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Sample records for aureus cell wall

  1. Preparation of Cell Wall Antigens of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, J. J.; Tipper, Donald J.; Berman, David T.

    1970-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from Staphylococcus aureus strains Copenhagen and 263 by high-speed mixing in the presence of glass beads followed by differential centrifugation. Insoluble peptidoglycan complexes were derived from cell walls by extraction of teichoic acid with 10% trichloroacetic acid. Intact teichoic acid was prepared from each strain by digestion of cell walls with lysostaphin and isolated by column chromatography. Soluble glycopeptide (peptidoglycan in which only the glycan has been fragmented) and the stable complex of teichoic acid with glycopeptide were prepared by digestion of cell walls with Chalaropsis B endo-N-acetylmuramidase and were separated by column chromatography. Amino acid and amino sugar contents of walls and subunits of walls were comparable to those reported by others. Images PMID:16557799

  2. Wall teichoic acids prevent antibody binding to epitopes within the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Samir; Kim, Taehan; Lester, Evan; Deep, Deeksha; Spiegel, David A

    2016-01-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that produces a range of infections including cellulitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. The principle mechanism in antistaphylococcal host defense is opsonization with antibodies and complement proteins, followed by phagocytic clearance. Here we use a previously developed technique for installing chemical epitopes in the peptidoglycan cell wall to show that surface glycopolymers known as wall teichoic acids conceal cell wall epitopes, preventing their recognition and opsonization by antibodies. Thus, our results reveal a previously unrecognized immunoevasive role for wall teichoic acids in S. aureus: repulsion of peptidoglycan-targeted antibodies.

  3. Electron Microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Wall Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, R.; González, C.; Muñoz, Nubia; Mendoza, Silvia

    1966-01-01

    Virgilio, Rafael (Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile), C. González, Nubia Muñoz, and Silvia Mendoza. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2018–2024. 1966.—A crude suspension of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls (strain Cowan III) in buffer solution was shown by electron microscopy to lyse slightly after 16 hr, probably owing to the action of autolysin. The lysis was considerably faster and more intense after the addition of lysozyme. A remarkable reduction in thickness and rigidity of the cell walls, together with the appearance of many irregular protrusions in their outlines, was observed after 2 hr; after 16 hr, there remained only a few recognizable cell wall fragments but many residual particulate remnants. When autolysin was previously inactivated by trypsin, there was a complete inhibition of the lytic action of lysozyme; on the other hand, when autolysin was inactivated by heat and lysozyme was added, a distinct decrease in the thickness of the cell walls was observed, but there was no destruction of the walls. The lytic action of lysozyme, after treatment with hot 5% trichloroacetic acid, gave rise to a marked dissolution of the structure of the cell walls, which became lost against the background, without, however, showing ostensible alteration of wall outlines. From a morphological point of view, the lytic action of autolysin plus lysozyme was quite different from that of trichloroacetic acid plus lysozyme, as shown by electron micrographs, but in both cases it was very intense. This would suggest different mechanisms of action for these agents. Images PMID:5939482

  4. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, R; González, C; Muñoz, N; Mendoza, S

    1966-05-01

    Virgilio, Rafael (Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile), C. González, Nubia Muñoz, and Silvia Mendoza. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2018-2024. 1966.-A crude suspension of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls (strain Cowan III) in buffer solution was shown by electron microscopy to lyse slightly after 16 hr, probably owing to the action of autolysin. The lysis was considerably faster and more intense after the addition of lysozyme. A remarkable reduction in thickness and rigidity of the cell walls, together with the appearance of many irregular protrusions in their outlines, was observed after 2 hr; after 16 hr, there remained only a few recognizable cell wall fragments but many residual particulate remnants. When autolysin was previously inactivated by trypsin, there was a complete inhibition of the lytic action of lysozyme; on the other hand, when autolysin was inactivated by heat and lysozyme was added, a distinct decrease in the thickness of the cell walls was observed, but there was no destruction of the walls. The lytic action of lysozyme, after treatment with hot 5% trichloroacetic acid, gave rise to a marked dissolution of the structure of the cell walls, which became lost against the background, without, however, showing ostensible alteration of wall outlines. From a morphological point of view, the lytic action of autolysin plus lysozyme was quite different from that of trichloroacetic acid plus lysozyme, as shown by electron micrographs, but in both cases it was very intense. This would suggest different mechanisms of action for these agents.

  5. Studies on the chemistry and immunochemistry of cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    MORSE, S I

    1962-08-01

    The cell walls of an 80/81 strain of Staphylococcus aureus (NYH-6) contain alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, lysine, muramic acid, glucosamine, and ribitol phosphate. 94 per cent of the phosphorus and 41 per cent of the glucosamine are removed by extraction of the cell walls with hot 5 per cent TCA, but significant amounts of the other constituents are not extracted by this procedure. The residue after hot TCA extraction (mucopeptide) is susceptible to lysozyme whereas the intact cell walls are resistant. Staphylococcus aureus cell walls are agglutinated by S. aureus antisera. Agglutination of the cell walls of one S. aureus strain is inhibited by absorption of antisera with cell walls of other S. aureus strains but not by absorption with S. albus cell walls. The ribitol teichoic acid can be isolated from cold TCA extracts of the cell walls. This compound consists almost entirely of ribitol phosphate and glucosamine. The isolated teichoic acid of strain NYH-6 is readily fixed to tanned sheep erythrocytes and these sensitized cells are agglutinated by S. aureus antisera. Cold TCA extracts of cell walls of other strains of S. aureus inhibit hemagglutination whereas extracts of S. albus walls do not. Studies on the inhibition of both hemagglutination and precipitation indicate that the antigenic determinant of S. aureus NYH-6 teichoic acid is beta-N-acetylglucosamine.

  6. STUDIES ON THE CHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF CELL WALLS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen I.

    1962-01-01

    The cell walls of an 80/81 strain of Staphylococcus aureus (NYH-6) contain alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, lysine, muramic acid, glucosamine, and ribitol phosphate. 94 per cent of the phosphorus and 41 per cent of the glucosamine are removed by extraction of the cell walls with hot 5 per cent TCA, but significant amounts of the other constituents are not extracted by this procedure. The residue after hot TCA extraction (mucopeptide) is susceptible to lysozyme whereas the intact cell walls are resistant. Staphylococcus aureus cell walls are agglutinated by S. aureus antisera. Agglutination of the cell walls of one S. aureus strain is inhibited by absorption of antisera with cell walls of other S. aureus strains but not by absorption with S. albus cell walls. The ribitol teichoic acid can be isolated from cold TCA extracts of the cell walls. This compound consists almost entirely of ribitol phosphate and glucosamine. The isolated teichoic acid of strain NYH-6 is readily fixed to tanned sheep erythrocytes and these sensitized cells are agglutinated by S. aureus antisera. Cold TCA extracts of cell walls of other strains of S. aureus inhibit hemagglutination whereas extracts of S. albus walls do not. Studies on the inhibition of both hemagglutination and precipitation indicate that the antigenic determinant of S. aureus NYH-6 teichoic acid is β-N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:14476345

  7. Structure of the Cell Wall Anchor of Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneewind, Olaf; Fowler, Audree; Faull, Kym F.

    1995-04-01

    Many surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and are involved in the pathogenesis of these organisms. A hybrid molecule was designed that, when expressed in Staphylococcus aureus, was anchored to the cell wall and could be released by controlled enzymatic digestion. By a combination of molecular biology and mass spectrometry techniques, the structure of the cell wall anchor of surface proteins in S. aureus was revealed. After cleavage of surface proteins between threonine and glycine of the conserved LPXTG motif, the carboxyl of threonine is amide-linked to the free amino group of the pentaglycine crossbridge in the staphylococcal cell wall.

  8. Cell Wall Composition and Associated Properties of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Brian J.; Dorian, Kenneth J.; Sabath, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus strains have previously been reported to be deficient in surface negative charge; this has been correlated with methicillin resistance and ascribed to a deficiency of teichoic acid at the cell surface (A. W. Hill and A. M. James, Microbios 6:157-167, 1972). Teichoic acid was present in walls of MR organisms as revealed by appreciable phosphate levels and detection of ribitol residues. Phosphate levels in walls from five MR strains (0.54 to 0.77 μmol/mg of wall) were lower than in three unrelated methicillin-sensitive (MS) strains (0.86 to 1.0 μmol/mg of wall). However, two MS strains derived from two of the MR strains had wall phosphate levels very similar to those of the MR strains. No evidence for unusual wall polymers was found. Simple deficiency of wall teichoic acid does not result in methicillin resistance since an independently isolated teichoic acid-deficient strain (0.1 μmol of phosphate per mg of wall) was not methicillin resistant. In studies of biological properties possibly related to wall teichoic acid, it was discovered that walls isolated from MR organisms grown in the presence of methicillin autolyzed more rapidly than those isolated from organisms grown in the absence of the drug. Since methicillin resistance is enhanced by NaCl and suppressed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate, the effects of these compounds on autolysis of isolated walls were studied. NaCl (1.0 M) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (1.0 mM) inhibited the autolysis of walls isolated from MR and MS strains. An MR strain bound phage 47, 52A, and 3A only slightly less well than their respective propagating strains. PMID:152758

  9. Amidase, a cell wall hydrolase, elicits protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nisha; Vinod, Vivek; Suresh, Maneesha K; Vijayrajratnam, Sukhithasri; Biswas, Lalitha; Peethambaran, Reshmi; Vasudevan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Raja

    2015-01-01

    The morbidity and the mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis infections have greatly increased due to the rapid emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic resistant strains. Development of a vaccine-based therapy is greatly desired. However, no staphylococcal vaccine is available till date. In this study, we have identified Major amidase (Atl-AM) as a prime candidate for future vaccine design against these pathogens. Atl-AM is a multi-functional non-covalently cell wall associated protein which is involved in staphylococcal cell separation after cell division, host extracellular matrix adhesion and biofilm formation. Atl-AM is present on the surface of diverse S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains. When used in combination with Freund's adjuvant, Atl-AM generated a mixed Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response which is skewed more toward Th1; and showed increased production of opsonophagocytic IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies. Significant protective immune response was observed when vaccinated mice were challenged with S. aureus or S. epidermidis. Vaccination prevented the systemic dissemination of both organisms. Our results demonstrate the remarkable efficacy of Atl-AM as a vaccine candidate against both of these pathogens.

  10. Vancomycin tolerant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus reveals the effects of vancomycin on cell wall thickening.

    PubMed

    Cázares-Domínguez, Vicenta; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Ochoa, Sara A; Escalona, Gerardo; Arellano-Galindo, José; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes both healthcare- and community-acquired infections. An increase in the incidence of these infections may lead to a substantial change in the rate of vancomycin usage. Incidence of reduced susceptibility to vancomycin has been increasing worldwide for the last few years, conferring different levels of resistance to vancomycin as well as producing changes in the cell wall structure. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vancomycin on cell wall thickening in clinical isolates of vancomycin-tolerant (VT) MRSA obtained from pediatric patients. From a collection of 100 MRSA clinical isolates from pediatric patients, 12% (12/100) were characterized as VT-MRSA, and from them, 41.66% (5/12) exhibited the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) phenotype. Multiplex-PCR assays revealed 66.66% (8/12), 25% (3/12), and 8.33% (1/12) of the VT-MRSA isolates were associated with agr group II, I, and III polymorphisms, respectively; the II-mec gene was amplified from 83.3% (10/12) of the isolates, and the mecIVa gene was amplified from 16.66% (2/12) of the isolates. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprint analysis showed 62% similarity among the VT-MRSA isolates. Thin transverse sections analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed an average increase of 24 nm (105.55%) in the cell wall thickness of VT-MRSA compared with untreated VT-MRSA isolates. In summary, these data revealed that the thickened cell walls of VT-MRSA clinical isolates with agr type II and SCCmec group II polymorphisms are associated with an adaptive resistance to vancomycin.

  11. Vancomycin Tolerant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Reveals the Effects of Vancomycin on Cell Wall Thickening

    PubMed Central

    Cázares-Domínguez, Vicenta; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Ochoa, Sara A.; Escalona, Gerardo; Arellano-Galindo, José; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes both healthcare- and community-acquired infections. An increase in the incidence of these infections may lead to a substantial change in the rate of vancomycin usage. Incidence of reduced susceptibility to vancomycin has been increasing worldwide for the last few years, conferring different levels of resistance to vancomycin as well as producing changes in the cell wall structure. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vancomycin on cell wall thickening in clinical isolates of vancomycin-tolerant (VT) MRSA obtained from pediatric patients. From a collection of 100 MRSA clinical isolates from pediatric patients, 12% (12/100) were characterized as VT-MRSA, and from them, 41.66% (5/12) exhibited the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) phenotype. Multiplex-PCR assays revealed 66.66% (8/12), 25% (3/12), and 8.33% (1/12) of the VT-MRSA isolates were associated with agr group II, I, and III polymorphisms, respectively; the II-mec gene was amplified from 83.3% (10/12) of the isolates, and the mecIVa gene was amplified from 16.66% (2/12) of the isolates. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprint analysis showed 62% similarity among the VT-MRSA isolates. Thin transverse sections analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed an average increase of 24 nm (105.55%) in the cell wall thickness of VT-MRSA compared with untreated VT-MRSA isolates. In summary, these data revealed that the thickened cell walls of VT-MRSA clinical isolates with agr type II and SCCmec group II polymorphisms are associated with an adaptive resistance to vancomycin. PMID:25793280

  12. Living with an imperfect cell wall: compensation of femAB inactivation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hübscher, Judith; Jansen, Andrea; Kotte, Oliver; Schäfer, Juliane; Majcherczyk, Paul A; Harris, Llinos G; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Heinemann, Matthias; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Background Synthesis of the Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan pentaglycine interpeptide bridge is catalyzed by the nonribosomal peptidyl transferases FemX, FemA and FemB. Inactivation of the femAB operon reduces the interpeptide to a monoglycine, leading to a poorly crosslinked peptidoglycan. femAB mutants show a reduced growth rate and are hypersusceptible to virtually all antibiotics, including methicillin, making FemAB a potential target to restore β-lactam susceptibility in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cis-complementation with wild type femAB only restores synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide and methicillin resistance, but the growth rate remains low. This study characterizes the adaptations that ensured survival of the cells after femAB inactivation. Results In addition to slow growth, the cis-complemented femAB mutant showed temperature sensitivity and a higher methicillin resistance than the wild type. Transcriptional profiling paired with reporter metabolite analysis revealed multiple changes in the global transcriptome. A number of transporters for sugars, glycerol, and glycine betaine, some of which could serve as osmoprotectants, were upregulated. Striking differences were found in the transcription of several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and the arginine-deiminase pathway, an alternative for ATP production. In addition, microarray data indicated enhanced expression of virulence factors that correlated with premature expression of the global regulators sae, sarA, and agr. Conclusion Survival under conditions preventing normal cell wall formation triggered complex adaptations that incurred a fitness cost, showing the remarkable flexibility of S. aureus to circumvent cell wall damage. Potential FemAB inhibitors would have to be used in combination with other antibiotics to prevent selection of resistant survivors. PMID:17784943

  13. [Modulation of rat myometrium contractile activity by peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall].

    PubMed

    Nasibian, L S; Filippov, I B

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall impact on the both estrogen-treated and pseudopragnant rat myometrium contractile activity dynamics was studied. The results of experiments shown that rat myomatrium sensitivity to peptidoglican depends on the hormonal background. Peptidoglycan modified the myometrium contractile activity of both estrogen-treated and pseudopragnant rats. In estrogen-treated rat myometrium peptidoglycan reduces frequency and duration of contractions (elongated the uterine cycle) while in the pseudopregnant rat myometrium it increased the amplitude as well as the duration and the freqwency (deshortened the uterine cycle). During the experiments we found that peptidoglycan has stronger uterotonic effect than prostaglandin F2α. In this connection we conclude that the changes ofmyometral contractile activity after peptidoglycan action may have negative effects for fertility and course of pregnancy.

  14. Transient weak protein-protein complexes transfer heme across the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Valerie A; Spirig, Thomas; Robson, Scott A; Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang; Clubb, Robert T

    2011-09-14

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus . Heme in hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant source of iron in the human body and during infections is captured by S. aureus using iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. A central step in this process is the transfer of heme between the cell wall associated IsdA and IsdC hemoproteins. Biochemical evidence indicates that heme is transferred via an activated IsdA:heme:IsdC heme complex. Transfer is rapid and occurs up to 70,000 times faster than indirect mechanisms in which heme is released into the solvent. To gain insight into the mechanism of transfer, we modeled the structure of the complex using NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) methods. Our results indicate that IsdA and IsdC transfer heme via an ultraweak affinity "handclasp" complex that juxtaposes their respective 3(10) helices and β7/β8 loops. Interestingly, PRE also identified a set of transient complexes that could represent high-energy pre-equilibrium encounter species that form prior to the stereospecific handclasp complex. Targeted amino acid mutagenesis and stopped-flow measurements substantiate the functional relevance of a PRE-derived model, as mutation of interfacial side chains significantly slows the rate of transfer. IsdA and IsdC bind heme using NEAr Transporter (NEAT) domains that are conserved in many species of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Heme transfer in these microbes may also occur through structurally similar transient stereospecific complexes.

  15. Diverse modulation of spa transcription by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lene N; Roggenbuck, Michael; Haaber, Jakob; Ifrah, Dan; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-08-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various classes of clinically relevant antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations on virulence gene expression and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. LacZ promoter fusions of genes related to staphylococcal virulence were used to monitor the effects of antibiotics on gene expression in a disc diffusion assay. The selected genes were hla and spa encoding α-hemolysin and Protein A, respectively and RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. The results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, we monitored the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the ability of S. aureus to form biofilm in a microtiter plate assay. The results show that sub-lethal antibiotic concentrations diversely modulate expression of RNAIII, hla and spa. Consistently, expression of all three genes were repressed by aminoglycosides and induced by fluoroquinolones and penicillins. In contrast, the β-lactam sub-group cephalosporins enhanced expression of RNAIII and hla but diversely affected expression of spa. The compounds cefalotin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, ceftazidime and cefixine were found to up-regulate spa, while down-regulation was observed for cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cefepime. Interestingly, biofilm assays demonstrated that the spa-inducing cefalotin resulted in less biofilm formation compared to the spa-repressing cefotaxime. We find that independently of the cephalosporin generation, cephalosporins oppositely regulate spa expression and biofilm formation. Repression of spa expression correlates with the presence of a distinct methyloxime group while induction correlates with an acidic substituted oxime group. As cephalosporines target the cell wall penicillin binding proteins we speculate that subtle differences in this interaction fine-tunes spa expression independently of agr.

  16. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte; Dupont Søgaard, Mia; Kaever, Volkhard; Siljamäki, Pia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement defects of an LTA-depleted strain, while other phenotypes typical of LTA-negative S. aureus mutants, including increased cell size and decreased autolytic activity, are retained. In conclusion, our results indicate that LTA has an essential role in septum placement that can be bypassed by inactivating the ClpX chaperone. PMID:27507828

  17. High-level (beta)-lactam resistance and cell wall synthesis catalyzed by the mecA homologue of Staphylococcus sciuri introduced into Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Severin, Anatoly; Wu, Shang Wei; Tabei, Keiko; Tomasz, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    A close homologue of mecA, the determinant of broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was recently identified as a native gene in the animal commensal species Staphylococcus sciuri. Introduction of the mecA homologue from a methicillin-resistant strain of S. sciuri into a susceptible strain of S. aureus caused an increase in drug resistance and allowed continued growth and cell wall synthesis of the bacteria in the presence of high concentrations of antibiotic. We determined the muropeptide composition of the S. sciuri cell wall by using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometric analysis, and Edman degradation. Several major differences between the cell walls of S. aureus and S. sciuri were noted. The pentapeptide branches in S. sciuri were composed of one alanine and four glycine residues in contrast to the pentaglycine units in S. aureus. The S. sciuri wall but not the wall of S. aureus contained tri- and tetrapeptide units, suggesting the presence of dd- and ld-carboxypeptidase activity. Most interestingly, S. aureus carrying the S. sciuri mecA and growing in methicillin-containing medium produced a cell wall typical of S. aureus and not S. sciuri, in spite of the fact that wall synthesis under these conditions had an absolute dependence on the heterologous S. sciuri gene product. The protein product of the S. sciuri mecA can efficiently participate in cell wall biosynthesis and build a cell wall using the cell wall precursors characteristic of the S. aureus host.

  18. Thioridazine Induces Major Changes in Global Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    PubMed Central

    Thorsing, Mette; Klitgaard, Janne K.; Atilano, Magda L.; Skov, Marianne N.; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Filipe, Sérgio R.; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.

    2013-01-01

    Subinhibitory concentrations of the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ) are well-known to enhance the killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by β-lactam antibiotics, however, the mechanism underlying the synergy between TDZ and β-lactams is not fully understood. In the present study, we have examined the effect of a subinhibitory concentration of TDZ on antimicrobial resistance, the global transcriptome, and the cell wall composition of MRSA USA300. We show that TDZ is able to sensitize the bacteria to several classes of antimicrobials targeting the late stages of peptidoglycan (PGN) synthesis. Furthermore, our microarray analysis demonstrates that TDZ modulates the expression of genes encoding membrane and surface proteins, transporters, and enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. Interestingly, resemblance between the transcriptional profile of TDZ treatment and the transcriptomic response of S. aureus to known inhibitors of cell wall synthesis suggests that TDZ disturbs PGN biosynthesis at a stage that precedes transpeptidation by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). In support of this notion, dramatic changes in the muropeptide profile of USA300 were observed following growth in the presence of TDZ, indicating that TDZ can interfere with the formation of the pentaglycine branches. Strikingly, the addition of glycine to the growth medium relieved the effect of TDZ on the muropeptide profile. Furthermore, exogenous glycine offered a modest protective effect against TDZ-induced β-lactam sensitivity. We propose that TDZ exposure leads to a shortage of intracellular amino acids, including glycine, which is required for the production of normal PGN precursors with pentaglycine branches, the correct substrate of S. aureus PBPs. Collectively, this work demonstrates that TDZ has a major impact on the cell wall biosynthesis pathway in S. aureus and provides new insights into how MRSA may be sensitized towards β-lactam antibiotics. PMID

  19. Functional Interrelationships between Cell Membrane and Cell Wall in Antimicrobial Peptide-Mediated Killing of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan Q.; Mukhopadhyay, Kasturi; Yeaman, Michael R.; Adler-Moore, Jill; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2005-01-01

    Perturbation of the Staphylococcus aureus cytoplasmic membrane (CM) is felt to play a key role in the microbicidal mechanism of many antimicrobial peptides (APs). However, it is not established whether membrane permeabilization (MP) alone is sufficient to kill susceptible staphylococci or if the cell wall (CW) and/or intracellular targets contribute to AP-induced lethality. We hypothesized that the relationships between MP and killing may differ for distinct APs. In this study, we investigated the association between AP-induced MP and lethality in S. aureus whole cells versus CW-free protoplasts, and in comparison to the MP of liposomes modeled after whole CMs in terms of phospholipid composition, fluidity and charge. Four APs with different structure-activity relationships were examined: thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1), human neutrophil protein 1 (hNP-1), gramicidin D, and polymyxin B. MP was quantified fluorometrically by calcein release. All APs tested, except polymyxin B, caused concentration-dependent MP and killing of whole cells, but not of protoplasts. The reduced AP susceptibility of protoplasts was associated with increased cardiolipin and lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol content and reduced fluidity of their CMs. However, liposomal MP induced by tPMP-1, hNP-1, and gramicidin D paralleled that of whole cells. Collectively, these results indicate that (i) structurally distinct APs likely exert their staphylocidal effects by differing mechanisms, (ii) MP is not the sole event leading to AP-induced staphylocidal activity, (iii) a complex interrelationship exists between the CM and CW in AP-induced killing, and (iv) liposomes modeled upon whole cell or protoplast CMs can recapitulate the respective susceptibilities to killing by distinct APs. PMID:16048912

  20. Mutations in mmpL and in the cell wall stress stimulon contribute to resistance to oxadiazole antibiotics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiaobin; Vakulenko, Sergei; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections, which exhibit broad resistance to various antibiotics. We recently disclosed the discovery of the oxadiazole class of antibiotics, which has in vitro and in vivo activities against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We report herein that MmpL, a putative member of the resistance, nodulation, and cell division (RND) family of proteins, contributes to oxadiazole resistance in the S. aureus strain COL. Through serial passages, we generated two S. aureus COL variants that showed diminished susceptibilities to an oxadiazole antibiotic. The MICs for the oxadiazole against one strain (designated S. aureus COL(I)) increased reproducibly 2-fold (to 4 μg/ml), while against the other strain (S. aureus COL(R)), they increased >4-fold (to >8 μg/ml, the limit of solubility). The COL(R) strain was derived from the COL(I) strain. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 31 mutations in S. aureus COL(R), of which 29 were shared with COL(I). Consistent with our previous finding that oxadiazole antibiotics inhibit cell wall biosynthesis, we found 13 mutations that occurred either in structural genes or in promoters of the genes of the cell wall stress stimulon. Two unique mutations in S. aureus COL(R) were substitutions in two genes that encode the putative thioredoxin (SACOL1794) and MmpL (SACOL2566). A role for mmpL in resistance to oxadiazoles was discerned from gene deletion and complementation experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a cell wall-acting antibiotic selects for mutations in the cell wall stress stimulon and the first to implicate MmpL in resistance to antibiotics in S. aureus.

  1. SpoVG Regulates Cell Wall Metabolism and Oxacillin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain N315

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Shijie

    2016-01-01

    Increasing cases of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in healthy individuals have raised concerns worldwide. MRSA strains are resistant to almost the entire family of β-lactam antibiotics due to the acquisition of an extra penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a. Studies have shown that spoVG is involved in oxacillin resistance, while the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we have found that SpoVG plays a positive role in oxacillin resistance through promoting cell wall synthesis and inhibiting cell wall degradation in MRSA strain N315. Deletion of spoVG in strain N315 led to a significant decrease in oxacillin resistance and a dramatic increase in Triton X-100-induced autolytic activity simultaneously. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that the expression of 8 genes related to cell wall metabolism or oxacillin resistance was altered in the spoVG mutant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that SpoVG can directly bind to the putative promoter regions of lytN (murein hydrolase), femA, and lytSR (the two-component system). These findings suggest a molecular mechanism in which SpoVG modulates oxacillin resistance by regulating cell wall metabolism in MRSA. PMID:27001809

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 Can Use Depsi-Lipid II Derived from Vancomycin-Resistant Strains for Cell Wall Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jun; Yamashiro, Hidenori; Miya, Hiroto; Nishiguchi, Kenzo; Maki, Hideki; Arimoto, Hirokazu

    2013-09-02

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (VRSA) uses depsipeptide-containing modified cell-wall precursors for the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. Transglycosylase is responsible for the polymerization of the peptidoglycan, and the penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) plays a major role in the polymerization among several transglycosylases of wild-type S. aureus. However, it is unclear whether VRSA processes the depsipeptide-containing peptidoglycan precursor by using PBP2. Here, we describe the total synthesis of depsi-lipid I, a cell-wall precursor of VRSA. By using this chemistry, we prepared a depsi-lipid II analogue as substrate for a cell-free transglycosylation system. The reconstituted system revealed that the PBP2 of S. aureus is able to process a depsi-lipid II intermediate as efficiently as its normal substrate. Moreover, the system was successfully used to demonstrate the difference in the mode of action of the two antibiotics moenomycin and vancomycin.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 Can Use Depsi-Lipid II Derived from Vancomycin-Resistant Strains for Cell Wall Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Jun; Yamashiro, Hidenori; Miya, Hiroto; Nishiguchi, Kenzo; Maki, Hideki; Arimoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (VRSA) uses depsipeptide-containing modified cell-wall precursors for the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. Transglycosylase is responsible for the polymerization of the peptidoglycan, and the penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) plays a major role in the polymerization among several transglycosylases of wild-type S. aureus. However, it is unclear whether VRSA processes the depsipeptide-containing peptidoglycan precursor by using PBP2. Here, we describe the total synthesis of depsi-lipid I, a cell-wall precursor of VRSA. By using this chemistry, we prepared a depsi-lipid II analogue as substrate for a cell-free transglycosylation system. The reconstituted system revealed that the PBP2 of S. aureus is able to process a depsi-lipid II intermediate as efficiently as its normal substrate. Moreover, the system was successfully used to demonstrate the difference in the mode of action of the two antibiotics moenomycin and vancomycin. PMID:23873669

  4. Uniformity of glycyl bridge lengths in the mature cell walls of fem mutants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Shasad; Kim, Sung Joon; Labischinski, Harald; Chen, Jiawei; Schaefer, Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) composition in intact cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its isogenic Fem mutants has been characterized by measuring the glycine content of PG bridge structures by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The glycine content estimated from integrated intensities (rather than peak heights) in the cell walls of whole cells was increased by approximately 30% for the FemA mutant and was reduced by 25% for the FemB mutant relative to expected values for homogeneous structures. In contrast, the expected compositions were observed in isolated cell walls of the same mutants. For FemA mutant whole cells, the increase was due to the presence of triglycyl bridge PG units (confirmed directly by mass spectrometric analysis), which constituted 10% of the total PG. These species were coalesced in some sort of a lattice or aggregate with spatial proximity to other PG bridges. This result suggests that the triglycyl-bridged PG units form a PG-like structure that is not incorporated into the mature cell wall.

  5. Antibiotic-Induced Cell Wall Fragments of Staphylococcus aureus Increase Endothelial Chemokine Secretion and Adhesiveness for Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    van Langevelde, P.; Ravensbergen, E.; Grashoff, P.; Beekhuizen, H.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; van Dissel, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    Antibiotics release inflammatory fragments, such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PG), from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we exposed S. aureus cultures to a number of β-lactam antibiotics (imipenem, flucloxacillin, and cefamandole) and protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin) and investigated whether supernatants of these cultures differ in their capacity to stimulate endothelial cells (EC). After 24 h of incubation, endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes, surface expression of various adhesion molecules, and secretion of the chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Supernatants of β-lactam-exposed cultures (designated β-lactam supernatants) enhanced the adhesiveness of EC for granulocytes, whereas those of protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotic-exposed cultures (designated protein synthesis-inhibitor supernatants) did not. This hyperadhesiveness coincided with a higher intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on the surface of the stimulated EC. In addition, EC stimulated with β-lactam supernatants secreted significantly higher concentrations of the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 than those stimulated with protein synthesis-inhibitor supernatants. The finding that the concentrations of LTA and PG in β-lactam supernatants were much higher than those in protein synthesis-inhibitor supernatants suggests that the observed differences in stimulatory effect between these supernatants are a result of differences in the release of cell wall fragments, although the presence of other stimulatory factors in the supernatants cannot be excluded. In conclusion, our results argue for a release of LTA and PG from S. aureus after exposure to β-lactam antibiotics that enhances the development of a systemic inflammatory response by stimulating EC such that adhesiveness for granulocytes is increased and large amounts of IL-8 and MCP-1 are secreted

  6. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Rocío; Martínez, Alba; Albert, Eliseo; Madrid, Silvia; Oltra, Rosa; Giménez, Estela; Soriano, Mario; Vinuesa, Víctor; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Navarro, David

    2016-05-01

    Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and suboptimal bacterial internalisation or lysis by human phagocytes. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to killing by phagocytes was assessed in a human whole blood assay. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. aureus isolates was performed using a DNA microarray system. Vancomycin MICs were significantly higher (P=0.006) in isolates that were killed suboptimally (killing index <60%) compared with those killed efficiently (killing index >70%) and tended to correlate inversely (P=0.08) with the killing indices. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. The cell wall was significantly thicker (P=0.03) in isolates in the low killing group. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates were associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by phagocytes.

  7. Wall teichoic acids mediate increased virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Stefanie; Schade, Jessica; Keinhörster, Daniela; Weller, Nicola; George, Shilpa E; Kull, Larissa; Bauer, Jochen; Grau, Timo; Winstel, Volker; Stoy, Henriette; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Kolata, Julia; Wolz, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M; Weidenmaier, Christopher

    2017-01-23

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are the cause of a severe pandemic consisting primarily of skin and soft tissue infections. The underlying pathomechanisms have not been fully understood and we report here a mechanism that plays an important role for the elevated virulence of CA-MRSA. Surprisingly, skin abscess induction in an animal model was correlated with the amount of a major cell wall component of S. aureus, termed wall teichoic acid (WTA). CA-MRSA exhibited increased cell-wall-associated WTA content (WTA(high)) and thus were more active in inducing abscess formation via a WTA-dependent and T-cell-mediated mechanism than S. aureus strains with a WTA(low) phenotype. We show here that WTA is directly involved in S. aureus strain-specific virulence and provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms that could guide the development of novel anti-infective strategies.

  8. Characterization of a novel cell wall binding domain-containing Staphylococcus aureus endolysin LysSA97.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoonjee; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Endolysin from Staphylococcus aureus phage SA97 (LysSA97) was cloned and investigated. LysSA97 specifically lyse the staphylococcal strains and effectively disrupted staphylococcal biofilms. Bioinformatic analysis of LysSA97 revealed a novel putative cell wall binding domain (CBD) as well as two enzymatically active domains (EADs) containing cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP, PF05257) and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Amidase-3, PF01520) domains. Comparison of 98 endolysin genes of S. aureus phages deposited in GenBank showed that they can be classified into six groups based on their domain composition. Interestingly, approximately 80.61 % of the staphylococcal endolysins have a src-homology 3 (SH3, PF08460) domain as CBD, but the remaining 19.39 %, including LysSA97, has a putative C-terminal CBD with no homology to the known CBD. The fusion protein containing green fluorescent protein and the putative CBD of LysSA97 showed a specific binding spectrum against staphylococcal cells comparable to SH3 domain (PF08460), suggesting that the C-terminal domain of LysSA97 is a novel CBD of staphylococcal endolysins.

  9. Desleucyl-Oritavancin with a Damaged d-Ala-d-Ala Binding Site Inhibits the Transpeptidation Step of Cell-Wall Biosynthesis in Whole Cells of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Joon; Singh, Manmilan; Sharif, Shasad; Schaefer, Jacob

    2017-03-14

    We have used solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize the exact nature of the dual mode of action of oritavancin in preventing cell-wall assembly in Staphylococcus aureus. Measurements performed on whole cells labeled selectively in vivo have established that des-N-methylleucyl-N-4-(4-fluorophenyl)benzyl-chloroeremomycin, an Edman degradation product of [(19)F]oritavancin, which has a damaged d-Ala-d-Ala binding aglycon, is a potent inhibitor of the transpeptidase activity of cell-wall biosynthesis. The desleucyl drug binds to partially cross-linked peptidoglycan by a cleft formed between the drug aglycon and its biphenyl hydrophobic side chain. This type of binding site is present in other oritavancin-like glycopeptides, which suggests that for these drugs a similar transpeptidase inhibition occurs.

  10. Correlation of Daptomycin Resistance in a Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Strain with Increased Cell Wall Teichoic Acid Production and d-Alanylation▿

    PubMed Central

    Bertsche, Ute; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Kuehner, Daniel; Yang, Soo-Jin; Baur, Stefanie; Wanner, Stefanie; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Yeaman, Michael R.; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2011-01-01

    Cell wall thickening is a common feature among daptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. However, the mechanism(s) leading to this phenotype is unknown. We examined a number of cell wall synthesis pathway parameters in an isogenic strain set of S. aureus bloodstream isolates obtained from a patient with recalcitrant endocarditis who failed daptomycin therapy, including the initial daptomycin-susceptible parental strain (strain 616) and two daptomycin-resistant strains (strains 701 and 703) isolated during daptomycin therapy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated significantly thicker cell walls in the daptomycin-resistant strains than in the daptomycin-susceptible strain, a finding which was compatible with significant differences in dry cell weight of strain 616 versus strains 701 to 703 (P < 0.05). Results of detailed analysis of cell wall muropeptide composition, the degree of peptide side chain cross-linkage, and the amount of the peptidoglycan precursor, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide, were similar in the daptomycin-susceptible and daptomycin-resistant isolates. In contrast, the daptomycin-resistant strains contained less O-acetylated peptidoglycan. Importantly, both daptomycin-resistant strains synthesized significantly more wall teichoic acid (WTA) than the parental strain (P < 0.001). Moreover, the proportion of d-alanylated WTA species was substantially higher in the daptomycin-resistant strains than in the daptomycin-susceptible parental strain (P < 0.05 in comparing strain 616 versus strain 701). The latter phenotypic findings correlated with (i) enhanced tagA and dltA gene expression, respectively, and (ii) an increase in surface positive charge observed in the daptomycin-resistant versus daptomycin-susceptible isolates. Collectively, these data suggest that increases in WTA synthesis and the degree of its d-alanylation may play a major role in the daptomycin-resistant phenotype in some S. aureus strains. PMID:21606222

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Mutants Lacking the LytR-CpsA-Psr Family of Enzymes Release Cell Wall Teichoic Acids into the Extracellular Medium

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yvonne G. Y.; Frankel, Matthew B.; Dengler, Vanina; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    The LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) proteins are thought to transfer bactoprenol-linked biosynthetic intermediates of wall teichoic acid (WTA) to the peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, mutants lacking all three LCP enzymes do not deposit WTA in the envelope, while Staphylococcus aureus Δlcp mutants display impaired growth and reduced levels of envelope phosphate. We show here that the S. aureus Δlcp mutant synthesized WTA yet released ribitol phosphate polymers into the extracellular medium. Further, Δlcp mutant staphylococci no longer restricted the deposition of LysM-type murein hydrolases to cell division sites, which was associated with defects in cell shape and increased autolysis. Mutations in S. aureus WTA synthesis genes (tagB, tarF, or tarJ2) inhibit growth, which is attributed to the depletion of bactoprenol, an essential component of peptidoglycan synthesis (lipid II). The growth defect of S. aureus tagB and tarFJ mutants was alleviated by inhibition of WTA synthesis with tunicamycin, whereas the growth defect of the Δlcp mutant was not relieved by tunicamycin treatment or by mutation of tagO, whose product catalyzes the first committed step of WTA synthesis. Further, sortase A-mediated anchoring of proteins to peptidoglycan, which also involves bactoprenol and lipid II, was not impaired in the Δlcp mutant. We propose a model whereby the S. aureus Δlcp mutant, defective in tethering WTA to the cell wall, cleaves WTA synthesis intermediates, releasing ribitol phosphate into the medium and recycling bactoprenol for peptidoglycan synthesis. PMID:23935043

  12. Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. III. Lipid II is an in vivo peptidoglycan substrate for sortase-catalyzed surface protein anchoring.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adrienne M; Ton-That, Hung; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Schneewind, Olaf

    2002-05-03

    Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are anchored to the cell wall peptidoglycan by a mechanism requiring a C-terminal sorting signal with an LPXTG motif. Surface proteins are first synthesized in the bacterial cytoplasm and then transported across the cytoplasmic membrane. Cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide of the cytoplasmic surface protein P1 precursor generates the extracellular P2 species, which is the substrate for the cell wall anchoring reaction. Sortase, a membrane-anchored transpeptidase, cleaves P2 between the threonine (T) and the glycine (G) of the LPXTG motif and catalyzes the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of threonine and the amino group of cell wall cross-bridges. We have used metabolic labeling of staphylococcal cultures with [(32)P]phosphoric acid to reveal a P3 intermediate. The (32)P-label of immunoprecipitated surface protein is removed by treatment with lysostaphin, a glycyl-glycine endopeptidase that separates the cell wall anchor structure. Furthermore, the appearance of P3 is prevented in the absence of sortase or by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. (32)P-Labeled cell wall anchor species bind to nisin, an antibiotic that is known to form a complex with lipid II. Thus, it appears that the P3 intermediate represents surface protein linked to the lipid II peptidoglycan precursor. The data support a model whereby lipid II-linked polypeptides are incorporated into the growing peptidoglycan via the transpeptidation and transglycosylation reactions of cell wall synthesis, generating mature cell wall-linked surface protein.

  13. The lone S41 family C-terminal processing protease in Staphylococcus aureus is localized to the cell wall and contributes to virulence.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ronan K; Rivera, Frances E; Cavaco, Courtney K; Johnson, Grant M; Martin, David; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of humans and a continued public health concern due to the rise and spread of multidrug-resistant strains. As part of an ongoing investigation into the pathogenic mechanisms of this organism we previously demonstrated that an intracellular N-terminal processing protease is required for S. aureus virulence. Following on from this, here we examine the role of CtpA, the lone C-terminal processing protease of S. aureus. CtpA, a member of the S41 family, is a serine protease whose homologues in Gram-negative bacteria have been implicated in a range of biological functions, including pathogenesis. We demonstrate that S. aureus CtpA is localized to the bacterial cell wall and expression of the ctpA gene is maximal upon exposure to conditions encountered during infection. Disruption of the ctpA gene leads to decreased heat tolerance and increased sensitivity when exposed to components of the host immune system. Finally we demonstrate that the ctpA(-) mutant strain is attenuated for virulence in a murine model of infection. Our results represent the first characterization of a C-terminal processing protease in a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and show that it plays a critical role during infection.

  14. The membrane protein PrsS mimics σS in protecting Staphylococcus aureus against cell wall-targeting antibiotics and DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Krute, Christina N; Bell-Temin, Harris; Miller, Halie K; Rivera, Frances E; Weiss, Andy; Stevens, Stanley M; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses a lone extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, σ(S). In Bacillus subtilis, the ECF sigma factor, σ(W), is activated through a proteolytic cascade that begins with cleavage of the RsiW anti-sigma factor by a site-1 protease (S1P), PrsW. We have identified a PrsW homologue in S. aureus (termed PrsS) and explored its role in σ(S) regulation. Herein, we demonstrate that although a cognate σ(S) anti-sigma factor currently remains elusive, prsS phenocopies sigS in a wealth of regards. Specifically, prsS expression mimics the upregulation observed for sigS in response to DNA-damaging agents, cell wall-targeting antibiotics and during ex vivo growth in human serum and murine macrophages. prsS mutants also display the same sensitivities of sigS mutants to the DNA-damaging agents methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide, and the cell wall-targeting antibiotics ampicillin, bacitracin and penicillin-G. These phenotypes appear to be explained by alterations in abundance of proteins involved in drug resistance (Pbp2a, FemB, HmrA) and the response to DNA damage (BmrA, Hpt, Tag). Our findings seem to be mediated by putative proteolytic activity of PrsS, as site-directed mutagenesis of predicted catalytic residues fails to rescue the sensitivity of the mutant to H2O2 and MMS. Finally, a role for PrsS in S. aureus virulence was identified using human and murine models of infection. Collectively, our data indicate that PrsS and σ(S) function in a similar manner, and perhaps mediate virulence and resistance to DNA damage and cell wall-targeting antibiotics, via a common pathway.

  15. Analysis of Ebh, a 1.1-Megadalton Cell Wall-Associated Fibronectin-Binding Protein of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Simon R.; Harris, Llinos G.; Richards, R. Geoff; Foster, Simon J.

    2002-01-01

    In order for Staphylococcus aureus to adhere to host extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates, it elicits a wide range of surface proteins. We have characterized a novel ∼1.1-MDa protein in S. aureus, termed Ebh (for ECM-binding protein homologue), which has homology to other ECM-binding proteins. Ebh consists of several domains, including a large central region with 44 imperfect repeats of 126 amino acids. Expression analysis revealed ebh to be growth phase regulated and repressed by agr. A fragment of the central repeat region of Ebh was cloned, overexpressed, and used in ligand-binding studies to determine Ebh function. The recombinant protein was found to specifically bind human fibronectin. Ebh is produced during human infection since serum samples taken from patients with confirmed S. aureus infections were found to contain anti-Ebh antibodies. Localization studies revealed Ebh to be cell envelope associated and is proposed to form a specialized surface structure involved in cellular adhesion. PMID:12438342

  16. Regulation of the expression of cell wall stress stimulon member gene msrA1 in methicillin-susceptible or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pechous, Roger; Ledala, Nagender; Wilkinson, Brian J; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K

    2004-08-01

    Genome-wide transcriptional profiling studies of the response of Staphylococcus aureus to cell wall-active antibiotics have led to the discovery of a cell wall stress stimulon of genes induced by these agents. msrA1, encoding methionine sulfoxide reductase, is a highly induced member gene of this stimulon. In the present study we show that msrA1 induction by oxacillin is common to all methicillin-susceptible strains studied but did not occur in two homogeneous and two heterogeneous methicillin-resistant strains. However, msrA1 was induced by vancomycin and/or D-cycloserine in methicillin-resistant strains. Lysozyme and lysostaphin treatment did not induce msrA1 expression. Oxacillin-induced msrA1 expression was enhanced by ca. 30% in a SigB+ derivative (SH1000) of the SigB-defective RN450 (NCTC 8325-4) strain. msrA1 expression was not affected in mutants in the global regulatory systems agr and sar. Glycerol monolaurate, an inhibitor of signal transduction, inhibited the oxacillin-induced transcription of msrA1 and other cell wall stress stimulon member genes, vraS and dnaK. These observations suggest that the cell wall stress stimulon is induced by inhibition of the process of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and the inhibitory effects of glycerol monolaurate indicate that gene expression is dependent on a signal transduction pathway.

  17. Investigation of the Staphylococcus aureus GraSR regulon reveals novel links to virulence, stress response and cell wall signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Falord, Mélanie; Mäder, Ulrike; Hiron, Aurélia; Débarbouillé, Michel; Msadek, Tarek

    2011-01-01

    The GraS/GraR two-component system has been shown to control cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that graX, also involved in CAMP resistance and cotranscribed with graRS, encodes a regulatory cofactor of the GraSR signaling pathway, effectively constituting a three-component system. We identified a highly conserved ten base pair palindromic sequence (5' ACAAA TTTGT 3') located upstream from GraR-regulated genes (mprF and the dlt and vraFG operons), which we show to be essential for transcriptional regulation by GraR and induction in response to CAMPs, suggesting it is the likely GraR binding site. Genome-based predictions and transcriptome analysis revealed several novel GraR target genes. We also found that the GraSR TCS is required for growth of S. aureus at high temperatures and resistance to oxidative stress. The GraSR system has previously been shown to play a role in S. aureus pathogenesis and we have uncovered previously unsuspected links with the AgrCA peptide quorum-sensing system controlling virulence gene expression. We also show that the GraSR TCS controls stress reponse and cell wall metabolism signal transduction pathways, sharing an extensive overlap with the WalKR regulon. This is the first report showing a role for the GraSR TCS in high temperature and oxidative stress survival and linking this system to stress response, cell wall and pathogenesis control pathways.

  18. Electron microscopy and computational studies of Ebh, a giant cell-wall-associated protein from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Sou; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Isao; Takei, Toshiaki; Yu, Jian; Kuroda, Makoto; Yao, Min; Ohta, Toshiko; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2008-11-14

    Ebh, a giant protein found in staphylococci, contains several domains, including a large central region with 52 imperfect repeats of a domain composed of 126 amino acids. We used electron microscopy to observe the rod-like structure of a partial Ebh protein containing 10 repeating units. This is the first report of the direct observation of an Ebh structure containing a large number of repeating units, although structures containing one, two, or four repeating units have been reported. The observed structure of the partial Ebh protein was distorted and had a length of ca. 520A and a width of ca. 21A. The observed structures were consistent with those deduced from crystal structure analysis, suggesting that the Ebh domains are connected to form a rod-like structure. The crystal structure data revealed distorted, string-like features in the simulated structure of the whole-length Ebh protein. Superposition of fragments of the simulated whole-length structure of the Ebh protein onto each electron micrograph showed a high level of correlation between the observed and calculated structures. These results suggest that Ebh is composed of highly flexible filate molecules. The highly repetitive structure and the associated unique structural flexibility of Ebh support the proposed function of this protein, i.e. binding to sugars in the cell wall. This binding might result in intra-cell-wall cross-linking that contributes to the rigidity of bacterial cells.

  19. Electron microscopy and computational studies of Ebh, a giant cell-wall-associated protein from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Sou; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Isao; Takei, Toshiaki; Yu, Jian; Kuroda, Makoto; Yao Min; Ohta, Toshiko; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2008-11-14

    Ebh, a giant protein found in staphylococci, contains several domains, including a large central region with 52 imperfect repeats of a domain composed of 126 amino acids. We used electron microscopy to observe the rod-like structure of a partial Ebh protein containing 10 repeating units. This is the first report of the direct observation of an Ebh structure containing a large number of repeating units, although structures containing one, two, or four repeating units have been reported. The observed structure of the partial Ebh protein was distorted and had a length of ca. 520 A and a width of ca. 21 A. The observed structures were consistent with those deduced from crystal structure analysis, suggesting that the Ebh domains are connected to form a rod-like structure. The crystal structure data revealed distorted, string-like features in the simulated structure of the whole-length Ebh protein. Superposition of fragments of the simulated whole-length structure of the Ebh protein onto each electron micrograph showed a high level of correlation between the observed and calculated structures. These results suggest that Ebh is composed of highly flexible filate molecules. The highly repetitive structure and the associated unique structural flexibility of Ebh support the proposed function of this protein, i.e. binding to sugars in the cell wall. This binding might result in intra-cell-wall cross-linking that contributes to the rigidity of bacterial cells.

  20. The Role of mgrA and sarA in Autolysis and Resistance to Cell Wall-Active Antibiotics in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Trotonda, María Pilar; Xiong, Yan Q.; Memmi, Guido; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cheung, Ambrose L.

    2009-01-01

    Background We have previously shown the importance of mgrA and sarA in controlling autolysis of Staphylococcus aureus, with MgrA and SarA both being negative regulators of murein hydrolases. Methods In this study, we analyzed the effects of mgrA and sarA on antibiotic-mediated lysis in vitro, and on the responses to cell wall-active antibiotic therapy in an experimental endocarditis model using two representative MRSA strains: laboratory strain COL and community-acquired clinical isolate, MW2. Results We found that mgrA and sarA independently down-regulated sarV (a marker for autolysis), although the alteration in sarV expression did not correlate directly with the autolysis profiles of single mgrA and sarA mutants. Importantly, the mgrA/sarA double mutants of both strains were more autolytic in vitro as compared with the single mutants. In vivo, we demonstrated that, despite equivalent intrinsic virulence between the parents and their isogenic mgrA/sarA double mutants in the endocarditis model, oxacillin and vancomycin treatment of the mgrA/sarA double mutants of MRSA strains COL and MW2 yielded significant reductions in vegetation bacterial densities vs. their respective parents. Conclusions These results suggest that down-regulation of mgrA/sarA in combination with cell wall-active antibiotics may represent a novel approach to treat MRSA infections. PMID:19072553

  1. Characterization of cell wall associated proteins of a Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis case by a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Francesca; Negri, Armando; Piccinini, Renata; Zecconi, Alfonso; Nonnis, Simona; Ronchi, Severino; Tedeschi, Gabriella

    2007-01-31

    Staphylococcus aureus causes different pathologies in humans and animals. In particular, it is involved in intramammary infections in cows, causing economic losses and milk-safety problems. Although it is well-known that surface components (proteins and capsular polysaccharides) and exotoxins are virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis, less is known about the precise biochemical identity of such molecules. Therefore, mapping of surface proteins using specific disease- and environment-isolates provides a benchmark for strain comparison of pathogens with different pathogenic characteristics and antibiotic resistance mechanism and can aid in defining specific vaccine and therapeutic targets. In this study, we used a proteomic approach on protein extracts of lysostaphin-treated S. aureus in isotonic conditions, to produce a reproducible and well resolved 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) reference map of surface associated proteins of isolated S. aureus from a case of bovine mastitis. The most abundant protein components were identified by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

  2. The Allosteric Site for the Nascent Cell Wall in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a: an Achilles’ Heel of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Acebrón, Ivan; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to resist the effect of a wide range of antibiotics makes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) a leading global human pathogen. A key determinant of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in this organism is penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), an enzyme that catalyzes the crosslinking reaction between two adjacent peptide stems during the peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The recently published crystal structure of the complex of PBP2a with ceftaroline, a cephalosporin antibiotic that shows efficacy against MRSA, has revealed the allosteric site at 60-Å distance from the transpeptidase domain. Binding of ceftaroline to the allosteric site of PBP2a triggers conformational changes that lead to the opening of the active site from a closed conformation, where a second molecule of ceftaroline binds to give inhibition of the enzyme. The discovery of allostery in MRSA remains the only known example of such regulation of cell-wall biosynthesis and represents a new paradigm in fighting MRSA. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the allosteric mechanism, the conformational changes allowing PBP2a catalysis and the means by which some clinical strains have acquired resistance to ceftaroline by disrupting the allosteric mechanism. PMID:25760091

  3. Enhanced cell-wall damage mediated, antibacterial activity of core-shell ZnO@Ag heterojunction nanorods against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ponnuvelu, Dinesh Veeran; Suriyaraj, Shanmugam Prema; Vijayaraghavan, Thiruvenkatam; Selvakumar, Rajendran; Pullithadathail, Biji

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid ZnO@Ag core-shell nanorods have been synthesized by a synthetic strategy based on seed mediated growth. Formation of core-shell nanostructures was confirmed by UV- diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), X-ray diffraction studies, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. UV-DRS analysis of hybrid core-shell nanorods suggests the possibility of interfacial electron transfer between surface anchored Ag nanoclusters and ZnO nanorods. Successful decoration of Ag nanoclusters with an average diameter of ~7 ± 0.5 nm was observed forming the heterojunctions on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. An enhanced antibacterial property was observed for the ZnO@Ag core-shell nanorods against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lbacteria. The synergetic antibacterial activity of ZnO@Ag nanorods was found to be more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. The plausible reason for this enhanced antibacterial activity of the core-shell nanorods can be attributed to the physical damage caused by the interaction of the material with outer cell wall layer due to the production of reactive oxygen species by interfacial electron transfer between ZnO nanorods and plasmonic Ag nanoclusters. Overall, the ZnO@Ag core-shell nanorods were found to be promising materials that could be developed further as an effective antibacterial agent against wide range of microorganisms to control spreading and persistence of bacterial infections.

  4. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  5. Determinants of murein hydrolase targeting to cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-03-23

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells.

  6. Determinants of Murein Hydrolase Targeting to Cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan*

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells. PMID:22303016

  7. Biosynthesis of the Unique Wall Teichoic Acid of Staphylococcus aureus Lineage ST395

    PubMed Central

    Winstel, Volker; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Holst, Otto; Xia, Guoqing; Peschel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major clonal lineages of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produce cell wall-anchored anionic poly-ribitol-phosphate (RboP) wall teichoic acids (WTA) substituted with d-Alanine and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The phylogenetically isolated S. aureus ST395 lineage has recently been found to produce a unique poly-glycerol-phosphate (GroP) WTA glycosylated with N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc). ST395 clones bear putative WTA biosynthesis genes on a novel genetic element probably acquired from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). We elucidated the ST395 WTA biosynthesis pathway and identified three novel WTA biosynthetic genes, including those encoding an α-O-GalNAc transferase TagN, a nucleotide sugar epimerase TagV probably required for generation of the activated sugar donor substrate for TagN, and an unusually short GroP WTA polymerase TagF. By using a panel of mutants derived from ST395, the GalNAc residues carried by GroP WTA were found to be required for infection by the ST395-specific bacteriophage Φ187 and to play a crucial role in horizontal gene transfer of S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). Notably, ectopic expression of ST395 WTA biosynthesis genes rendered normal S. aureus susceptible to Φ187 and enabled Φ187-mediated SaPI transfer from ST395 to regular S. aureus. We provide evidence that exchange of WTA genes and their combination in variable, mosaic-like gene clusters have shaped the evolution of staphylococci and their capacities to undergo horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:24713320

  8. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  9. Plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Höfte, Herman; Voxeur, Aline

    2017-09-11

    Plants are able to generate large leaf surfaces that act as two-dimensional solar panels with a minimum investment in building material, thanks to a hydrostatic skeleton. This requires high intracellular pressures (up to 1 MPa), which depend on the presence of strong cell walls. The walls of growing cells (also called primary walls), are remarkably able to reconcile extreme tensile strength (up to 100 MPa) with the extensibility necessary for growth. All walled organisms are confronted with this dilemma - the need to balance strength and extensibility - and bacteria, fungi and plants have evolved independent solutions to cope. In this Primer, we discuss how plant cells have solved this problem, allowing them to support often very large increases in volume and to develop a broad variety of shapes (Figure 1A,B,D). This shape variation reflects the targeted deposition of wall material combined with local variations in cell-wall extensibility, processes that remain incompletely understood. Once the cell has reached its final size, it can lay down secondary wall layers, the composition and architecture of which are optimized to exert specific functions in different cell types (Figure 1E-G). Such functions include: providing mechanical support, for instance, for fibre cells in tree trunks or grass internodes; impermeabilising and strengthening vascular tissue to resist the negative pressure of the transpiration stream; increasing the surface area of the plasma membrane to facilitate solute exchange between cells (Figure 1C); or allowing important elastic deformation, for instance, to support the opening and closing of stomates. Specialized secondary walls, such as those constituting seed mucilage, are stored in a dehydrated form in seedcoat epidermis cells and show rapid swelling upon hydration of the seed. Other walls, in particular in reserve tissues, can accommodate large amounts of storage polysaccharides, which can be easily mobilized as a carbon source. Here we

  10. Synthetic lethal compound combinations reveal a fundamental connection between wall teichoic acid and peptidoglycan biosyntheses in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer; Singh, Atul K.; Santa Maria, John P.; Kim, Younghoon; Brown, Stephanie; Swoboda, Jonathan G.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Walker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus depends on the production of mecA, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A), an acquired peptidoglycan transpeptidase (TP) with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. PBP2A crosslinks nascent peptidoglycan when the native TPs are inhibited by beta-lactams. Although mecA expression is essential for beta-lactam resistance, it is not sufficient. Here we show that blocking the expression of wall teichoic acids (WTAs) by inhibiting the first enzyme in the pathway, TarO, sensitizes MRSA strains to beta-lactams even though the beta-lactam-resistant transpeptidase, PBP2A, is still expressed. The dramatic synergy between TarO inhibitors and beta-lactams is noteworthy not simply because strategies to overcome methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are desperately needed, but because neither TarO nor the activities of the native TPs are essential in MRSA strains. The “synthetic lethality” of inhibiting TarO and the native TPs suggests a functional connection between ongoing WTA expression and peptidoglycan assembly in S. aureus. Indeed, transmission electron microscopy shows that S. aureus cells blocked in WTA synthesis have extensive defects in septation and cell separation, indicating dysregulated cell wall assembly and degradation. Our studies imply that WTAs play a fundamental role in S. aureus cell division and raise the possibility that synthetic lethal compound combinations may have therapeutic utility for overcoming antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. PMID:20961110

  11. Cell wall chemistry

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Roger Pettersen; James S. Han; Jeffrey S. Rowell; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2005-01-01

    In chemical terms, wood is best defined as a three-dimensional biopolymer composite composed of an interconnected network of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin with minor amounts of extractives and inorganics. The major chemical component of a living tree is water, but on a dryweight basis, all wood cell walls consist mainly of sugar-based polymers (carbohydrates,...

  12. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tanja; Senn, Maria Magdalena; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte; Tossi, Alessandro; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Wiedemann, Imke

    2004-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan is cross-linked via a characteristic pentaglycine interpeptide bridge. Genetic analysis had identified three peptidyltransferases, FemA, FemB and FemX, to catalyse the formation of the interpeptide bridge, using glycyl t-RNA as Gly donor. To analyse the pentaglycine bridge formation in vitro, we purified the potential substrates for FemA, FemB and FemX, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide, lipid I and lipid II and the staphylococcal t-RNA pool, as well as His-tagged Gly-tRNA-synthetase and His-tagged FemA, FemB and FemX. We found that FemX used lipid II exclusively as acceptor for the first Gly residue. Addition of Gly 2,3 and of Gly 4,5 was catalysed by FemA and FemB, respectively, and both enzymes were specific for lipid II-Gly1 and lipid II-Gly3 as acceptors. None of the FemABX enzymes required the presence of one or two of the other Fem proteins for activity; rather, bridge formation was delayed in the in vitro system when all three enzymes were present. The in vitro assembly system described here will enable detailed analysis of late, membrane-associated steps of S. aureus peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  13. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  14. Rotating wall vessel exposure alters protein secretion and global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Helena; O'Neill, Alex J.; Blake, Katy L.; Walther, Meik; Long, Paul F.; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is routinely recovered from air and surface samples taken aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and poses a health threat to crew. As bacteria respond to the low shear forces engendered by continuous rotation conditions in a Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the reduced gravitational field of near-Earth flight by altering gene expression, we examined the effect of low-shear RWV growth on protein secretion and gene expression by three S. aureus isolates. When cultured under 1 g, the total amount of protein secreted by these strains varied up to fourfold; under continuous rotation conditions, protein secretion by all three strains was significantly reduced. Concentrations of individual proteins were differentially reduced and no evidence was found for increased lysis. These data suggest that growth under continuous rotation conditions reduces synthesis or secretion of proteins. A limited number of changes in gene expression under continuous rotation conditions were noted: in all isolates vraX, a gene encoding a polypeptide associated with cell wall stress, was down-regulated. A vraX deletion mutant of S. aureus SH1000 was constructed: no differences were found between SH1000 and ΔvraX with respect to colony phenotype, viability, protein export, antibiotic susceptibility, vancomycin kill kinetics, susceptibility to cold or heat and gene modulation. An ab initio protein-ligand docking simulation suggests a major binding site for β-lactam drugs such as imipenem. If such changes to the bacterial phenotype occur during spaceflight, they will compromise the capacity of staphylococci to cause systemic infection and to circumvent antibacterial chemotherapy.

  15. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  16. The Allosteric Site for the Nascent Cell Wall in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a: An Achilles' Heel of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Acebrón, Iván; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar; Hermoso, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to resist the effect of a wide range of antibiotics makes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) a leading global human pathogen. A key determinant of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in this organism is penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), an enzyme that catalyzes the crosslinking reaction between two adjacent peptide stems during the peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The recently published crystal structure of the complex of PBP2a with ceftaroline, a cephalosporin antibiotic that shows efficacy against MRSA, has revealed the allosteric site at 60-Å distance from the transpeptidase domain. Binding of ceftaroline to the allosteric site of PBP2a triggers conformational changes that lead to the opening of the active site from a closed conformation, where a second molecule of ceftaroline binds to give inhibition of the enzyme. The discovery of allostery in MRSA remains the only known example of such regulation of cellwall biosynthesis and represents a new paradigm in fighting MRSA. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the allosteric mechanism, the conformational changes allowing PBP2a catalysis and the means by which some clinical strains have acquired resistance to ceftaroline by disrupting the allosteric mechanism.

  17. Solid-state NMR characterization of amphomycin effects on peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid biosyntheses in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmilan; Chang, James; Coffman, Lauryn; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Amphomycin and MX-2401 are cyclic lipopeptides exhibiting bactericidal activities against Gram-positive pathogens. Amphomycin and MX-2401 share structural similarities with daptomycin, but unlike daptomycin they do not target bacterial membrane. In this study, we investigate in vivo modes of action for amphomycin and MX-2401 in intact whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus by measuring the changes of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid compositions using solid-state NMR. S. aureus were grown in a defined media containing isotope labels [1-13C]glycine and L-[ε-15N]lysin, L-[1-13C]lysine and D-[15N]alanine, or D-[1-13C]alanine and [15N]glycine, to selectively 13C-15N pair label peptidoglycan bridge-link, stem-link, and cross-link, respectively. 13C{15N} and 15N{13C} rotational-echo double resonance NMR measurements determined that cyclic lipopeptide-treated S. aureus exhibited thinning of the cell wall, accumulation of Park’s nucleotide, inhibition of glycine utilization for purine biosynthesis, reduction of ester-linked D-Ala in teichoic acids, and reduction of peptidoglycan cross-linking. Whole cell NMR analysis also revealed that S. aureus, in presence of amphomycin and MX-2401, maintained the incorporation of D-Ala during peptidoglycan biosynthesis while the incorporation of D-Ala into teichoic acids was inhibited. These effects are consistent with amphomycin’s dual inhibition of both peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid biosyntheses in S. aureus. PMID:27538449

  18. The giant protein Ebh is a determinant of Staphylococcus aureus cell size and complement resistance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice G; Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus USA300, the clonal type associated with epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, displays the giant protein Ebh on its surface. Mutations that disrupt the ebh reading frame increase the volume of staphylococcal cells and alter the cross wall, a membrane-enclosed peptidoglycan synthesis and assembly compartment. S. aureus ebh variants display increased sensitivity to oxacillin (methicillin) as well as susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Mutations in ebh are associated with reduced survival of mutant staphylococci in blood and diminished virulence in mice. We propose that Ebh, following its secretion into the cross wall, contributes to the characteristic cell growth and envelope assembly pathways of S. aureus, thereby enabling complement resistance and the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections.

  19. The Giant Protein Ebh Is a Determinant of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Size and Complement Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Alice G.; Missiakas, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus USA300, the clonal type associated with epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, displays the giant protein Ebh on its surface. Mutations that disrupt the ebh reading frame increase the volume of staphylococcal cells and alter the cross wall, a membrane-enclosed peptidoglycan synthesis and assembly compartment. S. aureus ebh variants display increased sensitivity to oxacillin (methicillin) as well as susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Mutations in ebh are associated with reduced survival of mutant staphylococci in blood and diminished virulence in mice. We propose that Ebh, following its secretion into the cross wall, contributes to the characteristic cell growth and envelope assembly pathways of S. aureus, thereby enabling complement resistance and the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections. PMID:24363342

  20. Bacterial cell wall composition and the influence of antibiotics by cell-wall and whole-cell NMR

    PubMed Central

    Romaniuk, Joseph A. H.; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize bacterial cell-wall composition and structure is crucial to understanding the function of the bacterial cell wall, determining drug modes of action and developing new-generation therapeutics. Solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool to quantify chemical composition and to map cell-wall architecture in bacteria and plants, even in the context of unperturbed intact whole cells. In this review, we discuss solid-state NMR approaches to define peptidoglycan composition and to characterize the modes of action of old and new antibiotics, focusing on examples in Staphylococcus aureus. We provide perspectives regarding the selected NMR strategies as we describe the exciting and still-developing cell-wall and whole-cell NMR toolkit. We also discuss specific discoveries regarding the modes of action of vancomycin analogues, including oritavancin, and briefly address the reconsideration of the killing action of β-lactam antibiotics. In such chemical genetics approaches, there is still much to be learned from perturbations enacted by cell-wall assembly inhibitors, and solid-state NMR approaches are poised to address questions of cell-wall composition and assembly in S. aureus and other organisms. PMID:26370936

  1. Bacterial cell wall composition and the influence of antibiotics by cell-wall and whole-cell NMR.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Joseph A H; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-10-05

    The ability to characterize bacterial cell-wall composition and structure is crucial to understanding the function of the bacterial cell wall, determining drug modes of action and developing new-generation therapeutics. Solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool to quantify chemical composition and to map cell-wall architecture in bacteria and plants, even in the context of unperturbed intact whole cells. In this review, we discuss solid-state NMR approaches to define peptidoglycan composition and to characterize the modes of action of old and new antibiotics, focusing on examples in Staphylococcus aureus. We provide perspectives regarding the selected NMR strategies as we describe the exciting and still-developing cell-wall and whole-cell NMR toolkit. We also discuss specific discoveries regarding the modes of action of vancomycin analogues, including oritavancin, and briefly address the reconsideration of the killing action of β-lactam antibiotics. In such chemical genetics approaches, there is still much to be learned from perturbations enacted by cell-wall assembly inhibitors, and solid-state NMR approaches are poised to address questions of cell-wall composition and assembly in S. aureus and other organisms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Reduction of the peptidoglycan crosslinking causes a decrease in stiffness of the Staphylococcus aureus cell envelope.

    PubMed

    Loskill, Peter; Pereira, Pedro M; Jung, Philipp; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias; Pinho, Mariana G; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-09-02

    We have used atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to probe the effect of peptidoglycan crosslinking reduction on the elasticity of the Staphylococcus aureus cell wall, which is of particular interest as a target for antimicrobial chemotherapy. Penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) is a nonessential transpeptidase, required for the high levels of peptidoglycan crosslinking characteristic of S. aureus. Importantly, this protein is essential for β-lactam resistance in community-acquired, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains but not in hospital-acquired MRSA strains. Using AFM in a new mode for recording force/distance curves, we observed that the absence of PBP4, and the concomitant reduction of the peptidoglycan crosslinking, resulted in a reduction in stiffness of the S. aureus cell wall. Importantly, the reduction in cell wall stiffness in the absence of PBP4 was observed both in community-acquired and hospital-acquired MRSA strains, indicating that high levels of peptidoglycan crosslinking modulate the overall structure and mechanical properties of the S. aureus cell envelope in both types of clinically relevant strains. Additionally, we were able to show that the applied method enables the separation of cell wall properties and turgor pressure.

  3. Bacterial cell-wall recycling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC β-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both β-lactamase and β-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of β-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

  4. Bacterial division. Mechanical crack propagation drives millisecond daughter cell separation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Rojas, Enrique R; Koslover, Elena F; Lee, Timothy K; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Theriot, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    When Staphylococcus aureus undergoes cytokinesis, it builds a septum, generating two hemispherical daughters whose cell walls are only connected via a narrow peripheral ring. We found that resolution of this ring occurred within milliseconds ("popping"), without detectable changes in cell volume. The likelihood of popping depended on cell-wall stress, and the separating cells split open asymmetrically, leaving the daughters connected by a hinge. An elastostatic model of the wall indicated high circumferential stress in the peripheral ring before popping. Last, we observed small perforations in the peripheral ring that are likely initial points of mechanical failure. Thus, the ultrafast daughter cell separation in S. aureus appears to be driven by accumulation of stress in the peripheral ring and exhibits hallmarks of mechanical crack propagation.

  5. Structure and Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarS, the Wall Teichoic Acid β-glycosyltransferase Involved in Methicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    King, Dustin T.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Baumann, Lars; Gale, Robert T.; Brown, Eric D.; Withers, Stephen G.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in teichoic acids as targets for antibiotic drug design against major clinical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, reflecting the disquieting increase in antibiotic resistance and the historical success of bacterial cell wall components as drug targets. It is now becoming clear that β-O-GlcNAcylation of S. aureus wall teichoic acids plays a major role in both pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Here we present the first structure of S. aureus TarS, the enzyme responsible for polyribitol phosphate β-O-GlcNAcylation. Using a divide and conquer strategy, we obtained crystal structures of various TarS constructs, mapping high resolution overlapping N-terminal and C-terminal structures onto a lower resolution full-length structure that resulted in a high resolution view of the entire enzyme. Using the N-terminal structure that encapsulates the catalytic domain, we furthermore captured several snapshots of TarS, including the native structure, the UDP-GlcNAc donor complex, and the UDP product complex. These structures along with structure-guided mutants allowed us to elucidate various catalytic features and identify key active site residues and catalytic loop rearrangements that provide a valuable platform for anti-MRSA drug design. We furthermore observed for the first time the presence of a trimerization domain composed of stacked carbohydrate binding modules, commonly observed in starch active enzymes, but adapted here for a poly sugar-phosphate glycosyltransferase. PMID:27973583

  6. Proton-Binding Capacity of Staphylococcus aureus Wall Teichoic Acid and Its Role in Controlling Autolysin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Raja; Martinez, Raul E.; Göhring, Nadine; Schlag, Martin; Josten, Michaele; Xia, Guoqing; Hegler, Florian; Gekeler, Cordula; Gleske, Anne-Kathrin; Götz, Friedrich; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Kappler, Andreas; Peschel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Wall teichoic acid (WTA) or related polyanionic cell wall glycopolymers are produced by most Gram-positive bacterial species and have been implicated in various cellular functions. WTA and the proton gradient across bacterial membranes are known to control the activity of autolysins but the molecular details of these interactions are poorly understood. We demonstrate that WTA contributes substantially to the proton-binding capacity of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls and controls autolysis largely via the major autolysin AtlA whose activity is known to decline at acidic pH values. Compounds that increase or decrease the activity of the respiratory chain, a main source of protons in the cell wall, modulated autolysis rates in WTA-producing cells but did not affect the augmented autolytic activity observed in a WTA-deficient mutant. We propose that WTA represents a cation-exchanger like mesh in the Gram-positive cell envelopes that is required for creating a locally acidified milieu to govern the pH-dependent activity of autolysins. PMID:22911791

  7. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  8. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  9. Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 binds to the Toll-like receptor 2 extracellular domain and inhibits cytokine production induced by Staphylococcus aureus, cell wall component, or lipopeptides in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryosuke; Itoh, Saotomo; Kamoshida, Go; Takii, Takemasa; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins sharing structural similarity with superantigens, but no superantigenic activity. Corresponding host target proteins or receptors against a portion of SSLs in the family have been identified. In this study, we show that SSL3 specifically binds to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and inhibits the stimulation of macrophages by TLR2 ligands. An approximately 100-kDa protein was recovered by using recombinant His-tagged SSL3-conjugated Sepharose from the lysate of porcine spleen, and the protein was identified as porcine TLR2 by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. The SSL3-conjugated Sepharose recovered human and mouse TLR2 but not TLR4 from human neutrophils and mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, as well as a recombinant TLR2 extracellular domain chimera protein. The production levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) from mouse macrophages treated with heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus and of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from RAW 264.7 cells induced by peptidoglycan or lipopeptide TLR2 ligands were strongly suppressed in the presence of SSL3. The mutation of consensus sialic acid-containing glycan-binding residues in SSL3 did not abrogate the binding ability to TLR2 or inhibitory activity on TLR2, indicating that the interaction of SSL3 with TLR2 was independent of the sialic acid-containing glycan-binding residues. These findings demonstrate that SSL3 is able to bind the extracellular domain of TLR2 and interfere with TLR2 function. The present study provides a novel mechanism of SSL3 in immune evasion of S. aureus via interfering with its recognition by innate immune cells.

  10. Sporothrix schenckii Cell Wall Peptidorhamnomannans

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.

    2011-01-01

    This mini-review article is dedicated to clarifying certain important biochemical aspects of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall peptidorhamnomannans. Cell wall components involved in the host interaction such as antigens as well as a gp70 adhesin are important molecules present on the surface of the yeast parasitic phase. Other structural glycoconjugates present on the fungus cell surface are also described here. Knowledge of the fine structure of carbohydrate epitopes expressed on the surface in both morphological phases of S. schenckii permitted the development of non-invasive immunochemical methods to diagnose human and feline sporotrichosis. PMID:22203817

  11. STUDIES ON THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS BACTERIOPHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen I.

    1962-01-01

    The cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus are capable of inactivating S. aureus bacteriophage. Furthermore, the cell walls isolated from S. aureus of a given phage type inactivate a variety of different staphylococcal bacteriophages. Under the conditions employed neither the isolated mucopeptide nor teichoic acid components of the cell walls act as bacteriophage receptor. PMID:14476346

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Yoshiki; Kelley, Kathryn A.; Wang, Xiaogang; Wang, Linhui; Park, Wan Beom; Birtel, Johannes; Saslowsky, David; Lee, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA) mutant (ΔtagO) failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl) tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin. PMID:26201029

  13. Cell wall construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klis, Frans M; Boorsma, Andre; De Groot, Piet W J

    2006-02-01

    In this review, we discuss new insights in cell wall architecture and cell wall construction in the ascomycetous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transcriptional profiling studies combined with biochemical work have provided ample evidence that the cell wall is a highly adaptable organelle. In particular, the protein population that is anchored to the stress-bearing polysaccharides of the cell wall, and forms the interface with the outside world, is highly diverse. This diversity is believed to play an important role in adaptation of the cell to environmental conditions, in growth mode and in survival. Cell wall construction is tightly controlled and strictly coordinated with progression of the cell cycle. This is reflected in the usage of specific cell wall proteins during consecutive phases of the cell cycle and in the recent discovery of a cell wall integrity checkpoint. When the cell is challenged with stress conditions that affect the cell wall, a specific transcriptional response is observed that includes the general stress response, the cell wall integrity pathway and the calcineurin pathway. This salvage mechanism includes increased expression of putative cell wall assemblases and some potential cross-linking cell wall proteins, and crucial changes in cell wall architecture. We discuss some more enzymes involved in cell wall construction and also potential inhibitors of these enzymes. Finally, we use both biochemical and genomic data to infer that the architectural principles used by S. cerevisiae to build its cell wall are also used by many other ascomycetous yeasts and also by some mycelial ascomycetous fungi.

  14. Chapter 3 Cell Wall Chemistry

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Roger Pettersen; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2012-01-01

    Wood is best defined as a three-dimensional biopolymer composite composed of an interconnected network of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin with minor amounts of extractives, and inorganics. The major chemical component of a living tree is water, but on a dry weight basis, all wood cell walls consist mainly of sugar-based polymers (carbohydrates, 65-75%) that are...

  15. Back wall solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus surface proteins involved in adaptation to oxacillin identified using a novel cell shaving approach.

    PubMed

    Solis, Nestor; Parker, Benjamin L; Kwong, Stephen M; Robinson, Gareth; Firth, Neville; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2014-06-06

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen responsible for a variety of infections, and some strains are resistant to virtually all classes of antibiotics. Cell shaving proteomics using a novel probability scoring algorithm to compare the surfaceomes of the methicillin-resistant, laboratory-adapted S. aureus COL strain with a COL strain in vitro adapted to high levels of oxacillin (APT). APT displayed altered cell morphology compared with COL and increased aggregation in biofilm assays. Increased resistance to β-lactam antibiotics was observed, but adaptation to oxacillin did not confer multidrug resistance. Analysis of the S. aureus COL and APT surfaceomes identified 150 proteins at a threshold determined by the scoring algorithm. Proteins unique to APT included the LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) domain-containing MsrR and SACOL2302. Quantitative RT-PCR showed increased expression of sacol2302 in APT grown with oxacillin (>6-fold compared with COL). Overexpression of sacol2302 in COL to levels consistent with APT (+ oxacillin) did not influence biofilm formation or β-lactam resistance. Proteomics using iTRAQ and LC-MS/MS identified 1323 proteins (∼50% of the theoretical S. aureus proteome), and cluster analysis demonstrated elevated APT abundances of LCP proteins, capsule and peptidoglycan biosynthesis proteins, and proteins involved in wall remodelling. Adaptation to oxacillin also induced urease proteins, which maintained culture pH compared to COL. These results show that S. aureus modifies surface architecture in response to antibiotic adaptation.

  17. IMMUNOLOGICAL ROLE OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS CELL WALLS

    PubMed Central

    Foster, John W.; Ribi, Edgar

    1962-01-01

    Foster, John W. (University of Georgia, Athens) and Edgar Ribi. Immunological role of Brucella abortus cell walls. J. Bacteriol. 84:258–268. 1962—Cell walls and protoplasm were prepared from organisms disrupted in a refrigerated pressure cell. Cell walls were purified by sedimentation in a linear glycerol gradient. Antigens capable of protecting mice against infection with Brucella abortus and of reacting with antiserum prepared against whole cells were present chiefly in the cell wall; substances lethal to mice and responsible for primary inflammation of rabbit skin were also associated with the cell wall. Limited activity of protoplasm in these biological tests may or may not be due to contamination with cell-wall material. A substance extracted from whole cells with aqueous ether possessed an immunizing potency superior to that of killed whole cells or cell walls. Images PMID:13894243

  18. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and pectin methylesterases, and offer a critical assessment of their wall-loosening activity PMID:26918182

  19. Fungal cell wall organization and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Free, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    The composition and organization of the cell walls from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa, and Cryptococcus neoformans are compared and contrasted. These cell walls contain chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan, mixed β-1,3-/β-1,4-glucan, α-1,3-glucan, melanin, and glycoproteins as major constituents. A comparison of these cell walls shows that there is a great deal of variability in fungal cell wall composition and organization. However, in all cases, the cell wall components are cross-linked together to generate a cell wall matrix. The biosynthesis and properties of each of the major cell wall components are discussed. The chitin and glucans are synthesized and extruded into the cell wall space by plasma membrane-associated chitin synthases and glucan synthases. The glycoproteins are synthesized by ER-associated ribosomes and pass through the canonical secretory pathway. Over half of the major cell wall proteins are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. The cell wall glycoproteins are also modified by the addition of O-linked oligosaccharides, and their N-linked oligosaccharides are extensively modified during their passage through the secretory pathway. These cell wall glycoprotein posttranslational modifications are essential for cross-linking the proteins into the cell wall matrix. Cross-linking the cell wall components together is essential for cell wall integrity. The activities of four groups of cross-linking enzymes are discussed. Cell wall proteins function as cross-linking enzymes, structural elements, adhesins, and environmental stress sensors and protect the cell from environmental changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistence of a Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (S. aureus SCV) within bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Atalla, Heba; Gyles, Carlton; Mallard, Bonnie

    2010-07-14

    Persistent bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is attributable to the versatility of this pathogen within the mammary gland environment and to the formation of small colony variants (SCVs) that can survive within host cells. Previous studies had shown that S. aureus SCV Heba3231, isolated from a cow with chronic mastitis, had invaded and persisted in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells but caused minimal deleterious effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of SCV Heba3231 with bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) compared to its parent strain 3231 and to prototype strain Newbould 305. Monolayer cells were infected with each strain at various multiplicity of infections (MOIs) for 1 and 3.5h, followed by 20 min incubation with lysostaphin. Recovery of the SCV was significantly higher (P<0.05) after 3.8h with MOI of 100 compared to recovery of strains 3231 and Newbould 305. Upon further incubation, viable SCV were detected up to 96 h while 3231 were not isolated at 24h or later. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated SCV uptake by MAC-T cells following a series of events similar to those for strain 3231. At 24h, multiple SCV were seen within enclosed vacuoles, while the 3231 parent strain was released extracellularly and the monolayer cells were damaged. The ability of SCV Heba3231 to survive inside vacuoles could be related to up-regulation of protective mechanisms. These findings highlight the potential role of bovine mammary epithelial cells and S. aureus SCV in persistent bovine mastitis.

  1. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Burke, David; Kaufman, Peter; McNeil, Michael; Albersheim, Peter

    1974-01-01

    The primary cell walls of six suspension-cultured monocots and of a single suspension-cultured gymnosperm have been investigated with the following results: (a) the compositions of all six monocot cell walls are remarkably similar, despite the fact that the cell cultures were derived from diverse tissues; (b) the cell walls of suspension-cultured monocots differ substantially from those of suspension-cultured dicots and from the suspension-cultured gymnosperm; (c) an arabinoxylan is a major component (40% or more by weight) of monocot primary cell walls; (d) mixed β-1,3; β-1,4-glucans were found only in the cell wall preparations of rye grass endosperm cells, and not in the cell walls of any of the other five monocot cell cultures nor in the walls of suspension-cultured Douglas fir cells; (e) the monocot primary cell walls studied contain from 9 to 14% cellulose, 7 to 18% uronic acids, and 7 to 17% protein; (f) hydroxyproline accounts for less than 0.2% of the cell walls of monocots. Similar data on the soluble extracellular polysaccharides secreted by these cells are included. PMID:16658824

  2. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  3. Architecture of dermatophyte cell Walls: Electron microscopic and biochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.; Kitajima, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 83 references on the cell wall structure of dermatophytes is presented. Topics discussed include separation and preparation of cell walls; microstructure of cell walls by electron microscopy; chemical composition of cell walls; structural model of cell walls; and morphological structure of cell walls.

  4. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are produced by specialized plant cell types, and are particularly important in those cells providing mechanical support or involved in water transport. As the main constituent of plant biomass, secondary cell walls are central to attempts to generate second-generation biofuels. Partly as a consequence of this renewed economic importance, excellent progress has been made in understanding how cell wall components are synthesized. SCWs are largely composed of three main polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In this review, we will attempt to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the biosynthetic pathways for secondary cell wall components, how these pathways are regulated, and how this knowledge may be exploited to improve cell wall properties that facilitate breakdown without compromising plant growth and productivity. While knowledge of individual components in the pathway has improved dramatically, how they function together to make the final polymers and how these individual polymers are incorporated into the wall remain less well understood.

  5. Atomic Force Microscopy Measurements of the Mechanical Properties of Cell Walls on Living Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Richard; Mullin, Nic; Turner, Robert; Foster, Simon; Hobbs, Jamie

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection in humans, including the Methicillin resistant strain, MRSA. However, very little is known about the mechanical properties of these cells. Our investigations use AFM to examine live S. aureus cells to quantify mechanical properties. These were explored using force spectroscopy with different trigger forces, allowing the properties to be extracted at different indentation depths. A value for the cell wall stiffness has been extracted, along with a second, higher value which is found upon indenting at higher forces. This higher value drops as the cells are exposed to high salt, sugar and detergent concentrations, implying that this measurement contains a contribution from the internal turgor pressure. We have monitored these properties as the cells progress through the cell cycle. Force maps were taken over the cells at different stages of the growth process to identify changes in the mechanics throughout the progression of growth and division. The effect of Oxacillin has also been studied, to better understand its mechanism of action. Finally mutant strains of S. aureus and a second species Bacillus subtilis have been used to link the mechanical properties of the cell walls with the chain lengths and substructures involved.

  6. Coordination of Chromosome Segregation and Cell Division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Amy L; Liew, Andrew T F; Kusuma, Kennardy D; Peterson, Elizabeth; Seidel, Lisa; Foster, Simon J; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Productive bacterial cell division and survival of progeny requires tight coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division to ensure equal partitioning of DNA. Unlike rod-shaped bacteria that undergo division in one plane, the coccoid human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides in three successive orthogonal planes, which requires a different spatial control compared to rod-shaped cells. To gain a better understanding of how this coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division is regulated in S. aureus, we investigated proteins that associate with FtsZ and the divisome. We found that DnaK, a well-known chaperone, interacts with FtsZ, EzrA and DivIVA, and is required for DivIVA stability. Unlike in several rod shaped organisms, DivIVA in S. aureus associates with several components of the divisome, as well as the chromosome segregation protein, SMC. This data, combined with phenotypic analysis of mutants, suggests a novel role for S. aureus DivIVA in ensuring cell division and chromosome segregation are coordinated.

  7. Coordination of Chromosome Segregation and Cell Division in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Amy L.; Liew, Andrew T. F.; Kusuma, Kennardy D.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Seidel, Lisa; Foster, Simon J.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Productive bacterial cell division and survival of progeny requires tight coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division to ensure equal partitioning of DNA. Unlike rod-shaped bacteria that undergo division in one plane, the coccoid human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides in three successive orthogonal planes, which requires a different spatial control compared to rod-shaped cells. To gain a better understanding of how this coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division is regulated in S. aureus, we investigated proteins that associate with FtsZ and the divisome. We found that DnaK, a well-known chaperone, interacts with FtsZ, EzrA and DivIVA, and is required for DivIVA stability. Unlike in several rod shaped organisms, DivIVA in S. aureus associates with several components of the divisome, as well as the chromosome segregation protein, SMC. This data, combined with phenotypic analysis of mutants, suggests a novel role for S. aureus DivIVA in ensuring cell division and chromosome segregation are coordinated. PMID:28878745

  8. Dual Targeting of Cell Wall Precursors by Teixobactin Leads to Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Tomoyuki; Nuxoll, Austin; Gandt, Autumn Brown; Ebner, Patrick; Engels, Ina; Schneider, Tanja; Götz, Friedrich; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Teixobactin represents the first member of a newly discovered class of antibiotics that act through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Teixobactin binds multiple bactoprenol-coupled cell wall precursors, inhibiting both peptidoglycan and teichoic acid synthesis. Here, we show that the impressive bactericidal activity of teixobactin is due to the synergistic inhibition of both targets, resulting in cell wall damage, delocalization of autolysins, and subsequent cell lysis. We also find that teixobactin does not bind mature peptidoglycan, further increasing its activity at high cell densities and against vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) isolates with thickened peptidoglycan layers. These findings add to the attractiveness of teixobactin as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infection caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:27550357

  9. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

  10. Biosynthesis: Imaging cell-wall biosynthesis live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, Timothy D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of peptidoglycan is an important step in bacterial cell division and cell-wall maturation. Now it has been shown that fluorescent D-amino acids can be used to label the peptidoglycan cell wall of living bacteria, providing a new tool to study this important process.

  11. Fine mechanisms of the interaction of silver nanoparticles with the cells of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, Alina; Saranina, Irina; Tikunova, Nina; Safonov, Alexey; Timoshenko, Nikolai; Rebrov, Alexey; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles possess antibacterial effect for various bacteria; however mechanisms of the interaction between Ag-NPs and bacterial cells remain unclear. The aim of our study was to obtain direct evidence of Ag-NPs penetration into cells of Gram-negative bacterium S. typhimurium and Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus, and to study cell responses to Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs (most 8-10 nm) were obtained by gas-jet method. S. typhimurium (7.81 × 10⁷ CFU), or S. aureus (8.96 × 10⁷ CFU) were treated by Ag-NPs (0.05 mg/l of silver) in orbital shaker at 190 rpm, 37 °C. Bacteria were sampled at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 23 h of the incubation for transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The Ag-NPs adsorbed on outer membrane of S. typhimurium and cell wall of S. auereus; penetrated and accumulated in cells without aggregation and damaging of neighboring cytoplasm. In cells of S. aureus Ag-NPs bound with DNA fibers. Cell responses to Ag-NPs differed morphologically in S. typhimurium and S. aureus, and mainly were presented by damage of cell structures. The cytoplasm of S. aureus became amorphous, while S. typhimurium showed lumping and lysis of cytoplasm which led to formation of "empty" cells. Other difference was fast change of cell shape in S. typhimurium, and late deformation of S. aureus cells. The obtained results showed how different could be responses induced by the same NPs in relatively simple prokaryotic cells. Evidently, Ag-NPs directly interact with macromolecular structures of living cells and are exert an active influence on their metabolism.

  12. How do plant cell walls extend?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes recent work that identifies the biophysical and biochemical processes that give rise to the extension of plant cell walls. I begin with the biophysical notion of stress relaxation of the wall and follow with recent studies of wall enzymes thought to catalyze wall extension and relaxation. Readers should refer to detailed reviews for more comprehensive discussion of earlier literature (Taiz, 1984; Carpita and Gibeaut, 1993; Cosgrove, 1993).

  13. LytN, a Murein Hydrolase in the Cross-wall Compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, Is Involved in Proper Bacterial Growth and Envelope Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle progression for the spherical microbe Staphylococcus aureus requires the coordinated synthesis and remodeling of peptidoglycan. The majority of these rearrangements takes place at the mid-cell, in a compartment designated the cross-wall. Secreted polypeptides endowed with a YSIRK-G/S signal peptide are directly delivered to the cross-wall compartment. One such YSIRK-containing protein is the murein hydrolase LytN. lytN mutations precipitate structural damage to the cross-wall and interfere with staphylococcal growth. Overexpression of lytN also affects growth and triggers rupture of the cross-wall. The lytN phenotype can be reversed by the controlled expression of lytN but not by adding purified LytN to staphylococcal cultures. LytN harbors LysM and CHAP domains, the latter of which functions as both an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase and d-alanyl-glycine endopeptidase. Thus, LytN secretion into the cross-wall promotes peptidoglycan separation and completion of the staphylococcal cell cycle. PMID:21784864

  14. Mass spectrometry as a rapid and powerful alternative to antibodies for detecting LPXTG wall-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchaud, Alexandre; Widmer, Eleonora; Kussmann, Martin; Moreillon, Philippe; Affolter, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Functional characterization of transformed or natively present bacterial virulence proteins can be achieved employing various model systems. A prerequisite is to verify the correct expression of the transformed protein or the presence of the native protein in the microbe. Traditionally, antibodies are raised against the protein or a peptide thereof, followed by Western blot analysis or by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Alternatively, the protein-coding gene can be fused with a downstream reporter gene, the expression of which reports the simultaneous expression of the upstream recombinant protein. Although being powerful, these methods are time consuming, especially when multiple proteins must be assessed. Here we describe a novel way to validate the expression of Gram-positive surface proteins covalently attached to the peptidoglycan. Eighteen out of the 21 known LPXTG-motif carrying cell wall-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus were cloned in Lactoccocus lactis either alone, in combinations or as truncated forms, and their correct expression was assessed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The method is rapid, sensitive and precise. It can identify multiple proteins in transformed constructs without the time and cost needed for raising and testing multiple sets of antibodies.

  15. Cell Wall Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Guillaume; Bussey, Howard

    2006-01-01

    An extracellular matrix composed of a layered meshwork of β-glucans, chitin, and mannoproteins encapsulates cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organelle determines cellular morphology and plays a critical role in maintaining cell integrity during cell growth and division, under stress conditions, upon cell fusion in mating, and in the durable ascospore cell wall. Here we assess recent progress in understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of cell wall synthesis and its remodeling in S. cerevisiae. We then review the regulatory dynamics of cell wall assembly, an area where functional genomics offers new insights into the integration of cell wall growth and morphogenesis with a polarized secretory system that is under cell cycle and cell type program controls. PMID:16760306

  16. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ene, Iuliana V; Walker, Louise A; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P

    2015-07-28

    The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. The C. albicans cell wall is the first line of defense against external insults, the site of immune recognition by the host, and an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Its tensile strength is conferred by

  17. Small Molecule Inhibitors Limit Endothelial Cell Invasion by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Diana; Fullenkamp, Christopher R.; Pelly, Rachel R.; Reed, Katie M.; Caffo, Lindy M.; Zahrt, Ashley N.; Newman, Micaleah; Komanapalli, Sarah; Niemeier, Evan M.; Bishop, Derron L.; Bruns, Heather A.; Haynes, Mark K.; Sklar, Larry A.; Sammelson, Robert E.; McDowell, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading causative agent in sepsis, endocarditis, and pneumonia. An emerging concept is that prognosis worsens when the infecting S. aureus strain has the capacity to not only colonize tissue as an extracellular pathogen, but to invade host cells and establish intracellular bacterial populations. In previous work, we identified host CDC42 as a central regulator of endothelial cell invasion by S. aureus. In the current work, we report that ML 141, a first-in-class CDC42 inhibitor, decreases invasion and resultant pathogenesis in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. Inhibition was found to be due in part to decreased remodeling of actin that potentially drives endocytic uptake of bacteria/fibronectin/integrin complexes. ML 141 decreased binding to fibronectin at these complexes, thereby limiting a key pathogenic mechanism used by S. aureus to invade. Structural analogs of ML 141 were synthesized (designated as the RSM series) and a subset identified that inhibit invasion through non-cytotoxic and non-bactericidal mechanisms. Our results support the development of adjunctive therapeutics targeting host CDC42 for mitigating invasive infection at the level of the host. PMID:25213310

  18. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V.; Walker, Louise A.; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K.; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A. R.; Munro, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. PMID:26220968

  19. Surface Glycopolymers Are Crucial for In Vitro Anti-Wall Teichoic Acid IgG-Mediated Complement Activation and Opsonophagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Na-Hyang; Winstel, Volker; Kurokawa, Kenji; Larsen, Jesper; An, Jang-Hyun; Khan, Adnan; Seong, Min-Young; Lee, Min Ja; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The cell envelopes of many Gram-positive bacteria contain wall teichoic acids (WTAs). Staphylococcus aureus WTAs are composed of ribitol phosphate (RboP) or glycerol phosphate (GroP) backbones substituted with d-alanine and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) or N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc). Two WTA glycosyltransferases, TarM and TarS, are responsible for modifying the RboP WTA with α-GlcNAc and β-GlcNAc, respectively. We recently reported that purified human serum anti-WTA IgG specifically recognizes β-GlcNAc of the staphylococcal RboP WTA and then facilitates complement C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis of S. aureus laboratory strains. This prompted us to examine whether anti-WTA IgG can induce C3 deposition on a diverse set of clinical S. aureus isolates. To this end, we compared anti-WTA IgG-mediated C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis abilities using 13 different staphylococcal strains. Of note, the majority of S. aureus strains tested was recognized by anti-WTA IgG, resulting in C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis. A minority of strains was not recognized by anti-WTA IgG, which correlated with either extensive capsule production or an alteration in the WTA glycosylation pattern. Our results demonstrate that the presence of WTAs with TarS-mediated glycosylation with β-GlcNAc in clinically isolated S. aureus strains is an important factor for induction of anti-WTA IgG-mediated C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis. PMID:26283333

  20. Structure and mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarM, the wall teichoic acid α-glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Worrall, Liam James; Gruninger, Robert J.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Blaukopf, Markus; Baumann, Lars; Lameignere, Emilie; Solomonson, Matthew; Brown, Eric D.; Withers, Stephen G.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Unique to Gram-positive bacteria, wall teichoic acids are anionic glycopolymers cross-stitched to a thick layer of peptidoglycan. The polyol phosphate subunits of these glycopolymers are decorated with GlcNAc sugars that are involved in phage binding, genetic exchange, host antibody response, resistance, and virulence. The search for the enzymes responsible for GlcNAcylation in Staphylococcus aureus has recently identified TarM and TarS with respective α- and β-(1–4) glycosyltransferase activities. The stereochemistry of the GlcNAc attachment is important in balancing biological processes, such that the interplay of TarM and TarS is likely important for bacterial pathogenicity and survival. Here we present the crystal structure of TarM in an unusual ternary-like complex consisting of a polymeric acceptor substrate analog, UDP from a hydrolyzed donor, and an α-glyceryl-GlcNAc product formed in situ. These structures support an internal nucleophilic substitution-like mechanism, lend new mechanistic insight into the glycosylation of glycopolymers, and reveal a trimerization domain with a likely role in acceptor substrate scaffolding. PMID:25624472

  1. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  2. [The cell wall of Coelastrum (Chlorophycees)].

    PubMed

    Reymond, O

    1975-01-01

    The cell wall of Coelastrum is usually composed of three layers. The outermost layer was studied most extensively. It consists of erect tubules which often bear long bristles whose function may be to stabilize the algae in its enviroment. The cell wall can modify its morphology according to the enviroment.

  3. Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

    2012-04-01

    Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Cell differentiation defines acute and chronic infection cell types in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    García-Betancur, Juan-Carlos; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Horger, Thomas; Schott, Melanie; Sharan, Malvika; Eikmeier, Julian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Zernecke, Alma; Ohlsen, Knut; Kuttler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia. We identified a bimodal switch in the agr quorum sensing system that antagonistically regulates the differentiation of these two physiologically distinct cell types. We found that extracellular signals affect the behavior of the agr bimodal switch and modify the size of the specialized subpopulations in specific colonization niches. For instance, magnesium-enriched colonization niches causes magnesium binding to S. aureusteichoic acids and increases bacterial cell wall rigidity. This signal triggers a genetic program that ultimately downregulates the agr bimodal switch. Colonization niches with different magnesium concentrations influence the bimodal system activity, which defines a distinct ratio between these subpopulations; this in turn leads to distinct infection outcomes in vitro and in an in vivo murine infection model. Cell differentiation generates physiological heterogeneity in clonal bacterial infections and helps to determine the distinct infection types. PMID:28893374

  5. Accelerating forward genetics for cell wall deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Vidaurre, Danielle; Bonetta, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the genes involved in cell wall synthesis and assembly remains one of the biggest challenges of cell wall biology. Although traditional genetic approaches, using simple yet elegant screens, have identified components of the cell wall, many unknowns remain. Exhausting the genetic toolbox by performing sensitized screens, adopting chemical genetics or combining these with improved cell wall imaging, hold the promise of new gene discovery and function. With the recent introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to quickly and efficiently map and clone genes of interest in record time. The combination of a classical genetics approach and cutting edge technology will propel cell wall biology in plants forward into the future. PMID:22685448

  6. Safranine fluorescent staining of wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bond, J; Donaldson, L; Hill, S; Hitchcock, K

    2008-06-01

    Safranine is an azo dye commonly used for plant microscopy, especially as a stain for lignified tissues such as xylem. Safranine fluorescently labels the wood cell wall, producing green/yellow fluorescence in the secondary cell wall and red/orange fluorescence in the middle lamella (ML) region. We examined the fluorescence behavior of safranine under blue light excitation using a variety of wood- and fiber-based samples of known composition to interpret the observed color differentiation of different cell wall types. We also examined the basis for the differences in fluorescence emission using spectral confocal microscopy to examine lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls including reaction wood and decayed wood compared to normal wood. Our results indicate that lignin-rich cell walls, such as the ML of tracheids, the secondary wall of compression wood tracheids, and wood decayed by brown rot, tend to fluoresce red or orange, while cellulose-rich cell walls such as resin canals, wood decayed by white rot, cotton fibers and the G-layer of tension wood fibers, tend to fluoresce green/yellow. This variation in fluorescence emission seems to be due to factors including an emission shift toward red wavelengths combined with dye quenching at shorter wavelengths in regions with high lignin content. Safranine fluorescence provides a useful way to differentiate lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls without counterstaining as required for bright field microscopy.

  7. Do plant cell walls have a code?

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-12-01

    A code is a set of rules that establish correspondence between two worlds, signs (consisting of encrypted information) and meaning (of the decrypted message). A third element, the adaptor, connects both worlds, assigning meaning to a code. We propose that a Glycomic Code exists in plant cell walls where signs are represented by monosaccharides and phenylpropanoids and meaning is cell wall architecture with its highly complex association of polymers. Cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms, structure, architecture and properties are addressed according to Code Biology perspective, focusing on how they oppose to cell wall deconstruction. Cell wall hydrolysis is mainly focused as a mechanism of decryption of the Glycomic Code. Evidence for encoded information in cell wall polymers fine structure is highlighted and the implications of the existence of the Glycomic Code are discussed. Aspects related to fine structure are responsible for polysaccharide packing and polymer-polymer interactions, affecting the final cell wall architecture. The question whether polymers assembly within a wall display similar properties as other biological macromolecules (i.e. proteins, DNA, histones) is addressed, i.e. do they display a code?

  8. Inhibition of major integrin αV β3 reduces Staphylococcus aureus attachment to sheared human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, C J; Garciarena, C D; Watkin, R L; McHale, T M; McLoughlin, A; Claes, J; Verhamme, P; Cummins, P M; Kerrigan, S W

    2016-12-01

    Essentials Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) binds and impairs function of vascular endothelial cells (EC). We investigated the molecular signals triggered by S. aureus adhesion to EC. Inhibition of the EC integrin αVβ3 reduces S. aureus binding and rescues EC function. αVβ3 blockade represents an attractive target to treat S. aureus bloodborne infections.

  9. Isolation of plant cell wall proteins.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Boudart, Georges; Borderies, Giséle; Charmont, Stephane; Lafitte, Claude; Rossignol, Michel; Canut, Herve; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The quality of a proteomic analysis of a cell compartment strongly depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific drawbacks: (1) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure; (2) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins; (3) the presence of proteins interacting in many different ways with the polysaccharide matrix require different procedures to elute them from the cell wall. Three categories of CWP are distinguished: labile proteins that have little or no interactions with cell wall components, weakly bound proteins extractable with salts, and strongly bound proteins. Two alternative protocols are decribed for cell wall proteomics: (1) nondestructive techniques allowing the extraction of labile or weakly bound CWP without damaging the plasma membrane; (2) destructive techniques to isolate cell walls from which weakly or strongly bound CWP can be extracted. These protocols give very low levels of contamination by intracellular proteins. Their application should lead to a realistic view of the cell wall proteome at least for labile and weakly bound CWP extractable by salts.

  10. Cell Wall Assembly in Fucus Zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Quatrano, Ralph S.; Stevens, Patricia T.

    1976-01-01

    Fertilization triggers the assembly of a cell wall around the egg cell of three brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus, F. distichus, and F. inflatus. New polysaccharide polymers are continually being added to the cell wall during the first 24 hours of synchronous embryo development. This wall assembly involves the extracellular deposition of fibrillar material by cytoplasmic vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane. One hour after fertilization a fragmented wall can be isolated free of cytoplasm and contains equal amounts of cellulose and alginic acid with no fucose-containing polymers (fucans) present. Birefringence of the wall caused by oriented cellulose microfibrils is not detected in all zygotes until 4 hours, at which time intact cell walls can be isolated that retain the shape of the zygote. These walls have a relatively low ratio of fucose to xylose and little sulfate when compared to walls from older embryos. When extracts of walls from 4-hour zygotes are subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH 7, a single fucan (F1) can be detected. By 12 hours, purified cell walls are composed of fucans containing a relatively high ratio of fucose to xylose and high levels of sulfate, and contain a second fucan (F2) which is electrophoretically distinct from F1. F2 appears to be deposited in only a localized region of the wall, that which elongates to form the rhizoid cell. Throughout wall assembly, the polyuronide block co-polymer alginic acid did not significantly vary its mannuronic (M) to guluronic (G) acid ratio (0.33-0.55) or its block distribution (MG, 54%; GG, 30%; MM, 16%). From 6 to 24 hours of embryo development, the proportion of the major polysaccharide components found in purified walls is stable. Alginic acid is the major polymer and comprises about 60% of the total wall, while cellulose and the fucans each make-up about 20% of the remainder. During the extracellular assembly of this wall, the intracellular levels of the storage glucan laminaran

  11. A Multiple Antigenic Peptide Mimicking Peptidoglycan Induced T Cell Responses to Protect Mice from Systemic Infection with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Chen, Yi-Guo; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Kun; Fu, Ning; Liu, Bei-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the enormous capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to acquire antibiotic resistance, it becomes imperative to develop vaccines for decreasing the risk of its life-threatening infections. Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a conserved and major component of S. aureus cell wall. However, it has not been used as a vaccine candidate since it is a thymus-independent antigen. In this study, we synthesized a multiple antigenic peptide, named MAP27, which comprised four copies of a peptide that mimics the epitope of PGN. After immunization with MAP27 five times and boosting with heat-inactivated bacterium one time, anti-MAP27 serum bound directly to S. aureus or PGN. Immunization with MAP27 decreased the bacterial burden in organs of BALB/c mice and significantly prolonged their survival time after S. aureus lethal-challenge. The percentage of IFN-γ+CD3+ T cells and IL-17+CD4+ T cells in spleen, as well as the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A/F and CCL3 in spleen and lung, significantly increased in the MAP27-immunized mice after infection. Moreover, in vitro incubation of heat-inactivated S. aureus with splenocytes isolated from MAP27-immunized mice stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-17A/F. Our findings demonstrated that MAP27, as a thymus-dependent antigen, is efficient at eliciting T cell-mediated responses to protect mice from S. aureus infection. This study sheds light on a possible strategy to design vaccines against S. aureus. PMID:26317210

  12. 30 years of battling the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Latgé, J P

    2017-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus, like in other pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting environmental stresses such as phagocytic killing. Most of the chemical analyses undertaken on the cell wall of A. fumigatus are focused on the mycelial cell wall because it is the vegetative stage of the fungus. However, the cell walls of the mycelium and conidium (which is the infective propagule) are different especially at the level of the surface layer, which plays a significant role in the interaction between A. fumigatus conidia and phagocytic cells of the immune system. In spite of the essential function of the cell wall in fungal life, progresses have been extremely slow in the understanding of biosynthesis as well in the identification of the key host responses against the cell wall components. A major difficulty is the fact that the composition and structural organization of the cell wall is not immutably set and is constantly reshuffled depending on the environmental conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The cell walls of Chara aspera Willd. (Charophyta) vegetative cells.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, H; Saranpää, P

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the vegetative cell walls of the charophyte Chara aspera Willd was studied with TEM. Thallus cells, rhizoid bulbil and rhizoidal node cells were investigated. The internodal cells transverse walls contained plasmodesmata. The longitudinal walls of the internodal cells were uniform, fibrillar, with two thin structurally distinct layers with different structure facing the cytoplasm. The outermost layers of internodal, cortical and rhizoid bulbil cells were composed of randomly orientated fibrils. The longitudinal walls of the cortical cells were helicoidal in structure. In the rhizoid bulbil cell walls, six different layers could be distinguished, but their occurrence seemed to depend on the fixation, staining and cutting procedures. A middle lamella and osmophilic deposits were found in the wall between rhizoidal node cells. The cytoplasmic structure of the internodal and cortical cells was not found to differ from other species of Chara. Charasomes were observed only in cortical cells.

  14. Functional duality of the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide cell wall is the extracellular armour of the fungal cell. Although essential in the protection of the fungal cell against aggressive external stresses, the biosynthesis of the polysaccharide core is poorly understood. For a long time it was considered that this cell wall skeleton was a fixed structure whose role was only to be sensed as non-self by the host and consequently trigger the defence response. It is now known that the cell wall polysaccharide composition and localization continuously change to adapt to their environment and that these modifications help the fungus to escape from the immune system. Moreover, cell wall polysaccharides could function as true virulence factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  16. Recent advances in plant cell wall proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Albenne, Cécile; Boudart, Georges; Irshad, Muhammad; Canut, Hervé; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2008-02-01

    The plant extracellular matrix contains typical polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins that interact to form dense interwoven networks. Plant cell walls play crucial roles during development and constitute the first barrier of defense against invading pathogens. Cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to the description of the protein content of a compartment specific to plants. Around 400 cell wall proteins (CWPs) of Arabidopsis, representing about one fourth of its estimated cell wall proteome, have been described. The main points to note are that: (i) the diversity of enzymes acting on polysaccharides suggests a great plasticity of cell walls; (ii) CWPs such as proteases, polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes, and lipases may contribute to the generation of signals; (iii) proteins of unknown functions were identified, suggesting new roles for cell walls. Recently, the characterization of PTMs such as N- and O-glycosylations improved our knowledge of CWP structure. The presence of many glycoside hydrolases and proteases suggests a complex regulation of CWPs involving various types of post-translational events. The first 3-D structures to be resolved gave clues about the interactions between CWPs, or between CWPs and polysaccharides. Future work should include: extracting and identifying CWPs still recalcitrant to proteomics, describing the cell wall interactome, improving quantification, and unraveling the roles of each of the CWPs.

  17. Polyphosphorylated fungal cell wall glycopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Bonetti, S.J.; Black, B.; Gander, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    Penicillium charlesii secretes a 65 kDa peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGM) containing 10 phosphodiester residues and 10 galactofuranosyl-containing galactin chains attached to a linear mannan; the polysaccharides is attached to a 3 kDa seryl- and threonyl-rich peptide. The authors have now isolated and partially characterized a form of pPGM released from mycelia of P. charlesii treated at 50/sup 0/C for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min. Two- to 3-fold more pPGM was released by heat treatment than is secreted. Crude pPGM, released by heat, was fractionated on DE-52 and was fractionated into two major fractions on the basis of its difference in negative charge. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy of these two fractions provided spectra very similar to that of secreted pPGM previously reported from this laboratory. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 31/P NMR showed major signals at 1.47, and 0.22 ppm and minor signals at 1.32, 1.15, 1.00, 0.91 and 0.76 ppm. These signals are upfield from phosphomonoesters and are in the region observed for (6-O-phosphorylcholine)- and (6-O-phosphorylethanolamine)-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues which are 0.22 and 0.90 ppm, respectively. These polymers contain 30 phosphodiester residues per molecule of 70 kDa mass compared with 10 phosphodiesters in secreted pPGM. Acid phosphatase and alkaline protease were the only lytic enzymes released by heat treatment. The evidence suggests that much of the pPGM is derived from cell walls; and that the polysaccharide is highly phosphorylated.

  18. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  19. Cell wall, cytoskeleton, and cell expansion in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    To accommodate two seemingly contradictory biological roles in plant physiology, providing both the rigid structural support of plant cells and the adjustable elasticity needed for cell expansion, the composition of the plant cell wall has evolved to become an intricate network of cellulosic, hemicellulosic, and pectic polysaccharides and protein. Due to its complexity, many aspects of the cell wall influence plant cell expansion, and many new and insightful observations and technologies are forthcoming. The biosynthesis of cell wall polymers and the roles of the variety of proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis continue to be characterized. The interactions within the cell wall polymer network and the modification of these interactions provide insight into how the plant cell wall provides its dual function. The complex cell wall architecture is controlled and organized in part by the dynamic intracellular cytoskeleton and by diverse trafficking pathways of the cell wall polymers and cell wall-related machinery. Meanwhile, the cell wall is continually influenced by hormonal and integrity sensing stimuli that are perceived by the cell. These many processes cooperate to construct, maintain, and manipulate the intricate plant cell wall--an essential structure for the sustaining of the plant stature, growth, and life.

  20. Cell Wall Composition of Hyphomicrobium Species1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H. E.; Hirsch, Peter

    1968-01-01

    Chemical analysis of cell walls obtained from Hyphomicrobium B-522 and from a morphologically and nutritionally distinct organism, Hyphomicrobium neptunium (ATCC 15444), showed that the organisms have a similar cell wall composition, which is typical of gram-negative bacteria. The walls of both strains contained many amino acids, including the characteristic mucopeptide components diaminopimelic acid and muramic acid. Isolation of the mucopeptide by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate was successful only with cell walls of H. neptunium, thus revealing a difference between the walls of the two strains. The mucopeptide preparation contained glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, diaminopimelic acid, and glycine in molar ratios of 1.05:1.21:1.84:1.0:1.04:0.31, respectively. The concentration of glycine was sufficiently high to suggest that it is a mucopeptide component rather than an impurity. PMID:5685989

  1. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  2. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  3. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  4. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. ); Yuen, H.K. )

    1991-03-15

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study the phase transition of cell wall preparations of the elongating and mature regions of soybean hypocotyls and of celery epidermis and collenchyma strands. A step-like transition believed to be glass transition was observed in walls isolated from the elongating region of soybean hypocotyls at 52.9C. Addition of 1 mM CaCl{sub 2} to the cell wall preparation increased the transition temperature to 60.8C and greatly reduced the transition magnitude. In walls from the mature region, the transition was small and occurred at a higher temperature (60.1C). Addition of calcium to the mature region cell wall had little effect on the transition. Based on the known interactions between calcium and pectin, the authors propose that calcium affects the glass transition by binding to the polygalacturonate backbone of wall pectin, resulting in a more rigid wall with a smaller transition at a higher temperature. The mature region either has more calcium in the wall or has more methyl-esterified pectin, making it less responsive to added calcium.

  5. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, L S; Yuen, H K; Varner, J E

    1991-01-01

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study the phase transition of cell wall preparations of the elongating and mature regions of soybean hypocotyls and of celery epidermis and collenchyma strands. A step-like transition believed to be glass transition was observed in walls isolated from the elongating region of soybean hypocotyls at 52.9 degrees C. Addition of 1 mM CaCl2 to the cell wall preparation increased the transition temperature to 60.8 degrees C and greatly reduced the transition magnitude. In walls from the mature region, the transition was small and occurred at a higher temperature (60.1 degrees C). Addition of calcium to the mature region cell wall had little effect on the transition. Based on the known interactions between calcium and pectin, we propose that calcium affects the glass transition by binding to the polygalacturonate backbone of wall pectin, resulting in a more rigid wall with a smaller transition at a higher temperature. The mature region either has more calcium in the wall or has more methyl-esterified pectin, making it less responsive to added calcium. PMID:11607163

  6. Porins in the Cell Wall of Mycobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trias, Joaquim; Jarlier, Vincent; Benz, Roland

    1992-11-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria is an efficient permeability barrier that makes mycobacteria naturally resistant to most antibiotics. Liposome swelling assays and planar bilayer experiments were used to investigate the diffusion process of hydrophilic molecules through the cell wall of Mycobacterium chelonae and identify the main hydrophilic pathway. A 59-kilodalton cell wall protein formed a water-filled channel with a diameter of 2.2 nanometers and an average single-channel conductance equal to 2.7 nanosiemens in 1 M potassium chloride. These results suggest that porins can be found in the cell wall of a Gram-positive bacterium. A better knowledge of the hydrophilic pathways should help in the design of more effective antimycobacterial agents.

  7. Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted all the peroxidase substrates in the cell wall. If ROS-levels remain high during prolonged stress, OH°-radicals are formed which lead to polymer cleavage. In concert with xyloglucan modifying enzymes and expansins, the resulting cell wall loosening allows further growth of stressed organs. PMID:25709610

  8. Crystallinity of lyophilised carrot cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Georget, D M; Cairns, P; Smith, A C; Waldron, K W

    1999-12-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of removal of cell wall components on the crystallinity of cell walls using X-ray diffraction. Various insoluble cell wall residues were prepared following a sequential extraction of carrot cell wall material. X-ray diffraction patterns were typical of cellulose although there was a possible contribution of pectic polysaccharides to the crystallinity. As more amorphous material was removed to produce a cellulose rich residue, the crystallinity index increased from 12 to 16%, larger than that estimated from cellulose alone. For the last residue treated with 4M KOH, a lower value of crystallinity was found (14%) which resulted from the change of some crystalline domains of cellulose into amorphous regions. Pressing conditions (temperature, water content) have been investigated and did not alter the crystallinity index significantly.

  9. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-04-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. PMID:24533796

  11. Role of cell wall deconstructing enzymes in the proanthocyanidin-cell wall adsorption-desorption phenomena.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, Liliana del Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Ortega-Regules, Ana; Lozada, Daniel; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-04-01

    The transference of proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine is quite low. This could be due, among other causes, to proanthocyanidins being bound to grape cell wall polysaccharides, which are present in high concentrations in the must. Therefore, the effective extraction of proanthocyanidins from grapes will depend on the ability to disrupt these associations, and, in this respect, enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides could play an important role. The main objective of this work was to test the behavior of proanthocyanidin-cell wall interactions when commercial maceration enzymes are present in the solution. The results showed that cell wall polysaccharides adsorbed a high amount of proanthocyanidins and only a limited quantity of proanthocyanidins could be desorbed from the cell walls after washing with a model solution. The presence of enzymes in the solution reduced the proanthocyanidin-cell wall interaction, probably through the elimination of pectins from the cell wall network.

  12. Cell-wall dynamics in growing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furchtgott, Leon; Wingreen, Ned; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial cells come in a large variety of shapes, and cell shape plays an important role in the regulation of many biological functions. Cell shape in bacterial cells is dictated by a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a polymer made up of long, stiff glycan strands and flexible peptide crosslinks. Although much is understood about the structural properties of peptidoglycan, little is known about the dynamics of cell wall organization in bacterial cells. In particular, during cell growth, how does the bacterial cell wall continuously expand and reorganize while maintaining cell shape? In order to investigate this question quantitatively, we model the cell wall of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli using a simple elastic model, in which glycan and peptide subunits are treated as springs with different spring constants and relaxed lengths. We consider the peptidoglycan network as a single-layered network of these springs under tension due to an internal osmotic pressure. Within this model, we simulate possible hypotheses for cell growth as different combinations of addition of new springs and breakage of old springs.

  13. Cell wall proteins: a new insight through proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2006-01-01

    Cell wall proteins are essential constituents of plant cell walls; they are involved in modifications of cell wall components, wall structure, signaling and interactions with plasma membrane proteins at the cell surface. The application of proteomic approaches to the cell wall compartment raises important questions: are there technical problems specific to cell wall proteomics? What kinds of proteins can be found in Arabidopsis walls? Are some of them unexpected? What sort of post-translational modifications have been characterized in cell wall proteins to date? The purpose of this review is to discuss the experimental results obtained to date using proteomics, as well as some of the new questions challenging future research.

  14. Morphogenesis of the Fission Yeast Cell through Cell Wall Expansion.

    PubMed

    Atilgan, Erdinc; Magidson, Valentin; Khodjakov, Alexey; Chang, Fred

    2015-08-17

    The shape of walled cells such as fungi, bacteria, and plants are determined by the cell wall. Models for cell morphogenesis postulate that the effects of turgor pressure and mechanical properties of the cell wall can explain the shapes of these diverse cell types. However, in general, these models await validation through quantitative experiments. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are rod-shaped cells that grow by tip extension and then divide medially through formation of a cell wall septum. Upon cell separation after cytokinesis, the new cell ends adopt a rounded morphology. Here, we show that this shape is generated by a very simple mechanical-based mechanism in which turgor pressure inflates the elastic cell wall in the absence of cell growth. This process is independent of actin and new cell wall synthesis. To model this morphological change, we first estimate the mechanical properties of the cell wall using several approaches. The lateral cell wall behaves as an isotropic elastic material with a Young's modulus of 50 ± 10 MPa inflated by a turgor pressure estimated to be 1.5 ± 0.2 MPa. Based upon these parameters, we develop a quantitative mechanical-based model for new end formation that reveals that the cell wall at the new end expands into its characteristic rounded shape in part because it is softer than the mature lateral wall. These studies provide a simple example of how turgor pressure expands the elastic cell wall to generate a particular cell shape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  16. Identification of Novel Cell Wall Components

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle Momany

    2009-10-26

    Our DOE Biosciences-funded work focused on the fungal cell wall and morphogenesis. We are especially interested in how new cell wall material is targeted to appropriate areas for polar (asymmetric) growth. Polar growth is the only way that filamentous fungi explore the environment to find suitable substrates to degrade. Work funded by this grant has resulted in a total of twenty peer-reviewed publications. In work funded by this grant, we identified nine Aspergillus nidulans temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants that fail to send out a germ tube and show a swollen cell phenotype at restrictive temperature, the swo mutants. In other organisms, a swollen cell phenotype is often associated with misdirected growth or weakened cell walls. Our work shows that several of the A. nidulans swo mutants have defects in the establishment and maintenance of polarity. Cloning of several swo genes by complementation also showed that secondary modification of proteins seems is important in polarity. We also investigated cell wall biosynthesis and branching based on leads in literature from other organisms and found that branching and nuclear division are tied and that the cell wall reorganizes during development. In our most recent work we have focused on gene expression during the shift from isotropic to polar growth. Surprisingly we found that genes previously thought to be involved only in spore formation are important in early vegetative growth as well.

  17. Modes of deformation of walled cells.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    The bewildering morphological diversity found in cells is one of the starkest illustrations of life's ability to self-organize. Yet the morphogenetic mechanisms that produce the multifarious shapes of cells are still poorly understood. The shared similarities between the walled cells of prokaryotes, many protists, fungi, and plants make these groups particularly appealing to begin investigating how morphological diversity is generated at the cell level. In this review, I attempt a first classification of the different modes of surface deformation used by walled cells. Five modes of deformation were identified: inextensional bending, equi-area shear, elastic stretching, processive intussusception, and chemorheological growth. The two most restrictive modes-inextensional and equi-area deformations-are embodied in the exine of pollen grains and the wall-like pellicle of euglenoids, respectively. For these modes, it is possible to express the deformed geometry of the cell explicitly in terms of the undeformed geometry and other easily observable geometrical parameters. The greatest morphogenetic power is reached with the processive intussusception and chemorheological growth mechanisms that underlie the expansive growth of walled cells. A comparison of these two growth mechanisms suggests a possible way to tackle the complexity behind wall growth.

  18. A Nasal Epithelial Receptor for Staphylococcus aureus WTA Governs Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Modulates Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Faulstich, Manuela; Grau, Timo; Severin, Yannik; Unger, Clemens; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Rudel, Thomas; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Weidenmaier, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Nasal colonization is a major risk factor for S. aureus infections. The mechanisms responsible for colonization are still not well understood and involve several factors on the host and the bacterial side. One key factor is the cell wall teichoic acid (WTA) of S. aureus, which governs direct interactions with nasal epithelial surfaces. We report here the first receptor for the cell wall glycopolymer WTA on nasal epithelial cells. In several assay systems this type F-scavenger receptor, termed SREC-I, bound WTA in a charge dependent manner and mediated adhesion to nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The impact of WTA and SREC-I interaction on epithelial adhesion was especially pronounced under shear stress, which resembles the conditions found in the nasal cavity. Most importantly, we demonstrate here a key role of the WTA-receptor interaction in a cotton rat model of nasal colonization. When we inhibited WTA mediated adhesion with a SREC-I antibody, nasal colonization in the animal model was strongly reduced at the early onset of colonization. More importantly, colonization stayed low over an extended period of 6 days. Therefore we propose targeting of this glycopolymer-receptor interaction as a novel strategy to prevent or control S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:24788600

  19. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Barry M.; Albersheim, Peter

    1973-01-01

    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers. The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of β-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues. PMID:16658434

  20. Impaired respiration elicits SrrAB-dependent programmed cell lysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; van de Guchte, Adriana; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm-associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation. Impaired respiration led to increased cell lysis via divergent regulation of two processes: increased expression of the AtlA murein hydrolase and decreased expression of wall-teichoic acids. The AltA-dependent release of cytosolic DNA contributed to increased biofilm formation. Further, cell lysis and biofilm formation were governed by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system. Data presented support a model wherein SrrAB-dependent biofilm formation occurs in response to the accumulation of reduced menaquinone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23845.001 PMID:28221135

  1. c-di-AMP Is a New Second Messenger in Staphylococcus aureus with a Role in Controlling Cell Size and Envelope Stress

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Rebecca M.; Abbott, James C.; Burhenne, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Gründling, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall is a vital and multi-functional part of bacterial cells. For Staphylococcus aureus, an important human bacterial pathogen, surface proteins and cell wall polymers are essential for adhesion, colonization and during the infection process. One such cell wall polymer, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), is crucial for normal bacterial growth and cell division. Upon depletion of this polymer bacteria increase in size and a misplacement of division septa and eventual cell lysis is observed. In this work, we describe the isolation and characterization of LTA-deficient S. aureus suppressor strains that regained the ability to grow almost normally in the absence of this cell wall polymer. Using a whole genome sequencing approach, compensatory mutations were identified and revealed that mutations within one gene, gdpP (GGDEF domain protein containing phosphodiesterase), allow both laboratory and clinical isolates of S. aureus to grow without LTA. It was determined that GdpP has phosphodiesterase activity in vitro and uses the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-AMP as a substrate. Furthermore, we show for the first time that c-di-AMP is produced in S. aureus presumably by the S. aureus DacA protein, which has diadenylate cyclase activity. We also demonstrate that GdpP functions in vivo as a c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterase, as intracellular c-di-AMP levels increase drastically in gdpP deletion strains and in an LTA-deficient suppressor strain. An increased amount of cross-linked peptidoglycan was observed in the gdpP mutant strain, a cell wall alteration that could help bacteria compensate for the lack of LTA. Lastly, microscopic analysis of wild-type and gdpP mutant strains revealed a 13–22% reduction in the cell size of bacteria with increased c-di-AMP levels. Taken together, these data suggest a function for this novel secondary messenger in controlling cell size of S. aureus and in helping bacteria to cope with extreme membrane and cell wall stress. PMID:21909268

  2. Assembly of the Yeast Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Cabib, Enrico; Farkas, Vladimir; Kosík, Ondrej; Blanco, Noelia; Arroyo, Javier; McPhie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires mechanisms by which a preexisting linkage is broken for each new one made, to allow for the absence of free energy sources outside the plasma membrane. Previous work showed that Crh1p and Crh2p, putative transglycosylases, are required for the linkage of chitin to β(1–3)glucose branches of β(1–6)glucan in the cell wall of budding yeast. To explore the linking reaction in vivo and in vitro, we used fluorescent sulforhodamine-linked laminari-oligosaccharides as artificial chitin acceptors. In vivo, fluorescence was detected in bud scars and at a lower level in the cell contour, both being dependent on the CRH genes. The linking reaction was also shown in digitonin-permeabilized cells, with UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as the substrate for nascent chitin production. Both the nucleotide and the Crh proteins were required here. A gas1 mutant that overexpresses Crh1p showed very high fluorescence both in intact and permeabilized cells. In the latter, fluorescence was still incorporated in patches in the absence of UDP-GlcNAc. Isolated cell walls of this strain, when incubated with sulforhodamine-oligosaccharide, also showed Crhp-dependent fluorescence in patches, which were identified as bud scars. In all three systems, binding of the fluorescent material to chitin was verified by chitinase digestion. Moreover, the cell wall reaction was inhibited by chitooligosaccharides. These results demonstrate that the Crh proteins act by transferring chitin chains to β(1–6)glucan, with a newly observed high activity in the bud scar. The importance of transglycosylation for cell wall assembly is thus firmly established. PMID:18694928

  3. Cell wall proteomic of Brachypodium distachyon grains: A focus on cell wall remodeling proteins.

    PubMed

    Francin-Allami, Mathilde; Merah, Kahina; Albenne, Cécile; Rogniaux, Hélène; Pavlovic, Marija; Lollier, Virginie; Sibout, Richard; Guillon, Fabienne; Jamet, Elisabeth; Larré, Colette

    2015-07-01

    Cell walls play key roles during plant development. Following their deposition into the cell wall, polysaccharides are continually remodeled according to the growth stage and stress environment to accommodate cell growth and differentiation. To date, little is known concerning the enzymes involved in cell wall remodeling, especially in gramineous and particularly in the grain during development. Here, we investigated the cell wall proteome of the grain of Brachypodium distachyon. This plant is a suitable model for temperate cereal crops. Among the 601 proteins identified, 299 were predicted to be secreted. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes; the class of proteins that act on carbohydrates was the most highly represented. Among these proteins, numerous glycoside hydrolases were found. Expansins and peroxidases, which are assumed to be involved in cell wall polysaccharide remodeling, were also identified. Approximately half of the proteins identified in this study were newly discovered in grain and were not identified in the previous proteome analysis conducted using the culms and leaves of B. distachyon. Therefore, the data obtained from all organs of B. distachyon infer a global cell wall proteome consisting of 460 proteins. At present, this is the most extensive cell wall proteome of a monocot species.

  4. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  5. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    SciTech Connect

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  6. Some ultrastructural information on intact, living bacterial cells and related cell-wall fragments as given by FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, D.

    1984-05-01

    Living bacterial cells of Staphylococcus aureus have been measured from aqueous suspensions taking advantage of the solvent subtraction capabilities of FTIR. All spectral features, between 1800-800 cm -1, of the intact cells could be measured with a reproducibility of better than ±5% when applying strict metabolic control of cell growth and a highly standardized experimental procedure prior to IR measurements. IR bands near 1745, 1656, 1547, 1240 and 1200-1000 cm -1were tentatively assigned to: CO stretching of ester groups, amide I and amide II bands of the various peptides and proteins, asymmetric stretching of phosphate groups and complex vibrational modes resulting from polysaccharidal compounds, respectively. Absorbance subtraction of IR spectra of different intact baterial cells and cell-wall preparations yielded reasonable results on structural variations accompanying: (i) cell growth, (ii) use of different growth media, (iii) chemical treatment of cells and (iv) biochemical isolation processes of cell walls from the intact cells.

  7. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall. PMID:26539200

  8. Reconstitution of a secondary cell wall in a secondary cell wall-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-02-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  9. Reconstitution of a Secondary Cell Wall in a Secondary Cell Wall-Deficient Arabidopsis Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. PMID:25535195

  10. Characterization of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cell wall proteome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longzhou; Free, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    We used a proteomic analysis to identify cell wall proteins released from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hyphal and sclerotial cell walls via a trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) digestion. Cell walls from hyphae grown in Vogel's glucose medium (a synthetic medium lacking plant materials), from hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth and from sclerotia produced on potato dextrose agar were used in the analysis. Under the conditions used, TFMS digests the glycosidic linkages in the cell walls to release intact cell wall proteins. The analysis identified 24 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall proteins and 30 non-GPI-anchored cell wall proteins. We found that the cell walls contained an array of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes similar to those found in the cell walls of other fungi. When comparing the proteins in hyphal cell walls grown in potato dextrose broth with those in hyphal cell walls grown in the absence of plant material, it was found that a core group of cell wall biosynthetic proteins and some proteins associated with pathogenicity (secreted cellulases, pectin lyases, glucosidases and proteases) were expressed in both types of hyphae. The hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth contained a number of additional proteins (laccases, oxalate decarboxylase, peroxidase, polysaccharide deacetylase and several proteins unique to Sclerotinia and Botrytis) that might facilitate growth on a plant host. A comparison of the proteins in the sclerotial cell wall with the proteins in the hyphal cell wall demonstrated that sclerotia formation is not marked by a major shift in the composition of cell wall protein. We found that the S. sclerotiorum cell walls contained 11 cell wall proteins that were encoded only in Sclerotinia and Botrytis genomes. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Coated vesicle isolation by immunoadsorption on Staphylococcus aureus cells

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Porcine brain coated vesicles were isolated from crude fractions of tissue homogenates by affinity separation using anticlathrin-coated STaphylococcus aureus (Staph A) cells as a solid-phase immunoadsorbent. The specificity of the immunoadsorption was monitored by SDS PAGE analysis and by competitive ELISA assays. SDS PAGE of the material immunoadsorbed from a fraction of porcine bran smooth microsomes showed a selective enrichment in a 180,000 mol wt protein. In an ELISA assay, this protein competed effectively--in binding anticlathrin--with clathrin extracted from a coated vesicle preparation. When the immunoadsorbed fraction was examined by electron microscopy, coated vesicles and vesicle-free cages were found forming a quasicontinuous monolayer on the surface of the Staph A cells. Other particles were not adsorbed, and the controls were free of either clathrin cages or coated vesicles. Upon extensive dialysis (against MES buffer, pH 6.5), similar cages appeared on the surface of anticlathrin-coated Staph A cells reacted with extracted clathrin. This study demonstrates that anticlathrin-coated Staph A cells can be used for the isolation and purification of a homogeneous population of coated vesicles. In addition, the ability of extracted clathrin to bind and to polymerize onto the Staph A cells raises the possibility of using this technique to further explore the conditions required for cage and/or vesicle reconstitution. PMID:7045138

  12. Cell Wall Heterogeneity in Root Development of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Somssich, Marc; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signaling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modeling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes. PMID:27582757

  13. Cell wall-related proteins of unknown function: missing links in plant cell wall development.

    PubMed

    Mewalal, Ritesh; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an important feedstock for the pulp and paper industry as well as emerging biofuel and biomaterial industries. However, the recalcitrance of the secondary cell wall to chemical or enzymatic degradation remains a major hurdle for efficient extraction of economically important biopolymers such as cellulose. It has been estimated that approximately 10-15% of about 27,000 protein-coding genes in the Arabidopsis genome are dedicated to cell wall development; however, only about 130 Arabidopsis genes thus far have experimental evidence validating cell wall function. While many genes have been implicated through co-expression analysis with known genes, a large number are broadly classified as proteins of unknown function (PUFs). Recently the functionality of some of these unknown proteins in cell wall development has been revealed using reverse genetic approaches. Given the large number of cell wall-related PUFs, how do we approach and subsequently prioritize the investigation of such unknown genes that may be essential to or influence plant cell wall development and structure? Here, we address the aforementioned question in two parts; we first identify the different kinds of PUFs based on known and predicted features such as protein domains. Knowledge of inherent features of PUFs may allow for functional inference and a concomitant link to biological context. Secondly, we discuss omics-based technologies and approaches that are helping identify and prioritize cell wall-related PUFs by functional association. In this way, hypothesis-driven experiments can be designed for functional elucidation of many proteins that remain missing links in our understanding of plant cell wall biosynthesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Measuring in-vitro extensibility of growth plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the theory and practical aspects of measuring cell wall properties by four different extensometer techniques and how the results of these methods relate to the concept and ideal measurement of cell wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. These in vivo techniques are particularly useful for studies of the molecular basis of cell wall extension. Measurements of breaking strength, elastic compliance, and plastic compliance may be informative about changes in cell wall structure, whereas measurements of wall stress relaxation and creep are sensitive to both changes in wall structure and wall-loosening processes, such as those mediated by expansins and some lytic enzymes. A combination of methods is needed to obtain a broader view of cell wall behavior and properties connected with the concept of cell wall extensibility.

  15. Measuring in vitro extensibility of growing plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the theory and practical aspects of measuring cell wall properties by four different extensometer techniques and how the results of these methods relate to the concept and ideal measurement of cell wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. These in vivo techniques are particularly useful for studies of the molecular basis of cell wall extension. Measurements of breaking strength, elastic compliance, and plastic compliance may be informative about changes in cell wall structure, whereas measurements of wall stress relaxation and creep are sensitive to both changes in wall structure and wall-loosening processes, such as those mediated by expansins and some lytic enzymes. A combination of methods is needed to obtain a broader view of cell wall behavior and properties connected with the concept of cell wall extensibility.

  16. Cell-Surface Phenol Soluble Modulins Regulate Staphylococcus aureus Colony Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Kizaki, Hayato; Omae, Yosuke; Tabuchi, Fumiaki; Saito, Yuki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), which are amphipathic small peptides with lytic activity against mammalian cells. We previously reported that PSMα1–4 stimulate S. aureus colony spreading, the phenomenon of S. aureus colony expansion on the surface of soft agar plates, whereas δ-toxin (Hld, PSMγ) inhibits colony-spreading activity. In this study, we revealed the underlying mechanism of the opposing effects of PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin in S. aureus colony spreading. PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin are abundant on the S. aureus cell surface, and account for 18% and 8.5% of the total amount of PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin, respectively, in S. aureus overnight cultures. Knockout of PSMα1–4 did not affect the amount of cell surface δ-toxin. In contrast, knockout of δ-toxin increased the amount of cell surface PSMα1–4, and decreased the amount of culture supernatant PSMα1–4. The δ-toxin inhibited PSMα3 and PSMα2 binding to the S. aureus cell surface in vitro. A double knockout strain of PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin exhibited decreased colony spreading compared with the parent strain. Expression of cell surface PSMα1–4, but not culture supernatant PSMα1–4, restored the colony-spreading activity of the PSMα1-4/δ-toxin double knockout strain. Expression of δ-toxin on the cell surface or in the culture supernatant did not restore the colony-spreading activity of the PSMα1-4/δ-toxin double knockout strain. These findings suggest that cell surface PSMα1–4 promote S. aureus colony spreading, whereas δ-toxin suppresses colony-spreading activity by inhibiting PSMα1–4 binding to the S. aureus cell surface. PMID:27723838

  17. Cell wall proteome of pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Kozik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A fast development of a wide variety of proteomic techniques supported by mass spectrometry coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been observed in recent years. It significantly contributes to the progress in research on the cell wall, very important part of the cells of pathogenic fungi. This complicated structure composed of different polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and melanin, plays a key role in interactions with the host during infection. Changes in the set of the surface-exposed proteins under different environmental conditions provide an effective way for pathogens to respond, adapt and survive in the new niches of infection. This work summarizes the current state of knowledge on proteins, studied both qualitatively and quantitatively, and found within the cell wall of fungal pathogens for humans, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and other medically important fungi. The described proteomic studies involved the isolation and fractionation of particular sets of proteins of interest with various techniques, often based on differences in their linkages to the polysaccharide scaffold. Furthermore, the proteinaceous contents of extracellular vesicles ("virulence bags") of C. albicans, C. neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are compared, because their production can partially explain the problem of non-classical protein secretion by fungi. The role assigned to surface-exposed proteins in pathogenesis of fungal infections is enormously high, thus justifying the need for further investigation of cell wall proteomes.

  18. [Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carlos Andrés; Vesga, Omar

    2005-12-01

    The evolution and molecular mechanisms of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus were reviewed. Case reports and research studies on biochemestry, electron microscopy and molecular biology of Staphylococcus aureus were selected from Medline database and summarized in the following review. After almost 40 years of successful treatment of S. aureus with vancomycin, several cases of clinical failures have been reported (since 1997). S. aureus strains have appeared with intermediate susceptibility (MIC 8-16 microg/ml), as well as strains with heterogeneous resistance (global MIC < or =4 microg/ml), but with subpopulations of intermediate susceptibility. In these cases, resistance is mediated by cell wall thickening with reduced cross linking. This traps the antibiotic before it reaches its major target, the murein monomers in the cell membrane. In 2002, a total vancomycin resistant strain (MIC > or =32 microg/ml) was reported with vanA genes from Enterococcus spp. These genes induce the change of D-Ala-D-Ala terminus for D-Ala-D-lactate in the cell wall precursors, leading to loss of affinity for glycopeptides. Vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has appeared; it is mediated by cell wall modifications that trap the antibiotic before it reaches its action site. In strains with total resistance, Enterococcus spp. genes have been acquired that lead to modification of the glycopeptide target.

  19. Metabolic glycoengineering of Staphylococcus aureus reduces its adherence to human T24 bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Memmel, Elisabeth; Homann, Arne; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Seibel, Jürgen

    2013-08-25

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen increasingly causing severe infections, especially in hospital environments. Moreover, strains which are resistant against various types of antibiotics are developing and spreading widely as in the case of the community-acquired MRSA (methicillin resistant S. aureus). In this study metabolic glycoengineering with N-azidoacetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAz) has been successfully applied to S. aureus for the first time. The following bioorthogonal Mendal-Sharpless-Huisgen click reaction between the azido-functionalized S. aureus cells and alkyne dyes enabled staining of these bacteria and reduced their adherence to human T24 bladder carcinoma cells by 48%. The results are of urgent interest to study S. aureus infections.

  20. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Lung Cell Injury by Inhibiting Alpha-Hemolysin Expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lanxiang; Li, Hongen; Wang, Laiying; Song, Zexin; Shi, Lei; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, like other gram-positive pathogens, has evolved a large repertoire of virulence factors as a powerful weapon to subvert the host immune system, among which alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a secreted pore-forming cytotoxin, plays a preeminent role. We observed a concentration-dependent reduction in Hla production by S. aureus in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of isorhamnetin, a flavonoid from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L., which has little antibacterial activity. We further evaluate the effect of isorhamnetin on the transcription of the Hla-encoding gene hla and RNAIII, an effector molecule in the agr system. Isorhamnetin significantly down-regulated RNAIII expression and subsequently inhibited hla transcription. In a co-culture of S. aureus and lung cells, topical isorhamnetin treatment protected against S. aureus-induced cell injury. Isorhamnetin may represent a leading compound for the development of anti-virulence drugs against S. aureus infections.

  1. Celery (Apium graveolens) parenchyma cell walls: cell walls with minimal xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Julian C.; Burritt, David J.; Sims, Ian M.; Newman, Roger H.; Ducker, William A.; Melton, Laurence D.

    2002-10-01

    The primary walls of celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cells were isolated and their polysaccharide components characterized by glycosyl linkage analysis, cross-polarization magic-angle spinning solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) and X-ray diffraction. Glycosyl linkage analysis showed that the cell walls consisted of mainly cellulose (43 mol%) and pectic polysaccharides (51 mol%), comprising rhamnogalacturonan (28 mol%), arabinan (12 mol%) and galactan (11 mol%). The amounts of xyloglucan (2 mol%) and xylan (2 mol%) detected in the cell walls were strikingly low. The small amount of xyloglucan present means that it cannot coat the cellulose microfibrils. Solid-state 13C NMR signals were consistent with the constituents identified by glycosyl linkage analysis and allowed the walls to be divided into three domains, based on the rigidity of the polymers. Cellulose (rigid) and rhamnogalacturonan (semi-mobile) polymers responded to the CP/MAS 13C NMR pulse sequence and were distinguished by differences in proton spin relaxation time constants. The arabinans, the most mobile polymers, responded to single-pulse excitation (SPE), but not CP/MAS 13C NMR. From solid-state 13C NMR of the cell walls the diameter of the crystalline cellulose microfibrils was determined to be approximately 3 nm while X-ray diffraction of the cell walls gave a value for the diameter of approximately 2 nm.

  2. Acidic fibroblast growth factor modulates Staphylococcus aureus adherence to human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, E A; Hatcher, V B; Lowy, F D

    1988-01-01

    Alteration of human endothelial cells may increase their susceptibility to staphylococcal invasion and thus may contribute to the development of intravascular staphylococcal disease. Acidic fibroblast growth factor, a potent regulator of endothelial cell function, had a significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus infection of cultured human endothelial cells. Three of four S. aureus strains had diminished adherence to endothelial cells when the latter were grown in the presence of acidic fibroblast growth factor (P less than 0.05). The diminished adherence was time dependent, maximal at 72 h, and independent of the initial bacterial inoculum. A twofold enhancement of S. aureus adherence was observed when endothelial cells were pretreated with heparitinase. Adherence was unaffected by endothelial cell activation by interleukin-1 or endotoxin. Thus, acidic fibroblast growth factor exerted a protective effect, deterring S. aureus adherence to cultured endothelial cells. Endothelial cell heparan sulfate was also directly involved in the adherence process. Subtle modulations of endothelial cells can significantly affect the ability of S. aureus to adhere to and then infect these cells. Similar alterations may contribute to the ability of S. aureus to infect endovascular tissue in vivo. PMID:3259546

  3. Dynamics of cell wall structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klis, Frans M; Mol, Pieternella; Hellingwerf, Klaas; Brul, Stanley

    2002-08-01

    The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an elastic structure that provides osmotic and physical protection and determines the shape of the cell. The inner layer of the wall is largely responsible for the mechanical strength of the wall and also provides the attachment sites for the proteins that form the outer layer of the wall. Here we find among others the sexual agglutinins and the flocculins. The outer protein layer also limits the permeability of the cell wall, thus shielding the plasma membrane from attack by foreign enzymes and membrane-perturbing compounds. The main features of the molecular organization of the yeast cell wall are now known. Importantly, the molecular composition and organization of the cell wall may vary considerably. For example, the incorporation of many cell wall proteins is temporally and spatially controlled and depends strongly on environmental conditions. Similarly, the formation of specific cell wall protein-polysaccharide complexes is strongly affected by external conditions. This points to a tight regulation of cell wall construction. Indeed, all five mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in bakers' yeast affect the cell wall, and additional cell wall-related signaling routes have been identified. Finally, some potential targets for new antifungal compounds related to cell wall construction are discussed.

  4. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    PubMed

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  5. Revealing the structural and functional diversity of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Knox, J Paul

    2008-06-01

    The extensive knowledge of the chemistry of isolated cell wall polymers, and that relating to the identification and partial annotation of gene families involved in their synthesis and modification, is not yet matched by a sophisticated understanding of the occurrence of the polymers within cell walls of the diverse cell types within a growing organ. Currently, the main sets of tools that are used to determine cell-type-specific configurations of cell wall polymers and aspects of cell wall microstructures are antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and microspectroscopies. As these tools are applied we see that cell wall polymers are extensively developmentally regulated and that there is a range of structurally distinct primary and secondary cell walls within organs and across species. The challenge now is to document cell wall structures in relation to diverse cell biological events and to integrate this knowledge with the emerging understanding of polymer functions.

  6. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  7. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  8. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  9. Association Mapping of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes and Cell Wall Quality in Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, Laura; Wu, Y.; Zhu, L.; Brummer, E. C.; Saha, M.

    2016-05-31

    Inefficient conversion of biomass to biofuels is one of the main barriers for biofuel production from such materials. Approximately half of polysaccharides in biomass remain unused by typical biochemical conversion methods. Conversion efficiency is influenced by the composition and structure of cell walls of biomass. Grasses such as wheat, maize, and rice, as well as dedicated perennial bioenergy crops, like switchgrass, make up ~55% of biomass that can be produced in the United States. Grass cell walls have a different composition and patterning compared with dicotyledonous plants, including the well-studied model plant, Arabidopsis. This project identified genetic determinants of cell wall composition in grasses using both naturally occurring genetic variation of switchgrass and gene network reconstruction and functional assays in rice. In addition, the project linked functional data in rice and other species to switchgrass improvement efforts through curation of the most abundant class of regulators in the switchgrass genome. Characterizing natural diversity of switchgrass for variation in cell wall composition and properties, also known as quality, provides an unbiased avenue for identifying biologically viable diversity in switchgrass cell walls. To characterizing natural diversity, this project generated cell wall composition and enzymatic deconstruction data for ~450 genotypes of the Switchgrass Southern Association Collection (SSAC), a diverse collection composed of 36 switchgrass accessions from the southern U.S. distribution of switchgrass. Comparing these data with other measures of cell wall quality for the same samples demonstrated the complementary nature of the diverse characterization platforms now being used for biomass characterization. Association of the composition data with ~3.2K single nucleotide variant markers identified six significant single nucleotide variant markers co-associated with digestibility and another compositional trait. These

  10. STREAMLINED METHOD FOR BIOMASS WHOLE-CELL-WALL STRUCTURAL PROFILING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wide-ranging research aimed at altering plant cell wall characteristics by conventional breeding or modern genetic methods, one of the biggest problems is in delineating the effects on the cell wall. Plant cell walls are a complex conglomerate of a variety of polysaccharides and lignin. Each comp...

  11. STREAMLINED METHOD FOR BIOMASS WHOLE-CELL-WALL STRUCTURAL PROFILING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wide-ranging research aimed at altering plant cell wall characteristics by conventional breeding or modern genetic methods, one of the biggest problems is in delineating the effects on the cell wall. Plant cell walls are a complex conglomerate of a variety of polysaccharides and lignin. Although ...

  12. Tools to Understand Structural Property Relationships for Wood Cell Walls

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Jakes; Daniel J. Yelle; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships for wood cell walls has been hindered by the complex polymeric structures comprising these cell walls and the difficulty in assessing meaningful mechanical property measurements of individual cell walls. To help overcome these hindrances, we have developed two experimental methods: 1) two-dimensional solution state nuclear...

  13. Purification of Staphylococcal β-Hemolysin and Its Action on Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Chesbro, William R.; Heydrick, Fred P.; Martineau, Roland; Perkins, Gail N.

    1965-01-01

    Chesbro, William R. (University of New Hampshire, Durham), Fred P. Heydrick, Roland Martineau, and Gail N. Perkins. Purification of staphylococcal β-hemolysin and its action on staphylococcal and streptococcal cell walls. J. Bacteriol. 89:378–389. 1965.—After growth of bovine-derived strains of Staphylococcus aureus in a completely dialyzable medium, the β-hemolysin in the culture supernatant fluids was purified by gradient-elution chromatography on cellulose phosphate. The purified hemolysin contained two components, demonstrable by immunodiffusion or electrophoresis, but was free from α-hemolysin, coagulase, Δ-hemolysin, enterotoxins A and B, glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, lipase, muramidase, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phosphatase, and protease. The hemolysin was heat-labile and sulfhydryl-dependent, and the preparation was leukocidal for guinea pig macrophages. When rabbit red blood cell (RBC) stroma and staphylococcal or enterococcal cell walls were treated with the purified hemolysin, it liberated mucopolysaccharides from the rabbit RBC stroma, polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides (or mucopeptides) from the staphyloccoal cell walls, and rhamnose, glucose, an unidentified monosaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine, and at least two polysaccharides from the enterococcal cell walls. The hemolytic and cell-wall degradative activities had similar thermal inactivation kinetics, pH optima, sedimentation coefficients, and chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities; both required Mg and were inhibited by thiol-inactivating agents. Consequently, it seems likely that both activities are expressions of the same enzyme. PMID:14255704

  14. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Talmadge, Kenneth W.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Bauer, Wolfgang D.; Albersheim, Peter

    1973-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers dealing with the structure of cell walls isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). These studies have been made possible by the availability of purified hydrolytic enzymes and by recent improvements in the techniques of methylation analysis. These techniques have permitted us to identify and quantitate the macromolecular components of sycamore cell walls. These walls are composed of 10% arabinan, 2% 3,6-linked arabinogalactan, 23% cellulose, 9% oligo-arabinosides (attached to hydroxyproline), 8% 4-linked galactan, 10% hydroxyproline-rich protein, 16% rhamnogalacturonan, and 21% xyloglucan. The structures of the pectic polymers (the neutral arabinan, the neutral galactan, and the acidic rhamnogalacturonan) were obtained, in part, by methylation analysis of fragments of these polymers which were released from the sycamore walls by the action of a highly purified endopolygalacturonase. The data suggest a branched arabinan and a linear 4-linked galactan occurring as side chains on the rhamnogalacturonan. Small amounts or pieces of a xyloglucan, the wall hemicellulose, appear to be covalently linked to some of the galactan chains. Thus, the galactan appears to serve as a bridge between the xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan components of the wall. The rhamnogalacturonan consists of an α-(1 → 4)-linked galacturonan chain which is interspersed with 2-linked rhamnosyl residues. The rhamnosyl residues are not randomly distributed in the chain but probably occur in units of rhamnosyl- (1 → 4)-galacturonosyl- (1 → 2)-rhamnosyl. This sequence appears to alternate with a homogalacturonan sequence containing approximately 8 residues of 4-linked galacturonic acid. About half of the rhamnosyl residues are branched, having a substituent attached to carbon 4. This is likely to be the site of attachment of the 4-linked galactan. The hydroxyprolyl oligo-arabinosides of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Phenol-Soluble Modulins Impair Interleukin Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deplanche, Martine; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Semenovskaya, Ksenia; Fu, Chih-Lung; Dessauge, Frederic; Finot, Laurence; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Le Loir, Yves; Rainard, Pascal; Smith, David G. E.; Germon, Pierre; Otto, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The role of the recently described interleukin-32 (IL-32) in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is unclear. We determined expression of IL-32, IL-6, and IL-8 in S. aureus- and Escherichia coli-infected bovine mammary gland epithelial cells. Using live bacteria, we found that in S. aureus-infected cells, induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression was less pronounced than in E. coli-infected cells. Notably, IL-32 expression was decreased in S. aureus-infected cells, while it was increased in E. coli-infected cells. We identified the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides as key contributors to these effects, as IL-32, IL-6, and IL-8 expression by epithelial cells exposed to psm mutant strains was significantly increased compared to that in cells exposed to the isogenic S. aureus wild-type strain, indicating that PSMs inhibit the production of these interleukins. The use of genetically complemented strains confirmed this observation. Inasmuch as the decreased expression of IL-32, which is involved in dendritic cell maturation, impairs immune responses, our results support a PSM-dependent mechanism that allows for the development of chronic S. aureus-related mastitis. PMID:27001539

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Phenol-Soluble Modulins Impair Interleukin Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Deplanche, Martine; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Semenovskaya, Ksenia; Fu, Chih-Lung; Dessauge, Frederic; Finot, Laurence; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Le Loir, Yves; Rainard, Pascal; Smith, David G E; Germon, Pierre; Otto, Michael; Berkova, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    The role of the recently described interleukin-32 (IL-32) in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is unclear. We determined expression of IL-32, IL-6, and IL-8 in S. aureus- and Escherichia coli-infected bovine mammary gland epithelial cells. Using live bacteria, we found that in S. aureus-infected cells, induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression was less pronounced than in E. coli-infected cells. Notably, IL-32 expression was decreased in S. aureus-infected cells, while it was increased in E. coli-infected cells. We identified the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides as key contributors to these effects, as IL-32, IL-6, and IL-8 expression by epithelial cells exposed to psm mutant strains was significantly increased compared to that in cells exposed to the isogenic S. aureus wild-type strain, indicating that PSMs inhibit the production of these interleukins. The use of genetically complemented strains confirmed this observation. Inasmuch as the decreased expression of IL-32, which is involved in dendritic cell maturation, impairs immune responses, our results support a PSM-dependent mechanism that allows for the development of chronic S. aureus-related mastitis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-04-22

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration.

  18. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M.; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  19. Bacterial Cell Enlargement Requires Control of Cell Wall Stiffness Mediated by Peptidoglycan Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Richard; Turner, Robert D.; Bailey, Richard G.; Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Mesnage, Stéphane; Mohamad, Sharifah A. S.; Hayhurst, Emma J.; Horsburgh, Malcolm; Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most bacterial cells are enclosed in a single macromolecule of the cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan, which is required for shape determination and maintenance of viability, while peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an important antibiotic target. It is hypothesized that cellular enlargement requires regional expansion of the cell wall through coordinated insertion and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. Here, a group of (apparent glucosaminidase) peptidoglycan hydrolases are identified that are together required for cell enlargement and correct cellular morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating the overall importance of this enzyme activity. These are Atl, SagA, ScaH, and SagB. The major advance here is the explanation of the observed morphological defects in terms of the mechanical and biochemical properties of peptidoglycan. It was shown that cells lacking groups of these hydrolases have increased surface stiffness and, in the absence of SagB, substantially increased glycan chain length. This indicates that, beyond their established roles (for example in cell separation), some hydrolases enable cellular enlargement by making peptidoglycan easier to stretch, providing the first direct evidence demonstrating that cellular enlargement occurs via modulation of the mechanical properties of peptidoglycan. PMID:26220963

  20. Mast cells are activated by Staphylococcus aureus in vitro but do not influence the outcome of intraperitoneal S. aureus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, Elin; Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Calounova, Gabriela; Garcia Faroldi, Gianni; Grujic, Mirjana; Hartmann, Karin; Roers, Axel; Guss, Bengt; Lundequist, Anders; Pejler, Gunnar

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that can cause a broad spectrum of serious infections including skin infections, pneumonia and sepsis. Peritoneal mast cells have been implicated in the host response towards various bacterial insults and to provide mechanistic insight into the role of mast cells in intraperitoneal bacterial infection we here studied the global effects of S. aureus on mast cell gene expression. After co-culture of peritoneal mast cells with live S. aureus we found by gene array analysis that they up-regulate a number of genes. Many of these corresponded to pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-3, interleukin-13 and tumour necrosis factor-α. The cytokine induction in response to S. aureus was confirmed by ELISA. To study the role of peritoneal mast cells during in vivo infection with S. aureus we used newly developed Mcpt5-Cre(+) × R-DTA mice in which mast cell deficiency is independent of c-Kit. This is in contrast to previous studies in which an impact of mast cells on bacterial infection has been proposed based on the use of mice whose mast cell deficiency is a consequence of defective c-Kit signalling. Staphylococcus aureus was injected intraperitoneally into mast-cell-deficient Mcpt5-Cre(+) × R-DTA mice using littermate mast-cell-sufficient mice as controls. We did not observe any difference between mast-cell-deficient and control mice with regard to weight loss, bacterial clearance, inflammation or cytokine production. We conclude that, despite peritoneal mast cells being activated by S. aureus in vitro, they do not influence the in vivo manifestations of intraperitoneal S. aureus infection.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  2. Engineering secondary cell wall deposition in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Zhang, Ling; Prak, Lina; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Kim, Jin-Sun; Sun, Lan; Zheng, Kejian; Tang, Kexuan; Auer, Manfred; Scheller, Henrik V; Loqué, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass was used for thousands of years as animal feed and is now considered a great sugar source for biofuels production. It is composed mostly of secondary cell walls built with polysaccharide polymers that are embedded in lignin to reinforce the cell wall structure and maintain its integrity. Lignin is the primary material responsible for biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. During plant development, deep reductions of lignin cause growth defects and often correlate with the loss of vessel integrity that adversely affects water and nutrient transport in plants. The work presented here describes a new approach to decrease lignin content while preventing vessel collapse and introduces a new strategy to boost transcription factor expression in native tissues. We used synthetic biology tools in Arabidopsis to rewire the secondary cell network by changing promoter-coding sequence associations. The result was a reduction in lignin and an increase in polysaccharide depositions in fibre cells. The promoter of a key lignin gene, C4H, was replaced by the vessel-specific promoter of transcription factor VND6. This rewired lignin biosynthesis specifically for vessel formation while disconnecting C4H expression from the fibre regulatory network. Secondly, the promoter of the IRX8 gene, secondary cell wall glycosyltransferase, was used to express a new copy of the fibre transcription factor NST1, and as the IRX8 promoter is induced by NST1, this also created an artificial positive feedback loop (APFL). The combination of strategies—lignin rewiring with APFL insertion—enhances polysaccharide deposition in stems without over-lignifying them, resulting in higher sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:23140549

  3. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i) a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii) the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv) the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v) the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions. PMID:23641247

  4. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i) a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii) the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv) the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v) the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions.

  5. Phase Separation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides and Its Implications for Cell Wall Assembly.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, A. J.; Rigby, N. M.; Ring, S. G.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrated binary mixtures of polymers in solution commonly exhibit immiscibility, resolving into two separate phases each of which is enriched in one polymer. The plant cell wall is a concentrated polymer assembly, and phase separation of the constituent polymers could make an important contribution to its structural organization and functional properties. However, to our knowledge, there have been no published reports of the phase behavior of cell wall polymers, and this phenomenon is not included in current cell wall models. We fractionated cell walls purified from the pericarp of unripe tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) by extraction with cyclohexane diamine tetraacetic acid (CDTA), Na2CO3, and KOH and examined the behavior of concentrated mixtures. Several different combinations of fractions exhibited phase separation. Analysis of coexisting phases demonstrated the immiscibility of the esterified, relatively unbranched pectic polysaccharide extracted by CDTA and a highly branched, de-esterified pectic polysaccharide present in the 0.5 N KOH extract. Some evidence for phase separation of the CDTA extract and hemicellulosic polymers was also found. We believe that phase separation is likely to be a factor in the assembly of pectic polysaccharides in the cell wall and could, for example, provide the basis for explaining the formation of the middle lamella. PMID:12223708

  6. Double-walled carbon nanotube solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinquan; Jia, Yi; Shu, Qinke; Gu, Zhiyi; Wang, Kunlin; Zhuang, Daming; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhicheng; Luo, Jianbin; Cao, Anyuan; Wu, Dehai

    2007-08-01

    We directly configured double-walled carbon nanotubes as energy conversion materials to fabricate thin-film solar cells, with nanotubes serving as both photogeneration sites and a charge carriers collecting/transport layer. The solar cells consist of a semitransparent thin film of nanotubes conformally coated on a n-type crystalline silicon substrate to create high-density p-n heterojunctions between nanotubes and n-Si to favor charge separation and extract electrons (through n-Si) and holes (through nanotubes). Initial tests have shown a power conversion efficiency of >1%, proving that DWNTs-on-Si is a potentially suitable configuration for making solar cells. Our devices are distinct from previously reported organic solar cells based on blends of polymers and nanomaterials, where conjugate polymers generate excitons and nanotubes only serve as a transport path.

  7. Roles and regulation of plant cell walls surrounding plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Knox, J Paul; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin

    2014-12-01

    In plants, the intercellular transport of simple and complex molecules can occur symplastically through plasmodesmata. These are membranous channels embedded in cell walls that connect neighbouring cells. The properties of the cell walls surrounding plasmodesmata determine their transport capacity and permeability. These cell wall micro-domains are enriched in callose and have a characteristic pectin distribution. Cell wall modifications, leading to changes in plasmodesmata structure, have been reported to occur during development and in response to environmental signals. Cell wall remodelling enzymes target plasmodesmata to rapidly control intercellular communication in situ. Here we describe current knowledge on the composition of cell walls at plasmodesmata sites and on the proteins and signals that modify cell walls to regulate plasmodesmata aperture.

  8. Sclareol protects Staphylococcus aureus-induced lung cell injury via inhibiting alpha-hemolysin expression.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Sun, Mao; He, Xuewen; Wang, Kaiyu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Fu, Hualin; Li, Yinglun; Geng, Yi; Shu, Gang; He, Changliang; Liang, Xiaoxia; Lai, Weiming; Li, Lixia; Zou, Yuanfeng; Song, Xu; Yin, Lizi

    2016-09-23

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common Gram-positive bacterium that causes serious infections in human and animals. With the continuous emergence of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, antibiotics have limited efficacy in treating MRSA infections. Accordingly, novel agents that act on new targets are desperately needed to combat these infections. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin plays an indispensable role in its pathogenicity. In this study, we demonstrate that sclareol, a fragrant chemical compound found in clary sage, can prominently decrease alpha-hemolysin secretion in S. aureus strain USA300 at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Hemolysis assays, western-blotting and RT-PCR were used to detect the production of alpha-hemolysin in the culture supernatant. When USA300 was co-cultured with and A549 epithelial cells, sclareol could protect A549 cells at a final concentration of 8 µg/ml. The protective capability of sclareol against the USA300-mediated injury of A549 cells was further shown by cytotoxicity assays and live/dead analysis. In conclusion, sclareol was shown to inhibit the production of S. aureus alpha-hemolysin. Sclareol has potential for development as a new agent to treat S. aureus infections.

  9. Clumping factor A, von Willebrand factor-binding protein and von Willebrand factor anchor Staphylococcus aureus to the vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Claes, J; Liesenborghs, L; Peetermans, M; Veloso, T R; Missiakas, D; Schneewind, O; Mancini, S; Entenza, J M; Hoylaerts, M F; Heying, R; Verhamme, P; Vanassche, T

    2017-02-09

    Essentials Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) binds to endothelium via von Willebrand factor (VWF). Secreted VWF-binding protein (vWbp) mediates S. aureus adhesion to VWF under shear stress. vWbp interacts with VWF and the Sortase A-dependent surface protein Clumping factor A (ClfA). VWF-vWbp-ClfA anchor S. aureus to vascular endothelium under shear stress.

  10. Cell Wall Loosening in the Fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.; Truong, Jason T.; Munoz, Cindy M.; Ramirez, David G.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been conducted to determine how cell walls are loosened to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth in plant and algal cells. The same cannot be said about fungal cells. Almost nothing is known about how fungal cells loosen their walls to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth. In this study, anoxia is used to chemically isolate the wall from the protoplasm of the sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. The experimental results provide direct evidence of the existence of chemistry within the fungal wall that is responsible for wall loosening, irreversible wall deformation and elongation growth. In addition, constant-tension extension experiments are conducted on frozen-thawed sporangiophore walls to obtain insight into the wall chemistry and wall loosening mechanism. It is found that a decrease in pH to 4.6 produces creep extension in the frozen-thawed sporangiophore wall that is similar, but not identical, to that found in frozen-thawed higher plant cell walls. Experimental results from frozen-thawed and boiled sporangiophore walls suggest that protein activity may be involved in the creep extension. PMID:27135318

  11. Plant cell wall signalling and receptor-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian

    2017-02-15

    Communication between the extracellular matrix and the cell interior is essential for all organisms as intrinsic and extrinsic cues have to be integrated to co-ordinate development, growth, and behaviour. This applies in particular to plants, the growth and shape of which is governed by deposition and remodelling of the cell wall, a rigid, yet dynamic, extracellular network. It is thus generally assumed that cell wall surveillance pathways exist to monitor the state of the wall and, if needed, elicit compensatory responses such as altered expression of cell wall remodelling and biosynthesis genes. Here, I highlight recent advances in the field of cell wall signalling in plants, with emphasis on the role of plasma membrane receptor-like kinase complexes. In addition, possible roles for cell wall-mediated signalling beyond the maintenance of cell wall integrity are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Post-invasion events after infection with Staphylococcus aureus are strongly dependent on both the host cell type and the infecting S. aureus strain.

    PubMed

    Strobel, M; Pförtner, H; Tuchscherr, L; Völker, U; Schmidt, F; Kramko, N; Schnittler, H-J; Fraunholz, M J; Löffler, B; Peters, G; Niemann, S

    2016-09-01

    Host cell invasion is a major feature of Staphylococcus aureus and contributes to infection development. The intracellular metabolically active bacteria can induce host cell activation and death but they can also persist for long time periods. In this study a comparative analysis was performed of different well-characterized S. aureus strains in their interaction with a variety of host cell types. Staphylococcus aureus (strains 6850, USA300, LS1, SH1000, Cowan1) invasion was compared in different human cell types (epithelial and endothelial cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts). The number of intracellular bacteria was determined, cell inflammation was investigated, as well as cell death and phagosomal escape of bacteria. To explain strain-dependent differences in the secretome, a proteomic approach was used. Barrier cells took up high amounts of bacteria and were killed by aggressive strains. These strains expressed high levels of toxins, and possessed the ability to escape from phagolysosomes. Osteoblasts and keratinocytes ingested less bacteria, and were not killed, even though the primary osteoblasts were strongly activated by S. aureus. In all cell types S. aureus was able to persist. Strong differences in uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory response were observed between primary cells and their corresponding cell lines, demonstrating that cell lines reflect only partially the functions and physiology of primary cells. This study provides a contribution for a better understanding of the pathomechanisms of S. aureus infections. The proteomic data provide important basic knowledge on strains commonly used in the analysis of S. aureus-host cell interaction.

  13. Chemical and biological properties of extracellular slime produced by Staphylococcus aureus grown in high-carbohydrate, high-salt medium.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Reiter, B

    1976-01-01

    Slime material produced by three strains of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the high-carbohydrate, high-salt modified 110 medium contained ribitol teichoic acid and, in two of the three strains, a basic protein reacting with antisera to S. aureus whole cells and cell walls. The basic protein differed chemically and serologically from cell wall mucopeptide and protein A. Substances resembling the capsular antigen of the Smith diffuse strain of S. aureus were not detected, nor were any other uronic acid-containing components. When cell walls, slime material, and teichoic acid were injected intradermally into cows, only cell walls produced a skin reaction. Images PMID:1270128

  14. Grass cell walls: A story of cross-linking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell wall matrices are complex composites mainly of polysaccharides, phenolics (monomers and polymers), and protein. We are beginning to understand the synthesis of these major wall components individually, but still have a poor understanding of how the cell wall components are assembled into comple...

  15. Cortical microtubule rearrangements and cell wall patterning

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Plant cortical microtubules, which form a highly ordered array beneath the plasma membrane, play essential roles in determining cell shape and function by directing the arrangement of cellulosic and non-cellulosic compounds on the cell surface. Interphase transverse arrays of cortical microtubules self-organize through their dynamic instability and inter-microtubule interactions, and by branch-form microtubule nucleation and severing. Recent studies revealed that distinct spatial signals including ROP GTPase, cellular geometry, and mechanical stress regulate the behavior of cortical microtubules at the subcellular and supercellular levels, giving rise to dramatic rearrangements in the cortical microtubule array in response to internal and external cues. Increasing evidence indicates that negative regulators of microtubules also contribute to the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array. In this review, I summarize recent insights into how the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array leads to proper, flexible cell wall patterning. PMID:25904930

  16. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Stuart M.; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R.; Specht, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by Dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  17. (Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the plant cell wall)

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    We are studying the chemistry and architecture of plant cells walls, the extracellular matrices that taken together shape the plant and provide mechanical support for the plant. Cell walls are dynamic structures that regulate, or are the site of, many physiological processes, in addition to being the cells' first line of defense against invading pathogens. In the past year we have examined the role of the cell wall enzyme ascorbic acid oxidase as related to the structure of the wall and its possible interactions with hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the wall.

  18. Grass Cell Walls: A Story of Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Ronald D.; Rancour, David M.; Marita, Jane M.

    2017-01-01

    Cell wall matrices are complex composites mainly of polysaccharides, phenolics (monomers and polymers), and protein. We are beginning to understand the synthesis of these major wall components individually, but still have a poor understanding of how cell walls are assembled into complex matrices. Valuable insight has been gained by examining intact components to understand the individual elements that make up plant cell walls. Grasses are a prominent group within the plant kingdom, not only for their important roles in global agriculture, but also for the complexity of their cell walls. Ferulate incorporation into grass cell wall matrices (C3 and C4 types) leads to a cross-linked matrix that plays a prominent role in the structure and utilization of grass biomass compared to dicot species. Incorporation of p-coumarates as part of the lignin structure also adds to the complexity of grass cell walls. Feruoylation results in a wall with individual hemicellulosic polysaccharides (arabinoxylans) covalently linked to each other and to lignin. Evidence strongly suggests that ferulates not only cross-link arabinoxylans, but may be important factors in lignification of the cell wall. Therefore, the distribution of ferulates on arabinoxylans could provide a means of structuring regions of the matrix with the incorporation of lignin and have a significant impact upon localized cell wall organization. The role of other phenolics in cell wall formation such as p-coumarates (which can have concentrations higher than ferulates) remains unknown. It is possible that p-coumarates assist in the formation of lignin, especially syringyl rich lignin. The uniqueness of the grass cell wall compared to dicot sepcies may not be so much in the gross composition of the wall, but how the distinctive individual components are organized into a functional wall matrix. These features are discussed and working models are provided to illustrate how changing the organization of feruoylation and p

  19. T cell chemotaxis and chemokine release after Staphylococcus aureus interaction with polarized airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Escotte, Sandie; Al Alam, Denise; Le Naour, Richard; Puchelle, Edith; Guenounou, Moncef; Gangloff, Sophie C

    2006-03-01

    In response to bacterial infection, airway epithelium releases inflammatory mediators including cytokines and chemokines that lead to immune cell efflux and could stimulate the adaptive T cell immune response. The aim of our study was to analyze, in a double chamber culture, the chemokine changes in response to Staphylococcus aureus and their consequences for T cells. Our data show that S. aureus stimulates basolateral and apical release of IL-8 and eotaxin by airway epithelial cells. We also observed increased chemokine receptor expression on CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and enhanced chemotaxis of CD4+ T cells toward apical supernatant. Our data strongly suggest that S. aureus interaction with airway epithelium contributes to specific migration of T cells to inflamed sites.

  20. Structural differentiation of the Bacillus subtilis 168 cell wall.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, L L; Beveridge, T J

    1994-01-01

    Exponential-growth-phase cultures of Bacillus subtilis 168 were probed with polycationized ferritin (PCF) or concanavalin A (localized by the addition of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to colloidal gold) to distinguish surface anionic sites and teichoic acid polymers, respectively. Isolated cell walls, lysozyme-digested cell walls, and cell walls treated with mild alkali to remove teichoic acid were also treated with PCF. After labelling, whole cells and walls were processed for electron microscopy by freeze-substitution. Thin sections of untreated cells showed a triphasic, fibrous wall extending more than 30 nm beyond the cytoplasmic membrane. Measurements of wall thickness indicated that the wall was thicker at locations adjacent to septa and at pole-cylinder junctions (P < 0.001). Labelling studies showed that at saturating concentrations the PCF probe labelled the outermost limit of the cell wall, completely surrounding individual cells. However, at limiting PCF concentrations, labelling was observed at only discrete cell surface locations adjacent to or overlying septa and at the junction between pole and cylinder. Labelling was rarely observed along the cell cylinder or directly over the poles. Cells did not label along the cylindrical wall until there was visible evidence of a developing septum. Identical labelling patterns were observed by using concanavalin A-horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold. Neither probe appeared to penetrate between the fibers of the wall. We suggest that the fibrous appearance of the wall seen in freeze-substituted cells reflects turnover of the wall matrix, that the specificity of labelling to discrete sites on the cell surface is indicative of regions of extreme hydrolytic activity in which alpha-glucose residues of the wall teichoic acids and electronegative sites (contributed by phosphate and carboxyl groups of the teichoic acids and carboxyl groups of the peptidoglycan polymers) are more readily accessible to our probes

  1. Plant and algal cell walls: diversity and functionality.

    PubMed

    Popper, Zoë A; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Domozych, David S

    2014-10-01

    Although plants and many algae (e.g. the Phaeophyceae, brown, and Rhodophyceae, red) are only very distantly related they are united in their possession of carbohydrate-rich cell walls, which are of integral importance being involved in many physiological processes. Furthermore,wall components have applications within food, fuel, pharmaceuticals, fibres (e.g. for textiles and paper) and building materials and have long been an active topic of research. As shown in the 27 papers in this Special Issue, as the major deposit of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and therefore energy investment, cell walls are of undisputed importance to the organisms that possess them, the photosynthetic eukaryotes ( plants and algae). The complexities of cell wall components along with their interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are becoming increasingly revealed. The importance of plant and algal cell walls and their individual components to the function and survival of the organism, and for a number of industrial applications, are illustrated by the breadth of topics covered in this issue, which includes papers concentrating on various plants and algae, developmental stages, organs, cell wall components, and techniques. Although we acknowledge that there are many alternative ways in which the papers could be categorized (and many would fit within several topics), we have organized them as follows: (1) cell wall biosynthesis and remodelling, (2) cell wall diversity, and (3) application of new technologies to cell walls. Finally, we will consider future directions within plant cell wall research. Expansion of the industrial uses of cell walls and potentially novel uses of cell wall components are both avenues likely to direct future research activities. Fundamentally, it is the continued progression from characterization (structure, metabolism, properties and localization) of individual cell wall components through to defining their roles in almost every aspect of plant

  2. Plant and algal cell walls: diversity and functionality

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Zoë A.; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Domozych, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although plants and many algae (e.g. the Phaeophyceae, brown, and Rhodophyceae, red) are only very distantly related they are united in their possession of carbohydrate-rich cell walls, which are of integral importance being involved in many physiological processes. Furthermore, wall components have applications within food, fuel, pharmaceuticals, fibres (e.g. for textiles and paper) and building materials and have long been an active topic of research. As shown in the 27 papers in this Special Issue, as the major deposit of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and therefore energy investment, cell walls are of undisputed importance to the organisms that possess them, the photosynthetic eukaryotes (plants and algae). The complexities of cell wall components along with their interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are becoming increasingly revealed. Scope The importance of plant and algal cell walls and their individual components to the function and survival of the organism, and for a number of industrial applications, are illustrated by the breadth of topics covered in this issue, which includes papers concentrating on various plants and algae, developmental stages, organs, cell wall components, and techniques. Although we acknowledge that there are many alternative ways in which the papers could be categorized (and many would fit within several topics), we have organized them as follows: (1) cell wall biosynthesis and remodelling, (2) cell wall diversity, and (3) application of new technologies to cell walls. Finally, we will consider future directions within plant cell wall research. Expansion of the industrial uses of cell walls and potentially novel uses of cell wall components are both avenues likely to direct future research activities. Fundamentally, it is the continued progression from characterization (structure, metabolism, properties and localization) of individual cell wall components through to defining their roles in almost every

  3. Arrangement of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Amako, K; Umeda, A; Murata, K

    1982-01-01

    The arrangement of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of Staphylococcus was observed with the newly developed freeze-fracture technique, using n-octanol instead of water as the freezing medium. The replica of the trichloroacetic acid-extracted cell wall (TCA-wall) showed two areas. One of them has a concentric circular structure, a characteristic surface structure of the staphylococcal cell wall, and the other showed an irregular and rough surface. The chemical analysis of the wall revealed that the TCA-wall consisted of mostly peptidoglycan. By digesting the TCA-wall with lysozyme, the circular structures were greatly disturbed, and they disappeared after 60 min of treatment. From these observations it can be expected that the peptidoglycan is arranged in a concentric circular manner in the newly generated cell wall of Staphylococcus. Images PMID:7068534

  4. Live Staphylococcus aureus Induces Expression and Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Terminally Differentiated Mouse Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Rönnberg, Elin; Guss, Bengt; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells have been shown to express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thereby implicating mast cells in pro-angiogenic processes. However, the mechanism of VEGF induction in mast cells and the possible expression of VEGF in fully mature mast cells have not been extensively studied. Here, we report that terminally differentiated peritoneal cell-derived mast cells can be induced to express VEGF in response to challenge with Staphylococcus aureus, thus identifying a mast cell-bacteria axis as a novel mechanism leading to VEGF release. Whereas live bacteria produced a robust upregulation of VEGF in mast cells, heat-inactivated bacteria failed to do so, and bacteria-conditioned media did not induce VEGF expression. The induction of VEGF was not critically dependent on direct cell-cell contact between bacteria and mast cells. Hence, these findings suggest that VEGF can be induced by soluble factors released during the co-culture conditions. Neither of a panel of bacterial cell-wall products known to activate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling promoted VEGF expression in mast cells. In agreement with the latter, VEGF induction occurred independently of Myd88, an adaptor molecule that mediates the downstream events following TLR engagement. The VEGF induction was insensitive to nuclear factor of activated T-cells inhibition but was partly dependent on the nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells signaling pathway. Together, these findings identify bacterial challenge as a novel mechanism by which VEGF is induced in mast cells.

  5. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  6. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  7. Disruption of hydrogen bonding between plant cell wall polymers by proteins that induce wall extension.

    PubMed Central

    McQueen-Mason, S; Cosgrove, D J

    1994-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is controlled by the ability of the constraining cell wall to expand. This ability has been postulated to be under the control of polysaccharide hydrolases or transferases that weaken or rearrange the loadbearing polymeric networks in the wall. We recently identified a family of wall proteins, called expansins, that catalyze the extension of isolated plant cell walls. Here we report that these proteins mechanically weaken pure cellulose paper in extension assays and stress relaxation assays, without detectable cellulase activity (exo- or endo- type). Because paper derives its mechanical strength from hydrogen bonding between cellulose microfibrils, we conclude that expansins can disrupt hydrogen bonding between cellulose fibers. This conclusion is further supported by experiments in which expansin-mediated wall extension (i) was increased by 2 M urea (which should weaken hydrogen bonding between wall polymers) and (ii) was decreased by replacement of water with deuterated water, which has a stronger hydrogen bond. The temperature sensitivity of expansin-mediated wall extension suggests that units of 3 or 4 hydrogen bonds are broken by the action of expansins. In the growing cell wall, expansin action is likely to catalyze slippage between cellulose microfibrils and the polysaccharide matrix, and thereby catalyze wall stress relaxation, followed by wall surface expansion and plant cell enlargement. Images PMID:11607483

  8. Intracellular Survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Endothelial Cells: A Matter of Growth or Persistence.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Guillaume; Tan, Xin; Tros, Fabiola; Dupuis, Marion; Nassif, Xavier; Charbit, Alain; Coureuil, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of severe bacterial infections. Recent studies have shown that various cell types could readily internalize S. aureus and infected cells have been proposed to serve as vehicle for the systemic dissemination of the pathogen. Here we focused on the intracellular behavior of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus strain USA300. Supporting earlier observations, we found that wild-type S. aureus strain USA300 persisted for longer period within endothelial cells than within macrophages and that a mutant displaying the small colony variant phenotype (ΔhemDBL) had increased intracellular persistence. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that initial persistence of wild-type bacteria in endothelial cells corresponded to distinct single cell events, ranging from active intracellular bacterial proliferation, leading to cell lysis, to non-replicating bacterial persistence even 1 week after infection. In sharp contrast, ΔhemDBL mutant bacteria were essentially non-replicating up to 10 days after infection. These findings suggest that internalization of S. aureus in endothelial cells triggers its persistence and support the notion that endothelial cells might constitute an intracellular persistence niche responsible for reported relapse of infection after antibiotic therapy.

  9. Anthocyanins influence tannin-cell wall interactions.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2016-09-01

    The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present.

  10. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    DOEpatents

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  11. Tracing Cell Wall Biogenesis in Intact Cells and Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Gibeaut, David M.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    1991-01-01

    Cells of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. cv Abarr) in liquid culture and leaves of maize seedlings (Zea mays L. cv LH51 × LH1131) readily incorporated d-[U-14C]glucose and l-[U-14C]arabinose into soluble and cell wall polymers. Radioactivity from arabinose accumulated selectively in polymers containing arabinose or xylose because a salvage pathway and C-4 epimerase yield both nucleotide-pentoses. On the other hand, radioactivity from glucose was found in all sugars and polymers. Pulse-chase experiments with proso millet cells in liquid culture demonstrated turnover of buffer soluble polymers within minutes and accumulation of radioactive polymers in the cell wall. In leaves of maize seedlings, radioactive polymers accumulated quickly and peaked 30 hours after the pulse then decreased slowly for the remaining time course. During further growth of the seedlings, radioactive polymers became more tenaciously bound in the cell wall. Sugars were constantly recycled from turnover of polysaccharides of the cell wall. Arabinose, hydrolyzed from glucuronoarabinoxylans, and glucose, hydrolyzed from mixed-linkage (1→3, 1→4)β-d-glucans, constituted most of the sugar participating in turnover. Arabinogalactans were a large portion of the buffer soluble (cytoplasmic) polymers of both proso millet cells and maize seedlings, and these polymers also exhibited turnover. Our results indicate that the primary cell wall is not simply a sink for various polysaccharide components, but rather a dynamic compartment exhibiting long-term reorganization by turnover and alteration of specific polymers during development. PMID:16668434

  12. Investigating intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus within a murine alveolar macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Lacoma, A; Cano, V; Moranta, D; Regueiro, V; Domínguez-Villanueva, D; Laabei, M; González-Nicolau, M; Ausina, V; Prat, C; Bengoechea, J A

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a particularly difficult pathogen to eradicate from the respiratory tract. Previous studies have highlighted the intracellular capacity of S.aureus in several phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. The aim of this study was to define S.aureus interaction within a murine alveolar macrophage cell line. Cell line MH-S was infected with Newman strain. Molecular mechanisms involved in phagocytosis were explored. To assess whether S.aureus survives intracellularly quantitative (gentamicin protection assays and bacterial plating) and qualitative analysis (immunofluorescence microscopy) were performed. Bacterial colocalization with different markers of the endocytic pathway was examined to characterize its intracellular trafficking. We found that S.aureus uptake requires host actin polymerization, microtubule assembly and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Time course experiments showed that Newman strain was able to persist within macrophages at least until 28.5 h post infection. We observed that intracellular bacteria are located inside an acidic subcellular compartment, which co-localizes with the late endosome/lysosome markers Lamp-1, Rab7 and RILP. Colocalization counts with TMR-dextran might reflect a balance between bacterial killing and intracellular survival. This study indicates that S.aureus persists and replicates inside murine alveolar macrophages, representing a privileged niche that can potentially offer protection from antimicrobial activity and immunological host defense mechanisms.

  13. Shifting foundations: the mechanical cell wall and development.

    PubMed

    Braybrook, Siobhan A; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The cell wall has long been acknowledged as an important physical mediator of growth in plants. Recent experimental and modelling work has brought the importance of cell wall mechanics into the forefront again. These data have challenged existing dogmas that relate cell wall structure to cell/organ growth, that uncouple elasticity from extensibility, and those which treat the cell wall as a passive and non-stressed material. Within this review we describe experiments and models which have changed the ways in which we view the mechanical cell wall, leading to new hypotheses and research avenues. It has become increasingly apparent that while we often wish to simplify our systems, we now require more complex multi-scale experiments and models in order to gain further insight into growth mechanics. We are currently experiencing an exciting and challenging shift in the foundations of our understanding of cell wall mechanics in growth and development.

  14. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2015-11-25

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the ‘Young's modulus’ of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics.

  15. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  16. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  17. Structural insight into the transglycosylation step of bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Andrew L; de Castro, Liza H; Lim, Daniel; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2007-03-09

    Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the polymerization step of cell-wall biosynthesis, are membrane-bound, and are highly conserved across all bacteria. Long considered the "holy grail" of antibiotic research, they represent an essential and easily accessible drug target for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We have determined the 2.8 angstrom structure of a bifunctional cell-wall cross-linking enzyme, including its transpeptidase and GT domains, both unliganded and complexed with the substrate analog moenomycin. The peptidoglycan GTs adopt a fold distinct from those of other GT classes. The structures give insight into critical features of the catalytic mechanism and key interactions required for enzyme inhibition.

  18. Evolution and diversity of green plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Popper, Zoë A

    2008-06-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by a dynamic cell wall that performs many essential biological roles, including regulation of cell expansion, the control of tissue cohesion, ion-exchange and defence against microbes. Recent evidence shows that the suite of polysaccharides and wall proteins from which the plant cell wall is composed shows variation between monophyletic plant taxa. This is likely to have been generated during the evolution of plant groups in response to environmental stress. Understanding the natural variation and diversity that exists between cell walls from different taxa is key to facilitating their future exploitation and manipulation, for example by increasing lignocellulosic content or reducing its recalcitrance for use in biofuel generation.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A Mediates Interspecies Interactions at the Cell Surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Catherine R.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Mishra, Meenu; Hayden, Hillary S.; Radey, Matthew C.; Merrihew, Gennifer; MacCoss, Michael J.; Burns, Jane; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While considerable research has focused on the properties of individual bacteria, relatively little is known about how microbial interspecies interactions alter bacterial behaviors and pathogenesis. Staphylococcus aureus frequently coinfects with other pathogens in a range of different infectious diseases. For example, coinfection by S. aureus with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs commonly in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with higher lung disease morbidity and mortality. S. aureus secretes numerous exoproducts that are known to interact with host tissues, influencing inflammatory responses. The abundantly secreted S. aureus staphylococcal protein A (SpA) binds a range of human glycoproteins, immunoglobulins, and other molecules, with diverse effects on the host, including inhibition of phagocytosis of S. aureus cells. However, the potential effects of SpA and other S. aureus exoproducts on coinfecting bacteria have not been explored. Here, we show that S. aureus-secreted products, including SpA, significantly alter two behaviors associated with persistent infection. We found that SpA inhibited biofilm formation by specific P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, and it also inhibited phagocytosis by neutrophils of all isolates tested. Our results indicate that these effects were mediated by binding to at least two P. aeruginosa cell surface structures—type IV pili and the exopolysaccharide Psl—that confer attachment to surfaces and to other bacterial cells. Thus, we found that the role of a well-studied S. aureus exoproduct, SpA, extends well beyond interactions with the host immune system. Secreted SpA alters multiple persistence-associated behaviors of another common microbial community member, likely influencing cocolonization and coinfection with other microbes. PMID:27222468

  20. Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Phyo, Pyae; Hong, Mei

    2016-09-01

    Plant biomass has become an important source of bio-renewable energy in modern society. The molecular structure of plant cell walls is difficult to characterize by most atomic-resolution techniques due to the insoluble and disordered nature of the cell wall. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is uniquely suited for studying native hydrated plant cell walls at the molecular level with chemical resolution. Significant progress has been made in the last five years to elucidate the molecular structures and interactions of cellulose and matrix polysaccharides in plant cell walls. These studies have focused on primary cell walls of growing plants in both the dicotyledonous and grass families, as represented by the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, and Zea mays. To date, these SSNMR results have shown that 1) cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins form a single network in the primary cell wall; 2) in dicot cell walls, the protein expansin targets the hemicellulose-enriched region of the cellulose microfibril for its wall-loosening function; and 3) primary wall cellulose has polymorphic structures that are distinct from the microbial cellulose structures. This article summarizes these key findings, and points out future directions of investigation to advance our fundamental understanding of plant cell wall structure and function.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-8 expression through its lipoproteins in the human intestinal epithelial cell, Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Seong; Noh, Su Young; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause the intestinal inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of S. aureus infection in the intestine. In the present study, we investigated whether S. aureus could stimulate human intestinal epithelial cells triggering inflammation. When the human intestinal epithelial cell-line, Caco-2, and the primary colon cells were stimulated with ethanol-inactivated S. aureus, IL-8 expression was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The inactivated S. aureus preferentially stimulated Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 rather than TLR4. Lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) are considered as potential TLR2 ligands of S. aureus. Interestingly, S aureus lipoproteins and Pam2CSK4 mimicking Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins, but not LTA and PGN of S. aureus, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, lipoprotein-deficient S. aureus mutant strain failed to induce IL-8 production. Collectively, these results suggest that S. aureus stimulates the human intestinal epithelial cells to induce the chemokine IL-8 production through its lipoproteins, potentially contributing the development of intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell wall perturbation sensitizes fungi to the antimalarial drug chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Islahudin, Farida; Khozoie, Combiz; Bates, Steven; Ting, Kang-Nee; Pleass, Richard J; Avery, Simon V

    2013-08-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) has been a mainstay of antimalarial drug treatment for several decades. Additional therapeutic actions of CQ have been described, including some reports of fungal inhibition. Here we investigated the action of CQ in fungi, including the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A genomewide yeast deletion strain collection was screened against CQ, revealing that bck1Δ and slt2Δ mutants of the cell wall integrity pathway are CQ hypersensitive. This phenotype was rescued with sorbitol, consistent with cell wall involvement. The cell wall-targeting agent caffeine caused hypersensitivity to CQ, as did cell wall perturbation by sonication. The phenotypes were not caused by CQ-induced changes to cell wall components. Instead, CQ accumulated to higher levels in cells with perturbed cell walls: CQ uptake was 2- to 3-fold greater in bck1Δ and slt2Δ mutants than in wild-type yeast. CQ toxicity was synergistic with that of the major cell wall-targeting antifungal drug, caspofungin. The MIC of caspofungin against the yeast pathogen Candida albicans was decreased 2-fold by 250 μM CQ and up to 8-fold at higher CQ concentrations. Similar effects were seen in Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results show that the cell wall is critical for CQ resistance in fungi and suggest that combination treatments with cell wall-targeting drugs could have potential for antifungal treatment.

  3. (The structure of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mort, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have made progress on several projects to do with determining the structure of pectins. These include: (1) Devising a new sensitive method to determine the degree of methyl esterification (DOM) of pectins; (2) solubilization of all of RGI from cotton cell walls; (3) solubilization of RGII from cotton cell walls; (4) characterization of xyloglucan from cotton cell walls; and (5) investigation giving an indication of a cross-link between extension and pectin.

  4. Knocking on the heaven's wall: pathogenesis of and resistance to biotrophic fungi at the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2004-08-01

    New findings challenge the traditional view of the plant cell wall as passive structural barrier to invasion by fungal microorganisms. A surveillance system for cell wall integrity appears to sense perturbation of the cell wall structure upon fungal attack and is interconnected with known plant defence signalling pathways. Biotrophic fungi might manipulate this surveillance system for the establishment of biotrophy. The attempts of fungi to invade also induce a sub-cellular polarisation in attacked cells, which activates an ancient vesicle-associated resistance response that possibly enables the focal transport of regulatory cargo and the secretion of toxic cargo. The underlying resistance machinery might have been subverted by biotrophic fungi for pathogenesis.

  5. A Cell Wall Proteome and Targeted Cell Wall Analyses Provide Novel Information on Hemicellulose Metabolism in Flax.

    PubMed

    Chabi, Malika; Goulas, Estelle; Leclercq, Celine C; de Waele, Isabelle; Rihouey, Christophe; Cenci, Ugo; Day, Arnaud; Blervacq, Anne-Sophie; Neutelings, Godfrey; Duponchel, Ludovic; Lerouge, Patrice; Hausman, Jean-François; Renaut, Jenny; Hawkins, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Experimentally-generated (nanoLC-MS/MS) proteomic analyses of four different flax organs/tissues (inner-stem, outer-stem, leaves and roots) enriched in proteins from 3 different sub-compartments (soluble-, membrane-, and cell wall-proteins) was combined with publically available data on flax seed and whole-stem proteins to generate a flax protein database containing 2996 nonredundant total proteins. Subsequent multiple analyses (MapMan, CAZy, WallProtDB and expert curation) of this database were then used to identify a flax cell wall proteome consisting of 456 nonredundant proteins localized in the cell wall and/or associated with cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling and other cell wall related processes. Examination of the proteins present in different flax organs/tissues provided a detailed overview of cell wall metabolism and highlighted the importance of hemicellulose and pectin remodeling in stem tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of proteins in the cell wall proteome revealed an important paralogy in the class IIIA xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family associated with xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity.Immunolocalisation, FT-IR microspectroscopy, and enzymatic fingerprinting indicated that flax fiber primary/S1 cell walls contained xyloglucans with typical substituted side chains as well as glucuronoxylans in much lower quantities. These results suggest a likely central role of xyloglucans and endotransglucosylase/hydrolase activity in flax fiber formation and cell wall remodeling processes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Plant cell wall deconstruction by ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Glass, N Louise; Schmoll, Monika; Cate, Jamie H D; Coradetti, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi requires a diverse set of secreted enzymes and significantly contributes to the global carbon cycle. Recent advances in genomic and systems-level studies have begun to reveal how filamentous ascomycete species exploit carbon sources in different habitats. These studies have laid the groundwork for unraveling new enzymatic strategies for deconstructing the plant cell wall, including the discovery of polysaccharide monooxygenases that enhance the activity of cellulases. The identification of genes encoding proteins lacking functional annotation, but that are coregulated with cellulolytic genes, suggests functions associated with plant biomass degradation remain to be elucidated. Recent research shows that signaling cascades mediating cellulolytic responses often act in a light-dependent manner and show crosstalk with other metabolic pathways. In this review, we cover plant biomass degradation, from sensing, to transmission and modulation of signals, to activation of transcription factors and gene induction, to enzyme complement and function.

  7. Moenomycin resistance mutations in Staphylococcus aureus reduce peptidoglycan chain length and cause aberrant cell division.

    PubMed

    Rebets, Yuriy; Lupoli, Tania; Qiao, Yuan; Schirner, Kathrin; Villet, Regis; Hooper, David; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-02-21

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen with an unusual mode of cell division in that it divides in orthogonal rather than parallel planes. Through selection using moenomycin, an antibiotic proposed to target peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (PGTs), we have generated resistant mutants containing a single point mutation in the active site of the PGT domain of an essential peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthetic enzyme, PBP2. Using cell free polymerization assays, we show that this mutation alters PGT activity so that much shorter PG chains are made. The same mutation in another S. aureus PGT, SgtB, has a similar effect on glycan chain length. Moenomycin-resistant S. aureus strains containing mutated PGTs that make only short glycan polymers display major cell division defects, implicating PG chain length in determining bacterial cell morphology and division site placement.

  8. Moenomycin resistance mutations in Staphylococcus aureus reduce peptidoglycan chain length and cause aberrant cell division

    PubMed Central

    Rebets, Yuriy; Lupoli, Tania; Qiao, Yuan; Schirner, Kathrin; Villet, Regis; Hooper, David; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen with an unusual mode of cell division in that it divides in orthogonal rather than parallel planes. Through selection using moenomycin, an antibiotic proposed to target peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (PGTs), we have generated resistant mutants containing a single point mutation in the active site of the PGT domain of an essential peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthetic enzyme, PBP2. Using cell free polymerization assays, we show that this mutation alters PGT activity so that much shorter PG chains are made. The same mutation in another S. aureus PGT, SgtB, has a similar effect on glycan chain length. Moenomycin-resistant S. aureus strains containing mutated PGTs that make only short glycan polymers display major cell division defects, implicating peptidoglycan chain length in determining bacterial cell morphology and division site placement. PMID:24255971

  9. Effect of a small molecule Lipid II binder on bacterial cell wall stress

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Jakob; Shetty, Amol C; Daugherty, Sean C; de Leeuw, Erik PH

    2017-01-01

    We have recently identified small molecule compounds that act as binders of Lipid II, an essential precursor of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Lipid II comprised a hydrophilic head group that includes a peptidoglycan subunit composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) coupled to a short pentapeptide moiety. This headgroup is coupled to a long bactoprenol chain via a pyrophosphate group. Here, we report on the cell wall activity relationship of dimethyl-3-methyl(phenyl)amino-ethenylcyclohexylidene-propenyl-3-ethyl-1,3-benzothiazolium iodide (compound 5107930) obtained by functional and genetic analyses. Our results indicate that compounds bind to Lipid II and cause specific upregulation of the vancomycin-resistance associated gene vraX. vraX is implicated in the cell wall stress stimulon that confers glycopeptide resistance. Our small molecule Lipid II inhibitor retained activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus mutated in genes encoding the cell wall stress stimulon. This suggests the feasibility of developing this new scaffold as a therapeutic agent in view of increasing glycopeptide resistance. PMID:28280373

  10. An arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptiona...

  11. Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase Activity Loosens a Plant Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Van Sandt, Vicky S. T.; Suslov, Dmitry; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant cells undergo cell expansion when a temporary imbalance between the hydraulic pressure of the vacuole and the extensibility of the cell wall makes the cell volume increase dramatically. The primary cell walls of most seed plants consist of cellulose microfibrils tethered mainly by xyloglucans and embedded in a highly hydrated pectin matrix. During cell expansion the wall stress is decreased by the highly controlled rearrangement of the load-bearing tethers in the wall so that the microfibrils can move relative to each other. Here the effect was studied of a purified recombinant xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) on the extension of isolated cell walls. Method The epidermis of growing onion (Allium cepa) bulb scales is a one-cell-thick model tissue that is structurally and mechanically highly anisotropic. In constant load experiments, the effect of purified recombinant XTH proteins of Selaginella kraussiana on the extension of isolated onion epidermis was recorded. Key Results Fluorescent xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) assays demonstrate that exogeneous XTH can act on isolated onion epidermis cell walls. Furthermore, cell wall extension was significantly increased upon addition of XTH to the isolated epidermis, but only transverse to the net orientation of cellulose microfibrils. Conclusions The results provide evidence that XTHs can act as cell wall-loosening enzymes. PMID:17916584

  12. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis, patterned deposition and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Secondary walls are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses (xylan and glucomannan) and lignin, and are deposited in some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, fibers and other sclerenchymatous cells. Secondary walls provide strength to these cells, which lend mechanical support and protection to the plant body and, in the case of tracheary elements, enable them to function as conduits for transporting water. Formation of secondary walls is a complex process that requires the co-ordinated expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, biosynthesis and targeted secretion of secondary wall components, and patterned deposition and assembly of secondary walls. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition. Most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components, including cellulose, xylan, glucomannan and lignin, have been identified and their co-ordinated activation has been shown to be mediated by a transcriptional network encompassing the secondary wall NAC and MYB master switches and their downstream transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that cortical microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play important roles in the targeted secretion of cellulose synthase complexes, the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils and the patterned deposition of secondary walls. Further investigation of many secondary wall-associated genes with unknown functions will provide new insights into the mechanisms controlling the formation of secondary walls that constitute the bulk of plant biomass.

  13. Small Molecule Probes for Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ian S.; Anderson, Charles T.

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics. PMID:22639673

  14. Cell wall structure and biogenesis in Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Akira; Miyazawa, Ken; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi from the viewpoints of industry, pathogenesis, and mycotoxin production. Fungal cells are exposed to a variety of environmental stimuli, including changes in osmolality, temperature, and pH, which create stresses that primarily act on fungal cell walls. In addition, fungal cell walls are the first interactions with host cells in either human or plants. Thus, understanding cell wall structure and the mechanism of their biogenesis is important for the industrial, medical, and agricultural fields. Here, we provide a systematic review of fungal cell wall structure and recent findings regarding the cell wall integrity signaling pathways in aspergilli. This accumulated knowledge will be useful for understanding and improving the use of industrial aspergilli fermentation processes as well as treatments for some fungal infections.

  15. Calcium at the cell wall-cytoplast interface.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    Attention is given to the role of Ca(2+) at the interface between the cell wall and the cytoplast, especially as seen in pollen tubes. While the cytoplasm directs the synthesis and deposition of the wall, it is less well appreciated that the wall exerts considerable self control and influences activities of the cytoplasm. Ca(2+) participates as a crucial factor in this two way communication. In the cytoplasm, a [Ca(2+)] above 0.1 microM, regulates myriad processes, including secretion of cell wall components. In the cell wall Ca(2+), at 10 microM to 10 mM, binds negative charges on pectins and imparts structural rigidity to the wall. The plasma membrane occupies a pivotal position between these two compartments, where selective channels regulate influx of Ca(2+), and specific carriers pump the ion back into the wall. In addition we draw attention to different factors, which either respond to the wall or are present in the wall, and usually generate elevated [Ca(2+)] in the cytoplasm. These factors include: (i) stretch activated channels; (ii) calmodulin; (iii) annexins; (iv) wall associated kinases; (v) oligogalacturonides; and (vi) extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Together they provide evidence for a rich and multifaceted system of communication between the cytoplast and cell wall, with Ca(2+) as a carrier of information.

  16. Cell wall ultrastructure of flocculent and non-flocculent Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains. Effect of cell wall hydrolysing enzymes on flocculation and cell wall ultastructure.

    PubMed

    Geleta, Anna; Kristóf, Z; Maráz, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed the presence of slime-like, amorphous material on the surface of Schizosaccahromyces pombe RIVE 4-2-1 cells, independently, whether they were in flocculated or in non-flocculated state. Close contact of the adjacent cells via the merging outermost cell wall layers was found, however, only in the case of floc formation, which was induced by cultivating the cells in the presence of 6% (v/v) ethanol. Irreversible loss of the flocculation ability of the cells by treatment with proteinases suggests that proteinaceous cell surface molecules as lectins contribute to the cell-to-cell interaction during flocculation. Both proteinase K and pronase treatments removed a distinct outer layer of the cell wall, which indicated that the protein moieties of the phosphogalactomannan outer surface layer has a crucial role in the maintenance of cell wall integrity. In the case of lysing enzyme treatment the removal of the outermost layer was also observed as the first step of the cell wall digestion, while driselase treatment resulted in almost complete digestion of the cell wall.

  17. At the border: the plasma membrane-cell wall continuum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengyu; Persson, Staffan; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara

    2015-03-01

    Plant cells rely on their cell walls for directed growth and environmental adaptation. Synthesis and remodelling of the cell walls are membrane-related processes. During cell growth and exposure to external stimuli, there is a constant exchange of lipids, proteins, and other cell wall components between the cytosol and the plasma membrane/apoplast. This exchange of material and the localization of cell wall proteins at certain spots in the plasma membrane seem to rely on a particular membrane composition. In addition, sensors at the plasma membrane detect changes in the cell wall architecture, and activate cytoplasmic signalling schemes and ultimately cell wall remodelling. The apoplastic polysaccharide matrix is, on the other hand, crucial for preventing proteins diffusing uncontrollably in the membrane. Therefore, the cell wall-plasma membrane link is essential for plant development and responses to external stimuli. This review focuses on the relationship between the cell wall and plasma membrane, and its importance for plant tissue organization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. An enlarged cell wall proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Vincent; Duruflé, Harold; San Clemente, Hélène; Albenne, Cécile; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Dunand, Christophe; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls playing many roles during development and in response to environmental constraints. Cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins), but they also contain proteins which are critical players in cell wall remodeling processes. Today, the cell wall proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana, a major dicot model plant, comprises more than 700 proteins predicted to be secreted (cell wall proteins-CWPs) identified in different organs or in cell suspension cultures. However, the cell wall proteome of rosettes is poorly represented with only 148 CWPs identified after extraction by vacuum infiltration. This new study allows enlarging its coverage. A destructive method starting with the purification of cell walls has been performed and two experiments have been compared. They differ by the presence/absence of protein separation by a short 1D-electrophoresis run prior to tryptic digestion and different gradient programs for peptide separation before mass spectrometry analysis. Altogether, the rosette cell wall proteome has been significantly enlarged to 361 CWPs, among which 213 newly identified in rosettes and 57 newly described. The identified CWPs fall in four major functional classes: 26.1% proteins acting on polysaccharides, 11.1% oxido-reductases, 14.7% proteases and 11.7% proteins possibly related to lipid metabolism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Compounds in a particular production lot of tryptic soy broth inhibit Staphylococcus aureus cell growth.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masaki; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus Newman strain and several methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates were grown on agar plates prepared with conventional lots of tryptic soy broth (TSB). Cell growth of these strains was inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of a particular product lot (lot A), whereas the cell growth of S. aureus RN4220 strain and several other MRSA clinical isolates was not inhibited. The cell growth of a strain of S. epidermidis was also inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of lot A, whereas the cell growth of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli was not inhibited. Although cell growth of the Newman strain was inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of lot A that was autoclaved in stainless steel or glass containers, cell growth inhibition was not observed when the medium was autoclaved in polypropylene containers. Compounds that inhibited the cell growth of the Newman strain were extracted from a polypropylene tube that was preincubated with liquid medium prepared from TSB of lot A. These findings suggest that polypropylene-binding compounds in TSB of lot A inhibited the cell growth of S. aureus Newman strain, some MRSA clinical isolates, and S. epidermidis.

  20. Screening and characterization of plant cell walls using carbohydrate microarrays.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Willats, William G T

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls built largely from complex carbohydrates. The primary walls of growing plant cells consist of interdependent networks of three polysaccharide classes: cellulose, cross-linking glycans (also known as hemicelluloses), and pectins. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered together by cross-linking glycans, and this assembly forms the major load-bearing component of primary walls, which is infiltrated with pectic polymers. In the secondary walls of woody tissues, pectins are much reduced and walls are reinforced with the phenolic polymer lignin. Plant cell walls are essential for plant life and also have numerous industrial applications, ranging from wood to nutraceuticals. Enhancing our knowledge of cell wall biology and the effective use of cell wall materials is dependent to a large extent on being able to analyse their fine structures. We have developed a suite of techniques based on microarrays probed with monoclonal antibodies with specificity for cell wall components, and here we present practical protocols for this type of analysis.

  1. How the deposition of cellulose microfibrils builds cell wall architecture.

    PubMed

    Emons, A M; Mulder, B M

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls, the extracytoplasmic matrices of plant cells, consist of an ordered array of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. This construction is reminiscent of steel rods in reinforced concrete. How a cell organizes these ordered textures around itself, creating its own desirable environment, is a fascinating question. We believe that nature adopted an economical solution to this design problem: it exploits the geometrical constraints imposed by the shape of the cell and the limited space in which microfibrils are deposited, enabling the wall textures essentially to 'build themselves'. This does not imply that the cell cannot control its wall texture. On the contrary, the cell has ample regulatory mechanisms to control wall texture formation by controlling the insertion of synthases and the distance between individual microfibrils within a wall lamella.

  2. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  3. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Darvill, Alan; Hahn, Michael G.; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; York, William S.

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  4. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

  5. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  6. The role of wall calcium in the extension of cell walls of soybean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virk, S. S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium crosslinks are load-bearing bonds in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyl cell walls, but they are not the same load-bearing bonds that are broken during acid-mediated cell elongation. This conclusion is reached by studying the relationship between wall calcium, pH and the facilitated creep of frozen-thawed soybean hypocotyl sections. Supporting data include the following observations: 1) 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin 2) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) caused only limited facilitated creep as compared with acid, despite removal of comparable or larger amounts of wall calcium; 2) the pH-response curves for calcium removal and acid-facilitated creep were different; 3) reversible acid-extension occurred even after removal of almost all wall calcium with Quin 2; and 4) growth of abraded sections did not involve a proportional loss of wall calcium. Removal of wall calcium, however, increased the capacity of the walls to undergo acid-facilitated creep. These data indicate that breakage of calcium crosslinks is not a major mechanism of cell-wall loosening in soybean hypocotyl tissues.

  7. The role of wall calcium in the extension of cell walls of soybean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virk, S. S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium crosslinks are load-bearing bonds in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyl cell walls, but they are not the same load-bearing bonds that are broken during acid-mediated cell elongation. This conclusion is reached by studying the relationship between wall calcium, pH and the facilitated creep of frozen-thawed soybean hypocotyl sections. Supporting data include the following observations: 1) 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin 2) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) caused only limited facilitated creep as compared with acid, despite removal of comparable or larger amounts of wall calcium; 2) the pH-response curves for calcium removal and acid-facilitated creep were different; 3) reversible acid-extension occurred even after removal of almost all wall calcium with Quin 2; and 4) growth of abraded sections did not involve a proportional loss of wall calcium. Removal of wall calcium, however, increased the capacity of the walls to undergo acid-facilitated creep. These data indicate that breakage of calcium crosslinks is not a major mechanism of cell-wall loosening in soybean hypocotyl tissues.

  8. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  9. Induction of transient macroapertures in endothelial cells through RhoA inhibition by Staphylococcus aureus factors.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laurent; Doye, Anne; Rolando, Monica; Flatau, Gilles; Munro, Patrick; Gounon, Pierre; Clément, René; Pulcini, Céline; Popoff, Michel R; Mettouchi, Amel; Landraud, Luce; Dussurget, Olivier; Lemichez, Emmanuel

    2006-06-05

    The GTPase RhoA is a major regulator of the assembly of actin stress fibers and the contractility of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. The epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor (EDIN) and EDIN-like ADP-ribosyltransferases of Staphylococcus aureus catalyze the inactivation of RhoA, producing actin cable disruption. We report that purified recombinant EDIN and EDIN-producing S. aureus provoke large transcellular tunnels in endothelial cells that we have named macroapertures (MAs). These structures open transiently, followed by the appearance of actin-containing membrane waves extending over the aperture. Disruption of actin cables, either directly or indirectly, through rhoA RNAi knockdown also triggers the formation of MAs. Intoxication of endothelial monolayers by EDIN produces a loss of barrier function and provides direct access of the endothelium basement membrane to S. aureus.

  10. Induction of transient macroapertures in endothelial cells through RhoA inhibition by Staphylococcus aureus factors

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Laurent; Doye, Anne; Rolando, Monica; Flatau, Gilles; Munro, Patrick; Gounon, Pierre; Clément, René; Pulcini, Céline; Popoff, Michel R.; Mettouchi, Amel; Landraud, Luce; Dussurget, Olivier; Lemichez, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    The GTPase RhoA is a major regulator of the assembly of actin stress fibers and the contractility of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. The epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor (EDIN) and EDIN-like ADP-ribosyltransferases of Staphylococcus aureus catalyze the inactivation of RhoA, producing actin cable disruption. We report that purified recombinant EDIN and EDIN-producing S. aureus provoke large transcellular tunnels in endothelial cells that we have named macroapertures (MAs). These structures open transiently, followed by the appearance of actin-containing membrane waves extending over the aperture. Disruption of actin cables, either directly or indirectly, through rhoA RNAi knockdown also triggers the formation of MAs. Intoxication of endothelial monolayers by EDIN produces a loss of barrier function and provides direct access of the endothelium basement membrane to S. aureus. PMID:16754962

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Infection Reduces Nutrition Uptake and Nucleotide Biosynthesis in a Human Airway Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Gierok, Philipp; Harms, Manuela; Methling, Karen; Hochgräfe, Falko; Lalk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Gram positive opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus induces a variety of diseases including pneumonia. S. aureus is the second most isolated pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients and accounts for a large proportion of nosocomial pneumonia. Inside the lung, the human airway epithelium is the first line in defence with regard to microbial recognition and clearance as well as regulation of the immune response. The metabolic host response is, however, yet unknown. To address the question of whether the infection alters the metabolome and metabolic activity of airway epithelial cells, we used a metabolomics approach. The nutrition uptake by the human airway epithelial cell line A549 was monitored over time by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and the intracellular metabolic fingerprints were investigated by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (GC-MS) and (HPLC-MS). To test the metabolic activity of the host cells, glutamine analogues and labelled precursors were applied after the infection. We found that A549 cells restrict uptake of essential nutrients from the medium after S. aureus infection. Moreover, the infection led to a shutdown of the purine and pyrimidine synthesis in the A549 host cell, whereas other metabolic routes such as the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway remained active. In summary, our data show that the infection with S. aureus negatively affects growth, alters the metabolic composition and specifically impacts the de novo nucleotide biosynthesis in this human airway epithelial cell model. PMID:27834866

  12. Tissue-specific cell wall hydration in sugarcane stalks.

    PubMed

    Maziero, Priscila; Jong, Jennifer; Mendes, Fernanda M; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Eder, Michaela; Driemeier, Carlos

    2013-06-19

    Plant cell walls contain water, especially under biological and wet processing conditions. The present work characterizes this water in tissues of sugarcane stalks. Environmental scanning electron microscopy shows tissue deformation upon drying. Dynamic vapor sorption determines the equilibrium and kinetics of moisture uptake. Thermoporometry by differential scanning calorimetry quantifies water in nanoscale pores. Results show that cell walls from top internodes of stalks are more deformable, slightly more sorptive to moisture, and substantially more porous. These differences of top internode are attributed to less lignified walls, which is confirmed by lower infrared spectral signal from aromatics. Furthermore, cell wall nanoscale porosity, an architectural and not directly compositional characteristic, is shown to be tissue-specific. Nanoscale porosities are ranked as follows: pith parenchyma > pith vascular bundles > rind. This ranking coincides with wall reactivity and digestibility in grasses, suggesting that nanoscale porosity is a major determinant of wall recalcitrance.

  13. Mitochondria mediates caspase-dependent and independent retinal cell death in Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, P K; Kumar, A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis, a vision-threatening complication of ocular surgery or trauma, is characterized by increased intraocular inflammation and retinal tissue damage. Although significant vision loss in endophthalmitis has been linked to retinal cell death, the underlying mechanisms of cell death remain elusive. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis and cultured human retinal Müller glia (MIO-M1 cell line), we demonstrate that S. aureus caused significant apoptotic cell death in the mouse retina and Müller glia, as evidenced by increased number of terminal dUTP nick end labeling and Annexin V and propidium iodide-positive cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blot studies revealed the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 staining), release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and the activation of caspase-9 and -3 in S. aureus-infected retina/retinal cells. In addition, the activation of PARP-1 and the release of apoptosis inducing factor from mitochondria was also observed in S. aureus-infected retinal cells. Inhibition studies using pan-caspase (Q-VD-OPH) and PARP-1 (DPQ) inhibitors showed significant reduction in S. aureus-induced retinal cell death both in vivo and in vitro. Together, our findings demonstrate that in bacterial endophthalmitis, retinal cells undergo apoptosis in the both caspase-dependent and independent manners, and mitochondria have a central role in this process. Hence, targeting the identified signaling pathways may provide the rationale to design therapeutic interventions to prevent bystander retinal tissue damage in bacterial endophthalmitis. PMID:27551524

  14. D-Alanylation of Teichoic Acids and Loss of Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine in Staphylococcus aureus during Exponential Growth Phase Enhance IL-12 Production in Murine Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Ingmer, Hanne; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that has evolved very efficient immune evading strategies leading to persistent colonization. During different stages of growth, S. aureus express various surface molecules, which may affect the immune stimulating properties, but very little is known about their role in immune stimulation and evasion. Depending on the growth phase, S. aureus may affect antigen presenting cells differently. Here, the impact of growth phases and the surface molecules lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan and poly-N-acetyl glucosamine on the induction of IL-12 imperative for an efficient clearance of S. aureus was studied in dendritic cells (DCs). Exponential phase (EP) S. aureus was superior to stationary phase (SP) bacteria in induction of IL-12, which required actin-mediated endocytosis and endosomal acidification. Moreover, addition of staphylococcal cell wall derived peptidoglycan to EP S. aureus stimulated cells increased bacterial uptake but abrogated IL-12 induction, while addition of lipoteichoic acid increased IL-12 production but had no effect on the bacterial uptake. Depletion of the capability to produce poly-N-acetyl glucosamine increased the IL-12 inducing activity of EP bacteria. Furthermore, the mutant dltA unable to produce D-alanylated teichoic acids failed to induce IL-12 but like peptidoglycan and the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands LPS and Pam3CSK4 the mutant stimulated increased macropinocytosis. In conclusion, the IL-12 response by DCs against S. aureus is highly growth phase dependent, relies on cell wall D-alanylation, endocytosis and subsequent endosomal degradation, and is abrogated by receptor induced macropinocytosis.

  15. 7. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. WALL MAP IN CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. WALL MAP IN CENTRAL BASEMENT OFFICE AREA. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  16. Mast cells in the human alveolar wall: an electronmicroscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Guz, A

    1981-01-01

    Mast cells were identified by electronmicroscopy in the alveolar wall of the lung in 20 subjects (10 normal, 10 abnormal). A quantitative and qualitative study was made of the mast cells. In the normal lung there was an average concentration of 350 mast cells/mm2 of alveolar wall and in the abnormal 523/mm2. Mast cells occupied approximately 1.6-2.1% of the area of the alveolar wall. There was marked variation in the structure of the mast cell granules but no differences between those in the normal and abnormal lungs. There was evidence that constant degranulation of mast cells may be occurring in the lung. The role that alveolar mast cells may play in the vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia is discussed. It is suggested that the tachypnoea present in asthma may partly be due to release of mediators from sensitised mast cells within the alveolar wall. Images PMID:7328180

  17. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Cherry, Joel

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  18. Signaling role of oligogalacturonides derived during cell wall degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vallarino, José G.; Osorio, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the role of the cell wall as a physical barrier against pathogens, some of its constituents, such as pectin-derived oligogalacturonides (OGAs) are essential components to trigger signaling pathways that induce rapid defense responses. Many pathogens directly penetrate the cell wall to access water and nutrients of the plant protoplast, and a rigid cell wall can fend off pathogen attack by forming an impenetrable physical barrier. Thus, cell wall integrity sensing is one mechanism by which plants may detect pathogen attack. Moreover, when the plant-pathogen interaction occurred, OGAs released during cell wall modification can trigger plant defense (e.g., production of reactive oxygen species, production of anti-microbial metabolites and synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins). This review documents and discusses studies suggesting that OGAs play a dual signaling role during pathogen attack by inducing defense responses and plant architecture adjustment. PMID:22918501

  19. Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yuya; Kiku, Yoshio; Sugawara, Kazue; Tanabe, Fuyuko; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2017-09-11

    The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3-21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the increasing MEC exfoliation rate in milk from mastitis udders caused by S. aureus may contribute to reduced milk yield. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Methamphetamine Alters the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Phagocytic Cells during Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mihu, Mircea Radu; Roman-Sosa, Jessica; Varshney, Avanish K.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Shah, Bhavikkumar P.; Ham Lee, Hiu; Nguyen, Long N.; Guimaraes, Allan J.; Fries, Bettina C.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methamphetamine (METH) is a major drug of abuse in the United States and worldwide. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus infections and METH use are coemerging public health problems. S. aureus is the single most important bacterial pathogen in infections among injection drug users, with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) being extremely common. Notably, the incidence of SSTI, especially in drug users, is difficult to estimate because such infections are often self-treated. Although there is substantial information on the behavioral and cognitive defects caused by METH in drug users, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding its impact on bacterial infections and immunity. Therefore, we hypothesized that METH exacerbates S. aureus skin infection. Using a murine model of METH administration and wound infection, we demonstrated that METH reduces wound healing and facilitates host-mediated collagen degradation by increased expression and production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Additionally, we found that METH induces S. aureus biofilm formation and leads to detrimental effects on the functions of human and murine phagocytic cells, enhancing susceptibility to S. aureus infection. Our findings provide empirical evidence of the adverse impact of METH use on the antimicrobial efficacy of the cells that comprise innate immunity, the initial host response to combat microbial infection. PMID:26507236

  1. Collenchyma: a versatile mechanical tissue with dynamic cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Collenchyma has remained in the shadow of commercially exploited mechanical tissues such as wood and fibres, and therefore has received little attention since it was first described. However, collenchyma is highly dynamic, especially compared with sclerenchyma. It is the main supporting tissue of growing organs with walls thickening during and after elongation. In older organs, collenchyma may become more rigid due to changes in cell wall composition or may undergo sclerification through lignification of newly deposited cell wall material. While much is known about the systematic and organographic distribution of collenchyma, there is rather less information regarding the molecular architecture and properties of its cell walls. Scope and conclusions This review summarizes several aspects that have not previously been extensively discussed including the origin of the term ‘collenchyma’ and the history of its typology. As the cell walls of collenchyma largely determine the dynamic characteristics of this tissue, I summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their structure and molecular composition. Unfortunately, to date, detailed studies specifically focusing on collenchyma cell walls have not been undertaken. However, generating a more detailed understanding of the structural and compositional modifications associated with the transition from plastic to elastic collenchyma cell wall properties is likely to provide significant insights into how specific configurations of cell wall polymers result in specific functional properties. This approach, focusing on architecture and functional properties, is likely to provide improved clarity on the controversial definition of collenchyma. PMID:22933416

  2. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the 'Young's modulus' of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis of plant cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuewen; Alonso, Ana P; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of plant cell wall synthesis pathways remains poorly understood. This has become a bottleneck in designing bioenergy crops. The goal of this study was to analyze the regulation of plant cell wall precursor metabolism using metabolic flux analysis based on dynamic labeling experiments. Arabidopsis T87 cells were cultured heterotrophically with (13)C labeled sucrose. The time course of ¹³C labeling patterns in cell wall precursors and related sugar phosphates was monitored using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry until steady state labeling was reached. A kinetic model based on mass action reaction mechanisms was developed to simulate the carbon flow in the cell wall synthesis network. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by fitting the model to the labeling time course data, cell wall composition, and synthesis rates. A metabolic control analysis was performed to predict metabolic regulations that may improve plant biomass composition for biofuel production. Our results describe the routes and rates of carbon flow from sucrose to cell wall precursors. We found that sucrose invertase is responsible for the entry of sucrose into metabolism and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase plays a dominant role in UDP-Gal synthesis in heterotrophic Aradidopsis cells under aerobic conditions. We also predicted reactions that exert strong regulatory influence over carbon flow to cell wall synthesis and its composition.

  4. Mechanical properties of spruce wood cell walls by nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindl, W.; Gupta, H. S.; Schöberl, T.; Lichtenegger, H. C.; Fratzl, P.

    2004-12-01

    In order to study the effects of structural variability, nanoindentation experiments were performed in Norway spruce cell walls with highly variable cellulose microfibril angle and lignin content. Contrary to hardness, which showed no statistically significant relationship with changing microfibril angle and lignin content, the elastic modulus of the secondary cell wall decreased significantly with increasing microfibril angle. While the elastic moduli of cell walls with large microfibril angle agreed well with published values, the elastic moduli of cell walls with small microfibril angle were clearly underestimated in nanoindentation measurements. Hardness measurements in the cell corner middle lamella allowed us to estimate the yield stress of the cell-wall matrix to be 0.34±0.16 GPa. Since the hardness of the secondary cell wall was statistically not different from the hardness of the cell corner middle lamella, irrespective of high variability in cellulose microfibril angle, it is proposed that compressive yielding of wood-cell walls is a matrix-dominated process.

  5. Mechanical properties of plant cell walls probed by relaxation spectra.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steen Laugesen; Ray, Peter Martin; Karlsson, Anders Ola; Jørgensen, Bodil; Borkhardt, Bernhard; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Ulvskov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Transformants and mutants with altered cell wall composition are expected to display a biomechanical phenotype due to the structural role of the cell wall. It is often quite difficult, however, to distinguish the mechanical behavior of a mutant's or transformant's cell walls from that of the wild type. This may be due to the plant's ability to compensate for the wall modification or because the biophysical method that is often employed, determination of simple elastic modulus and breakstrength, lacks the resolving power necessary for detecting subtle mechanical phenotypes. Here, we apply a method, determination of relaxation spectra, which probes, and can separate, the viscoelastic properties of different cell wall components (i.e. those properties that depend on the elastic behavior of load-bearing wall polymers combined with viscous interactions between them). A computer program, BayesRelax, that deduces relaxation spectra from appropriate rheological measurements is presented and made accessible through a Web interface. BayesRelax models the cell wall as a continuum of relaxing elements, and the ability of the method to resolve small differences in cell wall mechanical properties is demonstrated using tuber tissue from wild-type and transgenic potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) that differ in rhamnogalacturonan I side chain structure.

  6. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  7. Silkworm apolipophorin protein inhibits hemolysin gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus via binding to cell surface lipoteichoic acids.

    PubMed

    Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2013-08-30

    We previously reported that a silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin (ApoLp), binds to the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-component system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ApoLp on S. aureus hemolysin gene expression. ApoLp bound to lipoteichoic acids (LTA), an S. aureus cell surface component. The addition of purified LTA to liquid medium abolished the inhibitory effect of ApoLp against S. aureus hemolysin production. In an S. aureus knockdown mutant of ltaS encoding LTA synthetase, the inhibitory effects of ApoLp on saeQ expression and hemolysin production were attenuated. Furthermore, the addition of anti-LTA monoclonal antibody to liquid medium decreased the expression of S. aureus saeQ and hemolysin genes. In S. aureus strains expressing SaeS mutant proteins with a shortened extracellular domain, ApoLp did not decrease saeQ expression. These findings suggest that ApoLp binds to LTA on the S. aureus cell surface and inhibits S. aureus hemolysin gene expression via a two-component regulatory system, SaeRS.

  8. Maize development: cell wall changes in leaves and sheaths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developmental changes occur in maize (Zea mays L.) as it transitions from juvenile stages to the mature plant. Changes also occur as newly formed cells mature into adult cells. Maize leaf blades, including the midribs and sheaths, undergo cell wall changes as cells transition to fully mature cell ty...

  9. The Plant Cell Wall: A Dynamic Barrier Against Pathogen Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, William

    2012-01-01

    Prospective plant pathogens must overcome the physical barrier presented by the plant cell wall. In addition to being a preformed, passive barrier limiting access of pathogens to plant cells, the cell wall is actively remodeled and reinforced specifically at discrete sites of interaction with potentially pathogenic microbes. Active reinforcement of the cell wall through the deposition of cell wall appositions, referred to as papillae, is an early response to perception of numerous categories of pathogens including fungi and bacteria. Rapid deposition of papillae is generally correlated with resistance to fungal pathogens that attempt to penetrate plant cell walls for the establishment of feeding structures. Despite the ubiquity and apparent importance of this early defense response, relatively little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular processes involved in the targeting and assembly of papillae. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of cell wall-associated defenses induced by pathogen perception as well as the impact of changes in cell wall polymers on interactions with pathogens and highlights significant unanswered questions driving future research in the area. PMID:22639669

  10. In vitro reconstitution demonstrates the cell wall ligase activity of LCP proteins.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Kaitlin; Matano, Leigh M; Qiao, Yuan; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Sacculus is a peptidoglycan (PG) matrix that protects bacteria from osmotic lysis. In Gram-positive organisms, the sacculus is densely functionalized with glycopolymers important for survival, but the way in which assembly occurs is not known. In Staphylococcus aureus, three LCP (LytR-CpsA-Psr) family members have been implicated in attaching the major glycopolymer wall teichoic acid (WTA) to PG, but ligase activity has not been demonstrated for these or any other LCP proteins. Using WTA and PG substrates produced chemoenzymatically, we show that all three proteins can transfer WTA precursors to nascent PGs, establishing that LCP proteins are PG-glycopolymer ligases. Although all S. aureus LCP proteins have the capacity to attach WTA to PG, we show that their cellular functions are not redundant. Strains lacking lcpA have phenotypes similar to those of WTA-null strains, indicating that this is the most important WTA ligase. This work provides a foundation for studying how LCP enzymes participate in cell wall assembly.

  11. A Fungal Endoglucanase with Plant Cell Wall Extension Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sheng; Wu, Yajun; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified a wall hydrolytic enzyme from Trichoderma reesei with potent ability to induce extension of heat-inactivated type I cell walls. It is a small (23-kD) endo-1,4-β-glucanase (Cel12A) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 12. Extension of heat-inactivated walls from cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv Burpee Pickler) hypocotyls was induced by Cel12A after a distinct lag time and was accompanied by a large increase in wall plasticity and elasticity. Cel12A also increased the rate of stress relaxation of isolated walls at very short times (<200 ms; equivalent to reducing t0, a parameter that estimates the minimum relaxation time). Similar changes in wall plasticity and elasticity were observed in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Pennmore Winter) coleoptile (type II) walls, which showed only a negligible extension in response to Cel12A treatment. Thus, Cel12A modifies both type I and II walls, but substantial extension is found only in type I walls. Cel12A has strong endo-glucanase activity against xyloglucan and (1→3,1→4)-β-glucan, but did not exhibit endo-xylanase, endo-mannase, or endo-galactanase activities. In terms of kinetics of action and effects on wall rheology, wall loosening by Cel12A differs qualitatively from the action by expansins, which induce wall extension by a non-hydrolytic polymer creep mechanism. The action by Cel12A mimics some of the changes in wall rheology found after auxin-induced growth. The strategy used here to identify Cel12A could be used to identify analogous plant enzymes that cause auxin-induced changes in cell wall rheology. PMID:11553760

  12. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mechanisms of Their Targeting to the Cell Wall Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, William Wiley; Schneewind, Olaf

    1999-01-01

    The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins. PMID:10066836

  13. Differentiating Staphylococcus aureus from Escherichia coli mastitis: S. aureus triggers unbalanced immune-dampening and host cell invasion immediately after udder infection.

    PubMed

    Günther, Juliane; Petzl, Wolfram; Bauer, Isabel; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Zerbe, Holm; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Brunner, Ronald M; Seyfert, Hans-Martin

    2017-07-06

    The etiology determines quality and extent of the immune response after udder infection (mastitis). Infections with Gram negative bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli) will quickly elicit strong inflammation of the udder, fully activate its immune defence via pathogen receptor driven activation of IκB/NF-κB signaling. This often eradicates the pathogen. In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) will slowly elicit a much weaker inflammation and immune response, frequently resulting in chronic infections. However, it was unclear which immune regulatory pathways are specifically triggered by S. aureus causing this partial immune subversion. We therefore compared in first lactating cows the earliest (1-3 h) udder responses against infection with mastitis causing pathogens of either species. Global transcriptome profiling, bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation of key aspects revealed as S. aureus infection specific features the (i) failure to activating IκB/NF-κB signaling; (ii) activation of the wnt/β-catenin cascade resulting in active suppression of NF-κB signaling and (iii) rearrangement of the actin-cytoskeleton through modulating Rho GTPase regulated pathways. This facilitates invasion of pathogens into host cells. Hence, S. aureus mastitis is characterized by eliciting unbalanced immune suppression rather than inflammation and invasion of S. aureus into the epithelial cells of the host causing sustained infection.

  14. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Invasion into Human Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnappa, Ajay K.; Dwidar, Mohammed; Seo, Jeong Kon; Hur, Jin-Hoe; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is a predatory bacterium that attacks many Gram-negative human pathogens. A serious drawback of this strain, however, is its ineffectiveness against Gram-positive strains, such as the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that the extracellular proteases produced by a host-independent B. bacteriovorus (HIB) effectively degrade/inhibit the formation of S. aureus biofilms and reduce its virulence. A 10% addition of HIB supernatant caused a 75% or greater reduction in S. aureus biofilm formation as well as 75% dispersal of pre-formed biofilms. LC-MS-MS analyses identified various B. bacteriovorus proteases within the supernatant, including the serine proteases Bd2269 and Bd2321. Tests with AEBSF confirmed that serine proteases were active in the supernatant and that they impacted S. aureus biofilm formation. The supernatant also possessed a slight DNAse activity. Furthermore, treatment of planktonic S. aureus with the supernatant diminished its ability to invade MCF-10a epithelial cells by 5-fold but did not affect the MCF-10a viability. In conclusion, this study illustrates the hitherto unknown ability of B. bacteriovorus to disperse Gram-positive pathogenic biofilms and mitigate their virulence.

  15. Tomatidine inhibits replication of Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Gattuso, Mariza; Grondin, Gilles; Marsault, Éric; Bouarab, Kamal; Malouin, François

    2011-05-01

    Small-colony variants (SCVs) often are associated with chronic Staphylococcus aureus infections, such as those encountered by cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We report here that tomatidine, the aglycon form of the plant secondary metabolite tomatine, has a potent growth inhibitory activity against SCVs (MIC of 0.12 μg/ml), whereas the growth of normal S. aureus strains was not significantly altered by tomatidine (MIC, >16 μg/ml). The specific action of tomatidine was bacteriostatic for SCVs and was clearly associated with their dysfunctional electron transport system, as the presence of the electron transport inhibitor 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) caused normal S. aureus strains to become susceptible to tomatidine. Inversely, the complementation of SCVs' respiratory deficiency conferred resistance to tomatidine. Tomatidine provoked a general reduction of macromolecular biosynthesis but more specifically affected the incorporation of radiolabeled leucine in proteins of HQNO-treated S. aureus at a concentration corresponding to the MIC against SCVs. Furthermore, tomatidine inhibited the intracellular replication of a clinical SCV in polarized CF-like epithelial cells. Our results suggest that tomatidine eventually will find some use in combination therapy with other traditional antibiotics to eliminate persistent forms of S. aureus.

  16. Roemerine Improves the Survival Rate of Septicemic BALB/c Mice by Increasing the Cell Membrane Permeability of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    He, Gonghao; Wang, Chengying; Ma, Chaoyu; Luo, Xiaoxing; Hou, Zheng; Xu, Guili

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently occurring hospital- and community-associated pathogenic bacteria featuring high morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increased persistently over the years. Therefore, developing novel anti-MRSA drugs to circumvent drug resistance of S. aureus is highly important. Roemerine, an aporphine alkaloid, has previously been reported to exhibit antibacterial activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether roemerine can maintain these activities against S.aureus in vivo and further explore the underlying mechanism. We found that roemerine is effective in vitro against four S. aureus strains as well as in vivo against MRSA insepticemic BALB/c mice. Furthermore, roemerine was found to increase cell membrane permeability in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that roemerine may be developed as a promising compound for treating S. aureus, especially methicillin-resistant strains of these bacteria. PMID:26606133

  17. Different effects of lipoteichoic acid from C. butyricum and S. aureus on inflammatory responses of HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Qi, Lili; Wu, Zhige; Mei, Lehe; Wang, Hengzheng

    2016-06-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and represents one of the most critical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules. In this study, we isolated and purified LTA from Clostridium butyricum (bLTA) and compared its effects on the inflammatory responses of HT-29 cells with those of LTA from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA). We also compared the effects of bLTA and aLTA on cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. The results showed that the length and saturation degree of the acyl chains in the two LTA molecules were obviously different. aLTA stimulated the phosphorylation of p65 and activated the NF-κB signaling pathway, inducing the expression and secretion of cytokines. Moreover, aLTA also inhibited the growth and proliferation of HT-29 cells and induced cell apoptosis. However, bLTA had no significant effects on the NF-κB signaling pathway in HT-29 cells and did not stimulate cellular inflammatory responses or induce apoptosis. These differences in activity may result from the different lengths and saturation degrees of the acyl fatty acid chains of the two LTA molecules. These differences may also account for the distinct effects elicited by probiotic bacteria and pathogenic bacteria on host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    DOE PAGES

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; ...

    2015-04-23

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how theymore » interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. In conclusion, different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis.« less

  19. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  20. Aluminium effects on mechanical properties of cell wall analogues.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Wehr, J Bernhard; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Blamey, F Pax C; Menzies, Neal W

    2016-12-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity adversely impacts plant productivity in acid soils by restricting root growth and although several mechanisms are involved the physiological basis of decreased root elongation remains unclear. Understanding the primary mechanisms of Al rhizotoxicity is hindered due to the rapid effects of soluble Al on root growth and the close proximity of many cellular components within the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol and nucleus with which Al may react. To overcome some of these difficulties, we report on a novel method for investigating Al interactions with Komagataeibacter xylinus bacterial cellulose (BC)-pectin composites as cell wall analogues. The growth of K. xylinus in the presence of various plant cell wall polysaccharides, such as pectin, has provided a unique in vitro model system with which to investigate the interactions of Al with plant cell wall polysaccharides. The BC-pectin composites reacted in a similar way with Al as do plant cell walls, providing insights into the effects of Al on the mechanical properties of the BC-pectin composites as cell wall analogues. Our findings indicated that there were no significant effects of Al (4-160 μM) on the tensile stress, tensile strain or Young's modulus of the composites. This finding was consistent with cellulose, not pectin, being the major load bearing component in BC-pectin composites, as is also the case in plant cell walls. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STREPTOCOCCAL CELL WALL

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Richard M.; McCarty, Maclyn

    1961-01-01

    Lysis of trypsinized Group A streptococcal cell walls with phage-associated lysin releases into solution dialyzable and non-dialyzable mucopeptide fractions composed of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid and alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, and glycine in addition to the characteristic group-specific carbohydrate. The latter substance contains appreciable amounts of N-acetylmuramic acid and the amino acids as well as N-acetylglucosamine and rhamnose. Hot formamide extraction of the cell walls results in a soluble fraction of group-specific carbohydrate and an insoluble residue. The Group A carbohydrate in this instance is composed of rhamnose and N-acetylglucosamine. The composition of the insoluble residue is similar to that of the mucopeptide fractions released from the cell wall by phage-associated lysin. This residue was shown by electron microscopy to be composed of discrete discs which appear similar in structure to the intact cell wall. The specific carbohydrate obtained by hot formamide extraction of Group A-variant cell walls was composed almost exclusively of rhamnose. The residue fraction was similar to that of Group A. The residue of cell walls extracted with hot formamide is extensively solubilized not only by phage-associated lysin and S. albus enzyme, but also by lysozyme, which has no measurable effect on the intact streptococcal cell wall. PMID:13754097

  2. A proteomic and genetic analysis of the Neurospora crassa conidia cell wall proteins identifies two glycosyl hydrolases involved in cell wall remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Jie; Aldabbous, Mash’el; Notaro, Marysa J.; Lojacono, Mark; Free, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A proteomic analysis of the conidial cell wall identified 35 cell wall proteins. A comparison with the proteome of the vegetative hyphae showed that 16 cell wall proteins were shared, and that these shared cell wall proteins were cell wall biosynthetic proteins or cell wall structural proteins. Deletion mutants for 34 of the genes were analyzed for phenotypes indicative of conidial cell wall defects. Mutants for two cell wall glycosyl hydrolases, the CGL-1 β-1,3-glucanase (NCU07523) and the NAG-1 exochitinase (NCU10852), were found to have a conidial separation phenotype. These two enzymes function in remodeling the cell wall between adjacent conidia to facilitate conidia formation and dissemination. Using promoter::RFP and promoter::GFP constructs, we demonstrated that the promoters for 15 of the conidia-specific cell wall genes, including cgl-1 and nag-1, provided for conidia-specific gene expression or for a significant increase in their expression during conidiation. PMID:27381444

  3. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Kuki, Hiroaki; Kuroha, Takeshi; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to investigate the de novo construction process of the cell wall. This review deals with sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall through the use of protoplasts, a methodology that will provide the basis for further exploration of cell wall proteins and cell wall dynamics. PMID:28248244

  4. Plant expansins: diversity and interactions with plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    Expansins were discovered two decades ago as cell wall proteins that mediate acid-induced growth by catalyzing loosening of plant cell walls without lysis of wall polymers. In the interim our understanding of expansins has gotten more complex through bioinformatic analysis of expansin distribution and evolution, as well as through expression analysis, dissection of the upstream transcription factors regulating expression, and identification of additional classes of expansin by sequence and structural similarities. Molecular analyses of expansins from bacteria have identified residues essential for wall loosening activity and clarified the bifunctional nature of expansin binding to complex cell walls. Transgenic modulation of expansin expression modifies growth and stress physiology of plants, but not always in predictable or even understandable ways.

  5. Dynamic microtubules and the texture of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between microtubules and cell-wall texture has had a fitful history in which progress in one area has not been matched by progress in the other. For example, the idea that wall texture arises entirely from self-assembly, independently of microtubules, originated with electron microscopic analyses of fixed cells that gave no clue to the ability of microtubules to reorganize. Since then, live-cell studies have established the surprising dynamicity of plant microtubules involving collisions, changes in angle, parallelization, and rotation of microtubule tracks. Combined with proof that cellulose synthases do track along shifting microtubules, this offers more realistic models for the dynamic influence of microtubules on wall texture than could have been imagined in the electron microscopic era-the era from which most ideas on wall texture originate. This review revisits the classical literature on wall organization from the vantage point of current knowledge of microtubule dynamics.

  6. Plant expansins: diversity and interactions with plant cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Expansins were discovered two decades ago as cell wall proteins that mediate acid-induced growth by catalyzing loosening of plant cell walls without lysis of wall polymers. In the interim our understanding of expansins has gotten more complex through bioinformatic analysis of expansin distribution and evolution, as well as through expression analysis, dissection of the upstream transcription factors regulating expression, and identification of additional classes of expansin by sequence and structural similarities. Molecular analyses of expansins from bacteria have identified residues essential for wall loosening activity and clarified the bifunctional nature of expansin binding to complex cell walls. Transgenic modulation of expansin expression modifies growth and stress physiology of plants, but not always in predictable and even understandable ways. PMID:26057089

  7. Detection of Staphylococci aureus cells with single domain antibody functionalized Raman nanoparobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Li-Lin; Tanha, Jamshid; Ryan, Shannon; Veres, Teodor

    2007-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated to be an effective tool in the detection and classification of pathogenic microorganisms. The technique is, however, limited by the inherently low cross-section of the Raman scattering process. Among the many enhanced Raman processes, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique provides the highest sensitivity and can be easily adapted in the bio-sensing applications such as DNA hybridization and protein binding events. In this study, we report the targeted detection of the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, with novel single domain antibody (sdAb) conjugated SERS nanoprobes. A sdAb specific to protein A of S. aureus cells was conjugated to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP). Bacteria recognition was achieved through specific binding of the sdAb (conjugated to SERS nanoprobe) to protein A. Binding rendered the nanoparticle-labeled S. aureus cells SERS active. As a result, S. aureus cells could be detected rapidly and with excellent sensitivity by monitoring the SERS vibrational signatures. This work demonstrates that the SERS imaging technique offers excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of a single bacterium.

  8. Probing (macro)molecular transport through cell walls.

    PubMed

    Kilcher, Giona; Delneri, Daniela; Duckham, Craig; Tirelli, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    We here report a study on the passive permeability of hydrophobic probes through the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study we have prepared a series of fluorescent probes with similar chemical composition and molecular weight ranging from a few hundreds to a few thousands of g mol(-1). Their permeation into the cell body exhibits a clear MW cut-off and the underlying mechanism is governed by the permeation of individual molecules rather than aggregates. We also show that it is possible to reversibly alter the cell wall permeation properties without compromising the essence of its structure, by modifying the polarity/dielectric constant of the wall through solvent exchange.

  9. Senarmont compensation for determining fibril angles of cell wall layers

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Manwiller

    1966-01-01

    A technique originated by Preston, is explained for determining fibril angles of the secondary wall layers of fibers. A polarizing microscope equipped with Senarmont compensator is used to measure birefringence of the wall layers in series of sections cut at various angles to the long axis of the cells. Enough measurements are taken on each section to give a...

  10. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  11. Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weibing; Schuster, Christoph; Beahan, Cherie T; Charoensawan, Varodom; Peaucelle, Alexis; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S; Wightman, Raymond; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-06-06

    The cell walls of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), containing the stem cell niche that gives rise to the above-ground tissues, are crucially involved in regulating differentiation. It is currently unknown how these walls are built and refined or their role, if any, in influencing meristem developmental dynamics. We have combined polysaccharide linkage analysis, immuno-labeling, and transcriptome profiling of the SAM to provide a spatiotemporal plan of the walls of this dynamic structure. We find that meristematic cells express only a core subset of 152 genes encoding cell wall glycosyltransferases (GTs). Systemic localization of all these GT mRNAs by in situ hybridization reveals members with either enrichment in or specificity to apical subdomains such as emerging flower primordia, and a large class with high expression in dividing cells. The highly localized and coordinated expression of GTs in the SAM suggests distinct wall properties of meristematic cells and specific differences between newly forming walls and their mature descendants. Functional analysis demonstrates that a subset of CSLD genes is essential for proper meristem maintenance, confirming the key role of walls in developmental pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-02-16

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  13. An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Teeples, M.; Lin, L.; de Lucas, M.; Turco, G.; Toal, T. W.; Gaudinier, A.; Young, N. F.; Trabucco, G. M.; Veling, M. T.; Lamothe, R.; Handakumbura, P. P.; Xiong, G.; Wang, C.; Corwin, J.; Tsoukalas, A.; Zhang, L.; Ware, D.; Pauly, M.; Kliebenstein, D. J.; Dehesh, K.; Tagkopoulos, I.; Breton, G.; Pruneda-Paz, J. L.; Ahnert, S. E.; Kay, S. A.; Hazen, S. P.; Brady, S. M.

    2014-12-24

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. In this paper, we present a protein–DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated by a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. Finally, these interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component.

  14. Magnetic domain wall conduits for single cell applications.

    PubMed

    Donolato, M; Torti, A; Kostesha, N; Deryabina, M; Sogne, E; Vavassori, P; Hansen, M F; Bertacco, R

    2011-09-07

    The ability to trap, manipulate and release single cells on a surface is important both for fundamental studies of cellular processes and for the development of novel lab-on-chip miniaturized tools for biological and medical applications. In this paper we demonstrate how magnetic domain walls generated in micro- and nano-structures fabricated on a chip surface can be used to handle single yeast cells labeled with magnetic beads. In detail, first we show that the proposed approach maintains the microorganism viable, as proven by monitoring the division of labeled yeast cells trapped by domain walls over 16 hours. Moreover, we demonstrate the controlled transport and release of individual yeast cells via displacement and annihilation of individual domain walls in micro- and nano-sized magnetic structures. These results pave the way to the implementation of magnetic devices based on domain walls technology in lab-on-chip systems devoted to accurate individual cell trapping and manipulation.

  15. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, Jennifer C.

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  16. On the growth of walled cells: From shells to vesicles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaoud, Arezki

    2003-03-01

    The growth of isolated walled cells is investigated. Examples of such cells range from bacteria to giant algae, and include cochlear hair, plant root hair, fungi and yeast cells. They are modeled as elastic shells inflated by a liquid. Cell growth is driven by fluid pressure and is similar to a plastic deformation of the wall. The requirement of mechanical equilibrium leads to two new scaling laws for cell size that are in quantitative agreement with the compiled biological data. Given these results, possible shapes for growing cells are computed by analogy with those of vesicle membranes.

  17. Growth of Walled Cells: From Shells to Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaoud, Arezki

    2003-07-01

    The growth of isolated walled cells is investigated. Examples of such cells range from bacteria to giant algae, and include cochlear hair, plant root hair, fungi, and yeast cells. They are modeled as elastic shells containing a liquid. Cell growth is driven by fluid pressure and is is similar to a plastic deformation of the wall. The requirement of mechanical equilibrium leads to two new scaling laws for cell size that are in quantitative agreement with the compiled biological data. Given these results, possible shapes for growing cells are computed by analogy with those of vesicle membranes.

  18. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Jean-Claude; Leroux, Christelle; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed. PMID:27137369

  19. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell wall elements.

    PubMed

    Pradhan Mitra, Prajakta; Loqué, Dominique

    2014-05-13

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism commonly used to understand and manipulate various cellular processes in plants, and it has been used extensively in the study of secondary cell wall formation. Secondary cell wall deposition occurs after the primary cell wall is laid down, a process carried out exclusively by specialized cells such as those forming vessel and fiber tissues. Most secondary cell walls are composed of cellulose (40-50%), hemicellulose (25-30%), and lignin (20-30%). Several mutations affecting secondary cell wall biosynthesis have been isolated, and the corresponding mutants may or may not exhibit obvious biochemical composition changes or visual phenotypes since these mutations could be masked by compensatory responses. Staining procedures have historically been used to show differences on a cellular basis. These methods are exclusively visual means of analysis; nevertheless their role in rapid and critical analysis is of great importance. Congo red and calcofluor white are stains used to detect polysaccharides, whereas Mäule and phloroglucinol are commonly used to determine differences in lignin, and toluidine blue O is used to differentially stain polysaccharides and lignin. The seemingly simple techniques of sectioning, staining, and imaging can be a challenge for beginners. Starting with sample preparation using the A. thaliana model, this study details the protocols of a variety of staining methodologies that can be easily implemented for observation of cell and tissue organization in secondary cell walls of plants.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  2. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ(0)). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ(0) cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ(0) cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ(0) cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  3. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-01-01

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ0). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent. PMID:28357227

  4. A human endothelial cell membrane protein that binds Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, D C; Hatcher, V B; Patel, D; Orr, G A; Higgins, L L; Lowy, F D

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells utilizing an in vitro model. Staphylococcus binding to confluent endothelial cell monolayers was saturable in both dose and time response studies suggesting that the binding interaction was specific. We have developed a technique, based on the pH dependent affinity of iminobiotin for streptavidin, for the isolation of an endothelial cell membrane component that binds S. aureus, in vitro. A 50-kD membrane component was isolated and purified using this approach. This component was trypsin sensitive, periodate insensitive, and did not label with [3H]glucosamine. [35S]Methionine and [125I]iodine labeling confirmed that the protein was synthesized by and expressed on the endothelial cell surface. Functional binding studies demonstrated that staphylococci, but not endothelial cells, bound to the protein when immobilized on microtiter wells. Preincubation of staphylococci with the purified protein significantly (P less than 0.001) reduced staphylococcal binding to cultured endothelial cells. The capacity of S. aureus to colonize and invade endovascular surfaces may in part be a consequence of staphylococcal interaction with this endothelial cell membrane protein. Images PMID:2318978

  5. The targeting of starch binding domains from starch synthase III to the cell wall alters cell wall composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Grisolia, Mauricio J; Peralta, Diego A; Valdez, Hugo A; Barchiesi, Julieta; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Busi, María V

    2017-01-01

    Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates. The plant cell wall, which represents a major source of biomass for biofuel production, is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and lignin. A potential biotechnological target for improving the production of biofuels is the modification of plant cell walls. This modification is achieved via several strategies, including, among others, altering biosynthetic pathways and modifying the associations and structures of various cell wall components. In this study, we modified the cell wall of A. thaliana by targeting the starch-binding domains of A. thaliana starch synthase III to this structure. The resulting transgenic plants (E8-SDB123) showed an increased biomass, higher levels of both fermentable sugars and hydrolyzed cellulose and altered cell wall properties such as higher laxity and degradability, which are valuable characteristics for the second-generation biofuels industry. The increased biomass and degradability phenotype of E8-SBD123 plants could be explained by the putative cell-wall loosening effect of the in tandem starch binding domains. Based on these results, our approach represents a promising biotechnological tool for reducing of biomass recalcitrance and therefore, the need for pretreatments.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGilligan, Victoria E.; Gregory-Ksander, Meredith S.; Li, Dayu; Moore, Jonathan E.; Hodges, Robin R.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The conjunctiva is a moist mucosal membrane that is constantly exposed to an array of potential pathogens and triggers of inflammation. The NACHT, leucine rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) is a Nod-like receptor that can sense pathogens or other triggers, and is highly expressed in wet mucosal membranes. NLRP3 is a member of the multi-protein complex termed the NLRP3 inflammasome that activates the caspase 1 pathway, inducing the secretion of biologically active IL-1β, a major initiator and promoter of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether NLRP3 is expressed in the conjunctiva and (2) determine whether goblet cells specifically contribute to innate mediated inflammation via secretion of IL-1β. We report that the receptors known to be involved in the priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the purinergic receptors P2X4 and P2X7 and the bacterial Toll-like receptor 2 are present and functional in conjunctival goblet cells. Toxin-containing Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, increased the expression of the inflammasome proteins NLRP3, ASC and pro- and mature caspase 1 in conjunctival goblet cells. The biologically active form of IL-1β was detected in goblet cell culture supernatants in response to S. aureus, which was reduced when the cells were treated with the caspase 1 inhibitor Z-YVAD. We conclude that the NLRP3 inflammasome components are present in conjunctival goblet cells. The NRLP3 inflammasome appears to be activated in conjunctival goblet cells by toxin-containing S. aureus via the caspase 1 pathway to secrete mature IL1-β. Thus goblet cells contribute to the innate immune response in the conjunctiva by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:24040145

  7. A formin-nucleated actin aster concentrates cell wall hydrolases for cell fusion in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dudin, Omaya; Bendezú, Felipe O.; Groux, Raphael; Laroche, Thierry; Seitz, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is essential for fertilization. For fusion of walled cells, the cell wall must be degraded at a precise location but maintained in surrounding regions to protect against lysis. In fission yeast cells, the formin Fus1, which nucleates linear actin filaments, is essential for this process. In this paper, we show that this formin organizes a specific actin structure—the actin fusion focus. Structured illumination microscopy and live-cell imaging of Fus1, actin, and type V myosins revealed an aster of actin filaments whose barbed ends are focalized near the plasma membrane. Focalization requires Fus1 and type V myosins and happens asynchronously always in the M cell first. Type V myosins are essential for fusion and concentrate cell wall hydrolases, but not cell wall synthases, at the fusion focus. Thus, the fusion focus focalizes cell wall dissolution within a broader cell wall synthesis zone to shift from cell growth to cell fusion. PMID:25825517

  8. Plant cell wall characterization using scanning probe microscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, John M; Himmel, Michael E; Ding, Shi-You

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is today considered a promising renewable resource for bioenergy production. A combined chemical and biological process is currently under consideration for the conversion of polysaccharides from plant cell wall materials, mainly cellulose and hemicelluloses, to simple sugars that can be fermented to biofuels. Native plant cellulose forms nanometer-scale microfibrils that are embedded in a polymeric network of hemicelluloses, pectins, and lignins; this explains, in part, the recalcitrance of biomass to deconstruction. The chemical and structural characteristics of these plant cell wall constituents remain largely unknown today. Scanning probe microscopy techniques, particularly atomic force microscopy and its application in characterizing plant cell wall structure, are reviewed here. We also further discuss future developments based on scanning probe microscopy techniques that combine linear and nonlinear optical techniques to characterize plant cell wall nanometer-scale structures, specifically apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. PMID:19703302

  9. New chemical tools to probe cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gale, Robert T; Brown, Eric D

    2015-10-01

    Some of the most successful drugs in the antibiotic pharmacopeia are those that inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. However, the worldwide spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance has eroded the clinical efficacy of these drugs and the antibiotic pipeline continues to be lean as drug discovery programs struggle to bring new agents to the clinic. Nevertheless, cell wall biogenesis remains a high interest and celebrated target. Recent advances in the preparation of chemical probes and biosynthetic intermediates provide the tools necessary to better understand cell wall assembly. Likewise, these tools offer new opportunities to identify and evaluate novel biosynthetic inhibitors. This review aims to highlight these advancements and to provide context for their utility as innovative new tools to study cell wall biogenesis and for antibacterial drug discovery.

  10. Revised mechanism of D-alanine incorporation into cell wall polymers in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Cassona, Carolina Picarra; Gründling, Angelika

    2013-09-01

    Teichoic acids (TAs) are important for growth, biofilm formation, adhesion and virulence of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The chemical structures of the TAs vary between bacteria, though they typically consist of zwitterionic polymers that are anchored to either the peptidoglycan layer as in the case of wall teichoic acid (WTA) or the cell membrane and named lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The polymers are modified with D-alanines and a lack of this decoration leads to increased susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Four proteins, DltA-D, are essential for the incorporation of d-alanines into cell wall polymers and it has been established that DltA transfers D-alanines in the cytoplasm of the cell onto the carrier protein DltC. However, two conflicting models have been proposed for the remainder of the mechanism. Using a cellular protein localization and membrane topology analysis, we show here that DltC does not traverse the membrane and that DltD is anchored to the outside of the cell. These data are in agreement with the originally proposed model for D-alanine incorporation through a process that has been proposed to proceed via a D-alanine undecaprenyl phosphate membrane intermediate. Furthermore, we found that WTA isolated from a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking LTA contains only a small amount of D-alanine, indicating that LTA has a role, either direct or indirect, in the efficient D-alanine incorporation into WTA in living cells.

  11. Cell wall polysaccharides from fern leaves: evidence for a mannan-rich Type III cell wall in Adiantum raddianum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanna B; Ionashiro, Mari; Carrara, Thalita B; Crivellari, Augusto C; Tiné, Marco A S; Prado, Jefferson; Carpita, Nicholas C; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2011-12-01

    Primary cell walls from plants are composites of cellulose tethered by cross-linking glycans and embedded in a matrix of pectins. Cell wall composition varies between plant species, reflecting in some instances the evolutionary distance between them. In this work the monosaccharide compositions of isolated primary cell walls of nine fern species and one lycophyte were characterized and compared with those from Equisetum and an angiosperm dicot. The relatively high abundance of mannose in these plants suggests that mannans may constitute the major cross-linking glycan in the primary walls of pteridophytes and lycophytes. Pectin-related polysaccharides contained mostly rhamnose and uronic acids, indicating the presence of rhamnogalacturonan I highly substituted with galactose and arabinose. Structural and fine-structural analyses of the hemicellulose fraction of leaves of Adiantum raddianum confirmed this hypothesis. Linkage analysis showed that the mannan contains mostly 4-Man with very little 4,6-Man, indicating a low percentage of branching with galactose. Treatment of the mannan-rich fractions with endo-β-mannanase produced characteristic mannan oligosaccharides. Minor amounts of xyloglucan and xylans were also detected. These data and those of others suggest that all vascular plants contain xyloglucans, arabinoxylans, and (gluco)mannans, but in different proportions that define cell wall types. Whereas xyloglucan and pectin-rich walls define Type I walls of dicots and many monocots, arabinoxylans and lower proportion of pectin define the Type II walls of commelinoid monocots. The mannan-rich primary walls with low pectins of many ferns and a lycopod indicate a fundamentally different wall type among land plants, the Type III wall.

  12. A versatile strategy for grafting polymers to wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, T; Cabane, E; Chanana, M; Hass, P; Merk, V; Gierlinger, N; Burgert, I

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of wood is composed of a cellulose skeleton of high structural order at various length scales. At the nanoscale and microscale the specific structural features of the cells and cell walls result in a lightweight structure with an anisotropic material profile of excellent mechanical performance. By being able to specifically functionalize wood at the level of cell and cell walls one can insert new properties and inevitably upscale them along the intrinsic hierarchical structure, to a level of large-scale engineering materials applications. For this purpose, however, precise control of the spatial distribution of the modifying substances in the complex wood structure is needed. Here we demonstrate a method to insert methacryl groups into wood cell walls using two different chemistry routes. By using these methacryl groups as the anchor points for grafting, various polymers can be inserted into the wood structure. Strikingly, depending on the methacryl precursor, the spatial distribution of the polymer differs strongly. As a proof of concept we grafted polystyrene as a model compound in the second modification step. In the case of methacryloyl chloride the polymer was located mainly at the interface between the cell lumina and the cell wall covering the inner surface of the cells and being traceable up to 2-3 μm in the cell wall, whereas in the case of methacrylic anhydride the polymer was located inside the whole cell wall. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and especially Raman spectroscopy were used for an in-depth analysis of the modified wood at the cell wall level. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polysaccharide-degrading Enzymes are Unable to Attack Plant Cell Walls without Prior Action by a "Wall-modifying Enzyme".

    PubMed

    Karr, A L; Albersheim, P

    1970-07-01

    A study of the degradation of plant cell walls by the mixture of enzymes present in Pectinol R-10 is described. A "wall-modifying enzyme" has been purified from this mixture by a combination of diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Bio Gel P-100, and carboxymethyl cellulose chromatography. Treatment of cell walls with the "wall-modifying enzyme" is shown to be a necessary prerequisite to wall degradation catalyzed by a mixture of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes prepared from Pectinol R-10 or by an alpha-galactosidase secreted by the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The action of the "wall-modifying enzyme" on cell walls is shown to result in both a release of water-soluble, 70% ethanol-insoluble polymers and an alteration of the residual cell wall. A purified preparation of the "wall-modifying enzyme" is unable to degrade a wide variety of polysaccharide, glycoside, and peptide substrates. However, the purified preparation of wall-modifying enzyme has a limited ability to degrade polygalacturonic acid. The fact that polygalacturonic acid inhibits the ability of the "wall-modifying enzyme" to affect cell walls suggests that the "wall-modifying enzyme" may be responsible for the limited polygalacturonic acid-degrading activity present in the purified preparation. The importance of a wall-modifying enzyme in developmental processes and in pathogenesis is discussed.

  14. An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927. PMID:25914713

  15. Vascular wall progenitor cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Psaltis, Peter J; Simari, Robert D

    2015-04-10

    The vasculature plays an indispensible role in organ development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, such that disturbances to it impact greatly on developmental and postnatal health. Although cell turnover in healthy blood vessels is low, it increases considerably under pathological conditions. The principle sources for this phenomenon have long been considered to be the recruitment of cells from the peripheral circulation and the re-entry of mature cells in the vessel wall back into cell cycle. However, recent discoveries have also uncovered the presence of a range of multipotent and lineage-restricted progenitor cells in the mural layers of postnatal blood vessels, possessing high proliferative capacity and potential to generate endothelial, smooth muscle, hematopoietic or mesenchymal cell progeny. In particular, the tunica adventitia has emerged as a progenitor-rich compartment with niche-like characteristics that support and regulate vascular wall progenitor cells. Preliminary data indicate the involvement of some of these vascular wall progenitor cells in vascular disease states, adding weight to the notion that the adventitia is integral to vascular wall pathogenesis, and raising potential implications for clinical therapies. This review discusses the current body of evidence for the existence of vascular wall progenitor cell subpopulations from development to adulthood and addresses the gains made and significant challenges that lie ahead in trying to accurately delineate their identities, origins, regulatory pathways, and relevance to normal vascular structure and function, as well as disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.

    PubMed

    Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by π-π interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Shikimic Acid from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara against Staphylococcus aureus through Damage to Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jinrong; Wu, Yanping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yina; Gao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the mode of action of SA is still elusive. In this study, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of SA toward S. aureus by cell membrane damage was investigated. After SA treatment, massive K+ and nucleotide leakage from S. aureus, and a significant change in the membrane potential was observed, suggesting SA may act on the membrane by destroying the cell membrane permeability. Through transmission electron microscopic observations we further confirmed that SA can disrupt the cell membrane and membrane integrity. Meanwhile, SA was found to be capable of reducing the membrane fluidity of the S. aureus cell. Moreover, the fluorescence experiments indicated that SA could quench fluorescence of Phe residues of the membrane proteins, thus demonstrating that SA can bind to S. aureus membrane proteins. Therefore, these results showed the antibacterial activity of SA against S. aureus could be caused by the interactions of SA with S. aureus membrane proteins and lipids, resulting in causing cell membrane dysfunction and bacterial damage or even death. This study reveals the potential use of SA as an antibacterial agent. PMID:26580596

  18. Clumping factor A of Staphylococcus aureus interacts with AnnexinA2 on mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Shoaib; Cheng, Jing; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of major pathogens that can cause a series of diseases in different hosts. In the bovine, it mainly causes subclinical and contagious mastitis, but its mechanisms of infection are not fully understood. Considering the fact that virulence factors play key roles in interactions between the bacterium and host cells, this study aimed to identify if a binding partner of S. aureus clumping factor A (ClfA) exists on the bovine mammary epithelial cells. The ClfA protein was used as a bait to pull down lysates of cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells). One pull-down protein was identified through use of mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analyses as bovine AnnexinA2. The Western blot and in vitro binding assay confirmed that the full A domain of ClfA was necessary to bind to AnnexinA2. In addition, the interaction between ClfA and AnnexinA2 was validated biochemically by ELISA with a KD value of 418+/−93 nM. The confocal microscopy demonstrated that ClfA and AnnexinA2 partially co-localized in the plasma membrane and that the majority of them were transported into cytoplasm. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ClfA binds with AnnexinA2 and this interaction could mediate S. aureus invasion into bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:28102235

  19. The Permeability of Plant Cell Walls as Measured by Gel Filtration Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepeer, Mark; Taylor, Iain E. P.

    1981-08-01

    The permeability of plant cell walls to macromolecules may limit the ability of enzymes to alter the biochemical and physical properties of the wall. Proteins of molecular weight up to 60,000 can permeate a substantial portion of the cell wall. Measurements of wall permeability in which cells are exposed to hypertonic solutions of macromolecules may seriously underestimate wall permeability.

  20. Characterization and Localization of Insoluble Organic Matrices Associated with Diatom Cell Walls: Insight into Their Roles during Cell Wall Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Benoit; Hildebrand, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Organic components associated with diatom cell wall silica are important for the formation, integrity, and function of the cell wall. Polysaccharides are associated with the silica, however their localization, structure, and function remain poorly understood. We used imaging and biochemical approaches to describe in detail characteristics of insoluble organic components associated with the cell wall in 5 different diatom species. Results show that an insoluble organic matrix enriched in mannose, likely the diatotepum, is localized on the proximal surface of the silica cell wall. We did not identify any organic matrix embedded within the silica. We also identified a distinct material consisting of glucose polymer with variable localization depending on the species. In some species this component was directly involved in the morphogenesis of silica structure while in others it appeared to be only a structural component of the cell wall. A novel glucose-rich structure located between daughter cells during division was also identified. This work for the first time correlates the structure, composition, and localization of insoluble organic matrices associated with diatom cell walls. Additionally we identified a novel glucose polymer and characterized its role during silica structure formation. PMID:23626714

  1. Motion of red blood cells near microvessel walls: effects of a porous wall layer

    PubMed Central

    HARIPRASAD, DANIEL S.; SECOMB, TIMOTHY W.

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is used to simulate the motion and deformation of a single mammalian red blood cell (RBC) flowing close to the wall of a microvessel, taking into account the effects of a porous endothelial surface layer (ESL) lining the vessel wall. Migration of RBCs away from the wall leads to the formation of a cell-depleted layer near the wall, which has a large effect on the resistance to blood flow in microvessels. The objective is to examine the mechanical factors causing this migration, including the effects of the ESL. The vessel is represented as a straight parallel-sided channel. The RBC is represented as a set of interconnected viscoelastic elements, suspended in plasma, a Newtonian fluid. The ESL is represented as a porous medium, and plasma flow in the layer is computed using the Brinkman approximation. It is shown that an initially circular cell positioned close to the ESL in a shear flow is deformed into an asymmetric shape. This breaking of symmetry leads to migration away from the wall. With increasing hydraulic resistivity of the layer, the rate of lateral migration increases. It is concluded that mechanical interactions of RBCs flowing in microvessels with a porous wall layer may reduce the rate of lateral migration and hence reduce the width of the cell-depleted zone external to the ESL, relative to the cell-depleted zone that would be formed if the interface between the ESL and free-flowing plasma were replaced by an impermeable boundary. PMID:23493820

  2. Role of the plant cell wall in gravity resistance.

    PubMed

    Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Gravity resistance, mechanical resistance to the gravitational force, is a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. The cell wall is responsible for the final step of gravity resistance. The gravity signal increases the rigidity of the cell wall via the accumulation of its constituents, polymerization of certain matrix polysaccharides due to the suppression of breakdown, stimulation of cross-link formation, and modifications to the wall environment, in a wide range of situations from microgravity in space to hypergravity. Plants thus develop a tough body to resist the gravitational force via an increase in cell wall rigidity and the modification of growth anisotropy. The development of gravity resistance mechanisms has played an important role in the acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses and the evolution of land plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ferulic acid is esterified to glucuronoarabinoxylans in pineapple cell walls.

    PubMed

    Smith, B G; Harris, P J

    2001-03-01

    The ester-linkage of ferulic acid (mainly E) to polysaccharides in primary cell walls of pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) (Bromeliaceae) was investigated by treating a cell-wall preparation with 'Driselase' which contains a mixture of endo- and exo-glycanases, but no hydroxycinnamoyl esterase activity. The most abundant feruloyl oligosaccharide released was O-[5-O-(E-feruloyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl](1-->3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose (FAXX). This indicated that the ferulic acid is ester-linked to glucuronoarabinoxylans in the same way as in the primary walls of grasses and cereals (Poaceae). Glucuronoarabinoxylans are the major non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the pineapple cell walls.

  4. Cytoskeleton and cell wall function in penetration resistance.

    PubMed

    Hardham, Adrienne R; Jones, David A; Takemoto, Daigo

    2007-08-01

    Plants successfully repel the vast majority of potential pathogens that arrive on their surface, with most microorganisms failing to breach the outer epidermal wall. Resistance to penetration at the epidermis is a key component of basal defence against disease and critically depends on fortification of the cell wall at the site of attempted penetration through the development of specialised cell wall appositions rich in antimicrobial compounds. Formation of cell wall appositions is achieved by rapid reorganisation of actin microfilaments, actin-dependent transport of secretory products to the infection site and local activation of callose synthesis. Plants are finely tuned to detect the presence of pathogens on their surface, perceiving both chemical and physical signals of pathogen origin. In the on-going evolution of interaction strategies, plants must continually monitor and out manoeuvre pathogen avoidance or suppression of plant defences in order to preserve the effectiveness of penetration resistance.

  5. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Nicholas C; McCann, Maureen C

    2015-07-01

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with 'invisible' phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall.

  6. Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Matthew J.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Jing, Jia; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (∼75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25239976

  7. Structural Insights into SraP-Mediated Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion to Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Lei; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Ren, Yan-Min; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gong, Qingguo; Mei, Yide; Xue, Ting; Zhang, Jing-Ren; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium causes a number of devastating human diseases, such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and sepsis. S. aureus SraP, a surface-exposed serine-rich repeat glycoprotein (SRRP), is required for the pathogenesis of human infective endocarditis via its ligand-binding region (BR) adhering to human platelets. It remains unclear how SraP interacts with human host. Here we report the 2.05 Å crystal structure of the BR of SraP, revealing an extended rod-like architecture of four discrete modules. The N-terminal legume lectin-like module specifically binds to N-acetylneuraminic acid. The second module adopts a β-grasp fold similar to Ig-binding proteins, whereas the last two tandem repetitive modules resemble eukaryotic cadherins but differ in calcium coordination pattern. Under the conditions tested, small-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the three C-terminal modules function as a relatively rigid stem to extend the N-terminal lectin module outwards. Structure-guided mutagenesis analyses, in addition to a recently identified trisaccharide ligand of SraP, enabled us to elucidate that SraP binding to sialylated receptors promotes S. aureus adhesion to and invasion into host epithelial cells. Our findings have thus provided novel structural and functional insights into the SraP-mediated host-pathogen interaction of S. aureus. PMID:24901708

  8. Determining the polysaccharide composition of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Pettolino, Filomena A; Walsh, Cherie; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bacic, Antony

    2012-09-01

    The plant cell wall is a chemically complex structure composed mostly of polysaccharides. Detailed analyses of these cell wall polysaccharides are essential for our understanding of plant development and for our use of plant biomass (largely wall material) in the food, agriculture, fabric, timber, biofuel and biocomposite industries. We present analytical techniques not only to define the fine chemical structures of individual cell wall polysaccharides but also to estimate the overall polysaccharide composition of cell wall preparations. The procedure covers the preparation of cell walls, together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based methods, for both the analysis of monosaccharides as their volatile alditol acetate derivatives and for methylation analysis to determine linkage positions between monosaccharide residues as their volatile partially methylated alditol acetate derivatives. Analysis time will vary depending on both the method used and the tissue type, and ranges from 2 d for a simple neutral sugar composition to 2 weeks for a carboxyl reduction/methylation linkage analysis.

  9. The lantibiotic NAI-107 binds to bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors and impairs membrane functions.

    PubMed

    Münch, Daniela; Müller, Anna; Schneider, Tanja; Kohl, Bastian; Wenzel, Michaela; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano; Wimmer, Reinhard; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2014-04-25

    The lantibiotic NAI-107 is active against Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. To identify the molecular basis of its potency, we studied the mode of action in a series of whole cell and in vitro assays and analyzed structural features by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The lantibiotic efficiently interfered with late stages of cell wall biosynthesis and induced accumulation of the soluble peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid-pentapeptide (UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide) in the cytoplasm. Using membrane preparations and a complete cascade of purified, recombinant late stage peptidoglycan biosynthetic enzymes (MraY, MurG, FemX, PBP2) and their respective purified substrates, we showed that NAI-107 forms complexes with bactoprenol-pyrophosphate-coupled precursors of the bacterial cell wall. Titration experiments indicate that first a 1:1 stoichiometric complex occurs, which then transforms into a 2:1 (peptide: lipid II) complex, when excess peptide is added. Furthermore, lipid II and related molecules obviously could not serve as anchor molecules for the formation of defined and stable nisin-like pores, however, slow membrane depolarization was observed after NAI-107 treatment, which could contribute to killing of the bacterial cell.

  10. Evaluation of cell wall preparations for proteomics: a new procedure for purifying cell walls from Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Feiz, Leila; Irshad, Muhammad; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background The ultimate goal of proteomic analysis of a cell compartment should be the exhaustive identification of resident proteins; excluding proteins from other cell compartments. Reaching such a goal closely depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific difficulties: (i) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure, (ii) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins. Several reported procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomic analyses led to the isolation of a high proportion (more than 50%) of predicted intracellular proteins. Since isolated cell walls should hold secreted proteins, one can imagine alternative procedures to prepare cell walls containing a lower proportion of contaminant proteins. Results The rationales of several published procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomics were analyzed, with regard to the bioinformatic-predicted subcellular localization of the identified proteins. Critical steps were revealed: (i) homogenization in low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP, (ii) purification through increasing density cushions, (iii) extensive washes with a low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP while removing as many cytosolic proteins as possible, and (iv) absence of detergents. A new procedure was developed to prepare cell walls from etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. After salt extraction, a high proportion of proteins predicted to be secreted was released (73%), belonging to the same functional classes as proteins identified using previously described protocols. Finally, removal of intracellular proteins was obtained using detergents, but their amount represented less than 3% in mass of the total protein extract, based on protein quantification. Conclusion The new cell wall

  11. Effects of niacin on Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells by modulating NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Fu, Yunhe; Zhou, Ershun; Tian, Yuan; Yao, Minjun; Li, Yimeng; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Niacin is a precursor of coenzymes NAD and NADP and plays a critical role in electron transfer during the metabolic process. In addition to its nutrimental function, niacin has long been used for the treatment of lipid disorders and cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of niacin on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) remains unclear. Here we sought to examine the effect of niacin on S. aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and to investigate the potential mechanism. In this study, the growth of S. aureus supplemented with niacin (0.5-2 mM) was monitored turbidimetrically at 600 nm for 24 h and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Gentamicin protection assay was carried out to determine the effect of niacin on S. aureus internalization into bMEC. To determine the potential mechanism, tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and β-defensin (BNBD5) expressions were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that niacin (0.5-2 mM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability, whereas it inhibits S. aureus internalization ranging from 13% to 42% and down-regulated the mRNA expression of TAP and BNBD5 compared to the control group. No exactly relationship was discovered between S. aureus internalization into bMEC and antimicrobial peptide expression, while niacin inhibited S. aureus-induced NF-κB activation in a dose manner. These dates suggest that inhibiting NF-κB activation may be the potential mechanism of niacin on modulating S. aureus internalization into bMEC.

  12. Production Model Press for the Preparation of Bacterial Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, T. D.; Ribi, E.; Maki, W.; Miller, B.; Oertli, E.

    1962-01-01

    A modification of the apparatus previously described permits the preparation of cell walls in quantity. This consists of a heavy duty, double-acting hydraulic press with motor-driven pump, and a superstrength alloy steel pressure cell which is corrosion resistant. Liquid cooling of the jet is substituted for the previously used gas cooling to minimize aerosol formation and to facilitate subsequent treatment of the products. The device produces cell walls of excellent quality in good yield. The pressure cell has been used satisfactorily up to about 60,000 psi. Design details are given. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 6 PMID:14485524

  13. Staphylococcus aureus Exploits a Non-ribosomal Cyclic Dipeptide to Modulate Survival within Epithelial Cells and Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Blättner, Sebastian; Das, Sudip; Paprotka, Kerstin; Eilers, Ursula; Krischke, Markus; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Remmele, Christian W.; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Schuelein-Voelk, Christina; Hertlein, Tobias; Mueller, Martin J.; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Ohlsen, Knut; Rudel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired (CA) Staphylococcus aureus cause various diseases even in healthy individuals. Enhanced virulence of CA-strains is partly attributed to increased production of toxins such as phenol-soluble modulins (PSM). The pathogen is internalized efficiently by mammalian host cells and intracellular S. aureus has recently been shown to contribute to disease. Upon internalization, cytotoxic S. aureus strains can disrupt phagosomal membranes and kill host cells in a PSM-dependent manner. However, PSM are not sufficient for these processes. Here we screened for factors required for intracellular S. aureus virulence. We infected escape reporter host cells with strains from an established transposon mutant library and detected phagosomal escape rates using automated microscopy. We thereby, among other factors, identified a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) to be required for efficient phagosomal escape and intracellular survival of S. aureus as well as induction of host cell death. By genetic complementation as well as supplementation with the synthetic NRPS product, the cyclic dipeptide phevalin, wild-type phenotypes were restored. We further demonstrate that the NRPS is contributing to virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Together, our data illustrate a hitherto unrecognized function of the S. aureus NRPS and its dipeptide product during S. aureus infection. PMID:27632173

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Exploits a Non-ribosomal Cyclic Dipeptide to Modulate Survival within Epithelial Cells and Phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Blättner, Sebastian; Das, Sudip; Paprotka, Kerstin; Eilers, Ursula; Krischke, Markus; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Remmele, Christian W; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Schuelein-Voelk, Christina; Hertlein, Tobias; Mueller, Martin J; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Ohlsen, Knut; Rudel, Thomas; Fraunholz, Martin J

    2016-09-01

    Community-acquired (CA) Staphylococcus aureus cause various diseases even in healthy individuals. Enhanced virulence of CA-strains is partly attributed to increased production of toxins such as phenol-soluble modulins (PSM). The pathogen is internalized efficiently by mammalian host cells and intracellular S. aureus has recently been shown to contribute to disease. Upon internalization, cytotoxic S. aureus strains can disrupt phagosomal membranes and kill host cells in a PSM-dependent manner. However, PSM are not sufficient for these processes. Here we screened for factors required for intracellular S. aureus virulence. We infected escape reporter host cells with strains from an established transposon mutant library and detected phagosomal escape rates using automated microscopy. We thereby, among other factors, identified a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) to be required for efficient phagosomal escape and intracellular survival of S. aureus as well as induction of host cell death. By genetic complementation as well as supplementation with the synthetic NRPS product, the cyclic dipeptide phevalin, wild-type phenotypes were restored. We further demonstrate that the NRPS is contributing to virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Together, our data illustrate a hitherto unrecognized function of the S. aureus NRPS and its dipeptide product during S. aureus infection.

  15. A model for cell wall dissolution in mating yeast cells: polarized secretion and restricted diffusion of cell wall remodeling enzymes induces local dissolution.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Lori B; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells.

  16. A Model for Cell Wall Dissolution in Mating Yeast Cells: Polarized Secretion and Restricted Diffusion of Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Induces Local Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

  17. Dormant cells of Staphylococcus aureus are resuscitated by spent culture supernatant.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Ben; Dams, Lucy; Wilkinson, Tom S; Harris, Llinos G; Bodger, Owen; Mack, Dietrich; Davies, Angharad P

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first in vitro model of dormancy in Staphylococcus aureus, showing that cells are generated which can be resuscitated by addition of spent medium supernatant taken from cultures of the same organism. Over 30 days, culturable counts in dormant cultures of S. aureus SH1000 fell from 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml to <10 cfu/ml as measured by the Most Probable Number method in liquid culture, while total counts as determined by microscopy, and supported by data from RT-qPCR, remained around 10(6)-10(7) cells/ml. Supplementing cultures with 25-50% spent medium resulted in a >600-fold increase in bacterial growth. Resuscitation was a specific effect, greatly reduced by boiling or addition of trypsin to the spent supernatant. Supernatant also effected a reduction in lag phase of dormant cultures. SEM demonstrated the presence of small coccoid cells in dormant cultures. The results are similar to those seen with resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) in actinobacteria. This is the first time resuscitation has been demonstrated in Staphylococcus aureus, which is an important human pathogen. A better understanding of control and reactivation of dormant cells could lead to major improvements in managing staphylococcal infections; resuscitation could be an important step in restoring susceptibility to antibiotic treatment.

  18. Dormant Cells of Staphylococcus aureus Are Resuscitated by Spent Culture Supernatant

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Ben; Dams, Lucy; Wilkinson, Tom S.; Harris, Llinos G.; Bodger, Owen; Mack, Dietrich; Davies, Angharad P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first in vitro model of dormancy in Staphylococcus aureus, showing that cells are generated which can be resuscitated by addition of spent medium supernatant taken from cultures of the same organism. Over 30 days, culturable counts in dormant cultures of S. aureus SH1000 fell from 106–107 cfu/ml to <10 cfu/ml as measured by the Most Probable Number method in liquid culture, while total counts as determined by microscopy, and supported by data from RT-qPCR, remained around 106–107 cells/ml. Supplementing cultures with 25–50% spent medium resulted in a >600-fold increase in bacterial growth. Resuscitation was a specific effect, greatly reduced by boiling or addition of trypsin to the spent supernatant. Supernatant also effected a reduction in lag phase of dormant cultures. SEM demonstrated the presence of small coccoid cells in dormant cultures. The results are similar to those seen with resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) in actinobacteria. This is the first time resuscitation has been demonstrated in Staphylococcus aureus, which is an important human pathogen. A better understanding of control and reactivation of dormant cells could lead to major improvements in managing staphylococcal infections; resuscitation could be an important step in restoring susceptibility to antibiotic treatment. PMID:24523858

  19. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    PubMed

    Barbacci, Adelin; Lahaye, Marc; Magnenet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i) a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii) new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper.

  20. A widespread family of bacterial cell wall assembly proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yoshikazu; Marles-Wright, Jon; Cleverley, Robert M; Emmins, Robyn; Ishikawa, Shu; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Heinz, Nadja; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hoyland, Christopher N; Ogasawara, Naotake; Lewis, Richard J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Daniel, Richard A; Errington, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Teichoic acids and acidic capsular polysaccharides are major anionic cell wall polymers (APs) in many bacteria, with various critical cell functions, including maintenance of cell shape and structural integrity, charge and cation homeostasis, and multiple aspects of pathogenesis. We have identified the widespread LytR–Cps2A–Psr (LCP) protein family, of previously unknown function, as novel enzymes required for AP synthesis. Structural and biochemical analysis of several LCP proteins suggest that they carry out the final step of transferring APs from their lipid-linked precursor to cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). In Bacillus subtilis, LCP proteins are found in association with the MreB cytoskeleton, suggesting that MreB proteins coordinate the insertion of the major polymers, PG and AP, into the cell wall. PMID:21964069

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan Tertiary Structure from Carbon-13 Spin Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Shasad; Singh, Manmilan; Kim, Sung Joon; Schaefer, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The cell-wall peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus is a heterogeneous, highly cross-linked polymer of unknown tertiary structure. We have partially characterized this structure by measuring spin diffusion from 13C labels in pentaglycyl cross-linking segments to natural-abundance 13C in the surrounding intact cell walls. The measurements were performed using a version of centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX). The cell walls were isolated from S. aureus grown in media containing [1-13C]glycine. The CODEX spin diffusion rates established that the pentaglycyl bridge of one peptidoglycan repeat unit of S. aureus is within 5 Å of the glycan chain of another repeat unit. This surprising proximity is interpreted in terms of a model for the peptidoglycan lattice in which all peptide stems in a plane perpendicular to the glycan mainchain are parallel to one another. PMID:19419167

  2. Contribution of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity in the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lather, Puja; Mohanty, A. K.; Jha, Pankaj; Garsa, Anita Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is found in a wide variety of habitats, including human skin, where many strains are commensals that may be clinically significant or contaminants of food. To determine the physiological characteristics of resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus against pediocin, a class IIa bacteriocin, a resistant strain was compared with wild type in order to investigate the contribution of hydrophobicity to this resistance. Additional clumping of resistant strain relative to wild type in light microscopy was considered as an elementary evidence of resistance attainment. A delay in log phase attainment was observed in resistant strain compared to the wild type strain. A significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity was detected for resistant strain in both hexadecane and xylene indicating the contribution of cell surface hydrophobicity as adaptive reaction against antimicrobial agents. PMID:26966577

  3. Protective role of NK1.1+ cells in experimental Staphylococcus aureus arthritis

    PubMed Central

    NILSSON, N; BREMELL, T; TARKOWSKI, A; CARLSTEN, H

    1999-01-01

    In a model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced septic arthritis in C57Bl/6 mice we investigated the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the development of disease. Depletion of NK1.1+ cells was achieved by repeated injections of the PK136 antibody, whereas control mice received an irrelevant monoclonal antibody, O1C5.B2. Both groups of mice then received injections intravenously with 2 × 107 live S. aureus LS-1 secreting toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). The mice were evaluated for 16 days with regard to weight, mortality and arthritis. Nine days after bacterial injection, 9/19 mice depleted of NK cells had developed arthritis compared with 1/17 in the control group (P = 0.01). The experiment was repeated twice with the same outcome. NK cell-depleted and control mice displayed the same degree of histopathological signs of arthritis at day 16. Depletion of NK cells did not affect uptake of bacteria by phagocytic cells in vitro, or bacterial clearance in vivo. In NK cell-depleted mice there was a tendency to increased levels of antibodies to TSST-1, whereas total immunoglobulin levels were similar to those in controls. NK cell depletion of non-infected mice did not affect the magnitude of inflammatory response during the T cell-dependent cutaneous DTH reaction to oxazolone, or during granulocyte-mediated inflammation. However, specific antibody responses to oxazolone were greatly increased in depleted animals. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that NK cells protect against arthritis during S. aureus infection. This outcome does not seem to be due to an influence on bacterial clearance, but could be due to an interaction with the host anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:10403917

  4. Control of Cell Wall Extensibility during Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we address the question of how the tip-growing pollen tube achieves its rapid rate of elongation while maintaining an intact cell wall. Although turgor is essential for growth to occur, the local expansion rate is controlled by local changes in the viscosity of the apical wall. We focus on several different structures and underlying processes that are thought to be major participants including exocytosis, the organization and activity of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium and proton physiology, and cellular energetics. We think that the actin cytoskeleton, in particular the apical cortical actin fringe, directs the flow of vesicles to the apical domain, where they fuse with the plasma membrane and contribute their contents to the expanding cell wall. While pH gradients, as generated by a proton-ATPase located on the plasma membrane along the side of the clear zone, may regulate rapid actin turnover and new polymerization in the fringe, the tip-focused calcium gradient biases secretion towards the polar axis. The recent data showing that exocytosis of new wall material precedes and predicts the process of cell elongation provide support for the idea that the intussusception of newly secreted pectin contributes to decreases in apical wall viscosity and to cell expansion. Other prime factors will be the localization and activity of the enzyme pectin methyl-esterase, and the chelation of calcium by pectic acids. Finally, we acknowledge a role for reactive oxygen species in the control of wall viscosity. PMID:23770837

  5. Control of cell wall extensibility during pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Peter K; Rounds, Caleb M; Winship, Lawrence J

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we address the question of how the tip-growing pollen tube achieves its rapid rate of elongation while maintaining an intact cell wall. Although turgor is essential for growth to occur, the local expansion rate is controlled by local changes in the viscosity of the apical wall. We focus on several different structures and underlying processes that are thought to be major participants including exocytosis, the organization and activity of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium and proton physiology, and cellular energetics. We think that the actin cytoskeleton, in particular the apical cortical actin fringe, directs the flow of vesicles to the apical domain, where they fuse with the plasma membrane and contribute their contents to the expanding cell wall. While pH gradients, as generated by a proton-ATPase located on the plasma membrane along the side of the clear zone, may regulate rapid actin turnover and new polymerization in the fringe, the tip-focused calcium gradient biases secretion towards the polar axis. The recent data showing that exocytosis of new wall material precedes and predicts the process of cell elongation provide support for the idea that the intussusception of newly secreted pectin contributes to decreases in apical wall viscosity and to cell expansion. Other prime factors will be the localization and activity of the enzyme pectin methyl-esterase, and the chelation of calcium by pectic acids. Finally, we acknowledge a role for reactive oxygen species in the control of wall viscosity.

  6. Lipoteichoic acid isolated from Staphylococcus aureus induces both epithelial-mesenchymal transition and wound healing in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongjae; Kim, Hyeoung-Eun; Kang, Boyeon; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Hangeun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2017-08-03

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is recognized by toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, expressed on certain mammalian cell surfaces, initiating signaling cascades that include nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). There are many structural and functional varieties of LTA, which vary according to the different species of gram-positive bacteria which produce them. In this study, we examined whether LTA isolated from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) affects the expression of junction proteins in keratinocytes. In HaCaT cells, tight junction-related gene expression was not affected by aLTA, while adherens junction-related gene expression was modified. High doses of aLTA induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which in turn induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HaCaT cells. When cells were given a low dose of aLTA, however, NF-κB was activated and the total cell population increased. Taken together, our study suggests that LTA from S. aureus infections in the skin may contribute both to the outbreak of EMT-mediated carcinogenesis and to the genesis of wound healing in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Effects of Sodium Octanoate on Innate Immune Response of Mammary Epithelial Cells during Staphylococcus aureus Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are capable of initiating an innate immune response to invading bacteria. Short chain fatty acids can reduce Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bMEC, but it has not been evaluated if octanoic acid (sodium octanoate, NaO), a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA), has similar effects. In this study we determined the effect of NaO on S. aureus internalization into bMEC and on the modulation of innate immune elements. NaO (0.25–2 mM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability, but it differentially modulated bacterial internalization into bMEC, which was induced at 0.25–0.5 mM (~60%) but inhibited at 1-2 mM (~40%). Also, bMEC showed a basal expression of all the innate immune genes evaluated, which were induced by S. aureus. NaO induced BNBD4, LAP, and BNBD10 mRNA expression, but BNBD5 and TNF-α were inhibited. Additionally, the pretreatment of bMEC with NaO inhibited the mRNA expression induction generated by bacteria which coincides with the increase in internalization; only TAP and BNDB10 showed an increase in their expression; it coincides with the greatest effect on the reduction of bacterial internalization. In conclusion, NaO exerts a dual effect on S. aureus internalization in bMEC and modulates elements of innate immune response. PMID:23509807

  8. Proteomic definition of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa M; Mahaffey, Spencer B; Kruh, Nicole A; Dobos, Karen M

    2010-11-05

    The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is complex and diverse; composed of proteins intermingled in a matrix of peptidoglycan, mycolic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Proteomic studies of the Mtb cell wall have been limited; nonetheless, the characterization of resident and secreted proteins associated with the cell wall are critical to understanding bacterial survival and immune modulation in the host. In this study, the cell wall proteome was defined in order to better understand its unique biosynthetic and secretion processes. Mtb cell wall was subjected to extraction with organic solvents to remove noncovalently bound lipids and lipoglycans and remaining proteins were solubilized with either SDS, Guanidine-HCl, or TX-114. These extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass-spectrometry and resulted in the identification of 234 total proteins. The lipoproteome of Mtb, enriched in the TX-114 extract, was further resolved by multidimensional chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify an additional 294 proteins. A query of the 528 total protein identifications against Neural Network or Hidden Markov model algorithms predicted secretion signals in 87 proteins. Classification of these 528 proteins also demonstrated that 35% are involved in small molecule metabolism and 25% are involved in macromolecule synthesis and degradation building upon evidence that the Mtb cell wall is actively engaged in mycobacterial survival and remodeling.

  9. Differential abilities of capsulated and noncapsulated Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse agr groups to invade mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Buzzola, Fernanda R; Alvarez, Lucía P; Tuchscherr, Lorena P N; Barbagelata, María S; Lattar, Santiago M; Calvinho, Luis; Sordelli, Daniel O

    2007-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the bacterium most frequently isolated from milk of bovines with mastitis. Four allelic groups, which interfere with the regulatory activities among the different groups, have been identified in the accessory gene regulator (agr) system. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups in capsulated and noncapsulated S. aureus bacteria isolated from mastitic bovines in Argentina and whether a given agr group was associated with MAC-T cell invasion and in vivo persistence. Eighty-eight percent of the bovine S. aureus strains were classified in agr group I. The remainder belonged in agr groups II, III, and IV (2, 8, and 2%, respectively). By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis after PCR amplification of the agr locus variable region, six agr restriction types were identified. All agr group I strains presented a unique allele (A/1), whereas strains from groups II, III, and IV exhibited more diversity. Bovine S. aureus strains defined as being in agr group I (capsulated or noncapsulated) showed significantly increased abilities to be internalized within MAC-T cells, compared with isolates from agr groups II, III, and IV. agr group II or IV S. aureus strains were cleared more efficiently than agr group I strains from the murine mammary gland. The results suggest that agr group I S. aureus strains are more efficiently internalized within epithelial cells and can persist in higher numbers in mammary gland tissue than S. aureus strains classified in agr group II, III, or IV.

  10. Role of Interleukin-17A in Cell-Mediated Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Mice Immunized with the Fibrinogen-Binding Domain of Clumping Factor A ▿

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Kouji; Hu, Dong-Liang; Mori, Fumiaki; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nakane, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Clumping factor A (ClfA) is a fibrinogen-binding cell wall-attached protein and an important virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus. Previous studies reported that an immunization with the fibrinogen-binding domain of ClfA (ClfA40-559) protected animals against S. aureus infection. It was reported that some cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal diseases and in host defense against S. aureus infection. However, the role of cytokines in the protective effect of ClfA40-559 as a vaccine has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the spleen cells of ClfA40-559-immunized mice produced a large amount of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). The protective effect of immunization was exerted in wild-type mice but not in IL-17A-deficient mice. IL-17A mRNA expression was increased in the spleens and kidneys of immunized mice after infection. CXCL2 and CCL2 mRNA expression was increased in the spleens and kidneys, respectively. Consistent with upregulation of the mRNA expression, neutrophils infiltrated into the spleens extensively and macrophage infiltration was observed in the kidneys of immunized mice. These results suggest that immunization with ClfA40-559 induces the IL-17A-producing cells and that IL-17-mediated cellular immunity is involved in the protective effect induced by immunization with ClfA40-559 against S. aureus infection. PMID:20679443

  11. Purple acid phosphatase in the walls of tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Rumi; Hayashi, Takahisa; Kaneko, Takako S

    2008-10-01

    Purple acid phosphatase isolated from the walls of tobacco cells appears to be a 220kDa homotetramer composed of 60kDa subunits, which is purple in color and which contains iron as its only metal ion. Although the phosphatase did not require dithiothreitol for activity and was not inhibited by phenylarsine oxide, the enzyme showed a higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for phosphotyrosine-containing peptides than for other substrates including p-nitrophenyl-phosphate and ATP. The phosphatase formed as a 120kDa dimer in the cytoplasm and as a 220kDa tetramer in the walls, where Brefeldin A blocked its secretion during wall regeneration. According to our double-immunofluorescence labeling results, the enzyme might be translocated through the Golgi apparatus to the walls at the interphase and to the cell plate during cytokinesis.

  12. Microfabricated alkali vapor cell with anti-relaxation wall coating

    SciTech Connect

    Straessle, R.; Pétremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.

    2014-07-28

    We present a microfabricated alkali vapor cell equipped with an anti-relaxation wall coating. The anti-relaxation coating used is octadecyltrichlorosilane and the cell was sealed by thin-film indium-bonding at a low temperature of 140 °C. The cell body is made of silicon and Pyrex and features a double-chamber design. Depolarizing properties due to liquid Rb droplets are avoided by confining the Rb droplets to one chamber only. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on this wall-coated cell are used to evaluate the cell's relaxation properties and a potential gas contamination. Double-resonance signals obtained from the cell show an intrinsic linewidth that is significantly lower than the linewidth that would be expected in case the cell had no wall coating but only contained a buffer-gas contamination on the level measured by optical spectroscopy. Combined with further experimental evidence this proves the presence of a working anti-relaxation wall coating in the cell. Such cells are of interest for applications in miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and other quantum sensors.

  13. Characterization of rhamnogalacturonan I from cotton suspension culture cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Progress has been made on the project of determining the structure of pectins. From recent progress, a covalent crosslink between rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) and xyloglucan was hypothesized and a structure for RGI was proposed. The development of a method to determine the distribution of methyl esterification with pectins also progressed. The degree of methyl esterification of cotton cotyledon cell walls was compared to that of cotton suspension cultures. Cotyledon wall were found to have {approximately}55% of the galacturonic acid esterified whereas suspension culture wall were only about 14% methyl esterified. 10 refs. (SM)

  14. A thin layer electrochemical cell for disinfection of water contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Isabel C. P.; Moraes, Peterson B.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

    2009-01-01

    A thin layer electrochemical cell was tested and developed for disinfection treatment of water artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. Electrolysis was performed with a low-voltage DC power source applying current densities of 75 mA cm-2 (3 A) or 25 mA cm-2 (1 A). A dimensionally stable anode (DSA) of titanium coated with an oxide layer of 70%TiO2 plus 30%RuO2 (w/w) and a 3 mm from a stainless-steel 304 cathode was used in the thin layer cell. The experiments were carried out using a bacteria suspension containing 0.08 M sodium sulphate with chloride-free to determine the bacterial inactivation efficacy of the thin layer cell without the generation of chlorine. The chlorine can promote the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) that are carcinogenic. S. aureus inactivation increased with electrolysis time and lower flow rate. The flow rates used were 200 or 500 L h-1. At 500 L h-1 and 75 mA cm-2 the inactivation after 60 min was about three logs of decreasing for colony forming units by mL. However, 100% inactivation for S. aureus was observed at 5.6 V and 75 mA cm-2 after 30 min. Thus, significant disinfection levels can be achieved without adding oxidant substances or generation of chlorine in the water. PMID:24031410

  15. Molecular Rigidity in Dry and Hydrated Onion Cell Walls.

    PubMed

    Ha, M. A.; Apperley, D. C.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1997-10-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments can provide information on the rigidity of individual molecules within a complex structure such as a cell wall, and thus show how each polymer can potentially contribute to the rigidity of the whole structure. We measured the proton magnetic relaxation parameters T2 (spin-spin) and T1p (spin-lattice) through the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dry and hydrated cell walls from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Dry cell walls behaved as rigid solids. The form of their T2 decay curves varied on a continuum between Gaussian, as in crystalline solids, and exponential, as in more mobile materials. The degree of molecular mobility that could be inferred from the T2 and T1p decay patterns was consistent with a crystalline state for cellulose and a glassy state for dry pectins. The theory of composite materials may be applied to explain the rigidity of dry onion cell walls in terms of their components. Hydration made little difference to the rigidity of cellulose and most of the xyloglucan shared this rigidity, but the pectic fraction became much more mobile. Therefore, the cellulose/xyloglucan microfibrils behaved as solid rods, and the most significant physical distinction within the hydrated cell wall was between the microfibrils and the predominantly pectic matrix. A minor xyloglucan fraction was much more mobile than the microfibrils and probably corresponded to cross-links between them. Away from the microfibrils, pectins expanded upon hydration into a nonhomogeneous, but much softer, almost-liquid gel. These data are consistent with a model for the stress-bearing hydrated cell wall in which pectins provide limited stiffness across the thickness of the wall, whereas the cross-linked microfibril network provides much greater rigidity in other directions.

  16. Simulated microgravity inhibits cell wall regeneration of Penicillium decumbens protoplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z. C.; Rong, L.; Zhuang, F. Y.; Fan, Y. B.

    2010-09-01

    This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 × 10 5 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.

  17. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly.

  18. Contribution of sortase SrtA2 to Lactobacillus casei BL23 inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Souza, Renata F S; Jardin, Julien; Cauty, Chantal; Rault, Lucie; Bouchard, Damien S; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Monedero, Vicente; Seyffert, Núbia; Azevedo, Vasco; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been considered as a promising strategy to prevent various diseases in both humans and animals. This approach has gained interest in recent years as a potential means to control bovine mastitis. In a previous study, we found that several L. casei strains, including BL23, were able to inhibit the internalization of S. aureus, a major etiologic agent of mastitis, into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC). This antagonism required a direct contact between L. casei and bMEC or S. aureus, suggesting the inhibition relied on interactions between L. casei cell surface components and bMEC. In this study, we have investigated the impact of some candidates which likely influence bacteria host cell interactions. We have shown that L. casei BL23 fbpA retained its inhibitory potential, indicating that L. casei BL23 antagonism did not rely (solely) on competition between S. aureus and L. casei fibronectin-binding proteins for adhesion to bMEC. We have then investigated the impact of four sortase mutants, srtA1, srtA2, srtC1 and srtC2, and a double mutant (srtA1-srtA2) on L. casei BL23 inhibitory potential. Sortases are responsible for the anchoring on the bacterial cell wall of LPXTG-proteins, which reportedly play an important role in bacteria-host cell interaction. All the srt mutants tested presented a reduced inhibition capacity, the most pronounced effect being observed with the srtA2 mutant. A lower internalization capacity of L. casei srtA2 into bMEC was also observed. This was associated with several changes at the surface of L. casei BL23 srtA2 compared to the wild type (wt) strain, including altered abundance of some LPXTG- and moonlighting proteins, and modifications of cell wall structure. These results strongly support the role of sortase A2 in L. casei BL23 inhibition against S. aureus internalization. Deciphering the contribution of the cell surface components altered in srtA2 strain in the inhibition will require further investigation.

  19. Contribution of sortase SrtA2 to Lactobacillus casei BL23 inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Renata F. S.; Jardin, Julien; Cauty, Chantal; Rault, Lucie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Langella, Philippe; Monedero, Vicente; Seyffert, Núbia; Azevedo, Vasco; Le Loir, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been considered as a promising strategy to prevent various diseases in both humans and animals. This approach has gained interest in recent years as a potential means to control bovine mastitis. In a previous study, we found that several L. casei strains, including BL23, were able to inhibit the internalization of S. aureus, a major etiologic agent of mastitis, into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC). This antagonism required a direct contact between L. casei and bMEC or S. aureus, suggesting the inhibition relied on interactions between L. casei cell surface components and bMEC. In this study, we have investigated the impact of some candidates which likely influence bacteria host cell interactions. We have shown that L. casei BL23 fbpA retained its inhibitory potential, indicating that L. casei BL23 antagonism did not rely (solely) on competition between S. aureus and L. casei fibronectin-binding proteins for adhesion to bMEC. We have then investigated the impact of four sortase mutants, srtA1, srtA2, srtC1 and srtC2, and a double mutant (srtA1-srtA2) on L. casei BL23 inhibitory potential. Sortases are responsible for the anchoring on the bacterial cell wall of LPXTG-proteins, which reportedly play an important role in bacteria-host cell interaction. All the srt mutants tested presented a reduced inhibition capacity, the most pronounced effect being observed with the srtA2 mutant. A lower internalization capacity of L. casei srtA2 into bMEC was also observed. This was associated with several changes at the surface of L. casei BL23 srtA2 compared to the wild type (wt) strain, including altered abundance of some LPXTG- and moonlighting proteins, and modifications of cell wall structure. These results strongly support the role of sortase A2 in L. casei BL23 inhibition against S. aureus internalization. Deciphering the contribution of the cell surface components altered in srtA2 strain in the inhibition will require further investigation. PMID

  20. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin.

    PubMed

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  1. Molecular Sieving by the Bacillus megaterium Cell Wall and Protoplast

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Rene; Gerhardt, Philipp

    1971-01-01

    Passive permeabilities of the cell wall and protoplast of Bacillus megaterium strain KM were characterized by use of 50 hydrophilic probing molecules (tritiated water, sugars, dextrans, glycols, and polyglycols) which varied widely in size. Weight per cent uptake values (Rw) were measured at diffusional equilibrium under conditions that negated the influences of adsorption or active transport. Plots of Rw for intact cells as a function of number-average molecular weight (¯Mn) or Einstein-Stokes hydrodynamic radius (¯rES) of the solutes showed three phases: a protoplast uptake phase with a polydisperse exclusion threshold of ¯Mn = 0.6 × 103 to 1.1 × 103, ¯rES = 0.6 to 1.1 nm; a cell wall uptake phase with a polydisperse exclusion threshold of ¯Mn = 0.7 × 105 to 1.2 × 105, ¯rES ≅ 8.3 nm; and a total exclusion phase. Isolated cell walls showed only the latter two phases. However, it became evident that the cell wall selectively passed only the smallest molecules in a heterodisperse polymer sample. When the molecular-weight distributions of polyglycol samples (¯Mn = 1,000, 1,450, and 3,350) were determined by analytical gel chromatography before and after uptake by intact cells or isolated cell walls, a quasi-monodisperse exclusion threshold was obtained corresponding to Mn = 1,200, rES = 1.1 nm. The permeability of isolated protoplasts was assessed by the relative ability of solutes to effect osmotic stabilization. An indefinite exclusion threshold, evident even with monodisperse sugars, was attributed to lengthwise orientation of the penetrating rod-shaped molecules. Altogether, the best estimate of the limiting equivalent porosity of the protoplast was 0.4 to 0.6 nm in radius and of the cell wall, 1.1 nm. PMID:4999413

  2. Cell-wall remodeling drives engulfment during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Ojkic, Nikola; López-Garrido, Javier; Pogliano, Kit; Endres, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    When starved, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms durable spores for survival. Sporulation initiates with an asymmetric cell division, creating a large mother cell and a small forespore. Subsequently, the mother cell membrane engulfs the forespore in a phagocytosis-like process. However, the force generation mechanism for forward membrane movement remains unknown. Here, we show that membrane migration is driven by cell wall remodeling at the leading edge of the engulfing membrane, with peptidoglycan synthesis and degradation mediated by penicillin binding proteins in the forespore and a cell wall degradation protein complex in the mother cell. We propose a simple model for engulfment in which the junction between the septum and the lateral cell wall moves around the forespore by a mechanism resembling the ‘template model’. Hence, we establish a biophysical mechanism for the creation of a force for engulfment based on the coordination between cell wall synthesis and degradation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18657.001 PMID:27852437

  3. 47. ARAI. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. ARA-I. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell in ARA-626. Note stands for operators at viewing windows. Manipulators with hand grips extend cables and other controls into hot cell through ducts above windows. Ineel photo no. 81-27. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 15. View of interior, north wall of hot cell featuring ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of interior, north wall of hot cell featuring radioactive materials containment box, facing east - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. RESEARCH ON CELL WALL CYTOCHEMISTRY OF SELECTED FUNGI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    that the resistant material in their cell walls is chitin. All efforts to identify cellulose produced negative results. Solutions of chitinase ...fungi examined, especially Heterocephalum aurantiacum Plastid-like structures in the protoplasts are the cell organs which produce chitin. Chitin

  6. Brachypodium distachyon grain: characterization of endosperm cell walls.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Fabienne; Bouchet, Brigitte; Jamme, Frédéric; Robert, Paul; Quéméner, Bernard; Barron, Cécile; Larré, Colette; Dumas, Paul; Saulnier, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The wild grass Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as an alternative model species for temperate cereals. The present paper reports on the characterization of B. distachyon grain, placing emphasis on endosperm cell walls. Brachypodium distachyon is notable for its high cell wall polysaccharide content that accounts for ∼52% (w/w) of the endosperm in comparison with 2-7% (w/w) in other cereals. Starch, the typical storage polysaccharide, is low [<10% (w/w)] in the endosperm where the main polysaccharide is (1-3) (1-4)-β-glucan [40% (w/w) of the endosperm], which in all likelihood plays a role as a storage compound. In addition to (1-3) (1-4)-β-glucan, endosperm cells contain cellulose and xylan in significant amounts. Interestingly, the ratio of ferulic acid to arabinoxylan is higher in B. distachyon grain than in other investigated cereals. Feruloylated arabinoxylan is mainly found in the middle lamella and cell junction zones of the storage endosperm, suggesting a potential role in cell-cell adhesion. The present results indicate that B. distachyon grains contain all the cell wall polysaccharides encountered in other cereal grains. Thus, due to its fully sequenced genome, its short life cycle, and the genetic tools available for mutagenesis/transformation, B. distachyon is a good model to investigate cell wall polysaccharide synthesis and function in cereal grains.

  7. Cell wall proteome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mature stems.

    PubMed

    Duruflé, Harold; Clemente, Hélène San; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Dunand, Christophe; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Plant stems carry flowers necessary for species propagation and need to be adapted to mechanical disturbance and environmental factors. The stem cell walls are different from other organs and can modify their rigidity or viscoelastic properties for the integrity and the robustness required to withstand mechanical impacts and environmental stresses. Plant cell wall is composed of complex polysaccharide networks also containing cell wall proteins (CWPs) crucial to perceive and limit the environmental effects. The CWPs are fundamental players in cell wall remodeling processes, and today, only 86 have been identified from the mature stems of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. With a destructive method, this study has enlarged its coverage to 302 CWPs. This new proteome is mainly composed of 27.5% proteins acting on polysaccharides, 16% proteases, 11.6% oxido-reductases, 11% possibly related to lipid metabolism and 11% of proteins with interacting domains with proteins or polysaccharides. Compared to stem cell wall proteomes already available (Brachypodium distachyon, Sacharum officinarum, Linum usitatissimum, Medicago sativa), that of A. thaliana stems has a higher proportion of proteins acting on polysaccharides and of proteases, but a lower proportion of oxido-reductases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Gene expression in Fusarium graminearum grown on plant cell wall.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphaël; Hatsch, Didier; Vorwerk, Sonja; Petkovski, Elizabet; Jeltsch, Jean-Marc; Phalip, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus attacking a wide range of plants including Humulus lupulus (hop). Transcriptional analysis of F. graminearum grown on minimal media containing hop cell wall or glucose as the sole carbon source was performed by applying a highly stringent method combining microarrays and a subtracted cDNA library. In addition to genes coding for various cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), several metabolic pathways were induced in response to the plant cell wall substrate. Many genes participating in these pathways are probably involved in cellular transport. But the most interesting was that all the genes composing the 4-aminobutyrate-shunt (GABA-shunt) were also up-regulated in the presence of plant cell wall material and were present in the cDNA library. This study provides a description of a part of the fungal gene expression profile when it is in contact with raw biological materials, and helps in understanding the plant cell wall degradation and the infection process.

  9. The role of the cell wall in plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Malinovsky, Frederikke G.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.

    2014-01-01

    The battle between plants and microbes is evolutionarily ancient, highly complex, and often co-dependent. A primary challenge for microbes is to breach the physical barrier of host cell walls whilst avoiding detection by the plant’s immune receptors. While some receptors sense conserved microbial features, others monitor physical changes caused by an infection attempt. Detection of microbes leads to activation of appropriate defense responses that then challenge the attack. Plant cell walls are formidable and dynamic barriers. They are constructed primarily of complex carbohydrates joined by numerous distinct connection types, and are subject to extensive post-synthetic modification to suit prevailing local requirements. Multiple changes can be triggered in cell walls in response to microbial attack. Some of these are well described, but many remain obscure. The study of the myriad of subtle processes underlying cell wall modification poses special challenges for plant glycobiology. In this review we describe the major molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the roles of cell walls in plant defense against pathogen attack. In so doing, we also highlight some of the challenges inherent in studying these interactions, and briefly describe the analytical potential of molecular probes used in conjunction with carbohydrate microarray technology. PMID:24834069

  10. Membrane-wall attachments in plasmolysed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Lang, I; Barton, D A; Overall, R L

    2004-12-01

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy of plasmolysed Tradescantia virginiana leaf epidermal cells gave novel insights into the three-dimensional architecture of Hechtian strands, Hechtian reticulum, and the inner surface of the cell wall without the need for extraction. At high magnification, we observed fibres that pin the plasma membrane to the cell wall after plasmolysis. Treatment with cellulase caused these connecting fibres to be lost and the pinned out plasma membrane of the Hechtian reticulum to disintegrate into vesicles with diameters of 100-250 nm. This suggests that the fibres may be cellulose. After 4 h of plasmolysis, a fibrous meshwork that labelled with anti-callose antibodies was observed within the space between the plasmolysed protoplast and the cell wall by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, macerase-pectinase treatment resulted in the loss of this meshwork, suggesting that it was stabilised by pectins. We suggest that cellulose microfibrils extending from strands of the Hechtian reticulum and entwining into the cell wall matrix act as anchors for the plasma membrane as it moves away from the wall during plasmolysis.

  11. Structure, function, and biosynthesis of plant cell walls: proceedings of the seventh annual symposium in botany

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, W.M.; Bartnicki-Garcia, S.

    1984-01-01

    Papers in the following areas were included in these symposium proceedings: (1) cell wall chemistry and biosynthesis; (2) cell wall hydrolysis and associated physiology; (3) cellular events associated with cell wall biosynthesis; and (4) interactions of plant cell walls with pathogens and related responses. Papers have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  12. SrrAB Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Cell Death through Regulation of cidABC Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Windham, Ian H.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Vinai C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The death and lysis of a subpopulation in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells are thought to benefit the surviving population by releasing extracellular DNA, a critical component of the biofilm extracellular matrix. Although the means by which S. aureus controls cell death and lysis is not understood, studies implicate the role of the cidABC and lrgAB operons in this process. Recently, disruption of the srrAB regulatory locus was found to cause increased cell death during biofilm development, likely as a result of the sensitivity of this mutant to hypoxic growth. In the current study, we extended these findings by demonstrating that cell death in the ΔsrrAB mutant is dependent on expression of the cidABC operon. The effect of cidABC expression resulted in the generation of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and was independent of acetate production. Interestingly, consistently with previous studies, cidC-encoded pyruvate oxidase was found to be important for the generation of acetic acid, which initiates the cell death process. However, these studies also revealed for the first time an important role of the cidB gene in cell death, as disruption of cidB in the ΔsrrAB mutant background decreased ROS generation and cell death in a cidC-independent manner. The cidB mutation also caused decreased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, which suggests a complex role for this system in ROS metabolism. Overall, the results of this study provide further insight into the function of the cidABC operon in cell death and reveal its contribution to the oxidative stress response. IMPORTANCE The manuscript focuses on cell death mechanisms in Staphylococcus aureus and provides important new insights into the genes involved in this ill-defined process. By exploring the cause of increased stationary-phase death in an S. aureus ΔsrrAB regulatory mutant, we found that the decreased viability of this mutant was a consequence of the overexpression of the cid

  13. Growth mechanics of bacterial cell wall and morphology of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean

    2010-03-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is responsible for maintaining the cell shape and integrity. During the bacterial life cycle, the growth of the cell wall is affected by mechanical stress and osmotic pressure internal to the cell. We develop a theory to describe cell shape changes under the influence of mechanical forces. We find that the theory predicts a steady state size and shape for bacterial cells ranging from cocci to spirillum. Moreover, the theory suggest a mechanism by which bacterial cytoskeletal proteins such as MreB and crescentin can maintain the shape of the cell. The theory can also explain the several recent experiments on growing bacteria in micro-environments.

  14. α-Toxin Regulates Local Granulocyte Expansion from Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Wounds.

    PubMed

    Falahee, Patrick C; Anderson, Leif S; Reynolds, Mack B; Pirir, Mauricio; McLaughlin, Bridget E; Dillen, Carly A; Cheung, Ambrose L; Miller, Lloyd S; Simon, Scott I

    2017-09-01

    The immune response to Staphylococcus aureus infection in skin involves the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the bone marrow via the circulation and local granulopoiesis from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that also traffic to infected skin wounds. We focus on regulation of PMN number and function and the role of pore-forming α-toxin (AT), a virulence factor that causes host cell lysis and elicits inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in wounds. Infection with wild-type S. aureus enriched in AT reduced PMN recruitment and resulted in sustained bacterial burden and delayed wound healing. In contrast, PMN recruitment to wounds infected with an isogenic AT-deficient S. aureus strain was unimpeded, exhibiting efficient bacterial clearance and hastened wound resolution. HSPCs recruited to infected wounds were unaffected by AT production and were activated to expand PMN numbers in proportion to S. aureus abundance in a manner regulated by TLR2 and IL-1R signaling. Immunodeficient MyD88-knockout mice infected with S. aureus experienced lethal sepsis that was reversed by PMN expansion mediated by injection of wild-type HSPCs directly into wounds. We conclude that AT-induced IL-1β promotes local granulopoiesis and effective resolution of S. aureus-infected wounds, revealing a potential antibiotic-free strategy for tuning the innate immune response to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in immunodeficient patients. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. β-d-Glucan of Avena Coleoptile Cell Walls 12

    PubMed Central

    Nevins, Donald J.; Huber, Donald J.; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Loescher, Wayne H.

    1977-01-01

    A specific glucanase was used to liberate a noncellulosic β-d-glucan from isolated cell walls of Avena sativa coleoptile tissue. Cell walls of this tissue contain as much as 7 to 9 mg of glucan/100 mg of dry wall. Because of the specific action pattern of the enzyme, a linkage sequence of.. 1 → 4 Glc 1 → 3 Glc 1 → 4 Glc.. is indicated and the predominance of trisaccharide and tetrasaccharide as hydrolytic products suggests a rather regular repeating pattern in the polysaccharide. The trisaccharide and the tetrasaccharide are tentatively identified as 3-O-β-cellobiosyl-d-glucose and 3-O-β-cellotriosyl-d-glucose, respectively. Recovery of these oligosaccharides following glucanase treatment of native wall material was feasible only after wall-bound glucosidases were inactivated. In the absence of enzyme inactivation the released fragments were recovered as glucose. The β-d-glucan was not extracted from walls by either hot water or protease treatment. Cell walls prepared from auxin-treated Avena coleoptile segments yielded less glucan than did segments incubated in buffer suggesting an auxin effect on the quantity of this wall component. No IAA-induced change in the ratio of the trisaccharide and tetrasaccharide could be detected, suggesting no shift in the 1,3 to 1,4 linkage ratio. While the enzyme acts directly on the β-d-glucan, no elongation response was apparent when Avena sections were treated with the purified glucanase. The presence of the glucan was not associated with any wound response which could be attributed to the preparation of coleoptile segments. The relationship of glucan metabolism to auxin growth responses is discussed. PMID:16660149

  16. Effect of temperature on plant elongation and cell wall extensibility.

    PubMed

    Pietruszka, M; Lewicka, S

    2007-03-01

    Lockhart equation was derived for explaining plant cell expansion where both cell wall extension and water uptake must occur concomitantly. Its fundamental contribution was to express turgor pressure explicitly in terms of osmosis and wall mechanics. Here we present a new equation in which pressure is determined by temperature. It also accounts for the role of osmosis and consequently the role of water uptake in growing cell. By adopting literature data, we also attempt to report theoretically the close relation between plant elongation and cell wall extensibility. This is accomplished by the modified equation of growth solved for various temperatures in case of two different species. The results enable to interpret empirical data in terms of our model and fully confirm its applicability to the investigation of the problem of plant cell extensibility in function of environmental temperature. Moreover, by separating elastic effects from growth process we specified the characteristic temperature common for both processes which corresponds to the resonance energy of biochemical reactions as well as to the rapid softening of the elastic modes toward the high temperature end where we encountered viscoelastic and/or plastic behavior as dominating. By introducing analytical formulae connected with growth and elastic properties of the cell wall, we conclude with the statement how these both processes contribute quantitatively to the resonance-like shape of the elongation curve. In addition, the tension versus temperature "phase diagram" for a living plant cell is presented.

  17. Chemically Mediated Mechanical Expansion of the Pollen Tube Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique R.; Hotton, Scott; Dumais, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of plant cells is tantamount to the shaping of the stiff cell wall that surrounds them. To this end, these cells integrate two concomitant processes: 1), deposition of new material into the existing wall, and 2), mechanical deformation of this material by the turgor pressure. However, due to uncertainty regarding the mechanisms that coordinate these processes, existing models typically adopt a limiting case in which either one or the other dictates morphogenesis. In this report, we formulate a simple mechanism in pollen tubes by which deposition causes turnover of cell wall cross-links, thereby facilitating mechanical deformation. Accordingly, deposition and mechanics are coupled and are both integral aspects of the morphogenetic process. Among the key experimental qualifications of this model are: its ability to precisely reproduce the morphologies of pollen tubes; its prediction of the growth oscillations exhibited by rapidly growing pollen tubes; and its prediction of the observed phase relationships between variables such as wall thickness, cell morphology, and growth rate within oscillatory cells. In short, the model captures the rich phenomenology of pollen tube morphogenesis and has implications for other plant cell types. PMID:22004737

  18. The cell wall compound of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a novel wall material for encapsulation of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Samira; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khomeiri, Morteza; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    Yeast cell wall is known as a food grade ingredient which is recently being used increasingly as a novel coating for encapsulation of different materials in the food industry. This application is limited to core materials smaller than yeast in size. In this study, we have tried to encapsulate larger particles by crushing yeast cells. Hence, probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum were encapsulated firstly by calcium alginate using the emulsion method and these microbeads were coated again by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall compound and another layer of calcium alginate. The average diameter of microcapsules for single layer microbeads (M), microbeads coated by two layers of alginate (MCA), and microbeads coated by a layer of yeast cell and two layers of alginate (MCYA) were 54.25±0.18, 77.43±8.24 and 103.66±13.33μm, respectively. In simulated gastrointestinal conditions, there was a significant (P<0.05) enhancement in resistance of L. acidophilus when applying a layer of S. cerevisiae cell wall compound. For MCA and MCYA after 2h exposure to simulated gastric juice, it was revealed a log reduction of 1.53±0.1 and 1.1±0.02 with pH1.55 and in simulated intestinal juice, 2.92±0.04 and 2.42±0.06 with 0.6% bile after previous 1h incubation in gastric conditions, respectively. It can be concluded that the cell wall compound of S. cerevisiae is a suitable protective coating for probiotics and it can improve the survival of probiotics within food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling.

  20. Freezing stresses and hydration of isolated cell walls.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yonghyeon; Pope, Jim; Wolfe, Joe

    2003-06-01

    The hydration of the cell walls of the giant alga Chara australis was measured as a function of temperature using quantitative deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of samples hydrated with D2O. At temperatures 23-5K below freezing, the hydration ratio (the ratio of mass of unfrozen water in microscopic phases in the cell wall to the dry mass) increases slowly with increasing temperature from about 0.2 to 0.4. It then rises rapidly with temperature in the few Kelvin below the freezing temperature. The linewidth of the NMR signal varies approximately linearly with the reciprocal of the hydration ratio, and with the freezing point depression or water potential. These empirical relations may be useful in estimating cell wall water contents in heterogeneous samples.

  1. Cell wall integrity signalling in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Wagener, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Fungi are surrounded by a rigid structure, the fungal cell wall. Its plasticity and composition depend on active regulation of the underlying biosynthesis and restructuring processes. This involves specialised signalling pathways that control gene expression and activities of biosynthetic enzymes. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the central signalling cascade required for the adaptation to a wide spectrum of cell wall perturbing conditions, including heat, oxidative stress and antifungals. In the recent years, great efforts were made to analyse the CWI pathway of diverse fungi. It turned out that the CWI signalling cascade is mostly conserved in the fungal kingdom. In this review, we summarise as well as compare the current knowledge on the canonical CWI pathway in the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Understanding the differences and similarities in the stress responses of these organisms could become a key to improving existing or developing new antifungal therapies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage Is T Cell Dependent and Mediated through Interleukin-17A Expression and Neutrophil Influx

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Nathan K.; Harro, Janette M.

    2013-01-01

    The anterior nares of humans are the major reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Approximately 20% of the healthy human population is persistently and 80% is intermittently colonized with S. aureus in the nasal cavity. Previous studies have shown a strong causal connection between S. aureus nasal carriage and increased risk of nosocomial infection, as well as increased carriage due to immune dysfunction. However, the immune responses that permit persistence or mediate clearance of S. aureus on the nasal mucosa are fundamentally undefined. In this study, we developed a carriage model in C57BL/6J mice and showed that clearance begins 14 days postinoculation. In contrast, SCID mice that have a deficient adaptive immune response are unable to eliminate S. aureus even after 28 days postinoculation. Furthermore, decolonization was found to be T cell mediated but B cell independent by evaluating carriage clearance in T-cell receptor β/δ (TCR-β/δ) knockout (KO) and IgH-μ KO mice, respectively. Upregulation of the cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), KC (also termed CXC ligand 1 [CXCL1]), and IL-17A occurred following inoculation with intranasal S. aureus. IL-17A production was crucial for clearance, since IL-17A-deficient mice were unable to effectively eliminate S. aureus carriage. Subsequently, cell differential counts were evaluated from nasal lavage fluid obtained from wild-type and IL-17A-deficient colonized mice. These counts displayed IL-17A-dependent neutrophil migration. Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils in colonized mice caused reduced clearance compared to that in isotype-treated controls. Our data suggest that the Th17-associated immune response is required for nasal decolonization. This response is T cell dependent and mediated via IL-17A production and neutrophil influx. Th17-associated immune responses may be targeted for strategies to mitigate distal infections originating from persistent S. aureus carriage in humans. PMID:23529621

  3. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    PubMed

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  4. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low-direct current electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Zituni, Dunya; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Kopp, Marion; Krönke, Martin; Addicks, Klaus; Hoffmann, Christian; Hellmich, Martin; Faber, Franz; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Electrical potentials up to 800 mV can be observed between different metallic dental restorations. These potentials produce fields in the mouth that may interfere with microbial communities. The present study focuses on the impact of different electric field strengths (EFS) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in vitro. Cultures of S. aureus and E. coli in fluid and gel medium were exposed to different EFS. Effects were determined by calculation of viable counts and measurement of inhibition zones. In gel medium, anodic inhibition zones for S. aureus were larger than those for E. coli at all field strength levels. In fluid medium, the maximum decrease in the viable count of S. aureus cells was at 10 V⋅m−1. Field-treated S. aureus cells presented ruptured cell walls and disintegrated cytoplasm. Conclusively, S. aureus is more sensitive to increasing electric field strength than E. coli. PMID:24008271

  5. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low-direct current electric fields.

    PubMed

    Zituni, Dunya; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Kopp, Marion; Krönke, Martin; Addicks, Klaus; Hoffmann, Christian; Hellmich, Martin; Faber, Franz; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Electrical potentials up to 800 mV can be observed between different metallic dental restorations. These potentials produce fields in the mouth that may interfere with microbial communities. The present study focuses on the impact of different electric field strengths (EFS) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in vitro. Cultures of S. aureus and E. coli in fluid and gel medium were exposed to different EFS. Effects were determined by calculation of viable counts and measurement of inhibition zones. In gel medium, anodic inhibition zones for S. aureus were larger than those for E. coli at all field strength levels. In fluid medium, the maximum decrease in the viable count of S. aureus cells was at 10 V⋅m(-1). Field-treated S. aureus cells presented ruptured cell walls and disintegrated cytoplasm. Conclusively, S. aureus is more sensitive to increasing electric field strength than E. coli.

  6. Novel insights of ethylene role in strawberry cell wall metabolism.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Natalia M; Marina, María; Nardi, Cristina F; Civello, Pedro M; Martínez, Gustavo A

    2016-11-01

    Due to its organoleptic and nutraceutical qualities, strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) is a worldwide important commodity. The role of ethylene in the regulation of strawberry cell wall metabolism was studied in fruit from Toyonoka cultivar harvested at white stage, when most changes associated with fruit ripening have begun. Fruit were treated with ethephon, an ethylene-releasing reagent, or with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, maintaining a set of non-treated fruit as controls for each condition. Ethephon treated-fruit showed higher contents of hemicelluloses, cellulose and neutral sugars regarding controls, while 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a lower amount of those fractions. On the other hand, ethephon-treated fruit presented a lower quantity of galacturonic acid from ionically and covalently bound pectins regarding controls, while 1-MCP-treated fruit showed higher contents of those components. We also explored the ethylene effect over the mRNA accumulation of genes related to pectins and hemicelluloses metabolism, and a relationship between gene expression patterns and cell wall polysaccharides contents was shown. Moreover, we detected that strawberry necrotrophic pathogens growth more easily on plates containing cell walls from ethephon-treated fruit regarding controls, while a lower growth rate was observed when cell walls from 1-MCP treated fruit were used as the only carbon source, suggesting an effect of ethylene on cell wall structure. Around 60% of strawberry cell wall is made up of pectins, which in turns is 70% made by homogalacturonans. Our findings support the idea of a central role for pectins on strawberry fruit softening and a participation of ethylene in the regulation of this process.

  7. The Role of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factors in Skin Infection and Their Potential as Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Keenan A.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes the vast majority of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in humans. S. aureus has become increasingly resistant to antibiotics and there is an urgent need for new strategies to tackle S. aureus infections. Vaccines offer a potential solution to this epidemic of antimicrobial resistance. However, the development of next generation efficacious anti-S. aureus vaccines necessitates a greater understanding of the protective immune response against S. aureus infection. In particular, it will be important to ascertain if distinct immune mechanisms are required to confer protection at distinct anatomical sites. Recent discoveries have highlighted that interleukin-17-producing T cells play a particularly important role in the immune response to S. aureus skin infection and suggest that vaccine strategies to specifically target these types of T cells may be beneficial in the treatment of S. aureus SSTIs. S. aureus expresses a large number of cell wall-anchored (CWA) proteins, which are covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan. The virulence potential of many CWA proteins has been demonstrated in infection models; however, there is a paucity of information regarding their roles during SSTIs. In this review, we highlight potential candidate antigens for vaccines targeted at protection against SSTIs. PMID:26901227

  8. Sodium acetate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Xiao, Chong; Guo, Changming; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly and prevalent disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. It was reported that Staphylococcus aureus could internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and induce mastitis. Some short chain fatty acids (SCFA) have shown to suppress S. aureus invasion into bMEC and regulate antimicrobial peptides expression. But it has not been evaluated that sodium acetate has the similar effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium acetate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus. Gentamicin protection assay showed that the invasion of S. aureus into bMEC was inhibited by sodium acetate in a dose-dependent manner. Sodium acetate (0.25-5 mM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability. The TAP gene level was decreased, while the BNBD5 mRNA level was enhanced in sodium acetate treated bMEC. In sodium acetate treated and S. aureus challenged bMEC, the TAP gene expression was increased and BNBD5 gene expression was not modified at low concentrations, but decreased at high concentrations. The Nitric oxide (NO) production of bMEC after S. aureus stimulation was decreased by sodium acetate treatment. Furthermore, sodium acetate treatment suppressed S. aureus-induced NF-κB activation in bMEC in a dose manner. In conclusion, our results suggested that sodium acetate exerts an inhibitory property on S. aureus internalization and modulates antimicrobial peptides gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  10. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  11. Cell Walls and the Convergent Evolution of the Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Why some viruses are enveloped while others lack an outer lipid bilayer is a major question in viral evolution but one that has received relatively little attention. The viral envelope serves several functions, including protecting the RNA or DNA molecule(s), evading recognition by the immune system, and facilitating virus entry. Despite these commonalities, viral envelopes come in a wide variety of shapes and configurations. The evolution of the viral envelope is made more puzzling by the fact that nonenveloped viruses are able to infect a diverse range of hosts across the tree of life. We reviewed the entry, transmission, and exit pathways of all (101) viral families on the 2013 International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) list. By doing this, we revealed a strong association between the lack of a viral envelope and the presence of a cell wall in the hosts these viruses infect. We were able to propose a new hypothesis for the existence of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses, in which the latter represent an adaptation to cells surrounded by a cell wall, while the former are an adaptation to animal cells where cell walls are absent. In particular, cell walls inhibit viral entry and exit, as well as viral transport within an organism, all of which are critical waypoints for successful infection and spread. Finally, we discuss how this new model for the origin of the viral envelope impacts our overall understanding of virus evolution. PMID:26378223

  12. Acquired subglottic stenosis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus that produce epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Y; Sugai, M; Woo, M; Nishida, N; Sugimoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Local infection of the trachea in intubated neonates is one of the main risk factors for development of acquired subglottic stenosis, although its role in the pathogenesis is unclear. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is often the cause of critical illness in neonatal patients. Two cases are reported of acquired subglottic stenosis following bacterial infection of the trachea, suggesting an association with the staphylococcal exotoxin, epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor (EDIN). EDIN-producing MRSA were isolated from purulent tracheal secretions from both infants. Acquired subglottic stenosis in both cases was probably caused by delayed wound healing as the result of EDIN inhibition of epithelial cell migration.

 PMID:11124922

  13. Structural and functional characterization of Staphylococcus aureus dihydrodipicolinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Girish, Tavarekere S; Sharma, Eshita; Gopal, B

    2008-08-20

    Lysine biosynthesis is crucial for cell-wall formation in bacteria. Enzymes involved in lysine biosynthesis are thus potential targets for anti-microbial therapeutics. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first step of this pathway. Unlike its homologues, Staphylococcus aureus DHDPS is a dimer both in solution and in the crystal and is not feedback inhibited by lysine. The crystal structure of S. aureus DHDPS in the free and substrate bound forms provides a structural rationale for its catalytic mechanism. The structure also reveals unique conformational features of the S. aureus enzyme that could be crucial for the design of specific non-competitive inhibitors.

  14. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of the antimicrobial peptide plectasin against Staphylococcus aureus in infected epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Water, Jorrit Jeroen; Smart, Simon; Franzyk, Henrik; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-05-01

    A number of pathogenic bacterial strains, such as Staphylococcus aureus, are difficult to kill with conventional antibiotics due to intracellular persistence in host airway epithelium. Designing drug delivery systems to deliver potent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) intracellularly to the airway epithelial cells might thus be a promising approach to combat such infections. In this work, plectasin, which is a cationic AMP of the defensin class, was encapsulated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles displayed a high plectasin encapsulation efficiency (71-90%) and mediated release of the peptide over 24h. The antimicrobial efficacy of the peptide-loaded nanoparticles was investigated using bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cell monolayers infected with S. aureus. The plectasin-loaded nanoparticles displayed improved efficacy as compared to non-encapsulated plectasin, while the eukaryotic cell viability was unaffected at the assayed concentrations. Further, the subcellular localization of the nanoparticles was assessed in different relevant cell lines. The nanoparticles were distributed in punctuate patterns intracellularly in Calu-3 epithelial cells and in THP-1 macrophages, whereas A549 epithelial cells did not show significant uptake of the nanoparticles. Overall, encapsulation of plectasin into PLGA-based nanoparticles appears to be a viable strategy to improve the efficacy of plectasin against infections in epithelial tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Xylem parenchyma cell walls lack a gravitropic response in conifer compression wood.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Lloyd A; Nanayakkara, B; Radotić, K; Djikanovic-Golubović, D; Mitrović, A; Bogdanović Pristov, J; Simonović Radosavljević, J; Kalauzi, A

    2015-12-01

    Cell wall fluorescence and immunocytochemistry demonstrate that xylem parenchyma cell walls do not show changes in structure and composition related to gravitropic response comparable to those of tracheids, even when they have lignified secondary cell walls. Tracheid cell walls in compression wood have altered composition and structure which generates the strain responsible for correction of stem lean as part of the gravitropic response of woody plants. Xylem parenchyma cell walls vary among conifer species and can be lignified secondary walls (spruce) or unlignified primary walls (pine). It can be expected that xylem parenchyma with lignified secondary cell walls might show features of compression wood comparable to those of tracheids that have a similar type of cell wall. A comparison of xylem parenchyma cell walls in normal and compression wood in species with lignified and non-lignified parenchyma cell walls provides a unique opportunity to understand the process of reaction wood formation in conifers. Using both UV/visible fluorescence microscopy of cell wall fluorophores and immunocytochemistry of galactan and mannan epitopes, we demonstrate that xylem parenchyma cell walls do not show the changes in composition and structure typical of compression wood tracheids. Adjacent cells of different types but with similar cell wall structure can undergo cell wall developmental changes related to support or defence functions independent of their neighbours. Tracheids are sensitive to gravitropic signals while xylem parenchyma cells are not.

  16. Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide inhibit plasma coagulation by Staphylococcus aureus cells at the lower concentration than zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Yamasaki, O; Tada, J; Arata, J

    1999-12-01

    We examined the effect of ceramic powder slurries on the coagulation of plasma by Staphylococcus aureus cells. Plasma coagulation by S. aureus strains or their cultured supernatant was inhibited in the plasma with 0.12% calcium oxide or 0.25% magnesium oxide after incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Inhibition of plasma coagulation by calcium oxide and magnesium oxide was observed at the lower concentration than zinc oxide.

  17. MECHANISM OF CELL WALL PENETRATION BY VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Puck, Theodore T.; Lee, Howard H.

    1954-01-01

    Treatment of radioactively labelled host cells with T1 or T2 bacteriophages induces a leakage of cellular P and S into the medium. Evidence is presented showing that this increased cell permeability is not the result of complete lysis of a small fraction of the cells, but rather is made up of contributions from all or most of the infected population. This leakage of cellular constituents exhibits the following characteristics: (a) Infection of a cell with a single virus suffices to evoke the reaction; (b) Increasing the multiplicity up to 7 to 8 virus particles per cell does not affect the extent of leakage produced; (c) Some leakage does occur at 0°C., but much less than at 37°C.; (d) Infection by T1 virus results in a smaller amount of leakage than in the case of T2, but the pattern of response to varying virus multiplicity is the same; (e) The P resulting from such leakage contains no DNA and chemically resembles that which elutes in smaller amounts from uninfected cells; (f) At 37°C. the virus-induced leakage reaction appears within a matter of seconds, and usually decreases after 2 to 3 minutes; (g) The reaction is inhibited by 0.025 M Mg++. Theoretical considerations are presented suggesting the place of this reaction in the sequence of events constituting the virus penetration reaction; its relationship to the phenomenon of lysis-from-without; and its resemblance to the leakage reaction produced by electrostatic binding of ionized compounds to cell surfaces. The existence of similar effects in avian-mammalian virus systems is noted. PMID:13163323

  18. Domain conservation in several volvocalean cell wall proteins.

    PubMed

    Woessner, J P; Molendijk, A J; van Egmond, P; Klis, F M; Goodenough, U W; Haring, M A

    1994-11-01

    Based on our previous work demonstrating that (SerPro)x epitopes are common to extensin-like cell wall proteins in Chlamydomonas' reinhardtii, we looked for similar proteins in the distantly related species C. eugametos. Using a polyclonal antiserum against a (SerPro)10 oligopeptide, we found distinct sets of stage-specific polypeptides immunoprecipitated from in vitro translations of C. eugametos RNA. Screening of a C. eugametos cDNA expression library with the antiserum led to the isolation of a cDNA (WP6) encoding a (SerPro)x-rich multidomain wall protein. Analysis of a similarly selected cDNA (VSP-3) from a C. reinhardtii cDNA expression library revealed that it also coded for a (SerPro)x-rich multidomain wall protein. The C-terminal rod domains of VSP-3 and WP6 are highly homologous, while the N-terminal domains are dissimilar; however, the N-terminal domain of VSP-3 is homologous to the globular domain of a cell wall protein from Volvox carteri. Exon shuffling might be responsible for this example of domain conservation over 350 million years of volvocalean cell wall protein evolution.

  19. A computational approach for inferring the cell wall properties that govern guard cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Hugh C; Bourdais, Gildas; Kopischke, Michaela; Miedes, Eva; Molina, Antonio; Robatzek, Silke; Morris, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Guard cells dynamically adjust their shape in order to regulate photosynthetic gas exchange, respiration rates and defend against pathogen entry. Cell shape changes are determined by the interplay of cell wall material properties and turgor pressure. To investigate this relationship between turgor pressure, cell wall properties and cell shape, we focused on kidney-shaped stomata and developed a biomechanical model of a guard cell pair. Treating the cell wall as a composite of the pectin-rich cell wall matrix embedded with cellulose microfibrils, we show that strong, circumferentially oriented fibres are critical for opening. We find that the opening dynamics are dictated by the mechanical stress response of the cell wall matrix, and as the turgor rises, the pectinaceous matrix stiffens. We validate these predictions with stomatal opening experiments in selected Arabidopsis cell wall mutants. Thus, using a computational framework that combines a 3D biomechanical model with parameter optimization, we demonstrate how to exploit subtle shape changes to infer cell wall material properties. Our findings reveal that proper stomatal dynamics are built on two key properties of the cell wall, namely anisotropy in the form of hoop reinforcement and strain stiffening. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-02

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components.

  1. A model of cell wall expansion based on thermodynamics of polymer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veytsman, B. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of cell wall extension is proposed. It is shown that macroscopic properties of cell walls can be explained through the microscopic properties of interpenetrating networks of cellulose and hemicellulose. The qualitative conclusions of the theory agree with the existing experimental data. The dependence of the cell wall yield threshold on the secretion of the wall components is discussed.

  2. A model of cell wall expansion based on thermodynamics of polymer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veytsman, B. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of cell wall extension is proposed. It is shown that macroscopic properties of cell walls can be explained through the microscopic properties of interpenetrating networks of cellulose and hemicellulose. The qualitative conclusions of the theory agree with the existing experimental data. The dependence of the cell wall yield threshold on the secretion of the wall components is discussed.

  3. Anammox Planctomycetes have a peptidoglycan cell wall.

    PubMed

    van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Mesman, Rob J; Kuru, Erkin; Espaillat, Akbar; Cava, Felipe; Brun, Yves V; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Kartal, Boran; van Niftrik, Laura

    2015-05-12

    Planctomycetes are intriguing microorganisms that apparently lack peptidoglycan, a structure that controls the shape and integrity of almost all bacterial cells. Therefore, the planctomycetal cell envelope is considered exceptional and their cell plan uniquely compartmentalized. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) Planctomycetes play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle by releasing fixed nitrogen back to the atmosphere as N2. Here using a complementary array of state-of-the-art techniques including continuous culturing, cryo-transmission electron microscopy, peptidoglycan-specific probes and muropeptide analysis, we show that the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis contains peptidoglycan. On the basis of the thickness, composition and location of peptidoglycan in K. stuttgartiensis, we propose to redefine Planctomycetes as Gram-negative bacteria. Our results demonstrate that Planctomycetes are not an exception to the universal presence of peptidoglycan in bacteria.

  4. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells: Neglected Regulators of the Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Greil, Johann; Ammann, Sandra; Parcina, Marijo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are a rare subset of leukocytes equipped with Fcγ and Fcε receptors, which exert contrary effects on sensing of microbial nucleic acids by endosomal Toll-like receptors. In this article, we explain how pDC contribute to the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus. Under normal circumstances the pDC participates in the memory response to the pathogen: pDC activation is initiated by uptake of staphylococcal immune complexes with IgG or IgE. However, protein A-expressing S. aureus strains additionally trigger pDC activation in the absence of immunoglobulin. In this context, staphylococci exploit the pDC to induce antigen-independent differentiation of IL-10 producing plasmablasts, an elegant means to propagate immune evasion. We further discuss the role of type I interferons in infection with S. aureus and the implications of these findings for the development of immune based therapies and vaccination. PMID:24904586

  5. Wood Contains a Cell-Wall Structural Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wuli; O'Malley, David M.; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1992-07-01

    A pine extensin-like protein (PELP) has been localized in metabolically active cells of differentiating xylem and in mature wood of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). This proline-rich glycosylated protein was purified from cell walls of differentiating xylem by differential solubility and gel electrophoresis. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were raised against the deglycosylated purified protein (dPELP) and purified antibody was used for immunolocalization. Immunogold and alkaline phosphatase secondary antibody staining both show antigen in secondary cell walls of earlywood and less staining in latewood. Immunoassays of milled dry wood were developed and used to show increased availability of antigen after hydrogen fluoride or cellulase treatment and decreased antigen after chlorite treatment. The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction was confirmed by competition assays and by preadsorption of antibody to the purified protein. We propose that extensin-like protein is present in xylem cell walls during lignification and that the protein remains as a structural component of cell walls in wood for many years after xylogenesis. We suggest that such structural proteins play important roles in the differentiation of xylem and thereby could affect the properties of wood.

  6. An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor-Teeples, M.; Lin, L.; de Lucas, M.; ...

    2014-12-24

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. In this paper, we present a protein–DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated bymore » a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. Finally, these interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component.« less

  7. Potential implications of vascular wall resident endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Süleyman; Tilki, Derya; Hohn, Hans-Peter; Gehling, Ursula; Kilic, Nerbil

    2007-11-01

    A rapidly increasing body of data suggests an essential role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vascular regeneration, formation of new vessels in cardiovascular diseases and also in tumor vasculogenesis. Moreover, recent data obtained from clinical studies with anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy or with pro-angiogenic stimuli in ischemic disorders implicate a predictive role of the number of EPCs circulating in the peripheral blood in monitoring of these diseases. However, there is still some controversial data regarding the relevance of the EPCs in vascular formation depending on models used and diseases studied. One of the essential prerequisites for a better understanding of the whole contribution of EPCs to vascular formation in adult, a process called postnatal vasculogenesis, is to identify their exact sources. We could recently discover the existence of EPCs in a distinct zone of the vascular wall of large and middle sized adult blood vessels and showed that these cells are capable to differentiate into mature endothelial cells, to form capillary sprouts in arterial ring assay and to build vasa vasorum-like structures within the vascular wall. They also can be mobilized very rapidly from the vascular wall by tumor cells. This review will discuss the functional implications of these vascular wall resident endothelial progenitor cells (VW-EPCs) in relation to those of EPCs circulating in peripheral blood or derived from the bone marrow in cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases.

  8. Cell-wall composition and structure of yeast cells and conjugation tubes of Tremella mesenterica.

    PubMed

    Reid, I D; Bartnicki-Garcia, S

    1976-09-01

    Cell walls prepared from vegetative yeast cells and from hormone-induced conjugation tubes of the basidiomycete Tremella mesenterica had similar compositions. Evidence was found for 1,3-alpha-glucan (yeast 38%, tube 25%), 1,3-beta-1,6-beta-glucan (yeast 33%, tube 48%) and chitin (both less than 3%) in the walls. The walls also contained xylose (5 to 7%), mannose (6%), glucuronic acid (approx. 2%), and traces of galactose. Protein amounted to less than 2% of the wall weight. The cell capsule was very insoluble and could not be removed from the cell wall. The conjugation hormone did not appear to exert its effect on cell shape by causing gross changes in wall composition.

  9. Use of a cell wall-less mutant strain to assess the role of the cell wall in Cadmium and Mercury tolerance by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, J.R.; Allen, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    In order for heavy metals to be toxic to algal cells, they must enter the cell protoplast. For most algal cells, this means that the metals must first penetrate through a cell wall. Plant cell walls are normally considered to be highly permeable to compounds of low molecular weight. However, if materials present in the algal cell wall show a high affinity for environmental contaminants, particularly heavy metals, entry into the protoplast, and thus toxicity, could be affected.

  10. Plant protein inhibitors of cell wall degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Juge, Nathalie

    2006-07-01

    Plant cell walls, which consist mainly of polysaccharides (i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins), play an important role in defending plants against pathogens. Most phytopathogenic microorganisms secrete an array of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) capable of depolymerizing the polysaccharides in the plant host wall. In response, plants have evolved a diverse battery of defence responses including protein inhibitors of these enzymes. These include inhibitors of pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases, pectinmethyl esterases and pectin lyases, and hemicellulose degrading enzymes such as endoxylanases and xyloglucan endoglucanases. The discovery of these plant inhibitors and the recent resolution of their three-dimensional structures, free or in complex with their target enzymes, provide new lines of evidence regarding their function and evolution in plant-pathogen interactions.

  11. [Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Sosa-Durán, Erik Efraín; Aboharp-Hasan, Ziad; Mendoza-Morales, Roberto Cuauhtémoc; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Peñavera-Hernández, José Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma originating in the abdominal wall is a rare event. It is generally associated with endometrial tissue implants left behind after a caesarean section or other gynaecological operations. Its pathophysiology is complex and controversial. The case is presented of a 45 year-old female with history of three caesarean sections, who was seen due to having a tumour mass of 6 months onset in the anterior abdominal wall. Imaging studies confirmed its location, and due to measuring 9 by 7 cm it was suspected to be an urachal tumour. A resection with wide margins was performed. The histopathology report was of a clear cell adenocarcinoma originated in ectopic endometrial tissue, with negative margins. This is a very rare case, with few cases reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be included in tumours of the abdominal wall. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  12. Development of a Standard Test To Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Luppens, Suzanne B. I.; Reij, Martine W.; van der Heijden, Rob W. L.; Rombouts, Frank M.; Abee, Tjakko

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless steel, and polystyrene in a simple system with constant nutrient flow that mimicked as closely as possible the conditions used in the current standard European disinfectant test (EN 1040). The biofilm that was formed on glass contained cell clumps and extracellular polysaccharides. The average surface coverage was 60%, and most (92%) of the biofilm cells were viable. Biofilm formation and biofilm disinfection in different experiments were reproducible. For biofilms exposed to BAC and hypochlorite the concentrations needed to achieve 4-log killing were 50 and 600 times higher, respectively, than the concentrations needed to achieve this level of killing with the European phase 1 suspension test cells. Our results show that a standardized disinfectant test for biofilm cells is a useful addition to the current standard tests. PMID:12200265

  13. Cell-wall recovery after irreversible deformation of wood.

    PubMed

    Keckes, Jozef; Burgert, Ingo; Frühmann, Klaus; Müller, Martin; Kölln, Klaas; Hamilton, Myles; Burghammer, Manfred; Roth, Stephan V; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie; Fratzl, Peter

    2003-12-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of biological materials reside in their complex hierarchical architecture and in specific molecular mechanistic phenomena. The fundamental importance of molecular interactions and bond recovery has been suggested by studies on deformation and fracture of bone and nacre. Like these mineral-based materials, wood also represents a complex nanocomposite with excellent mechanical performance, despite the fact that it is mainly based on polymers. In wood, however, the mechanistic contribution of processes in the cell wall is not fully understood. Here we have combined tensile tests on individual wood cells and on wood foils with simultaneous synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in order to separate deformation mechanisms inside the cell wall from those mediated by cell-cell interactions. We show that tensile deformation beyond the yield point does not deteriorate the stiffness of either individual cells or foils. This indicates that there is a dominant recovery mechanism that re-forms the amorphous matrix between the cellulose microfibrils within the cell wall, maintaining its mechanical properties. This stick-slip mechanism, rather like Velcro operating at the nanometre level, provides a 'plastic response' similar to that effected by moving dislocations in metals. We suggest that the molecular recovery mechanism in the cell matrix is a universal phenomenon dominating the tensile deformation of different wood tissue types.

  14. Lipoteichoic acids from Staphylococcus aureus stimulate proliferation of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hattar, Katja; Reinert, Christian P; Sibelius, Ulf; Gökyildirim, Mira Y; Subtil, Florentine S B; Wilhelm, Jochen; Eul, Bastian; Dahlem, Gabriele; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Grandel, Ulrich

    2017-03-17

    Pulmonary infections are frequent complications in lung cancer and may worsen its outcome and survival. Inflammatory mediators are suspected to promote tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hence, bacterial pathogens may affect lung cancer growth by activation of inflammatory signalling. Against this background, we investigated the effect of purified lipoteichoic acids (LTA) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on cellular proliferation and liberation of interleukin (IL)-8 in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and H226. A549 as well as H226 cells constitutively expressed TLR-2 mRNA. Even in low concentrations, LTA induced a prominent increase in cellular proliferation of A549 cells as quantified by automatic cell counting. In parallel, metabolic activity of A549 cells was enhanced. The increase in proliferation was accompanied by an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression and a dose- and time-dependent release of IL-8. Cellular proliferation as well as the release of IL-8 was dependent on specific ligation of TLR-2. Interestingly, targeting IL-8 by neutralizing antibodies completely abolished the LTA-induced proliferation of A549 cells. The pro-proliferative effect of LTA could also be reproduced in the squamous NSCLC cell line H226. In summary, LTA of S. aureus induced proliferation of NSCLC cell lines of adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma origin. Ligation of TLR-2 followed by auto- or paracrine signalling by endogenously synthesized IL-8 is centrally involved in LTA-induced tumor cell proliferation. Therefore, pulmonary infections may exert a direct pro-proliferative effect on lung cancer growth.

  15. An emerging role of pectic rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall integrity.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Rebecca; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2012-02-01

    The plant cell wall is a complex network of different polysaccharides and glycoproteins, showing high diversity in nature. The essential components, tethering cell wall are under debate, as novel mutants challenge established models. The mutant ugd2,3 with a reduced supply of the important wall precursor UDP-glucuronic acid reveals the critical role of the pectic compound rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall stability. This polymer seems to be more important for cell wall integrity than the previously favored xyloglucan.

  16. Raised herd somatic cell count due to Staphylococcus aureus following the failure of an automatic teat spraying system.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, P W

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the failure of a single jet exit race automatic teat spray (ATS) system resulting in the spread of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a 135-cow dairy herd, which showed an increased herd somatic cell count from 91,000/ml to 554,000/ml over a nine-month period. S aureus was isolated from 34 of 46 high cell count cows. The milking procedures were modified and manual teat spraying was restarted. Bacteriology was used to identify S aureus positive high cell count cows, and first and second lactation cows were treated during lactation. If their cell counts were not reduced, these were then culled. High cell count S aureus cows in lactation three or above were culled. The three-month geometric mean cell count fell to below 150,000/ml within five months. As all replacements were home-bred, S aureus infection must have spread from within the herd itself. All other causes have been eliminated, and this spread is attributed to the failure of the ATS to carry out effective postmilking teat disinfection. The advantages and disadvantages of ATS systems are discussed, especially in relation to robotic or voluntary milking systems.

  17. Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and integrity during growth and division; in addition, it acts as the interface between the bacterium and its environment. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are traditionally and widely used to ferment food, and they are also the subject of more and more research because of their potential health-related benefits. It is now recognized that understanding the composition, structure, and properties of LAB cell walls is a crucial part of developing technological and health applications using these bacteria. In this review, we examine the different components of the Gram-positive cell wall: peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. We present recent findings regarding the structure and function of these complex compounds, results that have emerged thanks to the tandem development of structural analysis and whole genome sequencing. Although general structures and biosynthesis pathways are conserved among Gram-positive bacteria, studies have revealed that LAB cell walls demonstrate unique properties; these studies have yielded some notable, fundamental, and novel findings. Given the potential of this research to contribute to future applied strategies, in our discussion of the role played by cell wall components in LAB physiology, we pay special attention to the mechanisms controlling bacterial autolysis, bacterial sensitivity to bacteriophages and the mechanisms underlying interactions between probiotic bacteria and their hosts. PMID:25186919

  18. Determination of carbohydrate profile in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) cell walls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarbeet germplasms USH20, C869, EL55, EL54 were used, and different tissues at different developmental stages were sampled, including dry seeds, germinating seedlings, developing leaves, mature leaves, petioles, hypocotyls, mature roots, flowering stems and inflorescences. Cell Wall Composition An...

  19. Biosynthesis and assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in cereal grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, N.C.

    1991-04-01

    We have just completed the second year of a three-year project entitled Biosynthesis assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in cereal grasses.'' We made significant progress on two aspects of cell wall synthesis in grasses and greatly refined gas-liquid and high- performance liquid chromatographic techniques necessary to identify the products of synthesis in vitro and in vivo. First, Dr. David Gibeaut, a post-doctoral associate, devised a convenient procedure for the enrichment of Golgi membranes by flotation centrifugation following initial downward rate-zonal separation. Based on comparison of the IDPase marker enzyme, flotation centrifugation enriched the Golgi apparatus almost 7-fold after the initial downward separation. This system is now used in our studies of the synthesis in vitro of the mixed-linkage {beta}-D-glucan. Second, Gibeaut and I have devised a simple technique to feed radioactive sugars into intact growing seedlings and follow incorporation of radioactivity into and turnover from specific cell wall polysaccharides. The project has also provided a few spin-off projects that have been productive as well. First, in collaboration with the group of Prof. Peter Kaufman, University of Michigan, we examined changes in cell wall structure concomitant with reaction to gravistimulation in the gravisensing oat pulvinus. Second, Dr. Gibeaut developed a simple clean-up procedure for partially methylated alditol derivatives to remove a large amount of undesirable interfering compounds that confound separation of the derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography. 5 refs.

  20. Using isolated cell wall xylan to identify recalcitrant oligosaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbaceous biomass is a renewable source of carbohydrates with potential for use in microbial conversion to biofuels. Xylan comprises 20-40% of herbaceous biomass cell wall material and its full depolymerization benefits the economics of bioconversion. To understand the limitations of commercial enz...

  1. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  2. Origin of cell walls and of lattice misorientations during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kocks, U.F.; Hasegawa, T.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1980-04-01

    The mechanism by which cell walls form during strain hardening and dynamic recovery is outlined. This mechanism helps explain some inconsistencies between x-ray and TEM observations of misorientations and could contribute to a theory of nucleation for recrystallization. (FS)

  3. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  4. New Model of Wood Cell Wall Microfibril and Its Implications

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Rick S. Reiner; Carlos Baez

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally it has been accepted that the cell walls are made up of microfibrils which are partly crystalline. However, based on the recently obtained Raman evidence that showed that the interior of the microfibril was significantly disordered and water accessible, a new model is proposed. In this model, the molecular chains of cellulose are still organized along the...

  5. Imaging of plant cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gierlinger, Notburga; Keplinger, Tobias; Harrington, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Raman imaging of plant cell walls represents a nondestructive technique that can provide insights into chemical composition in context with structure at the micrometer level (<0.5 μm). The major steps of the experimental procedure are described: sample preparation (embedding and microcutting), setting the mapping parameters, and finally the calculation of chemical images on the basis of the acquired Raman spectra. Every Raman image is based on thousands of spectra, each being a spatially resolved molecular 'fingerprint' of the cell wall. Multiple components are analyzed within the native cell walls, and insights into polymer composition as well as the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils can be gained. The most labor-intensive step of this process is often the sample preparation, as the imaging approach requires a flat surface of the plant tissue with intact cell walls. After finishing the map (acquisition time is ∼10 min to 10 h, depending on the size of the region of interest and scanning parameters), many possibilities exist for the analysis of spectral data and image generation.

  6. Titration of Isolated Cell Walls of Lemna minor L 1

    PubMed Central

    Morvan, Claudine; Demarty, Maurice; Thellier, Michel

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model has been built to bypass the equation of titration of the cell wall. This equation, which is an extension of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, underlines the importance of the exchange constant, the ionic strength as well as the rate of neutralization. The model is restricted to the case when the ionization degree is equal to the neutralization degree. The shape of the titration curve is shown to be strongly dependent on the valency of the base used. Experimental results have shown that isolated cell walls bear at least two kinds of sites. The first sites which are titrated after a short time of equilibration are attributed to polyuronic acids (capacity: 0.3 milliequivalents per gram fresh cell walls). The second sites, are obtained after a long time of equilibration (capacity: 1.2 to 1.3 milliequivalents per gram, fresh cell walls). Titrations have been performed with different bases [KOH, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2] and under different ionic strengths. The results obtained with NaOH and KOH do not exhibit any difference of selectivity. Conversely, the sites have a much bigger affinity for the Ca2+ ions than for the monovalent ones. The apparent pKa of the uronic acids was estimated to lie between 3.0 and 3.4; this is consistent with the values obtained with polyuronic acid solutions. PMID:16660868

  7. A cytoplasmic peptidoglycan amidase homologue controls mycobacterial cell wall synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Boutte, Cara C; Baer, Christina E; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Liu, Weiru; Chase, Michael R; Meniche, Xavier; Fortune, Sarah M; Sassetti, Christopher M; Ioerger, Thomas R; Rubin, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell wall assembly is essential for bacterial survival and contributes to pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, little is known about how the cell wall is regulated in stress. We found that CwlM, a protein homologous to peptidoglycan amidases, coordinates peptidoglycan synthesis with nutrient availability. Surprisingly, CwlM is sequestered from peptidoglycan (PG) by localization in the cytoplasm, and its enzymatic function is not essential. Rather, CwlM is phosphorylated and associates with MurA, the first enzyme in PG precursor synthesis. Phosphorylated CwlM activates MurA ~30 fold. CwlM is dephosphorylated in starvation, resulting in lower MurA activity, decreased cell wall metabolism, and increased tolerance to multiple antibiotics. A phylogenetic analysis of cwlM implies that localization in the cytoplasm drove the evolution of this factor. We describe a system that controls cell wall metabolism in response to starvation, and show that this regulation contributes to antibiotic tolerance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14590.001 PMID:27304077

  8. Host cell invasion by Staphylococcus aureus stimulates the shedding of microvesicles.

    PubMed

    DeWalt, Robin I; Petkovich, Daniel A; Zahrt, Ashley N; Bruns, Heather A; McDowell, Susan A

    2013-03-22

    During severe sepsis, microvesicles that are positive for tissue factor (TF) are at increased levels within blood and in pulmonary lavage. These microvesicles potentially disperse TF, the major initiator of the coagulation cascade, throughout multiple organ systems, initiating fibrin deposition and resultant ischemia. The source of these microvesicles has remained incompletely defined. Although TF(+) microvesicles are shed from cells that express nascent TF transcript in response to injury, recent findings revealed that circulating, full-length TF protein is detectable prior to these nascent transcripts. This finding suggested that the protein is released from constitutive sources as an acute response. We examined whether Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-positive bacteria that is emerging as one of the most common etiologic agents in sepsis, is capable of stimulating the release of TF(+) microvesicles from a pulmonary cell line that constitutively expresses TF protein. We found that host cell invasion stimulated an acute release of TF(+) microvesicles and that these microvesicles mediated the transfer of the protein to TF-negative endothelial cells. We also found that transfer was inhibited by cholesterol-lowering simvastatin. Taken together, our findings reveal that S. aureus pathogenesis extends to the acute release of TF(+) microvesicles and that inhibiting dispersal by this mechanism may provide a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus convert neonatal conventional CD4(+) T cells into FOXP3(+) CD25(+) CD127(low) T cells via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Hardis; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Rudin, Anna

    2014-03-01

    The gut microbiota provides an important stimulus for the induction of regulatory T (Treg) cells in mice, whether this applies to newborn children is unknown. In Swedish children, Staphylococcus aureus has become a common early colonizer of the gut. Here, we sought to study the effects of bacterial stimulation on neonatal CD4(+) T cells for the induction of CD25(+) CD127(low) Treg cells in vitro. The proportion of circulating CD25(+) CD127(low) Treg cells and their expression of FOXP3, Helios and CTLA-4 was examined in newborns and adults. To evaluate if commensal gut bacteria could induce Treg cells, CellTrace violet-stained non-Treg cells from cord or peripheral blood from adults were co-cultured with autologous CD25(+) CD127(low) Treg cells and remaining mononuclear cells and stimulated with S. aureus. Newborns had a significantly lower proportion of CD25(+) CD127(low) Treg cells than adults, but these cells were Helios(+) and CTLA-4(+) to a higher extent than in adults. FOXP3(+) CD25(+) CD127(low) T cells were induced mainly in neonatal CellTrace-stained non-Treg cells after stimulation with S. aureus. In cell cultures from adults, S. aureus induced CD25(+) CD127(low) T cells only if sorted naive CD45RA(+) non-Treg cells were used, but these cells expressed less FOXP3 than those induced from newborns. Sorted neonatal CD25(+) CD127(low) T cells from S. aureus-stimulated cultures were still suppressive. Finally, blocking PD-L1 during stimulation reduced the induction of FOXP3(+) CD25(+) CD127(low) T cells. These results suggest that newborns have a higher proportion of circulating thymically derived Helios(+) Treg cells than adults and that S. aureus possess an ability to convert neonatal conventional CD4(+) T cells into FOXP3(+) CD25(+) CD127(low) Treg cells via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.

  12. Molecular deformation mechanisms of the wood cell wall material.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kai; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Wood is a biological material with outstanding mechanical properties resulting from its hierarchical structure across different scales. Although earlier work has shown that the cellular structure of wood is a key factor that renders it excellent mechanical properties at light weight, the mechanical properties of the wood cell wall material itself still needs to be understood comprehensively. The wood cell wall material features a fiber reinforced composite structure, where cellulose fibrils act as stiff fibers, and hemicellulose and lignin molecules act as soft matrix. The angle between the fiber direction and the loading direction has been found to be the key factor controlling the mechanical properties. However, how the interactions between theses constitutive molecules contribute to the overall properties is still unclear, although the shearing between fibers has been proposed as a primary deformation mechanism. Here we report a molecular model of the wood cell wall material with atomistic resolution, used to assess the mechanical behavior under shear loading in order to understand the deformation mechanisms at the molecular level. The model includes an explicit description of cellulose crystals, hemicellulose, as well as lignin molecules arranged in a layered nanocomposite. The results obtained using this model show that the wood cell wall material under shear loading deforms in an elastic and then plastic manner. The plastic regime can be divided into two parts according to the different deformation mechanisms: yielding of the matrix and sliding of matrix along the cellulose surface. Our molecular dynamics study provides insights of the mechanical behavior of wood cell wall material at the molecular level, and paves a way for the multi-scale understanding of the mechanical properties of wood.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus exhibit similarities in their interactions with Acanthamoeba and ThP1 macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Cardas, Mihaela; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Alsam, Selwa

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Haematogenous spread is a pre-requisite but it is not clear how S. aureus survive the onslaught of macrophages. Acanthamoeba is a protozoan pathogen that is remarkably similar to macrophages, particularly in their cellular structure (morphological and ultra-structural features), molecular motility, biochemical physiology, ability to capture prey by phagocytosis and interactions with microbial pathogens. Thus, we hypothesize that S. aureus exhibit similarities in their interactions with Acanthamoeba and ThP1 macrophage-like cells. Here, we studied interactions of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) with Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype and macrophage-like cells (ThP1). The findings revealed that both MRSA and MSSA exhibited similarities in their binding/association and invasion of A. castellanii and ThP1 cells. Long-term incubation showed that MRSA and MSSA can survive intracellularly of both Acanthamoeba and ThP1 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that Acanthamoeba exhibit similar characteristics with ThP1 macrophage-like cells in their interaction with MRSA and MSSA. Additionally it was shown that bacteria survive inside Acanthamoeba during the encystment process as evidenced by bacterial recovery from mature cysts. Given that Acanthamoeba cysts are airborne, these findings suggest that cysts may act as "Trojan horse" to help spread MRSA to susceptible hosts.

  14. Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus Control by Virulent Bacteriophages within MAC-T Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Sun, Lichang; Wei, Ruicheng; Gao, Qiang; He, Tao; Xu, Cunfa; Liu, Xianjin; Wang, Ran

    2017-02-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are known to effectively kill extracellular multiplying bacteria. The present study demonstrated that phages penetrated bovine mammary epithelial cells and cleared intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in a time-dependent manner. In particular, phage vB_SauM_JS25 reached the nucleus within 3 h postincubation. The phages had an endocytotic efficiency of 12%. This ability to kill intracellular host bacteria suggests the utility of phage-based therapies and may protect patients from recurrent infection and treatment failure. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Studying Biomolecule Localization by Engineering Bacterial Cell Wall Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Lars D.; Eswaramoorthy, Prahathees; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe two techniques for exploring the relationship between bacterial cell shape and the intracellular organization of proteins. First, we created microchannels in a layer of agarose to reshape live bacterial cells and predictably control their mean cell wall curvature, and quantified the influence of curvature on the localization and distribution of proteins in vivo. Second, we used agarose microchambers to reshape bacteria whose cell wall had been chemically and enzymatically removed. By combining microstructures with different geometries and fluorescence microscopy, we determined the relationship between bacterial shape and the localization for two different membrane-associated proteins: i) the cell-shape related protein MreB of Escherichia coli, which is positioned along the long axis of the rod-shaped cell; and ii) the negative curvature-sensing cell division protein DivIVA of Bacillus subtilis, which is positioned primarily at cell division sites. Our studies of intracellular organization in live cells of E. coli and B. subtilis demonstrate that MreB is largely excluded from areas of high negative curvature, whereas DivIVA localizes preferentially to regions of high negative curvature. These studies highlight a unique approach for studying the relationship between cell shape and intracellular organization in intact, live bacteria. PMID:24391905

  16. Active Immunization with Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Staphylococcus aureus Effectively Protects against Staphylococcal Lung Infections, Mainly via Th1 Cell-Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seng Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Jeon, Jinseong; Kim, Oh Youn; Choi, Youngwoo; Seo, Jihye; Hong, Sung-Wook; Lee, Won-Hee; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Gho, Yong Song; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium that causes various infectious diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from S. aureus contain bacterial proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. These EVs can induce immune responses leading to similar symptoms as during staphylococcal infection condition and have the potential as vaccination agent. Here, we show that active immunization (vaccination) with S. aureus-derived EVs induce adaptive immunity of antibody and T cell responses. In addition, these EVs have the vaccine adjuvant ability to induce protective immunity such as the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the expression of T cell polarizing cytokines in antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, vaccination with S. aureus EVs conferred protection against lethality induced by airway challenge with lethal dose of S. aureus and also pneumonia induced by the administration of sub-lethal dose of S. aureus. These protective effects were also found in mice that were adoptively transferred with splenic T cells isolated from S. aureus EV-immunized mice, but not in serum transferred mice. Furthermore, this protective effect of S. aureus EVs was significantly reduced by the absence of interferon-gamma, but not by the absence of interleukin-17. Together, the study herein suggests that S. aureus EVs are a novel vaccine candidate against S. aureus infections, mainly via Th1 cellular response.

  17. Non-covalent interaction between procyanidins and apple cell wall material. Part II: Quantification and impact of cell wall drying.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, C; Renard, C M G C

    2005-08-30

    The adsorption of condensed tannins (procyanidins) on solid cell wall material was quantified using the Langmuir isotherms formulation. Six tannins fractions differing by their size (number average degree of polymerisation between 2.5 and 65) and composition (presence of galloyl groups from to 0 to 22%, proportions of (+)-catechin to (-)-epicatechin from traces to one CAT for three EPI) were used. Two cell walls differing only by their physical characteristics were obtained by mild or harsh drying, with surface areas of 2.15 and 0.52 m(2)/g, respectively. The total amounts of procyanidins retained on the cell wall materials increased with their concentrations while the proportions of retained decreased, and a plateau was reached at high concentrations. The apparent affinity of procyanidins for CWM isolated from apples increased with their molecular weight. Decrease of the CWM porosity by harsh drying slightly decreased the apparent affinity and increased the apparent saturation levels when constants were expressed relative to cell wall weight, but strongly increased both apparent affinity and apparent saturation levels per surface units.

  18. Engineering of plant cell walls for enhanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Loqué, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V; Pauly, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The biomass of plants consists predominately of cell walls, a sophisticated composite material composed of various polymer networks including numerous polysaccharides and the polyphenol lignin. In order to utilize this renewable, highly abundant resource for the production of commodity chemicals such as biofuels, major hurdles have to be surpassed to reach economical viability. Recently, major advances in the basic understanding of the synthesis of the various wall polymers and its regulation has enabled strategies to alter the qualitative composition of wall materials. Such emerging strategies include a reduction/alteration of the lignin network to enhance polysaccharide accessibility, reduction of polymer derived processing inhibitors, and increases in polysaccharides with a high hexose/pentose ratio.

  19. Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus persister cells with the host when in a persister state and following awakening

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Elin G.; Marques, Cláudia N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells, a tolerant cell sub-population, are commonly associated with chronic and recurrent infections. However, little is known about their ability to actually initiate or establish an infection, become virulent and cause pathogenicity within a host. Here we investigated whether Staphylococcus aureus persister cells initiate an infection and are recognized by macrophages, while in a persister cell status, and upon awakening due to exposure to cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA). Our results show that S. aureus persister cells are not able to initiate infections in A. thaliana and present significantly reduced virulence towards C. elegans compared to total populations. In contrast, awakened S. aureus persister cells are able to initiate infections in A. thaliana and in C. elegans albeit, with lower mortality than total population. Furthermore, exposure of S. aureus persister cells to cis-DA led to a loss of tolerance to ciprofloxacin, and an increase of the bacterial fluorescence to levels found in total population. In addition, macrophage engulfment of persister cells was significantly lower than engulfment of total population, both before and following awakening. Overall our findings indicate that upon awakening of a persister population the cells regain their ability to infect hosts despite the absence of an increased immune response. PMID:27506163

  20. Cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger: accumulation of wall polymers in the supernatant of chemostat cultures.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, W; Kruyssen, F J; Wouters, J T

    1981-01-01

    Cell wall polymers were measured both in the cells and in the cell-free medium of samples from steady-state chemostat cultures of Bacillus subtilis, growing at various rates under magnesium or phosphate limitation. The presence of both peptidoglycan and anionic wall polymers in the culture supernatant showed the occurrence of wall turnover in these cultures. Variable proportions of the total peptidoglycan present in the culture samples were found outside the cells in duplicate cultures, indicating that the rate of peptidoglycan turnover is variable in B. subtilis. Besides peptidoglycan, anionic wall polymers were detected in the culture supernatant: teichoic acid in magnesium-limited cultures and teichuronic acid in phosphate-limited cultures. In several samples, the ratio between the peptidoglycan and the anionic polymer concentrations was significantly lower in the extracellular fluid than in the walls. This divergency was attributed to the occurrence of direct secretion of anionic polymers after their synthesis. PMID:6787016

  1. Resistance to antibiotics targeted to the bacterial cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, I; Favini-Stabile, S; Dessen, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial cell wall. It is a complex, three-dimensional mesh that surrounds the entire cell and is composed of strands of alternating glycan units crosslinked by short peptides. Its biosynthetic machinery has been, for the past five decades, a preferred target for the discovery of antibacterials. Synthesis of the peptidoglycan occurs sequentially within three cellular compartments (cytoplasm, membrane, and periplasm), and inhibitors of proteins that catalyze each stage have been identified, although not all are applicable for clinical use. A number of these antimicrobials, however, have been rendered inactive by resistance mechanisms. The employment of structural biology techniques has been instrumental in the understanding of such processes, as well as the development of strategies to overcome them. This review provides an overview of resistance mechanisms developed toward antibiotics that target bacterial cell wall precursors and its biosynthetic machinery. Strategies toward the development of novel inhibitors that could overcome resistance are also discussed. PMID:24375653

  2. Resistance to antibiotics targeted to the bacterial cell wall.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, I; Favini-Stabile, S; Dessen, A

    2014-03-01

    Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial cell wall. It is a complex, three-dimensional mesh that surrounds the entire cell and is composed of strands of alternating glycan units crosslinked by short peptides. Its biosynthetic machinery has been, for the past five decades, a preferred target for the discovery of antibacterials. Synthesis of the peptidoglycan occurs sequentially within three cellular compartments (cytoplasm, membrane, and periplasm), and inhibitors of proteins that catalyze each stage have been identified, although not all are applicable for clinical use. A number of these antimicrobials, however, have been rendered inactive by resistance mechanisms. The employment of structural biology techniques has been instrumental in the understanding of such processes, as well as the development of strategies to overcome them. This review provides an overview of resistance mechanisms developed toward antibiotics that target bacterial cell wall precursors and its biosynthetic machinery. Strategies toward the development of novel inhibitors that could overcome resistance are also discussed.

  3. Dynamic rheological properties of plant cell-wall particle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Day, Li; Xu, Mi; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Hemar, Yacine

    2010-12-01

    The rheological behaviour of plant cell-wall particle dispersions was investigated using dynamic oscillatory measurements. Two starting plant materials, broccoli stem and carrot were used and two types of particles were obtained by mechanically shearing blanched (80°C, 10 min) or cooked (100°C, 15 min) plant tissues. Blanching resulted in cell-wall particles made up of a collection of clusters of cells with an average particles size of ∼200 μm, while cooking generated nearly all single-cell particles with an average particle size of ∼80 μm. The rheological measurements showed that in the range of weight concentrations considered (∼0.5% to ∼8%) the dispersions behaved as elastic materials with the elastic modulus G' higher than G″ within the frequency range (0.01-10 Hz). This study shows that the behaviour of the complex modulus G* as a function of the effective volume fraction ϕ can be modelled using different theoretical equations. To do so, it is assumed that below a critical volume fraction ϕc a network of plant cell-wall particles was formed and G* as a function of ϕ obeys a power-law relationship. However above ϕc, where the particles were highly packed, G* could be modelled using theoretical equations developed for concentrated emulsions and elastic particle dispersions.

  4. A major role for myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a minor role for regulatory T cells in immunosuppression during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Tebartz, Christina; Horst, Sarah Anita; Sparwasser, Tim; Huehn, Jochen; Beineke, Andreas; Peters, Georg; Medina, Eva

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause difficult-to-treat chronic infections. We recently reported that S. aureus chronic infection was associated with a profound inhibition of T cell responses. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the suppression of T cell responses during chronic S. aureus infection. Using in vitro coculture systems, as well as in vivo adoptive transfer of CFSE-labeled OT-II cells, we demonstrated the presence of immunosuppressive mechanisms in splenocytes of S. aureus-infected mice that inhibited the response of OT-II cells to cognate antigenic stimulation. Immunosuppression was IL-10/TGF-β independent but required cell-cell proximity. Using DEREG and Foxp3(gfp) mice, we demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells contributed, but only to a minor degree, to bystander immunosuppression. Neither regulatory B cells nor tolerogenic dendritic cells contributed to immunosuppression. Instead, we found a significant expansion of granulocytic (CD11b(+)Ly6G(+)Ly6C(low)) and monocytic (CD11b(+)Ly6G(-)Ly6C(high)) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in chronically infected mice, which exerted a strong immunosuppressive effect on T cell responses. Splenocytes of S. aureus-infected mice lost most of their suppressive activity after the in vivo depletion of MDSC by treatment with gemcitabine. Furthermore, a robust negative correlation was observed between the degree of T cell inhibition and the number of MDSC. An increase in the numbers of MDSC in S. aureus-infected mice by adoptive transfer caused a significant exacerbation of infection. In summary, our results indicate that expansion of MDSC and, to a minor degree, of regulatory T cells in S. aureus-infected mice may create an immunosuppressive environment that sustains chronic infection.

  5. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  6. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  7. Lipodepsipeptide empedopeptin inhibits cell wall biosynthesis through Ca2+-dependent complex formation with peptidoglycan precursors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anna; Münch, Daniela; Schmidt, Yvonne; Reder-Christ, Katrin; Schiffer, Guido; Bendas, Gerd; Gross, Harald; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Schneider, Tanja; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike

    2012-06-08

    Empedopeptin is a natural lipodepsipeptide antibiotic with potent antibacterial activity against multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in animal models of bacterial infection. Here, we describe its so far elusive mechanism of antibacterial action. Empedopeptin selectively interferes with late stages of cell wall biosynthesis in intact bacterial cells as demonstrated by inhibition of N-acetylglucosamine incorporation into polymeric cell wall and the accumulation of the ultimate soluble peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid-pentapeptide in the cytoplasm. Using membrane preparations and the complete cascade of purified, recombinant late stage peptidoglycan biosynthetic enzymes and their respective purified substrates, we show that empedopeptin forms complexes with undecaprenyl pyrophosphate containing peptidoglycan precursors. The primary physiological target of empedopeptin is undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-N-acetylmuramic acid(pentapeptide)-N-acetylglucosamine (lipid II), which is readily accessible at the outside of the cell and which forms a complex with the antibiotic in a 1:2 molar stoichiometry. Lipid II is bound in a region that involves at least the pyrophosphate group, the first sugar, and the proximal parts of stem peptide and undecaprenyl chain. Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate and also teichoic acid precursors are bound with lower affinity and constitute additional targets. Calcium ions are crucial for the antibacterial activity of empedopeptin as they promote stronger interaction with its targets and with negatively charged phospholipids in the membrane. Based on the high structural similarity of empedopeptin to the tripropeptins and plusbacins, we propose this mechanism of action for the whole compound class.

  8. Shifted T Helper Cell Polarization in a Murine Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqing; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Yang; Liu, Heyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Yue, Jinhua; Chen, Dekun

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis, one of the most costly diseases in dairy ruminants, is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by pathogenic infection. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity against pathogens in mastitis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate T helper cell-mediated adaptive immune responses, we established a mastitis model by challenge with an inoculum of 4 × 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus in the mammary gland of lactating mice, followed by quantification of bacterial burden and histological analysis. The development of mastitis was accompanied by a