (eg, socialization experiences, professional and employment demographics, job congruency) to, role strain in collegiate ACIs. Design: Cross-sectional survey design. Setting: Geographically stratified random sample of ACIs affiliated with accredited athletic training education programs at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, II, and III institutions. Patients or Other Participants: 118 collegiate ACIs (47 head athletic trainers, 45 assistant athletic trainers, 26 graduate assistant athletic trainers). Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training ACI Role Strain Inventory, which measures total degree of role strain, 7 subscales of role strain, socialization experiences, professional and employment characteristics, and congruency in job responsibilities. Results: A total of 49% (n  =  58) of the participants experienced a moderate to high degree of role strain. Role Overload was the highest contributing subscale to total role strain. No differences were noted between total role strain and role occupant groups, NCAA division, or sex. Graduate assistant athletic trainers experienced a greater degree of role incompetence than head athletic trainers did (P  =  .001). Division II ACIs reported a greater degree of inter-role conflict than those in Division I (P  =  .02). Female ACIs reported a greater degree of role incompetence than male ACIs (P  =  .01). Those ACIs who stated that the ACI training provided by their institution did not adequately prepare them for the role as an ACI experienced greater role strain (P < .001). Conclusions: The ACIs in the

  10. An interferometric strain-displacement measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, William N., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the relative in-plane displacement over a gage length as short as 100 micrometers is described. Two closely spaced indentations are placed in a reflective specimen surface with a Vickers microhardness tester. Interference fringes are generated when they are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. As the distance between the indentations expands or contracts with applied load, the fringes move. This motion is monitored with a minicomputer-controlled system using linear diode arrays as sensors. Characteristics of the system are: (1) gage length ranging from 50 to 500 micrometers, but 100 micrometers is typical; (2) least-count resolution of approximately 0.0025 micrometer; and (3) sampling rate of 13 points per second. In addition, the measurement technique is non-contacting and non-reinforcing. It is useful for strain measurements over small gage lengths and for crack opening displacement measurements near crack tips. This report is a detailed description of a new system recently installed in the Mechanisms of Materials Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The intent is to enable a prospective user to evaluate the applicability of the system to a particular problem and assemble one if needed.

  11. Structural energetics of VO2 under strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanul; Marianetti, Chris; The Marianetti Group Team

    Attaining a proper first-principles description of structural energetics in VO2 is a necessary condition for fully characterizing the metal-to-insulator transition. Of the existing methods which have been employed for total energies, only DFT+ U applied under unorthodox conditions (ie. non-spin-polarized (NSP), with an unreasonably small U) has shown promise. In particular, this DFT+ U properly captures the qualitative and quantitative energy difference between the monoclinic (M1) and rutile (R) phases. We explain why this unorthodox procedure works by studying a minimal model of the structural energetics based on the Peierls-Hubbard model; where the exact solution may be compared to Hartree-Fock, single-site dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), and cluster DMFT. Furthermore, we use this DFT+U approach to calculate the strain phase diagram at T=0, including the R, M1, and M2 phases. The authors acknowledge support from FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  12. Stress and Strain in Silicon Electrode Models

    DOE PAGES

    Higa, Kenneth; Srinivasan, Venkat

    2015-03-24

    While the high capacity of silicon makes it an attractive negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the associated large volume change results in fracture and capacity fade. Composite electrodes incorporating silicon have additional complexity, as active material is attached to surrounding material which must likewise experience significant volume change. In this paper, a finite-deformation model is used to explore, for the first time, mechanical interactions between a silicon particle undergoing lithium insertion, and attached binder material. Simulations employ an axisymmetric model system in which solutions vary in two spatial directions and shear stresses develop at interfaces between materials. The mechanical responsemore » of the amorphous active material is dependent on lithium concentration, and an equation of state incorporating reported volume expansion data is used. Simulations explore the influence of active material size and binder stiffness, and suggest delamination as an additional mode of material damage. Computed strain energies and von Mises equivalent stresses are in physically-relevant ranges, comparable to reported yield stresses and adhesion energies, and predicted trends are largely consistent with reported experimental results. It is hoped that insights from this work will support the design of more robust silicon composite electrodes.« less

  13. Strain - The Heart of the Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gapinski, Wendy R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify how much exercise is needed to maintain pre-bedrest / pre-spaceflight strength, minimize any flight complications and reduce time required to reacclimate to Earth's gravity. Subjects volunteered to participate in a 70 day 6deg head down tilt (HDT) study at UTMB hospital in Galveston. HDT are used to study microgravity for several reasons: 1. Allows subjects to experience atrophy of lower extremities from disuse. 2. Allows scientist to study the fluid shifts and the subject's cardiovascular and physiological effects. 3. Allows several studies to be measured and conducted simultaneously in a safe and monitored environment. Throughout those 10 weeks, subjects were either in an exercise or control group. Never before has cardiac strain been monitored at set time points throughout spaceflight or bed rest study. Once we clearly understand this technique, protocols can be formulated for astronauts to use on the ISS as both a diagnostic and monitoring tool. Echoes could have the possibility to predict & monitor heart health, cardiac strength, endurance, and overall rate of muscle degradation. Also, echoes can act as an additional factor in determining exercise prescriptions and effectiveness.

  14. Emergent Strain Stiffening in Interlocked Granular Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Denis; Houze, Maurine; Rambach, Paul; Salez, Thomas; Patinet, Sylvain; Damman, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Granular chain packings exhibit a striking emergent strain-stiffening behavior despite the individual looseness of the constitutive chains. Using indentation experiments on such assemblies, we measure an exponential increase in the collective resistance force F with the indentation depth z and with the square root of the number N of beads per chain. These two observations are, respectively, reminiscent of the self-amplification of friction in a capstan or in interleaved books, as well as the physics of polymers. The experimental data are well captured by a novel model based on these two ingredients. Specifically, the resistance force is found to vary according to the universal relation log F ˜μ √{N }Φ11 /8z /b , where μ is the friction coefficient between two elementary beads, b is their size, and Φ is the volume fraction of chain beads when semidiluted in a surrounding medium of unconnected beads. Our study suggests that theories normally confined to the realm of polymer physics at a molecular level can be used to explain phenomena at a macroscopic level. This class of systems enables the study of friction in complex assemblies, with practical implications for the design of new materials, the textile industry, and biology.

  15. Competition between two virulent Marek's disease virus strains in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of multiple strains of Marek’s disease virus simultaneously circulating within poultry flocks, leading to the assumption that individual birds are repeatedly exposed to a variety of virus strains in their lifetime. Virus competition within individual ...

  16. Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velocity for both strain and temperature have been determined. These values have also been used to perform temperature compensation of the strain measurements.

  17. Native valve endocarditis due to a novel strain of Legionella.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Meghan M; Theodoropoulos, Nicole; Noskin, Gary A; Flaherty, John P; Stemper, Mary E; Aspeslet, Teresa; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Reed, Kurt D

    2011-09-01

    Legionellae are Gram-negative bacteria which are capable of causing disease, most commonly in the form of pneumonia. We describe a case of native valve endocarditis caused by a Legionella strain which by genotypic (16S rRNA and mip gene sequencing) and phenotypic analyses is unlike previously described strains of Legionella.

  18. An electrical strain gage for the tensile testing of paper

    Treesearch

    Douglas M. Jewett

    1963-01-01

    A direct-reading strain gage has been developed at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory that provides rapid and accurate measurement of the stress - strain properties of paper. The gage, which employs a differential transformer, is particularly suited to servo-operated x-y recorders.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence for Desulfovibrio africanus Strain PCS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven D.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2013-01-01

    Desulfovibrio africanus strain PCS is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) isolated from sediment from Paleta Creek, San Diego, CA. Strain PCS is capable of reducing metals such as Fe(III) and Cr(VI), has a cell cycle, and is predicted to produce methylmercury. We present the D. africanus PCS genome sequence. PMID:23580709

  20. Fatty acid profiling to characterize California strains of Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different strains of Xylella fastidiosa cause diseases such as Pierce’s disease of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis, and bacterial leaf scorch of hardwoods. However, more research is needed to better define subspecies and strains of X. fastidiosa to improve both regulations concerning this bac...