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Sample records for aureus plasmid pi258

  1. Mobilization functions of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid pRJ6 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Varella Coelho, Marcus Livio; Ceotto, Hilana; Madureira, Danielle Jannuzzi; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    Plasmid pRJ6 is the first known bacteriocinogenic mobilizable (Mob) plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus. Its Mob region is composed of four mob genes (mobCDAB) arranged as an operon, a genetic organization uncommon among S. aureus Mob plasmids. oriT (pRJ6) was detected in a region of 431 bp, positioned immediately upstream of mobC. This region, when cloned into pCN37, was able to confer mobilization to the re-combinant plasmid only in the presence of pRJ6. The entire Mob region, including oriT (pRJ6), is much more similar to Mob regions from several coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmids, although some remarkable similarities with S. aureus Mob plasmids can also be noted. These similarities include the presence within oriT (pRJ6) of the three mcb (MobC binding sites), firstly described in pC221 and pC223, an identical nick site also found in these same plasmids, and a nearly identical sra(pC223) site (sequence recognized by MobA). pRJ6 was successfully transferred to S. epidermidis by conjugation in the presence of the conjugative plasmid pGOl. Altogether these findings suggest that pRJ6 might have been originally a coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmid that had been transferred successfully to S. aureus. PMID:19557350

  2. [New plasmid resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to aminosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin].

    PubMed

    Soussy, C J; Dublanchet, A; Cormier, M; Bismuth, R; Mizon, F; Chardon, H; Duval, J; Fabiani, G

    1976-11-01

    Recently, strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin have been discovered in several hospitals in France. These new resistances, of two different types, are of plasmid origin and of enzyme mechanism. This study describes their current incidence.

  3. Expansion of a plasmid classification system for Gram-positive bacteria and determination of the diversity of plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus strains of human, animal, and food origins.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; García-Migura, Lourdes; Aspiroz, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2012-08-01

    An expansion of a previously described plasmid classification was performed and used to reveal the plasmid content of a collection of 92 Staphylococcus aureus strains of different origins. rep genes of other genera were detected in Staphylococcus. S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybridizations were performed with 18 representative S. aureus strains, and a high number of plasmids of different sizes and organizations were detected.

  4. Phenotypic Suppression of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Mutant Noninducible Penicillinase Plasmids1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sidney; Gibson, Carol J.; Sweeney, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methicillin (intrinsic) resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was suppressed almost completely by regulatory gene (penI1) mutations of penicillinase plasmids that made penicillinase production strictly noninducible. Methicillin resistance was restored by secondary regulatory gene mutations that altered the noninducible phenotype or by complementation with a compatible plasmid that did not bear the noninducible mutation. No evidence was obtained for genetic linkage between a penicillinase plasmid and the gene for methicillin resistance. We suggest, therefore, that the mutant noninducible repressor acted in trans by binding to a site on the methicillin resistance determinant. This hypothesis would imply an appreciable degree of homology between penicillinase plasmids and methicillin resistance genes. PMID:5086657

  5. Efficient non-enzymatic cleavage of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid DNAs mediated by neodymium ions.

    PubMed

    Zovčáková, Monika; Španová, Alena; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2016-08-15

    Staphylococcus aureus plasmids are the main factor in the spreading of antibacterial resistance among bacterial strains that has emerged on a worldwide scale. Plasmids recovered from 12 clinical and food isolates of S. aureus were treated with 10 mM free lanthanide Nd(3+) ions (non-enzymatic cleavage agent) in Hepes buffer (pH 7.5) at 70 °C. Topological forms of plasmids-closed circular (ccc), open circular (oc), and linear (lin)-produced by cleavage at different times were separated using pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis. The method is proposed to detect and differentiate several plasmids in the same bacterial strain according to their size. PMID:27237372

  6. Efficient non-enzymatic cleavage of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid DNAs mediated by neodymium ions.

    PubMed

    Zovčáková, Monika; Španová, Alena; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2016-08-15

    Staphylococcus aureus plasmids are the main factor in the spreading of antibacterial resistance among bacterial strains that has emerged on a worldwide scale. Plasmids recovered from 12 clinical and food isolates of S. aureus were treated with 10 mM free lanthanide Nd(3+) ions (non-enzymatic cleavage agent) in Hepes buffer (pH 7.5) at 70 °C. Topological forms of plasmids-closed circular (ccc), open circular (oc), and linear (lin)-produced by cleavage at different times were separated using pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis. The method is proposed to detect and differentiate several plasmids in the same bacterial strain according to their size.

  7. New plasmid-mediated nucleotidylation of aminoglycoside antibiotics in Staphlococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Le Goffic, F; Martel, A; Capmau, M L; Baca, B; Goebel, P; Chardon, H; Soussy, C J; Duval, J; Bouanchaud, D H

    1976-08-01

    A wild-type strain of Staphylococcus aureus, which inactivates a wide variety of aminoglycosides (except the gentamicin components), has been found to harbor a plasmid (RAp01) that mediates the biosynthesis of a nucleotidyltransferase. This enzyme modifies the 4'-hydroxy function of these antibiotics. The plasmid has been studied, the enzyme responsible for this resistance pattern has been isolated by affinity chromatography, and its kinetics and physicochemistry have been characterized. The target of this enzyme has also been located by demonstrating the structure of one inactivated compound, 4'-(O)-adenylyltobramycin.

  8. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Frances G; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J T; Fairhurst, Heather M; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Grubb, Warren B; Ramsay, Joshua P

    2015-09-18

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2-3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus.

  9. Emergence of Staphylococcus aureus carrying multiple drug resistance genes on a plasmid encoding exfoliative toxin B.

    PubMed

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Fudaba, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kato, Fuminori; Kayama, Shizuo; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2013-12-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of pETBTY825, a Staphylococcus aureus TY825 plasmid encoding exfoliative toxin B (ETB). S. aureus TY825 is a clinical isolate obtained from an impetigo patient in 2002. The size of pETBTY825, 60.6 kbp, was unexpectedly larger than that of the archetype pETBTY4 (∼30 kbp). Genomic comparison of the plasmids shows that pETBTY825 has the archetype pETBTY4 as the backbone and has a single large extra DNA region of 22.4 kbp. The extra DNA region contains genes for resistance to aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)], macrolide (msrA), and penicillin (blaZ). A plasmid deletion experiment indicated that these three resistance elements were functionally active. We retrospectively examined the resistance profile of the clinical ETB-producing S. aureus strains isolated in 1977 to 2007 using a MIC determination with gentamicin (GM), arbekacin (ABK), and erythromycin (EM) and by PCR analyses for aac(6')/aph(2″) and msrA using purified plasmid preparations. The ETB-producing S. aureus strains began to display high resistance to GM, which was parallel with the detection of aac(6')/aph(2″) and mecA, after 1990. Conversely, there was no significant change in the ABK MIC during the testing period, although it had a tendency to slightly increase. After 2001, isolates resistant to EM significantly increased; however, msrA was hardly detected in ETB-producing S. aureus strains, and only five isolates were positive for both aac(6')/aph(2″) and msrA. In this study, we report the emergence of a fusion plasmid carrying the toxin gene etb and drug resistance genes. Prevalence of the pETBTY825 carrier may further increase the clinical threat, since ETB-producing S. aureus is closely related to more severe impetigo or staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), which requires a general antimicrobial treatment. PMID:24080652

  10. Emergence of Staphylococcus aureus Carrying Multiple Drug Resistance Genes on a Plasmid Encoding Exfoliative Toxin B

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Fudaba, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kato, Fuminori; Kayama, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of pETBTY825, a Staphylococcus aureus TY825 plasmid encoding exfoliative toxin B (ETB). S. aureus TY825 is a clinical isolate obtained from an impetigo patient in 2002. The size of pETBTY825, 60.6 kbp, was unexpectedly larger than that of the archetype pETBTY4 (∼30 kbp). Genomic comparison of the plasmids shows that pETBTY825 has the archetype pETBTY4 as the backbone and has a single large extra DNA region of 22.4 kbp. The extra DNA region contains genes for resistance to aminoglycoside [aac(6′)/aph(2″)], macrolide (msrA), and penicillin (blaZ). A plasmid deletion experiment indicated that these three resistance elements were functionally active. We retrospectively examined the resistance profile of the clinical ETB-producing S. aureus strains isolated in 1977 to 2007 using a MIC determination with gentamicin (GM), arbekacin (ABK), and erythromycin (EM) and by PCR analyses for aac(6′)/aph(2″) and msrA using purified plasmid preparations. The ETB-producing S. aureus strains began to display high resistance to GM, which was parallel with the detection of aac(6′)/aph(2″) and mecA, after 1990. Conversely, there was no significant change in the ABK MIC during the testing period, although it had a tendency to slightly increase. After 2001, isolates resistant to EM significantly increased; however, msrA was hardly detected in ETB-producing S. aureus strains, and only five isolates were positive for both aac(6′)/aph(2″) and msrA. In this study, we report the emergence of a fusion plasmid carrying the toxin gene etb and drug resistance genes. Prevalence of the pETBTY825 carrier may further increase the clinical threat, since ETB-producing S. aureus is closely related to more severe impetigo or staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), which requires a general antimicrobial treatment. PMID:24080652

  11. Emergence of Staphylococcus aureus carrying multiple drug resistance genes on a plasmid encoding exfoliative toxin B.

    PubMed

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Fudaba, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kato, Fuminori; Kayama, Shizuo; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2013-12-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of pETBTY825, a Staphylococcus aureus TY825 plasmid encoding exfoliative toxin B (ETB). S. aureus TY825 is a clinical isolate obtained from an impetigo patient in 2002. The size of pETBTY825, 60.6 kbp, was unexpectedly larger than that of the archetype pETBTY4 (∼30 kbp). Genomic comparison of the plasmids shows that pETBTY825 has the archetype pETBTY4 as the backbone and has a single large extra DNA region of 22.4 kbp. The extra DNA region contains genes for resistance to aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)], macrolide (msrA), and penicillin (blaZ). A plasmid deletion experiment indicated that these three resistance elements were functionally active. We retrospectively examined the resistance profile of the clinical ETB-producing S. aureus strains isolated in 1977 to 2007 using a MIC determination with gentamicin (GM), arbekacin (ABK), and erythromycin (EM) and by PCR analyses for aac(6')/aph(2″) and msrA using purified plasmid preparations. The ETB-producing S. aureus strains began to display high resistance to GM, which was parallel with the detection of aac(6')/aph(2″) and mecA, after 1990. Conversely, there was no significant change in the ABK MIC during the testing period, although it had a tendency to slightly increase. After 2001, isolates resistant to EM significantly increased; however, msrA was hardly detected in ETB-producing S. aureus strains, and only five isolates were positive for both aac(6')/aph(2″) and msrA. In this study, we report the emergence of a fusion plasmid carrying the toxin gene etb and drug resistance genes. Prevalence of the pETBTY825 carrier may further increase the clinical threat, since ETB-producing S. aureus is closely related to more severe impetigo or staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), which requires a general antimicrobial treatment.

  12. 2″-O-Phosphorylation of Gentamicin Components by a Staphylococcus aureus Strain Carrying a Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Goffic, F. Le; Martel, A.; Moreau, N.; Capmau, M. L.; Soussy, C. J.; Duval, J.

    1977-01-01

    A wild-type strain of Staphylococcus aureus that inactivates the 4,6-glycosidically linked deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside antibiotics by a plasmid-mediated process was found to harbor two enzymes: an acetyltransferase of the AAC(6′) type and a new phosphotranferase specific to the gentamicin components. The target of this last enzyme is the 2″-hydroxyl function of these antibiotics, since one inactivated compound is 2″-(O)-phosphorylsisomicin. PMID:883817

  13. Plasmid-Borne smr Gene Causes Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Bovine Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bjorland, Jostein; Sunde, Marianne; Waage, Steinar

    2001-01-01

    Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) in staphylococci is common in hospital environments and has been described in the food industry. Little is known about staphylococcal QAC resistance associated with animal disease, although such disinfectants are widely used in veterinary medicine. In order to investigate the occurrence of QAC resistance in staphylococci isolated from QAC-exposed animals, 32 penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant and 23 penicillin- and tetracycline-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from milk from cows with mastitis during a 4-year period were selected for QAC susceptibility studies and genetic characterization. The isolates originated from four different herds that used a common pasture with a joint milking parlor in the summer. During the pasture season, a teat cream containing the QAC cetyltrimethylammonium bromide had been used daily for more than 10 years for mastitis control. Three of the penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant isolates, which were recovered from three different cows during a 20-month period, were resistant to QAC. Plasmid analysis, PCR, and DNA sequencing revealed a novel plasmid of 2,239 bp containing the smr gene. The plasmid, designated pNVH99, has similarities to small, smr-containing staphylococcal plasmids previously found in human and food isolates. pNVH99 is a new member of the pC194 family of rolling-circle replication plasmids. The three QAC-resistant isolates, as well as 28 of the 29 remaining penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant isolates, were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The study indicates that the occurrence and spread of QAC-resistant S. aureus among dairy cows may be a problem that needs further investigation. PMID:11682521

  14. Mercury and Cadmium Resistances Mediated by the Penicillinase Plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Isamu; Ishikawa, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Hideomi

    1974-01-01

    Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus mediated by the penicillinase (Pc-ase) plasmid to divalent metal ions of Hg and Cd was found to be controlled by different mechanisms. The Hg resistance of the Pc-ase plasmid-carrying organisms is based upon a process of changing the ion incorporated in the cell into a somewhat innocuous form. This process is independent of temperature and seems to be controlled by an inducible enzyme. The killing effect of Hg salts was not influenced by the coexistence of other di- or monovalent ions such as MgCl2, CaCl2, MnCl2, and NaCl. No vaporization of Hg, which explains the resistance mechanism such as that proposed by Komura et al. for R factor-mediated Hg resistance in enterobacilli, was found in the case of Hg resistance in staphylococci. On the other hand, the resistance to Cd ion is mediated by some protective mechanism to retain the ion outside the cell. Pc-sensitive organisms not carrying the Pc-ase plasmid incorporate Cd ions into the cells, whereas the Pc-ase plasmid-carrying organisms do not. The incorporation of this ion is temperature dependent and does not take place at 4 C. When incubated with this ion at 4 C, Pc-sensitive organisms as well as Pc-resistant organisms are also able to show a resistance. The addition of CaCl2 could eliminate the killing effect of CdCl2 with a dose-effective response. PMID:4808900

  15. C55 bacteriocin produced by ETB-plasmid positive Staphylococcus aureus strains is a key factor for competition with S. aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Shammi, Fariha; Oogai, Yuichi; Nakamura, Norifumi; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Exfoliative toxin (ET) produced by Staphylococcus aureus is closely associated with the onset of bullous impetigo. To date, three ETs (ETA, ETB and ETD) have been identified. The gene encoding ETB is located in a plasmid designated pETB. Bacteriocin synthesis genes are also located in this plasmid and pETB-positive strains reportedly produce the C55 bacteriocin. In this study, the antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains of the bacteriocin produced by the pETB-positive strain TY4 was investigated. This bacteriocin demonstrated antibacterial activity against all pETB-negative but not pETB-positive strains, including TY4. Additionally, a TY4- strain from which the pETB plasmid had been deleted exhibited susceptibility to the bacteriocin. Further experiments revealed that two immunity factors (orf 46-47 and orf 48) downstream of the bacteriocin synthesis genes in the pETB plasmid are associated with immunity against the bacteriocin produced by TY4. The TY4- with orf46-47 strain exhibited complete resistance to bacteriocin, whereas the TY4- with orf48 strain exhibited partial resistance. Whether bacteriocin affects the proportion of each strain when co-cultured with S. aureus strains was also investigated. When TY4 or TY4- was co-cultured with 209P strain, which is susceptible to the bacteriocin, the proportion of 209P co-cultured with TY4 was significantly less than when 209P was co-cultured with TY4-, whereas the proportion of TY4- with orf46-48 co-cultured with TY4 was greater than with TY4-. These results suggest that the C55 bacteriocin produced by pETB-positive strains affects the proportion of each strain when pETB-positive and -negative strains co-exist. PMID:26801833

  16. Dissemination of a pSCFS3-like cfr-carrying plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates recovered from hospitals in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Bonilla, Hector F; Schwarz, Stefan; Huband, Michael D; Jones, Ronald N; Quinn, John P

    2013-07-01

    Nineteen linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and two Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from two medical institutions in northeast Ohio and an S. aureus cfr index strain previously collected in the same facilities during the 2007 SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program were investigated for the genetic basis of oxazolidinone resistance and the location of cfr. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The location of cfr was determined by Southern blotting and hybridization. Plasmid sequencing was performed using the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) GS-FLX DNA platform. The two S. aureus isolates showed unique PFGE patterns but were multilocus sequence type 5 (ST5) and spa type t002, whereas the S. aureus index strain was ST239 and t037. Southern blot and hybridization experiments showed that cfr was plasmid located and that the S. epidermidis isolates, one of the S. aureus isolates, and the S. aureus index strain shared an identical cfr-carrying plasmid (39.3 kb). Sequencing results confirmed these findings. A 10-kb fragment containing cfr showed the highest identity (99.9%) to a 9.5-kb fragment of plasmid pSCFS3 from a bovine Staphylococcus lentus isolate from Germany. In addition, these 39.3-kb plasmids from human S. epidermidis and S. aureus exhibited BglII restriction profiles very similar to that observed for plasmid pSCFS3. The cfr-carrying plasmid detected in the remaining S. aureus isolate (7.9 kb) was distinct and showed the highest identity to the chromosomal cfr integrate found in the chromosomal DNA of a Proteus vulgaris isolate from a pig in China.

  17. Dissemination of a pSCFS3-like cfr-carrying plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates recovered from hospitals in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Bonilla, Hector F; Schwarz, Stefan; Huband, Michael D; Jones, Ronald N; Quinn, John P

    2013-07-01

    Nineteen linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and two Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from two medical institutions in northeast Ohio and an S. aureus cfr index strain previously collected in the same facilities during the 2007 SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program were investigated for the genetic basis of oxazolidinone resistance and the location of cfr. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The location of cfr was determined by Southern blotting and hybridization. Plasmid sequencing was performed using the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) GS-FLX DNA platform. The two S. aureus isolates showed unique PFGE patterns but were multilocus sequence type 5 (ST5) and spa type t002, whereas the S. aureus index strain was ST239 and t037. Southern blot and hybridization experiments showed that cfr was plasmid located and that the S. epidermidis isolates, one of the S. aureus isolates, and the S. aureus index strain shared an identical cfr-carrying plasmid (39.3 kb). Sequencing results confirmed these findings. A 10-kb fragment containing cfr showed the highest identity (99.9%) to a 9.5-kb fragment of plasmid pSCFS3 from a bovine Staphylococcus lentus isolate from Germany. In addition, these 39.3-kb plasmids from human S. epidermidis and S. aureus exhibited BglII restriction profiles very similar to that observed for plasmid pSCFS3. The cfr-carrying plasmid detected in the remaining S. aureus isolate (7.9 kb) was distinct and showed the highest identity to the chromosomal cfr integrate found in the chromosomal DNA of a Proteus vulgaris isolate from a pig in China. PMID:23571552

  18. Two different erm(C)-carrying plasmids in the same methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolate from a broiler farm.

    PubMed

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    During a study on plasmid-borne antimicrobial resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from broiler farms, an MRSA isolate was identified which carried multiple plasmids. This MRSA isolate belonged to CC398 and exhibited spa type t3015 and dru type dt11a. Plasmid profiling revealed the presence of one large and two small plasmids. The resistance genes tet(L) (tetracycline resistance), dfrK (trimethoprim resistance) and aadD (kanamycin/neomycin resistance) were located on the large plasmid. Both small plasmids, designated pSWS371 and pSWS372, carried only an erm(C) gene for macrolide/lincosamide resistance. Sequence analysis revealed that the 2458-bp plasmid pSWS371 carried only a repL gene for plasmid replication in addition to the erm(C) gene. In contrast, the 3882-bp plasmid pSWS372 harbored - in addition to the erm(C) gene - three more genes: a repF gene for plasmid replication, a cop-6 gene for a small protein potentially involved in copy number control of the plasmid and a novel pre/mob gene for a protein involved in plasmid recombination and mobilization. The erm(C) genes of both small plasmids exhibited constitutive erm(C) gene expression and analysis of the respective translational attenuators identified deletions of 16 bp and 74 bp which explain the constitutive expression. The simultaneous presence of two small plasmids that carry the same resistance gene in the same MRSA isolate is a rare observation. The fact that both plasmids belong to different incompatibility groups as specified by the different rep genes, repL and repF, explains why they can stably coexist in the same bacterial cell.

  19. Plasmid profiles as indicators of the source of contamination of Staphylococcus aureus endemic within poultry processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dodd, C E; Chaffey, B J; Waites, W M

    1988-06-01

    A total of 530 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the defeathering machinery of a chicken processing plant and from neck skin samples of carcasses at different stages of processing in two visits 4 weeks apart. Eleven different plasmid profiles were detected in the isolates, eight being common to both visits. The plasmid profiles of the strains forming the majority of the population on the freshly slaughtered birds were rarely present in the strains isolated from the pluckers (except at the entry to the first plucker) and were present in only a small proportion of the strains isolated from carcasses after plucking. However, the profiles from the strains isolated from the pluckers on both visits were different from those forming the majority of the population on the incoming birds but formed the major part of the carcass flora after plucking, suggesting that such strains were endemic. These strains were found as a small proportion of the isolates made from the incoming birds, suggesting that this was the route by which the endemic strains were introduced into the plant. Such endemic strains exhibited a clumping growth, even in liquid shake culture, which may have made it easier for them to become established on the pluckers and to resist cleaning and disinfection. This clumping phenotype was correlated with the presence of a 7.5-megadalton plasmid.

  20. Novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids from porcine and human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination.

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotyping using a small set of polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Alex J; Huygens, Flavia; Inman-Bamber, John; Price, Erin P; Nimmo, Graeme R; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline; Munckhof, Wendy; Giffard, Philip M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of genetic polymorphisms that efficiently divides methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains into groups consistent with the population structure. The rationale was that such polymorphisms could underpin rapid real-time PCR or low-density array-based methods for monitoring MRSA dissemination in a cost-effective manner. Previously, the authors devised a computerized method for identifying sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high resolving power that are defined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) databases, and also developed a real-time PCR method for interrogating a seven-member SNP set for genotyping S. aureus. Here, it is shown that these seven SNPs efficiently resolve the major MRSA lineages and define 27 genotypes. The SNP-based genotypes are consistent with the MRSA population structure as defined by eBURST analysis. The capacity of binary markers to improve resolution was tested using 107 diverse MRSA isolates of Australian origin that encompass nine SNP-based genotypes. The addition of the virulence-associated genes cna, pvl and bbp/sdrE, and the integrated plasmids pT181, pI258 and pUB110, resolved the nine SNP-based genotypes into 21 combinatorial genotypes. Subtyping of the SCCmec locus revealed new SCCmec types and increased the number of combinatorial genotypes to 24. It was concluded that these polymorphisms provide a facile means of assigning MRSA isolates into well-recognized lineages.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of plasmids in strains of Staphylococcus aureus clone USA300 reveals a high level of identity among isolates with closely related core genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Adam D; Porcella, Stephen F; Martens, Craig; Whitney, Adeline R; Braughton, Kevin R; Chen, Liang; Craig, Carly T; Tenover, Fred C; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Musser, James M; DeLeo, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    A community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain known as pulsed-field type USA300 (USA300) is epidemic in the United States. Previous comparative whole-genome sequencing studies demonstrated that there has been recent clonal emergence of a subset of USA300 isolates, which comprise the epidemic clone. Although the core genomes of these isolates are closely related, the level of diversity among USA300 plasmids was not resolved. Inasmuch as these plasmids might contribute to significant gene diversity among otherwise closely related USA300 isolates, we performed de novo sequencing of endogenous plasmids from 10 previously characterized USA300 clinical isolates obtained from different geographic locations in the United States. All isolates tested contained small (2- to 3-kb) and/or large (27- to 30-kb) plasmids. The large plasmids encoded heavy metal and/or antimicrobial resistance elements, including those that confer resistance to cadmium, bacitracin, macrolides, penicillin, kanamycin, and streptothricin, although all isolates were sensitive to minocycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. One of the USA300 isolates contained an archaic plasmid that encoded staphylococcal enterotoxins R, J, and P. Notably, the large plasmids (27 to 28 kb) from 8 USA300 isolates--those that comprise the epidemic USA300 clone--were virtually identical (99% identity) and similar to a large plasmid from strain USA300_TCH1516 (a previously sequenced USA300 strain from Houston, TX). These plasmids are largely divergent from the 37-kb plasmid of FPR3757, the first sequenced USA300 strain. The high level of plasmid sequence identity among the majority of closely related USA300 isolates is consistent with the recent clonal emergence hypothesis for USA300.

  3. pBMSa1, a plasmid from a dairy cow isolate of Staphylococcus aureus, encodes a lincomycin resistance determinant and replicates by the rolling-circle mechanism.

    PubMed

    Loeza-Lara, Pedro D; Soto-Huipe, Morelia; Baizabal-Aguirre, Victor M; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2004-07-01

    This work describes a novel plasmid encoding resistance to lincomycin in a staphylococcal isolate associated with mastitis infection from dairy cows. The cryptic plasmid pBMSa1 (2750 bp) of Staphylococcus aureus SA35 was subcloned and sequenced. Two ORFs (ORF1 and ORF2) were identified, and their putative transcription initiation and Shine-Dalgarno sequence were localized. ORF1 encodes a 334-residue protein almost identical to the putative Rep proteins of previously sequenced S. aureus rolling-circle-replicating plasmids. ORF2 encodes a 162-amino acid protein sharing a high degree of homology with LinA proteins (lincosamide O-nucleotidyltransferases) described in a variety of S. aureus strains. Intracellular single-stranded pBMSa1 DNA replicating intermediaries were detected, suggesting replication via the rolling-circle mechanism. A putative double-strand origin with significant homology to that of pC194 and a ssoA-type single-strand origin homologous sequence were also identified. PMID:15212891

  4. Identification of novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a Tn5406-like transposon in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis of human and animal origin.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Aspiroz, Carmen; Rezusta, Antonio; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Simon, Carmen; Gómez, Paula; Ortega, Carmelo; Revillo, Maria José; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Nine staphylococcal strains of human and animal origin with a lincomycin-resistant/erythromycin-susceptible phenotype and carrying vga genes were characterised to determine the genetic elements involved in the dissemination of these uncommon resistance genes. These strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and/or spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Presence of the genes lnu(A), lnu(B), vga(A), vga(A)v, vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), lsa(B) and cfr was studied by PCR. Transformation experiments were carried out in all strains, and the plasmid or chromosomal gene location was determined by Southern blot analysis. Genetic environments of the vga genes were analysed by PCR mapping or inverse PCR and sequencing. Five meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 strains and three Staphylococcus epidermidis strains harboured the gene vga(A), and one MRSA-ST8 strain contained the gene vga(A)v. One MRSA-ST398 strain, which also contained the gene lnu(A), showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to lincomycin. The vga(A)v-positive strain presented lower MIC values than the vga(A)-positive strains. Presence of the pVGA plasmid was confirmed in two MRSA-ST398 strains. Four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids were detected: pUR2355 (in two MRSA and one meticillin-susceptible S. epidermidis); pUR4128 (one MRSA); pUR3036 [one meticillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)]; and pUR3937 (one MRSE). The plasmid pUR4128 was very similar to pUR2355. Plasmids pUR3036 and pUR3937 were related and were very similar to plasmid pSE-12228-06. The gene vga(A)v was located in a transposon analogous to Tn5406. Therefore, four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a variant of Tn5406 were identified in this study.

  5. Identification of novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a Tn5406-like transposon in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis of human and animal origin.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Aspiroz, Carmen; Rezusta, Antonio; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Simon, Carmen; Gómez, Paula; Ortega, Carmelo; Revillo, Maria José; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Nine staphylococcal strains of human and animal origin with a lincomycin-resistant/erythromycin-susceptible phenotype and carrying vga genes were characterised to determine the genetic elements involved in the dissemination of these uncommon resistance genes. These strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and/or spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Presence of the genes lnu(A), lnu(B), vga(A), vga(A)v, vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), lsa(B) and cfr was studied by PCR. Transformation experiments were carried out in all strains, and the plasmid or chromosomal gene location was determined by Southern blot analysis. Genetic environments of the vga genes were analysed by PCR mapping or inverse PCR and sequencing. Five meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 strains and three Staphylococcus epidermidis strains harboured the gene vga(A), and one MRSA-ST8 strain contained the gene vga(A)v. One MRSA-ST398 strain, which also contained the gene lnu(A), showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to lincomycin. The vga(A)v-positive strain presented lower MIC values than the vga(A)-positive strains. Presence of the pVGA plasmid was confirmed in two MRSA-ST398 strains. Four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids were detected: pUR2355 (in two MRSA and one meticillin-susceptible S. epidermidis); pUR4128 (one MRSA); pUR3036 [one meticillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)]; and pUR3937 (one MRSE). The plasmid pUR4128 was very similar to pUR2355. Plasmids pUR3036 and pUR3937 were related and were very similar to plasmid pSE-12228-06. The gene vga(A)v was located in a transposon analogous to Tn5406. Therefore, four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a variant of Tn5406 were identified in this study. PMID:22901706

  6. First Report of cfr-Carrying Plasmids in the Pandemic Sequence Type 22 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type IV Clone

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Lazaris, Alexandros; Kinnevey, Peter M.; Brennan, Orla M.; Brennan, Gráinne I.; O'Connell, Brian; Feßler, Andrea T.; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Linezolid is often the drug of last resort for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Linezolid resistance is mediated by mutations in 23S rRNA and genes for ribosomal proteins; cfr, encoding phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) resistance; its homologue cfr(B); or optrA, conferring oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance. Linezolid resistance is rare in S. aureus, and cfr is even rarer. This study investigated the clonality and linezolid resistance mechanisms of two MRSA isolates from patients in separate Irish hospitals. Isolates were subjected to cfr PCR, PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA PCR and sequencing, DNA microarray profiling, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid curing, and conjugative transfer. Whole-genome sequencing was used for single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis, multilocus sequence typing, L protein mutation identification, cfr plasmid sequence analysis, and optrA and cfr(B) detection. Isolates M12/0145 and M13/0401 exhibited linezolid MICs of 64 and 16 mg/liter, respectively, and harbored identical 23S rRNA and L22 mutations, but M12/0145 exhibited the mutation in 2/6 23S rRNA alleles, compared to 1/5 in M13/0401. Both isolates were sequence type 22 MRSA staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV)/spa type t032 isolates, harbored cfr, exhibited the PhLOPSA phenotype, and lacked optrA and cfr(B). They differed by five PFGE bands and 603 SNVs. Isolate M12/0145 harbored cfr and fexA on a 41-kb conjugative pSCFS3-type plasmid, whereas M13/0401 harbored cfr and lsa(B) on a novel 27-kb plasmid. This is the first report of cfr in the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. Different cfr plasmids and mutations associated with linezolid resistance in genotypically distinct ST22-MRSA-IV isolates highlight that prudent management of linezolid use is essential. PMID:26953212

  7. First Report of cfr-Carrying Plasmids in the Pandemic Sequence Type 22 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type IV Clone.

    PubMed

    Shore, Anna C; Lazaris, Alexandros; Kinnevey, Peter M; Brennan, Orla M; Brennan, Gráinne I; O'Connell, Brian; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Coleman, David C

    2016-05-01

    Linezolid is often the drug of last resort for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Linezolid resistance is mediated by mutations in 23S rRNA and genes for ribosomal proteins; cfr, encoding phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) resistance; its homologue cfr(B); or optrA, conferring oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance. Linezolid resistance is rare in S. aureus, and cfr is even rarer. This study investigated the clonality and linezolid resistance mechanisms of two MRSA isolates from patients in separate Irish hospitals. Isolates were subjected to cfr PCR, PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA PCR and sequencing, DNA microarray profiling, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid curing, and conjugative transfer. Whole-genome sequencing was used for single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis, multilocus sequence typing, L protein mutation identification, cfr plasmid sequence analysis, and optrA and cfr(B) detection. Isolates M12/0145 and M13/0401 exhibited linezolid MICs of 64 and 16 mg/liter, respectively, and harbored identical 23S rRNA and L22 mutations, but M12/0145 exhibited the mutation in 2/6 23S rRNA alleles, compared to 1/5 in M13/0401. Both isolates were sequence type 22 MRSA staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV)/spa type t032 isolates, harbored cfr, exhibited the PhLOPSA phenotype, and lacked optrA and cfr(B). They differed by five PFGE bands and 603 SNVs. Isolate M12/0145 harbored cfr and fexA on a 41-kb conjugative pSCFS3-type plasmid, whereas M13/0401 harbored cfr and lsa(B) on a novel 27-kb plasmid. This is the first report of cfr in the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. Different cfr plasmids and mutations associated with linezolid resistance in genotypically distinct ST22-MRSA-IV isolates highlight that prudent management of linezolid use is essential. PMID:26953212

  8. Introduction of plasmid DNA into an ST398 livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MRS926 is a livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain of sequence type (ST) 398. In order to facilitate in vitro and in vivo studies of this strain, we sought to tag it with a fluorescent marker. We cloned a codon-optimized gene for TurboGFP into a shuttle vector...

  9. Phenotypic characterization of xpr, a global regulator of extracellular virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, M. S.; Hart, M. E.; Iandolo, J. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    We recently described a Tn551 insertion in the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus S6C that resulted in drastically reduced expression of extracellular lipase (M. S. Smeltzer, S. R. Gill, and J. J. Iandolo, J. Bacteriol. 174:4000-4006, 1992). The insertion was localized to a chromosomal site (designated omega 1058) distinct from the lipase structural gene (geh) and the accessory gene regulator (agr), both of which were structurally intact in the lipase-negative (Lip-) mutants. In this report, we describe a phenotypic comparison between strains S6C, a hyperproducer of enterotoxin B; KSI9051, a derivative of S6C carrying the Tn551 insertion at omega 1058; ISP546, an 8325-4 strain that carries a Tn551 insertion in the agr locus; and ISP479C, the parent strain of ISP546 cured of the Tn551 delivery plasmid pI258repA36. Compared with their respective parent strains, ISP546 and KSI9051 produced greatly reduced amounts of lipase, alpha-toxin, delta-toxin, protease, and nuclease. KSI9051 also produced reduced amounts of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Coagulase production was increased in ISP546 but not in KSI9051. Using a mouse model, we also demonstrated that ISP546 and KSI9051 were far less virulent than ISP479C and S6C. We have designated the genetic element defined by the Tn551 insertion at omega 1058 xpr to denote its role as a regulator of extracellular protein synthesis. We conclude that xpr and agr are similar and possibly interactive regulatory genes that play an important role in pathogenesis of staphylococcal disease.

  10. Bacteriophage Transduction in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of Staphylococcus aureus for molecular experimentation is a valuable tool for assessing gene function and virulence. Genetic variability between strains coupled with difficult laboratory techniques for strain construction is a frequent roadblock in S. aureus research. Bacteriophage transduction greatly increases the speed and ease of S. aureus studies by allowing movement of chromosomal markers and plasmids between strains. This technique enables the S. aureus research community to focus investigations on clinically relevant isolates.

  11. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2014-12-01

    Plasmids are currently an indispensable molecular tool in life science research and a central asset for the modern biotechnology industry, supporting its mission to produce pharmaceutical proteins, antibodies, vaccines, industrial enzymes, and molecular diagnostics, to name a few key products. Furthermore, plasmids have gradually stepped up in the past 20 years as useful biopharmaceuticals in the context of gene therapy and DNA vaccination interventions. This review provides a concise coverage of the scientific progress that has been made since the emergence of what are called today plasmid biopharmaceuticals. The most relevant topics are discussed to provide researchers with an updated overview of the field. A brief outline of the initial breakthroughs and innovations is followed by a discussion of the motivation behind the medical uses of plasmids in the context of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. The molecular characteristics and rationale underlying the design of plasmid vectors as gene transfer agents are described and a description of the most important methods used to deliver plasmid biopharmaceuticals in vivo (gene gun, electroporation, cationic lipids and polymers, and micro- and nanoparticles) is provided. The major safety issues (integration and autoimmunity) surrounding the use of plasmid biopharmaceuticals is discussed next. Aspects related to the large-scale manufacturing are also covered, and reference is made to the plasmid products that have received marketing authorization as of today.

  12. Fluorescent reporters for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Malone, Cheryl L; Boles, Blaise R; Lauderdale, Katherine J; Thoendel, Matthew; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R

    2009-06-01

    With the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus as a prominent pathogen in community and healthcare settings, there is a growing need for effective reporter tools to facilitate physiology and pathogenesis studies. Fluorescent proteins are ideal as reporters for their convenience in monitoring gene expression, performing host interaction studies, and monitoring biofilm growth. We have developed a suite of fluorescent reporter plasmids for labeling S. aureus cells. These plasmids encode either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or higher wavelength reporter variants for yellow (YFP) and red (mCherry) labeling. The reporters were placed under control of characterized promoters to enable constitutive or inducible expression. Additionally, plasmids were assembled with fluorescent reporters under control of the agr quorum-sensing and sigma factor B promoters, and the fluorescent response with wildtype and relevant mutant strains was characterized. Interestingly, reporter expression displayed a strong dependence on ribosome binding site (RBS) sequence, with the superoxide dismutase RBS displaying the strongest expression kinetics of the sequences examined. To test the robustness of the reporter plasmids, cell imaging was performed with fluorescence microscopy and cell populations were separated using florescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), demonstrating the possibilities of simultaneous monitoring of multiple S. aureus properties. Finally, a constitutive YFP reporter displayed stable, robust labeling of biofilm growth in a flow-cell apparatus. This toolbox of fluorescent reporter plasmids will facilitate cell labeling for a variety of different experimental applications. PMID:19264102

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923

    PubMed Central

    Treangen, Todd J.; Maybank, Rosslyn A.; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F.; Karaolis, David K. R.; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M.; Bergman, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. PMID:25377701

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    PubMed

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. PMID:25377701

  15. An updated view of plasmid conjugation and mobilization in Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Joshua P.; Kwong, Stephen M.; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Yui Eto, Karina; Price, Karina J.; Nguyen, Quang T.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Grubb, Warren B.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The horizontal gene transfer facilitated by mobile genetic elements impacts almost all areas of bacterial evolution, including the accretion and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance genes in the human and animal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Genome surveys of staphylococcal plasmids have revealed an unexpected paucity of conjugation and mobilization loci, perhaps suggesting that conjugation plays only a minor role in the evolution of this genus. In this letter we present the DNA sequences of historically documented staphylococcal conjugative plasmids and highlight that at least 3 distinct and widely distributed families of conjugative plasmids currently contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus. We also review the recently documented “relaxase-in trans” mechanism of conjugative mobilization facilitated by conjugative plasmids pWBG749 and pSK41, and discuss how this may facilitate the horizontal transmission of around 90% of plasmids that were previously considered non-mobilizable. Finally, we enumerate unique sequenced S. aureus plasmids with a potential mechanism of mobilization and predict that at least 80% of all non-conjugative S. aureus plasmids are mobilizable by at least one mechanism. We suggest that a greater research focus on the molecular biology of conjugation is essential if we are to recognize gene-transfer mechanisms from our increasingly in silico analyses. PMID:27583185

  16. An updated view of plasmid conjugation and mobilization in Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Kwong, Stephen M; Murphy, Riley J T; Yui Eto, Karina; Price, Karina J; Nguyen, Quang T; O'Brien, Frances G; Grubb, Warren B; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    The horizontal gene transfer facilitated by mobile genetic elements impacts almost all areas of bacterial evolution, including the accretion and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance genes in the human and animal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Genome surveys of staphylococcal plasmids have revealed an unexpected paucity of conjugation and mobilization loci, perhaps suggesting that conjugation plays only a minor role in the evolution of this genus. In this letter we present the DNA sequences of historically documented staphylococcal conjugative plasmids and highlight that at least 3 distinct and widely distributed families of conjugative plasmids currently contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus. We also review the recently documented "relaxase-in trans" mechanism of conjugative mobilization facilitated by conjugative plasmids pWBG749 and pSK41, and discuss how this may facilitate the horizontal transmission of around 90% of plasmids that were previously considered non-mobilizable. Finally, we enumerate unique sequenced S. aureus plasmids with a potential mechanism of mobilization and predict that at least 80% of all non-conjugative S. aureus plasmids are mobilizable by at least one mechanism. We suggest that a greater research focus on the molecular biology of conjugation is essential if we are to recognize gene-transfer mechanisms from our increasingly in silico analyses. PMID:27583185

  17. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart; Raymann, Kasie; Soler, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Many plasmids have been described in Euryarchaeota, one of the three major archaeal phyla, most of them in salt-loving haloarchaea and hyperthermophilic Thermococcales. These plasmids resemble bacterial plasmids in terms of size (from small plasmids encoding only one gene up to large megaplasmids) and replication mechanisms (rolling circle or theta). Some of them are related to viral genomes and form a more or less continuous sequence space including many integrated elements. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota have been useful for designing efficient genetic tools for these microorganisms. In addition, they have also been used to probe the topological state of plasmids in species with or without DNA gyrase and/or reverse gyrase. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota encode both DNA replication proteins recruited from their hosts and novel families of DNA replication proteins. Euryarchaeota form an interesting playground to test evolutionary hypotheses on the origin and evolution of viruses and plasmids, since a robust phylogeny is available for this phylum. Preliminary studies have shown that for different plasmid families, plasmids share a common gene pool and coevolve with their hosts. They are involved in gene transfer, mostly between plasmids and viruses present in closely related species, but rarely between cells from distantly related archaeal lineages. With few exceptions (e.g., plasmids carrying gas vesicle genes), most archaeal plasmids seem to be cryptic. Interestingly, plasmids and viral genomes have been detected in extracellular membrane vesicles produced by Thermococcales, suggesting that these vesicles could be involved in the transfer of viruses and plasmids between cells.

  18. Expression of a cloned Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin determinant in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, N; Kennedy, S; Foster, T J; Kehoe, M; Dougan, G

    1983-01-01

    A DNA sequence encoding Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin, which had been previously cloned and mapped in Escherichia coli K-12, was introduced into Bacillus subtilis BD170 and several strains of S. aureus by using plasmid vectors, some of which could replicate in all three organisms. The determinant was cloned on a 3.3-kilobase pair DNA fragment into B. subtilis by using the vector plasmid pXZ105 to form the hybrid plasmid pXZ111. B. subtilis cells harboring pXZ111 produced large zones of alpha-hemolysis after 18 h of growth at 37 degrees C on rabbit blood agar plates, and alpha-hemolysin activity was detected in supernatants prepared from growing cultures of this strain. The alpha-hemolysin was apparently secreted across the B. subtilis cell envelope. Polypeptides of molecular weights 34,000 and 33,000 were precipitated with anti-alpha-hemolysin serum from lysates prepared from BD170 cells harboring pXZ111. A hybrid replicon which could replicate in both E. coli and S. aureus was constructed in E. coli by ligating a HindIII fragment encoding the replication functions and chloramphenicol resistance genes of S. aureus plasmid pCW59 to the pBR322 alpha-hemolysin hybrid plasmid pDU1150. The DNA of this plasmid, pDU1212, was prepared in E. coli and used to transform protoplasts prepared from a non-alpha-hemolytic, nonrestricting strain of S. aureus RN4220. Some of the transformants contained plasmids which had suffered extensive deletions. Some plasmids, however, were transformed intact into RN4220. Such plasmids were subsequently maintained in a stable manner. pDU1212 DNA was prepared from RN4220 and transformed into alpha-hemolytic S. aureus 8325-4 and two mutant derivatives defective in alpha-hemolysin synthesis. All three strains expressed alpha-hemolysin when harboring pDU1212. Images PMID:6411618

  19. Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by antibiotic resistance phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, M T; Lyon, B R; Skurray, R A

    1990-01-01

    The identification of new epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is essential for rapid, effective infection control. We have developed a typing method which uses antibiotic sensitivity patterns to differentiate methicillin-resistant S. aureus and which is faster and more cost-effective than biochemical analysis or bacteriophage typing. Characterisation of phenotypes which are chromosomally-encoded, plasmid- or chromosomally-encoded or exclusively plasmid-mediated has enabled us to separate Australian strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus into 11 classes, representatives of which were indistinguishable by bacteriophage type, or plasmid profile alone. The value of this procedure is thus clearly shown.

  20. Degradative plasmids from sphingomonads.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Large plasmids ('megaplasmids') are commonly found in members of the Alphaproteobacterial family Sphingomonadaceae ('sphingomonads'). These plasmids contribute to the extraordinary catabolic flexibility of this group of organisms, which degrade a broad range of recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds. The genomes of several sphingomonads have been sequenced during the last years. In the course of these studies, also the sequences of several plasmids have been determined. The analysis of the published information and the sequences deposited in the public databases allowed a first classification of these plasmids into a restricted number of groups according to the proteins involved in the initiation of replication, plasmid partition and conjugation. The sequence comparisons demonstrated that the plasmids from sphingomonads encode for four main groups of replication initiation (Rep) proteins. These Rep proteins belong to the protein superfamilies RepA_C (Pfam 04796), Rep_3 (Pfam 01051), RPA (Pfam 10134) and HTH-36 (Pfam 13730). The 'degradative megaplasmids' pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02, pCHQ1, pISP0, and pISP1, which code for genes involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, carbazole, dibenzo-p-dioxin and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, carry Rep proteins which either belong to the RepA_C- (plasmids pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02), Rep-3- (plasmids pCHQ1, pISP0) or RPA-superfamily (pISP1). The classification of these 'degradative megaplasmids' into three groups is also supported by sequence comparisons of the proteins involved in plasmid partition (ParAB) and the organization of the three genes on the respective plasmids. All analysed 'degradative megaplasmids' carry genes, which might allow a conjugative transfer of the plasmids. Sequence comparisons of these genes suggest the presence of at least two types of transfer functions, which either are closer related to the tra- or vir-genes previously described for plasmids from other sources.

  1. SPP1-mediated plasmid transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Canosi, U; Lüder, G; Trautner, T A

    1982-01-01

    The virulent Bacillus subtilis phage SPP1 transduces plasmid DNA. Plasmid-transducing phages contain only plasmid DNA. Such DNA represents a concatemer of monomeric plasmid molecules with the molecular weight of mature SPP1 DNA. Biological parameters of plasmid transduction are described. Images PMID:6292508

  2. Improving Transformation of Staphylococcus aureus Belonging to the CC1, CC5 and CC8 Clonal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mary Janice; Donegan, Niles P.; Mikheyeva, Irina V.; Cheung, Ambrose L.

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an opportunistic pathogen found in hospital and community environments that can cause serious infections. A major barrier to genetic manipulations of clinical isolates has been the considerable difficulty in transforming these strains with foreign plasmids, such as those from E. coli, in part due to the type I and IV Restriction Modification (R-M) barriers. Here we combine a Plasmid Artificial Modification (PAM) system with DC10B E. coli cells (dcm mutants) to bypass the barriers of both type I and IV R-M of S. aureus, thus allowing E. coli plasmid DNA to be transformed directly into clinical MRSA strains MW2, N315 and LAC, representing three of the most common clonal complexes. Successful transformation of clinical S. aureus isolates with E. coli-derived plasmids should greatly increase the ability to genetically modify relevant S. aureus strains and advance our understanding of S. aureus pathogenesis. PMID:25807379

  3. Transformation of microorganisms with the plasmid vector with the replicon from pAC1 from Acetobacter pasteurianus.

    PubMed

    Grones, J; Turna, J

    1995-01-26

    A number of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria species was screened for the expression of the gram-negative plasmid pACK5 and pACT72 with replicon of pAC1 plasmid from Acetobacter pasteurianus. As was described previously, both plasmids were expressed in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter aceti, Shigella spp. and Citrobacter spp. Expressions of plasmids were successful in twelve species tested, Comamonas terrigena, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megatericum, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Micrococcus luteus, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptoccocus feacalis, and the stability of plasmid DNA was tested after cultivation in non-selective conditions.

  4. Processing of Nonconjugative Resistance Plasmids by Conjugation Nicking Enzyme of Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Rebecca M.; Ingle, James D.; Hymes, Jeff P.; Eakes, Thomas C.; Eto, Karina Yui; Kwong, Stephen M.; Ramsay, Joshua P.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus presents an increasing threat to human health. This resistance is often encoded on mobile plasmids, such as pSK41; however, the mechanism of transfer of these plasmids is not well understood. In this study, we first examine key protein-DNA interactions formed by the relaxase enzyme, NES, which initiates and terminates the transfer of the multidrug resistance plasmid pSK41. Two loops on the NES protein, hairpin loops 1 and 2, form extensive contacts with the DNA hairpin formed at the oriT region of pSK41, and here we establish that these contacts are essential for proper DNA cleavage and religation by the full 665-residue NES protein in vitro. Second, pSK156 and pCA347 are nonconjugative Staphylococcus aureus plasmids that contain sequences similar to the oriT region of pSK41 but differ in the sequence predicted to form a DNA hairpin. We show that pSK41-encoded NES is able to bind, cleave, and religate the oriT sequences of these nonconjugative plasmids in vitro. Although pSK41 could mobilize a coresident plasmid harboring its cognate oriT, it was unable to mobilize plasmids containing the pSK156 and pCA347 variant oriT mimics, suggesting that an accessory protein like that previously shown to confer specificity in the pWBG749 system may also be involved in transmission of plasmids containing a pSK41-like oriT. These data indicate that the conjugative relaxase in trans mechanism recently described for the pWBG749 family of plasmids also applies to the pSK41 family of plasmids, further heightening the potential significance of this mechanism in the horizontal transfer of staphylococcal plasmids. IMPORTANCE Understanding the mechanism of antimicrobial resistance transfer in bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus is an important step toward potentially slowing the spread of antimicrobial-resistant infections. This work establishes protein-DNA interactions essential for the transfer of the Staphylococcus aureus

  5. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  6. Natural plasmids of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A J

    1995-01-01

    Among eukaryotes, plasmids have been found in fungi and plants but not in animals. Most plasmids are mitochondrial. In filamentous fungi, plasmids are commonly encountered in isolates from natural populations. Individual populations may show a predominance of one type, but some plasmids have a global distribution, often crossing species boundaries. Surveys have shown that strains can contain more than one type of plasmid and that different types appear to be distributed independently. In crosses, plasmids are generally inherited maternally. Horizontal transmission is by cell contact. Circular plasmids are common only in Neurospora spp., but linear plasmids have been found in many fungi. Circular plasmids have one open reading frame (ORF) coding for a DNA polymerase or a reverse transcriptase. Linear plasmids generally have two ORFs, coding for presumptive DNA and RNA polymerases with amino acid motifs showing homology to viral polymerases. Plasmids often attain a high copy number, in excess of that of mitochondrial DNA. Linear plasmids have a protein attached to their 5' end, and this is presumed to act as a replication primer. Most plasmids are neutral passengers, but several linear plasmids integrate into mitochondrial DNA, causing death of the host culture. Inferred amino acid sequences of linear plasmid ORFs have been used to plot phylogenetic trees, which show a fair concordance with conventional trees. The circular Neurospora plasmids have replication systems that seem to be evolutionary intermediates between the RNA and the DNA worlds. PMID:8531891

  7. Plasmid partitioning systems of conjugative plasmids from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vicki; Watts, Thomas D; Bulach, Dieter M; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I

    2015-07-01

    Many pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens carry several highly similar toxin or antibiotic resistance plasmids that have 35 to 40 kb of very closely related syntenous sequences, including regions that carry the genes encoding conjugative transfer, plasmid replication and plasmid maintenance functions. Key questions are how are these closely related plasmids stably maintained in the same cell and what is the basis for plasmid incompatibility in C. perfringens. Comparative analysis of the Rep proteins encoded by these plasmids suggested that this protein was not the basis for plasmid incompatibility since plasmids carried in a single strain often encoded an almost identical Rep protein. These plasmids all carried a similar, but not identical, parMRC plasmid partitioning locus. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced ParM proteins revealed that these proteins could be divided into ten separate groups. Importantly, in every strain that carried more than one of these plasmids, the respective ParM proteins were from different phylogenetic groups. Similar observations were made from the analysis of phylogenetic trees of the ParR proteins and the parC loci. These findings provide evidence that the basis for plasmid incompatibility in the conjugative toxin and resistance plasmid family from C. perfringens resides in subtle differences in the parMRC plasmid partitioning loci carried by these plasmids.

  8. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  9. Genomic fingerprinting of bacteriocin-producer strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Janaína dos S; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; de Oliveira, Selma S; Ceotto, Hilana; dos Santos, Kátia Regina N; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de F

    2005-09-01

    Among 363 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 21 were shown to produce bacteriocins (Bac), antimicrobial peptides with potential biotechnological applications. This collection includes strains which are either isolated from food, patients and healthy cattle, or are involved in subclinical bovine mastitis. From these 21 strains, 17 were shown to carry closely-related 8.0-kb Bac plasmids encoding bacteriocins either identical to or similar to aureocin A70, a bacteriocin able to inhibit strains of Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Such findings prompted us to investigate the genetic relationships among these Bac+ strains. To obtain more discriminatory results, a combined analysis of AP-PCR, rep-PCR, and a modified PCR technique that we designated SD-PCR was employed. The 17 Bac+ strains harboring 8.0-kb Bac plasmids exhibited seven fingerprint patterns. One such genotype was composed of 8 out of the 11 strains associated with bovine mastitis, which suggests the prevalence of a clone of Bac+ strains involved in this animal infection carrying 8.0-kb Bac plasmids. Our data support the assumption that Bac+ strains of S. aureus carrying genetically related 8.0-kb Bac plasmids do not belong to a single clone. It seems, therefore, that 8.0-kb Bac plasmids have spread horizontally among different S. aureus strains. There also seems to be genetic diversity among the remaining Bac+ strains analyzed. PMID:16171981

  10. Mechanisms of plasmid segregation: have multicopy plasmids been overlooked?

    PubMed

    Million-Weaver, Samuel; Camps, Manel

    2014-09-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating pieces of DNA typically bearing non-essential genes. Given that plasmids represent a metabolic burden to the host, mechanisms ensuring plasmid transmission to daughter cells are critical for their stable maintenance in the population. Here we review these mechanisms, focusing on two active partition strategies common to low-copy plasmids: par systems type I and type II. Both involve three components: an adaptor protein, a motor protein, and a centromere, which is a sequence area in the plasmid that is recognized by the adaptor protein. The centromere-bound adaptor nucleates polymerization of the motor, leading to filament formation, which can pull plasmids apart (par I) or push them towards opposite poles of the cell (par II). No such active partition mechanisms are known to occur in high copy number plasmids. In this case, vertical transmission is generally considered stochastic, due to the random distribution of plasmids in the cytoplasm. We discuss conceptual and experimental lines of evidence questioning the random distribution model and posit the existence of a mechanism for segregation in high copy number plasmids that moves plasmids to cell poles to facilitate transmission to daughter cells. This mechanism would involve chromosomally-encoded proteins and the plasmid origin of replication. Modulation of this proposed mechanism of segregation could provide new ways to enhance plasmid stability in the context of recombinant gene expression, which is limiting for large-scale protein production and for bioremediation.

  11. Toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ∼16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ∼45 kb to ∼140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ∼35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions.

  13. Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ∼16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ∼45 kb to ∼140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ∼35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

  14. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius strain ST1464 genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Ti Thien; Gimenez, Grégory; El Sanousi, Sulieman M.; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is responsible for Morel's disease in animals and a cause of abscess in humans. It is characterized by a microaerophilic growth, contrary to the other strains of S. aureus. The 2,604,446-bp genome (32.7% GC content) of S. anaerobius ST1464 comprises one chromosome and no plasmids. The chromosome contains 2,660 open reading frames (ORFs), 49 tRNAs and three complete rRNAs, forming one complete operon. The size of ORFs ranges between 100 to 4,600 bp except for two ORFs of 6,417 and 7,173 bp encoding segregation ATPase and non-ribosomal peptide synthase, respectively. The chromosome harbors Staphylococcus phage 2638A genome and incomplete Staphylococcus phage genome PT1028, but no detectable CRISPRS. The antibiotic resistance gene for tetracycline was found although Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is susceptible to tetracycline in-vitro. Intact oxygen detoxification genes encode superoxide dismutase and cytochrome quinol oxidase whereas the catalase gene is impaired by a stop codon. Based on the genome, in-silico multilocus sequence typing indicates that S. aureus subsp. anaerobius emerged as a clone separated from all other S. aureus strains, illustrating host-adaptation linked to missing functions. Availability of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius genome could prompt the development of post-genomic tools for its rapid discrimination from S. aureus. PMID:24501641

  15. Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul E

    2004-01-01

    Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

  16. Transfer of the conjugal tetracycline resistance transposon Tn916 from Streptococcus faecalis to Staphylococcus aureus and identification of some insertion sites in the staphylococcal chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J M; Yost, S C; Pattee, P A

    1987-01-01

    The Streptococcus faecalis pheromone-dependent conjugative plasmid pAD1::Tn916 and the membrane filter-dependent conjugative plasmid pPD5::Tn916 were used to introduce Tn916 into Staphylococcus aureus by intergeneric protoplast fusions and intergeneric membrane-filter matings. In recombinants obtained by protoplast fusion where no plasmid DNA could be detected, tetracycline resistance resulted from transposition of Tn916 from pAD1 to the S. aureus chromosome. Transformation analyses showed that S. aureus Tn916 chromosomal insertions occurred near pig, ilv, uraA, tyrB, fus, ala, and the trp operon. DNA hybridization analyses of EcoRI- and HindIII-digested chromosomal DNAs confirmed the diversity of chromosomal sites involved and demonstrated that the inserts were Tn916 insertions rather than integrations of all or part of pAD1::Tn916. Both pAD1::Tn916 and pPD5::Tn916 were transferred to S. aureus by membrane-filter matings. These plasmids remained intact and expressed tetracycline resistance in S. aureus. S. aureus strains carrying pAD1::Tn916, but not a chromosomal insert of Tn916, and any one of several conjugal gentamicin-resistance plasmids lost their ability to serve as conjugal donors of the gentamicin-resistance plasmids. Images PMID:3032908

  17. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  18. Plasmid mapping computer program.

    PubMed

    Nolan, G P; Maina, C V; Szalay, A A

    1984-01-11

    Three new computer algorithms are described which rapidly order the restriction fragments of a plasmid DNA which has been cleaved with two restriction endonucleases in single and double digestions. Two of the algorithms are contained within a single computer program (called MPCIRC). The Rule-Oriented algorithm, constructs all logical circular map solutions within sixty seconds (14 double-digestion fragments) when used in conjunction with the Permutation method. The program is written in Apple Pascal and runs on an Apple II Plus Microcomputer with 64K of memory. A third algorithm is described which rapidly maps double digests and uses the above two algorithms as adducts. Modifications of the algorithms for linear mapping are also presented. PMID:6320105

  19. Molecular diversity and characterization of tetracycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a poultry processing plant.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; D'Haene, Klaas; Van Eldere, Johan; von Holy, Alexander; Swings, Jean

    2005-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and molecular characterization showed that the tetracycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus population of a South African poultry processing plant comprised one or possibly several tet(K)-containing endemic clones that contaminated chicken and machinery surfaces at all sampled processing stages. The tet(K) gene was transferable by filter mating to S. aureus recipient 80CR5 and was located on a pT181-like plasmid.

  20. Method for Preparation and Electroporation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Melinda R; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-01-01

    For bacterial species that are not known to be naturally competent, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, electroporation is an efficient method for introducing genetic material into the cell. The technique utilizes electrical pulses to transiently permeabilize bacterial cell membranes, which allows for the passage of plasmid DNA across the membranes. Here, we describe methods for preparing electrocompetent S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells and outline a procedure for electroporation of the prepared competent cells.

  1. Method for Preparation and Electroporation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Melinda R; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-01-01

    For bacterial species that are not known to be naturally competent, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, electroporation is an efficient method for introducing genetic material into the cell. The technique utilizes electrical pulses to transiently permeabilize bacterial cell membranes, which allows for the passage of plasmid DNA across the membranes. Here, we describe methods for preparing electrocompetent S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells and outline a procedure for electroporation of the prepared competent cells. PMID:25966876

  2. A plasmid in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M D; Guild, W R

    1979-01-01

    Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid has been detected in three related laboratory strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strains D39S, R36, and R36NC each contain a minimum of two copies per cell of a 2.0-megadalton plasmid (pDP1). A plasmid twice as large as this smaller one is also present in much lower quantity in these strains, but neither plasmid is present in four strains related to these or in a drug-resistant clinical isolate from Paris. The plasmid yield was not amplified in the presence of chloramphenicol. No phenotype has been correlated with the presence of pDP1, which has existed in strains carried for many years in laboratory collections. Images PMID:33961

  3. Characterization of ESBL disseminating plasmids.

    PubMed

    Brolund, Alma; Sandegren, Linus

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute a globally increasing problem that contributes to treatment complications and elevated death rates. The extremely successful dissemination by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae during the latest decades is a result of the combination of mobilization, evolution and horizontal spread of β-lactamase genes on plasmids. In parallel, spread of these plasmids to particularly well-adapted bacterial clones (outbreak clones) has expanded. In this review we describe ESBL-producing bacteria and the genetic mechanisms for dissemination of ESBL resistance. We describe available methodology for studying plasmids and the importance of including plasmids in epidemiological typing as natural parts of the organisms. Plasmids play a fundamental role in how resistance arises and disseminates.

  4. Bacteriophage Transduction in Staphylococcus aureus: Broth-Based Method.

    PubMed

    Krausz, Kelsey L; Bose, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to move DNA between Staphylococcus strains is essential for the genetic manipulation of this bacterium. Often in the Staphylococci, this is accomplished through transduction using generalized transducing phage and can be performed in different ways and therefore the presence of two transduction procedures in this book. The following protocol is a relatively easy-to-perform, broth-based procedure that we have used extensively to move both plasmids and chromosomal fragments between strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

  6. A rational proposal for plasmid nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Campos, P; Martín Luengo, F

    1989-09-01

    We propose a more rational system for nomenclature of wild plasmids of bacteria. With this proposal for nomenclature of bacterial plasmids, it is established in an unambiguous way: 1) if a plasmid is wild or derivative, and 2) in which species and bacterial strain it was found (in the case of wild plasmids).

  7. An rpsL-based allelic exchange vector for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chen, John; Ram, Geeta; Yoong, Pauline; Penadés, José R; Shopsin, Bo; Novick, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most successful bacterial pathogens, harboring a vast repertoire of virulence factors in its arsenal. As such, the genetic manipulation of S. aureus chromosomal DNA is an important tool for the study of genes involved in virulence and survival in the host. Previously reported allelic exchange vectors for S. aureus are shuttle vectors that can be propagated in Escherichia coli, so that standard genetic manipulations can be carried out. Most of the vectors currently in use carry the temperature-sensitive replicon (pE194ts) that was originally developed for use in Bacillus subtilis. Here we show that in S. aureus, the thermosensitivity of a pE194ts vector is incomplete at standard non-permissive temperatures (42 °C), and replication of the plasmid is impaired but not abolished. We report rpsL-based counterselection vectors, with an improved temperature-sensitive replicon (pT181 repC3) that is completely blocked for replication in S. aureus at non-permissive and standard growth temperature (37 °C). We also describe a set of temperature-sensitive vectors that can be cured at standard growth temperature. These vectors provide highly effective tools for rapidly generating allelic replacement mutations and curing expression plasmids, and expand the genetic tool set available for the study of S. aureus.

  8. Prevalence and significance of plasmid maintenance functions in the virulence plasmids of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Manjistha; Austin, Stuart

    2011-07-01

    Virulence functions of pathogenic bacteria are often encoded on large extrachromosomal plasmids. These plasmids are maintained at low copy number to reduce the metabolic burden on their host. Low-copy-number plasmids risk loss during cell division. This is countered by plasmid-encoded systems that ensure that each cell receives at least one plasmid copy. Plasmid replication and recombination can produce plasmid multimers that hinder plasmid segregation. These are removed by multimer resolution systems. Equitable distribution of the resulting monomers to daughter cells is ensured by plasmid partition systems that actively segregate plasmid copies to daughter cells in a process akin to mitosis in higher organisms. Any plasmid-free cells that still arise due to occasional failures of replication, multimer resolution, or partition are eliminated by plasmid-encoded postsegregational killing systems. Here we argue that all of these three systems are essential for the stable maintenance of large low-copy-number plasmids. Thus, they should be found on all large virulence plasmids. Where available, well-annotated sequences of virulence plasmids confirm this. Indeed, virulence plasmids often appear to contain more than one example conforming to each of the three system classes. Since these systems are essential for virulence, they can be regarded as ubiquitous virulence factors. As such, they should be informative in the search for new antibacterial agents and drug targets.

  9. Building mosaics of therapeutic plasmid gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2011-12-01

    Plasmids are circular or linear DNA molecules propagated extra-chromosomally in bacteria. Evolution shaped plasmids are inherently mosaic structures with individual functional units represented by distinct segments in the plasmid genome. The patchwork of plasmid genetic modules is a convenient template and a model for the generation of artificial plasmids used as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells. Plasmid gene vectors are an important tool in gene therapy and in basic biomedical research, where these vectors offer efficient transgene expression in many settings in vitro and in vivo. Plasmid vectors can be attached to nuclear directing ligands or transferred by electroporation as naked DNA to deliver the payload genes to the nuclei of the target cells. Transgene expression silencing by plasmid sequences of bacterial origin and immune stimulation by bacterial unmethylated CpG motifs can be avoided by the generation of plasmid-based minimized DNA vectors, such as minicircles. Systems of efficient site-specific integration into human chromosomes and stable episomal maintenance in human cells are being developed for further reduction of the chances for transgene silencing. The successful generation of plasmid vectors is governed by a number of vector design rules, some of which are common to all gene vectors, while others are specific to plasmid vectors. This review is focused both on the guiding principles and on the technical know-how of plasmid gene vector design. PMID:22023476

  10. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  11. Origin and Evolution of Rickettsial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Background Rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. Despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated Rickettsia species have plasmids. In order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and non-microbial genomes. Results Plasmids were differentially present among Rickettsia species. The 11 species had 1 to 4 plasmid (s) with a size ranging from 12 kb to 83 kb. We reconstructed pRICO, the last common ancestor of the current rickettsial plasmids. pRICO was vertically inherited mainly from Rickettsia/Orientia chromosomes and diverged vertically into a single or multiple plasmid(s) in each species. These plasmids also underwent a reductive evolution by progressive gene loss, similar to that observed in rickettsial chromosomes, possibly leading to cryptic plasmids or complete plasmid loss. Moreover, rickettsial plasmids exhibited ORFans, recent gene duplications and evidence of horizontal gene transfer events with rickettsial and non-rickettsial genomes mainly from the α/γ-proteobacteria lineages. Genes related to maintenance and plasticity of plasmids, and to adaptation and resistance to stress mostly evolved under vertical and/or horizontal processes. Those involved in nucleotide/carbohydrate transport and metabolism were under the influence of vertical evolution only, whereas genes involved in cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, cycle control, amino acid/lipid/coenzyme and secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and metabolism underwent mainly horizontal transfer events. Conclusion Rickettsial plasmids had a complex evolution, starting with a vertical inheritance followed by a reductive evolution associated with increased complexity via

  12. Plasmids as stochastic model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Johan

    2003-05-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating gene clusters present in on average 2-100 copies per bacterial cell. To reduce random fluctuations and thereby avoid extinction, they ubiquitously autoregulate their own synthesis using negative feedback loops. Here I use van Kampen's Ω-expansion for a two-dimensional model of negative feedback including plasmids and ther replication inhibitors. This analytically summarizes the standard perspective on replication control -- including the effects of sensitivity amplification, exponential time-delays and noisy signaling. I further review the two most common molecular sensitivity mechanisms: multistep control and cooperativity. Finally, I discuss more controversial sensitivity schemes, such as noise-enhanced sensitivity, the exploitation of small-number combinatorics and double-layered feedback loops to suppress noise in disordered environments.

  13. Recurrent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cutaneous Abscesses and Selection of Reduced Chlorhexidine Susceptibility during Chlorhexidine Use.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan C; Schlett, Carey D; Crawford, Katrina; Lanier, Jeffrey B; Merrell, D Scott; Ellis, Michael W

    2015-11-01

    We describe the selection of reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility during chlorhexidine use in a patient with two episodes of cutaneous USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess. The second clinical isolate harbors a novel plasmid that encodes the QacA efflux pump. Greater use of chlorhexidine for disease prevention warrants surveillance for resistance.

  14. Revealing the latent mobilization capability of the staphylococcal bacteriocinogenic plasmid pRJ9.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Bruna Gonçalves; Coelho, Marcus Lívio Varella; Ceotto, Hilana; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2011-01-01

    Plasmid pRJ9 is a non-self-mobilizable bacteriocinogenic plasmid from Staphylococcus aureus. Despite this feature, DNA sequencing and RT-PCR experiments showed that it presents a Mob region with three genes (mobCAB), transcribed as an operon. In silico analysis of the Mob proteins encoded by pRJ9 showed that they present all the conserved functional features reported until present as being essential for plasmid mobilization. Moreover, they showed a high identity to Mob proteins encoded by mobilizable plasmids from Staphylococcus spp., especially to those encoded by plasmid pRJ6, which presents four mob genes (mobCDAB). A putative oriT region was also found upstream of the pRJ9 mob operon. pRJ9 could only be successfully mobilized by pGO1 when pRJ6 was present in the same strain. Further experiments showed that the pRJ9 oriT can be recognized by the pRJ6 Mob proteins, confirming its functionality. As pRJ9 does not possess a mobD gene while pRJ6 does, the absence of this gene was believed to be responsible for its lack of mobilization. However, conjugation experiments with a donor strain carrying also mobD cloned into an S. aureus vector showed that pRJ9 does not become mobilized even in the presence of the protein MobD encoded by pRJ6. Therefore, the reasons for pRJ9 failure to be mobilized are presently unknown. PMID:22286044

  15. [The relationship of plasmids from environmental Yersinia isolates and the virulence plasmid of enteropathogenic Yersinia strains].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Strauch, E; Appel, B; Nattermann, H

    2002-01-01

    The human pathogenic strains of Yersinia harbour a conserved plasmid carrying the Yop virulon. The virulence plasmid of Yersinia enterocolitica strains belonging to the serogroups O:3 and O:9 were used as probes to detect homologous sequences in plasmids of "avirulent" Yersinia strains. "Avirulent" Yersinia strains (Y. enterocolitica biogroup 1A, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and Y. frederiksenii) lack the virulence plasmid. They are widely distributed in the environment and can frequently be isolated from clinical samples. Hybridisation experiments revealed a number of common genetic elements of the virulence plasmid and the plasmids of "avirulent" Yersinia strains. These elements were identified as genes involved in plasmid replication, as an endonuclease gene and as mobile genetic elements. However, none of the plasmid encoded virulence genes was present in the plasmids of "avirulent" Yersinia strains. The frequent occurrence and the possible etiological relevance of "avirulent" isolates will be discussed.

  16. Plasmid Diversity and Adaptation Analyzed by Massive Sequencing of Escherichia coli Plasmids.

    PubMed

    de Toro, María; Garcilláon-Barcia, M Pilar; De La Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Whole-genome sequencing is revolutionizing the analysis of bacterial genomes. It leads to a massive increase in the amount of available data to be analyzed. Bacterial genomes are usually composed of one main chromosome and a number of accessory chromosomes, called plasmids. A recently developed methodology called PLACNET (for plasmid constellation networks) allows the reconstruction of the plasmids of a given genome. Thus, it opens an avenue for plasmidome analysis on a global scale. This work reviews our knowledge of the genetic determinants for plasmid propagation (conjugation and related functions), their diversity, and their prevalence in the variety of plasmids found by whole-genome sequencing. It focuses on the results obtained from a collection of 255 Escherichia coli plasmids reconstructed by PLACNET. The plasmids found in E. coli represent a nonaleatory subset of the plasmids found in proteobacteria. Potential reasons for the prevalence of some specific plasmid groups will be discussed and, more importantly, additional questions will be posed.

  17. Analysis of the features of 45 identified CRISPR loci in 32 Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siyu; Liu, Jing; Shao, Fuye; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Guangcai; Yang, Haiyan

    2015-08-28

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen that can cause serious infections, even death. Because of the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes, the drug resistant condition is becoming increasingly prevalent. Recently, an adaptive immunity system, named clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), was discovered and demonstrated to confer a defense against foreign invading elements that may carry the antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, we reveal the features of 45 identified CRISPR loci and the CRISPR associated gene (Cas) in 32 S. aureus strains from CRISPR database. Five spacers of S. aureus 08BA02176 and MSHR1132 were homologous with foreign genetic sequences from phages or plasmids, even containing a spacer sequence identical to part of some phages' genomes containing lukPV gene that encodes the PVL toxin. Many S. aureus strains with the same CRISPR type shared the same MLST type. CRISPR loci that had 3 or more similar protein loci mostly belonged to the same CRISPR type. We came to the conclusion that the CRISPR/Cas of strains 08BA02176 and MSHR1132 were inherited from a common ancestor or recombined from Staphylococcus lugdunensis. CRISPR loci can be mobilized and can transfer among different but closely related species, and the same types of MLST strains exhibit a higher affinity to the same types of CRISPR loci. Bacteriophages may be the predominant challenge facing S. aureus. The CRISPR/Cas structure may limit the transmission of bacterial virulence among S. aureus.

  18. Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vicki; Li, Jihong; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Moore, Robert J; McClane, Bruce A; Rood, Julian I

    2014-12-01

    Plasmid-encoded virulence factors are important in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by spore-forming bacteria. Unlike many other bacteria, the most common virulence factors encoded by plasmids in Clostridium and Bacillus species are protein toxins. Clostridium perfringens causes several histotoxic and enterotoxin diseases in both humans and animals and produces a broad range of toxins, including many pore-forming toxins such as C. perfringens enterotoxin, epsilon-toxin, beta-toxin, and NetB. Genetic studies have led to the determination of the role of these toxins in disease pathogenesis. The genes for these toxins are generally carried on large conjugative plasmids that have common core replication, maintenance, and conjugation regions. There is considerable functional information available about the unique tcp conjugation locus carried by these plasmids, but less is known about plasmid maintenance. The latter is intriguing because many C. perfringens isolates stably maintain up to four different, but closely related, toxin plasmids. Toxin genes may also be plasmid-encoded in the neurotoxic clostridia. The tetanus toxin gene is located on a plasmid in Clostridium tetani, but the botulinum toxin genes may be chromosomal, plasmid-determined, or located on bacteriophages in Clostridium botulinum. In Bacillus anthracis it is well established that virulence is plasmid determined, with anthrax toxin genes located on pXO1 and capsule genes on a separate plasmid, pXO2. Orthologs of these plasmids are also found in other members of the Bacillus cereus group such as B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In B. thuringiensis these plasmids may carry genes encoding one or more insecticidal toxins.

  19. Positive epistasis between co-infecting plasmids promotes plasmid survival in bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    San Millan, Alvaro; Heilbron, Karl; MacLean, R Craig

    2014-03-01

    Plasmids have a key role in the horizontal transfer of genes among bacteria. Although plasmids are catalysts for bacterial evolution, it is challenging to understand how they can persist in bacterial populations over the long term because of the burden they impose on their hosts (the 'plasmid paradox'). This paradox is especially perplexing in the case of 'small' plasmids, which are unable to self-transfer by conjugation. Here, for the first time, we investigate how interactions between co-infecting plasmids influence plasmid persistence. Using an experimental model system based on interactions between a diverse assemblage of 'large' plasmids and a single small plasmid, pNI105, in the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we demonstrate that positive epistasis minimizes the cost associated with carrying multiple plasmids over the short term and increases the stability of the small plasmid over a longer time scale. In support of these experimental data, bioinformatic analysis showed that associations between small and large plasmids are more common than would be expected owing to chance alone across a range of families of bacteria; more generally, we find that co-infection with multiple plasmids is more common than would be expected owing to chance across a wide range of bacterial phyla. Collectively, these results suggest that positive epistasis promotes plasmid stability in bacterial populations. These findings pave the way for future mechanistic studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of plasmid-plasmid interaction, and evolutionary studies aimed at understanding how the coevolution of plasmids drives the spread of plasmid-encoded traits.

  20. Effects of genes exerting growth inhibition and plasmid stability on plasmid maintenance.

    PubMed

    Boe, L; Gerdes, K; Molin, S

    1987-10-01

    Plasmid stabilization mediated by the parA+ and parB+ genes of the R1 plasmid and the ccd+ and sop+ genes of the F plasmid was tested on a mini-R1 plasmid and a pBR322 plasmid derivative. The mini-R1 plasmid is thought to be unstably inherited owing to a low copy number and to random segregation of the plasmid at cell division, whereas cells harboring the pBR322 derivative used in this work are lost through competition with plasmid-free cells, mainly as a result of the shorter generation time of cells without plasmids. The pBR322 derivative carries a fusion between part of the atp operon of Escherichia coli and the bacteriophage lambda pR promoter, and the cI857 repressor gene. The insertion of sop+ from the F plasmid or parB+ from the R1 plasmid reduced the loss frequency by a factor of 10(3) for the pBR322 derivative and by at least a factor of 10(2) for the mini-R1 plasmid. Insertion of parA+ from the R1 plasmid decreased the loss frequency of the pBR322 derivative by a factor of 10 and that of the mini-R1 plasmid by a factor of 50. When ccd+ from the F plasmid was inserted, the loss frequency of the pBR322 derivative was decreased by a factor of 10, but it had only a marginal effect on the stability of the mini-R1 plasmid. In no case was any significant structural instability of the plasmids observed.

  1. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  2. Characterization of plasmids in bacterial fish pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L; Colwell, R R; Hetrick, F M

    1983-01-01

    Plasmid profiles of representative fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, Pasteurella piscicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella tarda, and Renibacterium salmoninarum, were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis with four different plasmid detection methods. A combination of two methods was required to detect the plasmids present in these strains and to calculate precisely the molecular weights of the plasmids. Of 38 strains, 28 harbored one or more plasmids, with the majority of strains demonstrating multiplasmid banding. Similarity in plasmid banding between strains was noted and related to geographic source. Five strains of A. salmonicida possessed six plasmid bands having molecular weights of 8.6 X 10(6), 8.4 X 10(6), 8.1 X 10(6), 3.6 X 10(6), 3.5 X 10(6), and 3.4 X 10(6). Four P. piscicida isolates shared three plasmid bands having molecular weights of 37 X 10(6), 15 X 10(6), and 5 X 10(6), and five A. hydrophila strains harbored a common plasmid having a molecular weight of ca. 20 X 10(6) to 30 X 10(6). The highest-molecular-weight plasmids (145 X 10(6) and 130 X 10(6) were detected in V. anguillarum. From curing experiments, it was found that in A. hydrophila strain 79-62, a loss of resistance to tetracycline was associated with loss of plasmid content in all susceptible derivatives, suggesting plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance. Cell surface characteristics and metabolic properties were also modified in cured derivatives of A. hydrophila strain 79-62. Images PMID:6822413

  3. Superporous agarose anion exchangers for plasmid isolation.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Peter; Gustavsson, Per-Erik; Ljunglöf, Anders; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2007-01-01

    Superporous agarose beads have wide, connecting flow pores allowing large molecules such as plasmids to be transported into the interior of the beads by convective flow. The pore walls provide additional surface for plasmid binding thus increasing the binding capacity of the adsorbent. Novel superporous agarose anion exchangers have been prepared, differing with respect to bead diameter, superpore diameter and type of anion-exchange functional group (poly(ethyleneimine) and quaternary amine). The plasmid binding capacities were obtained from breakthrough curves and compared with the binding capacity of homogeneous agarose beads of the same particle size. Significantly, the smaller diameter superporous agarose beads were found to have four to five times higher plasmid binding capacity than the corresponding homogeneous agarose beads. The experimentally determined plasmid binding capacity was compared with the theoretically calculated surface area for each adsorbent and fair agreement was found. Confocal microscopy studies of beads with adsorbed, fluorescently labelled plasmids aided in the interpretation of the results. Superporous poly(ethyleneimine)-substituted beads with a high ion capacity (230 micromol/ml) showed a plasmid binding of 3-4 mg/ml adsorbent. Superporous quaternary amine-substituted beads had a lower ion capacity (81 micromol/ml) and showed a correspondingly lower plasmid binding capacity (1-2 mg/ml adsorbent). In spite of the lower capacity, the beads with quaternary amine ligand were preferred, due to their much better plasmid recovery (70-100% recovery). Interestingly, both capacity and recovery was improved when the plasmid adsorption step was carried out in the presence of a moderate salt concentration. The most suitable superporous bead type (45-75 microm diameter beads; 4 microm superpores; quaternary amine ligand) was chosen for the capture of plasmid DNA from a clarified alkaline lysate. Two strategies were evaluated, one with and one

  4. pLS101 plasmid vector

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.; Balganesh, T.S.

    1985-02-19

    Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb ma1M gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb Tcr DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. pLS010 plasmid vector

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.; Balganesh, Tanjore S.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb malM gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb T.sub.c r DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems.

  6. A Very Early-Branching Staphylococcus aureus Lineage Lacking the Carotenoid Pigment Staphyloxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Steven Y.C.; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Clarke, Louise; Quail, Michael A.; Currie, Bart J.; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D.; Feil, Edward J.; Giffard, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Here we discuss the evolution of the northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus isolate MSHR1132 genome. MSHR1132 belongs to the divergent clonal complex 75 lineage. The average nucleotide divergence between orthologous genes in MSHR1132 and typical S. aureus is approximately sevenfold greater than the maximum divergence observed in this species to date. MSHR1132 has a small accessory genome, which includes the well-characterized genomic islands, νSAα and νSaβ, suggesting that these elements were acquired well before the expansion of the typical S. aureus population. Other mobile elements show mosaic structure (the prophage φSa3) or evidence of recent acquisition from a typical S. aureus lineage (SCCmec, ICE6013 and plasmid pMSHR1132). There are two differences in gene repertoire compared with typical S. aureus that may be significant clues as to the genetic basis underlying the successful emergence of S. aureus as a pathogen. First, MSHR1132 lacks the genes for production of staphyloxanthin, the carotenoid pigment that confers upon S. aureus its characteristic golden color and protects against oxidative stress. The lack of pigment was demonstrated in 126 of 126 CC75 isolates. Second, a mobile clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) element is inserted into orfX of MSHR1132. Although common in other staphylococcal species, these elements are very rare within S. aureus and may impact accessory genome acquisition. The CRISPR spacer sequences reveal a history of attempted invasion by known S. aureus mobile elements. There is a case for the creation of a new taxon to accommodate this and related isolates. PMID:21813488

  7. A very early-branching Staphylococcus aureus lineage lacking the carotenoid pigment staphyloxanthin.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; Holden, Matthew T G; Tong, Steven Y C; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Clarke, Louise; Quail, Michael A; Currie, Bart J; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Feil, Edward J; Giffard, Philip M

    2011-01-01

    Here we discuss the evolution of the northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus isolate MSHR1132 genome. MSHR1132 belongs to the divergent clonal complex 75 lineage. The average nucleotide divergence between orthologous genes in MSHR1132 and typical S. aureus is approximately sevenfold greater than the maximum divergence observed in this species to date. MSHR1132 has a small accessory genome, which includes the well-characterized genomic islands, νSAα and νSaβ, suggesting that these elements were acquired well before the expansion of the typical S. aureus population. Other mobile elements show mosaic structure (the prophage ϕSa3) or evidence of recent acquisition from a typical S. aureus lineage (SCCmec, ICE6013 and plasmid pMSHR1132). There are two differences in gene repertoire compared with typical S. aureus that may be significant clues as to the genetic basis underlying the successful emergence of S. aureus as a pathogen. First, MSHR1132 lacks the genes for production of staphyloxanthin, the carotenoid pigment that confers upon S. aureus its characteristic golden color and protects against oxidative stress. The lack of pigment was demonstrated in 126 of 126 CC75 isolates. Second, a mobile clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) element is inserted into orfX of MSHR1132. Although common in other staphylococcal species, these elements are very rare within S. aureus and may impact accessory genome acquisition. The CRISPR spacer sequences reveal a history of attempted invasion by known S. aureus mobile elements. There is a case for the creation of a new taxon to accommodate this and related isolates.

  8. Transduction of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements between strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Scharn, Caitlyn R; Tenover, Fred C; Goering, Richard V

    2013-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known public health concern. However, the means by which methicillin resistance genes are transferred among staphylococci in nature remains unknown. Older scientific literature suggests transduction as a means of mecA transfer, but the optimal conditions are reported to require plasmids and potentially a lysogenic phage. These reports preceded discovery of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. We undertook studies to confirm and clarify the conditions promoting transduction of SCCmec in S. aureus populations using well-characterized donor and recipient strains primarily of the USA300 lineage. Both bacteriophages 80α and 29 were capable of transducing SCCmec type IV and SCCmec type I to recipient strains of S. aureus. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and mec-associated dru typing were used to confirm the identity of the transductants. Transfer of mecA via transduction occurred at low frequency and required extended selection times for mecA gene expression and the presence of a penicillinase plasmid in the recipient. However, interference with the process by clavulanic acid and the necessity of lysogeny with 11 in the recipient or the presence of a small (4-kb) tetracycline resistance plasmid, as previously reported, were not confirmed. SCCmec transduction was occasionally associated with substantial deletions or truncation of SCCmec and the arginine catabolic metabolic element in USA300 recipients. Overall, these data clarify the conditions required for SCCmec transduction and document that rearrangements may occur during the process. PMID:23939891

  9. Development of a plasmid vector for easy selection of strong promoters.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, S A; Sordelli, D O; Centrón, D

    2000-05-01

    A promoter vector pACPR33 for Escherichia coli based on the promotorless ampicillin-resistance gene from pBR322 has been constructed. The promoter of the ampicillin-resistance gene was deleted and replaced by a suitable multiple cloning site. Molecular cloning of promoters into the polylinker resulted in activation of the ampicillin resistance in E. coli. The plasmid contains a functional origin of DNA replication and a tetracycline resistance gene for E. coli, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene for S. aureus. The vector permitted direct detection of promoter activity, especially strong promoters, by easy iodometric determination of beta-lactamase activity in liquid or solid media.

  10. A regulatory role for Staphylococcus aureus toxin-antitoxin system PemIKSa.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michal; Lyzen, Robert; Helbin, Weronika M; Bonar, Emilia; Szalewska-Palasz, Agnieszka; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Dubin, Grzegorz; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2013-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin systems were shown to be involved in plasmid maintenance when they were initially discovered, but other roles have been demonstrated since. Here we identify and characterize a novel toxin-antitoxin system (pemIKSa) located on Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pCH91. The toxin (PemKSa) is a sequence-specific endoribonuclease recognizing the tetrad sequence U↓AUU, and the antitoxin (PemISa) inhibits toxin activity by physical interaction. Although the toxin-antitoxin system is responsible for stable plasmid maintenance our data suggest the participation of pemIKSa in global regulation of staphylococcal virulence by alteration of the translation of large pools of genes. We propose a common mechanism of reversible activation of toxin-antitoxin systems based on antitoxin transcript resistance to toxin cleavage. Elucidation of this mechanism is particularly interesting because reversible activation is a prerequisite for the proposed general regulatory role of toxin-antitoxin systems.

  11. Thermosensitive antibiotic resistance plasmids in enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W; Parsell, Z; Green, P

    1978-11-01

    Of 775 conjugative plasmids found in enterobacteria mediating antibiotic resistance, 24 (3.1%) were thermosensitive (ts); they were most common in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ts plasmids were also found in all the samples of sewage and river water examined. Over half of 73 ts plasmids from unrelated sources mediated resistance to chloramphenicol in addition to several other antibiotics. Many of them mediated resistance to mercury (53.4%), arsenite (38.4%) and tellurite (79.5%) but not to copper, cobalt and silver. Fifty-eight belonged to incompatibility group H2 and 12 belonged to the H1 group. Resistance to mercury, arsenite and tellurite was common in strains containing H2 plasmids but not in H1 plasmids. The 73 plasmids transferred at high rates at 22 and 28 degrees C and at lower rates at 15 degrees C; they transferred at very low rates or not at all at 37 degrees C. They could be divided into two sets according to whether they transferred at a high or at a low rate at 33 degrees C. Unlike the prototype plasmid, Rts 1, they were solely or mainly ts for transfer and not for replication and only one of them brought about a marked reduction in growth rate of its host organism at 42 degrees C. None of the 73 plasmids mediated colicin or haemolysin production. Three plasmids, all from K. pneumoniae, mediated utilization of lactose, two of sucrose and raffinose and three, all belonging to group H1, of citrate. None of the plasmids increased the pathogenicity of Salmonella typhimurium for chicks or Escherichia coli K12 for mice.

  12. Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a paradigm of adaptive power

    PubMed Central

    de Lencastre, Herminia; Oliveira, Duarte; Tomasz, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Summary Nothing documents better the spectacular adaptive capacity of Staphylococcus aureus than the response of this important human and animal pathogen to the introduction of antimicrobial agents into the clinical environment. The effectiveness of penicillin introduced in the early 1940s was virtually annulled within a decade due to the plasmid epidemics that spread the ß-lactamase gene through the entire species of S. aureus. In 1960 within one to two years of the introduction of penicillinase resistant ß-lactams (methicillin), methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified in clinical specimens. By the 1980s, epidemic clones of MRSA acquired multidrug resistant traits and spread worldwide to become one of the most important causative agents of hospital acquired infections. In the early 2000s, MRSA strains carrying the Tn1546 transposon-based enterococcal vancomycin resistant mechanism were identified in clinical specimens, bringing the specter of a totally resistant bacterial pathogen closer to reality. Then, in the late 1990s, just as effective hygienic and antibiotic use policies managed to bring down the frequency of MRSA in hospitals of several countries, MRSA strains began to show up in the community. PMID:17921044

  13. Replication and Control of Circular Bacterial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    del Solar, Gloria; Giraldo, Rafael; Ruiz-Echevarría, María Jesús; Espinosa, Manuel; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

    1998-01-01

    An essential feature of bacterial plasmids is their ability to replicate as autonomous genetic elements in a controlled way within the host. Therefore, they can be used to explore the mechanisms involved in DNA replication and to analyze the different strategies that couple DNA replication to other critical events in the cell cycle. In this review, we focus on replication and its control in circular plasmids. Plasmid replication can be conveniently divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The inability of DNA polymerases to initiate de novo replication makes necessary the independent generation of a primer. This is solved, in circular plasmids, by two main strategies: (i) opening of the strands followed by RNA priming (theta and strand displacement replication) or (ii) cleavage of one of the DNA strands to generate a 3′-OH end (rolling-circle replication). Initiation is catalyzed most frequently by one or a few plasmid-encoded initiation proteins that recognize plasmid-specific DNA sequences and determine the point from which replication starts (the origin of replication). In some cases, these proteins also participate directly in the generation of the primer. These initiators can also play the role of pilot proteins that guide the assembly of the host replisome at the plasmid origin. Elongation of plasmid replication is carried out basically by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (and, in some cases, by DNA polymerase I at an early stage), with the participation of other host proteins that form the replisome. Termination of replication has specific requirements and implications for reinitiation, studies of which have started. The initiation stage plays an additional role: it is the stage at which mechanisms controlling replication operate. The objective of this control is to maintain a fixed concentration of plasmid molecules in a growing bacterial population (duplication of the plasmid pool paced with duplication of the bacterial population

  14. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  15. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm.

  16. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  17. Thermosensitive H1 plasmids determining citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W; Parsell, Z; Green, P

    1978-12-01

    Twelve thermosensitive H1 plasmids from strains of Salmonella typhi that had caused outbreaks of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever in Vietnam, Thailand and India mediated citrate utilization (Cit+) in a prototrophic Escherichia coli K12 strain but not in the S. typhi strains from which they were derived. Four H1 plasmids from a similar outbreak in Mexico differed from the Far Eastern plasmids in not mediating citrate utlization but in mediating mercury resistance. H1 plasmids resembling the Far Eastern and the Mexican plasmids in regard to citrate utilization and mercury resistance were found in sewage in Britain. Citrate utilization was transferred to eight pathogenic strains of E. coli and to one strain each of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei. Cultures of Cit+ bacteria grew more rapidly in citrate media at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Plasmid mutants that were more efficient at utilizing citrate were present in all such cultures--they grew equally well or better at 37 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. None of 222 strains of E. coli or Shigella that contained a variety of different plasmids were able to utilize citrate. This property was not transferred to the prototrophic E. coli K12 strain from Citrobacter (3 strains), Salmonella (39 strains), Proteus (44 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae (33 strains) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44 strains).

  18. Rolling-circle replication of bacterial plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S A

    1997-01-01

    Many bacterial plasmids replicate by a rolling-circle (RC) mechanism. Their replication properties have many similarities to as well as significant differences from those of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coliphages, which also replicate by an RC mechanism. Studies on a large number of RC plasmids have revealed that they fall into several families based on homology in their initiator proteins and leading-strand origins. The leading-strand origins contain distinct sequences that are required for binding and nicking by the Rep proteins. Leading-strand origins also contain domains that are required for the initiation and termination of replication. RC plasmids generate ssDNA intermediates during replication, since their lagging-strand synthesis does not usually initiate until the leading strand has been almost fully synthesized. The leading- and lagging-strand origins are distinct, and the displaced leading-strand DNA is converted to the double-stranded form by using solely the host proteins. The Rep proteins encoded by RC plasmids contain specific domains that are involved in their origin binding and nicking activities. The replication and copy number of RC plasmids, in general, are regulated at the level of synthesis of their Rep proteins, which are usually rate limiting for replication. Some RC Rep proteins are known to be inactivated after supporting one round of replication. A number of in vitro replication systems have been developed for RC plasmids and have provided insight into the mechanism of plasmid RC replication. PMID:9409148

  19. Generalized transduction of small Yersinia enterocolitica plasmids.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, S; Popp, A; Freytag, B; Lurz, R; Appel, B

    1999-09-01

    To study phage-mediated gene transfer in Yersinia, the ability of Yersinia phages to transduce naturally occurring plasmids was investigated. The transduction experiments were performed with a temperate phage isolated from a pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strain and phage mixtures isolated from sewage. Small plasmids (4.3 and 5.8 kb) were transduced at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-7)/PFU. However, we could not detect the transduction of any indigenous virulence plasmid (ca. 72 kb) in pathogenic Yersinia strains. Transductants obtained by infection with the temperate phage were lysogenic and harbored the phage genome in their chromosomes.

  20. Plasmids as Tools for Containment.

    PubMed

    García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Active containment systems are a major tool for reducing the uncertainty associated with the introduction of monocultures, genetically engineered or not, into target habitats for a large number of biotechnological applications (e.g., bioremediation, bioleaching, biopesticides, biofuels, biotransformations, live vaccines, etc.). While biological containment reduces the survival of the introduced organism outside the target habitat and/or upon completion of the projected task, gene containment strategies reduce the lateral spread of the key genetic determinants to indigenous microorganisms. In fundamental research, suicide circuits become relevant tools to address the role of gene transfer, mainly plasmid transfer, in evolution and how this transfer contributes to genome plasticity and to the rapid adaptation of microbial communities to environmental changes. Many lethal functions and regulatory circuits have been used and combined to design efficient containment systems. As many new genomes are being sequenced, novel lethal genes and regulatory elements are available, e.g., new toxin-antitoxin modules, and they could be used to increase further the current containment efficiencies and to expand containment to other organisms. Although the current containment systems can increase the predictability of genetically modified organisms in the environment, containment will never be absolute, due to the existence of mutations that lead to the appearance of surviving subpopulations. In this sense, orthogonal systems (xenobiology) appear to be the solution for setting a functional genetic firewall that will allow absolute containment of recombinant organisms. PMID:26104372

  1. Expression Plasmids for Use in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, Rebecca E.; Ren, Yuxia; Pan, Shih-Jung; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Peñas, Alejandro De Las; Iluore, Joseph; Cormack, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a series of CEN/ARS episomal plasmids containing different Candida glabrata promoters, allowing for a range of constitutive or regulated expression of proteins in C. glabrata. The set of promoters includes three constitutive promoters (EGD2pr, HHT2pr, PDC1pr), two macrophage/phagocytosis-induced promoters (ACO2pr, LYS21pr), and one nutritionally regulated promoter (MET3pr). Each promoter was cloned into two plasmid backbones that differ in their selectable marker, URA3, or the dominant-selectable NAT1 gene, which confers resistance to the drug nourseothricin. Expression from the 12 resulting plasmids was assessed using GFP as a reporter and flow cytometry or quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess expression levels. Together this set of plasmids expands the toolkit of expression vectors available for use with C. glabrata. PMID:23934995

  2. SIMPLAS: A Simulation of Bacterial Plasmid Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a computer simulation of bacterial physiology during growth in a chemostat. The program was designed to help students to appreciate and understand the related effects of parameters which influence plasmid persistence in bacterial populations. (CW)

  3. Protein diversity confers specificity in plasmid segregation.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2005-04-01

    The ParG segregation protein (8.6 kDa) of multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 is a homodimeric DNA-binding factor. The ParG dimer consists of intertwined C-terminal domains that adopt a ribbon-helix-helix architecture and a pair of flexible, unstructured N-terminal tails. A variety of plasmids possess partition loci with similar organizations to that of TP228, but instead of ParG homologs, these plasmids specify a diversity of unrelated, but similarly sized, partition proteins. These include the proteobacterial pTAR, pVT745, and pB171 plasmids. The ParG analogs of these plasmids were characterized in parallel with the ParG homolog encoded by the pseudomonal plasmid pVS1. Like ParG, the four proteins are dimeric. No heterodimerization was detectable in vivo among the proteins nor with the prototypical ParG protein, suggesting that monomer-monomer interactions are specific among the five proteins. Nevertheless, as with ParG, the ParG analogs all possess significant amounts of unordered amino acid residues, potentially highlighting a common structural link among the proteins. Furthermore, the ParG analogs bind specifically to the DNA regions located upstream of their homologous parF-like genes. These nucleoprotein interactions are largely restricted to cognate protein-DNA pairs. The results reveal that the partition complexes of these and related plasmids have recruited disparate DNA-binding factors that provide a layer of specificity to the macromolecular interactions that mediate plasmid segregation. PMID:15805511

  4. Genetic basis of penicillin resistance of S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The blaZ gene encoding penicillin resistance can be located either chromosomally or on plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships and to determine the location of the blaZ gene in S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis in Finland and Sweden. Methods Seventy-eight β-lactamase positive S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis (34 from Finland and 44 from Sweden) were included in the study. The localization of blaZ gene was determined by Southern blotting. The blaZ genes of the isolates were sequenced and the sequences were translated to beta-lactamase proteins and further grouped as different protein signatures. The isolates and, as control, 33 Swedish and 36 Finnish beta-lactamase negative isolates were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results In 26 out of 34 Finnish isolates (76.5%) and in 25 out of 44 Swedish isolates (56.8%) the blaZ gene was localized on a plasmid. Six different protein signatures were found. One signature was found only in four Swedish isolates, but all other signatures were found both in Finnish and Swedish isolates. The PFGE results revealed a diversity of S. aureus clones. The protein signatures were not clearly associated with certain pulsotypes. Conclusions The plasmid location of the blaZ gene was not statistically significantly more common in Finland than in Sweden, and hence does not explain the higher proportion of penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis in Finland compared to Sweden. PMID:23176642

  5. Comparison of 10 IncP plasmids: homology in the regions involved in plasmid replication.

    PubMed Central

    Chikami, G K; Guiney, D G; Schmidhauser, T J; Helinski, D R

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the DNA homology in the replication regions of 10 IncP plasmids independently isolated from several different countries. Two regions of RK2, the best-studied plasmid of this group, are required for vegetative DNA replication: the origin of replication (oriV) and the trfA region, which codes for a gene product necessary for replication. Six of nine IncP plasmids studied were identical to RK2 in the oriV and trfA regions as shown by Southern hybridization. Three P plasmids, R751, R772, and R906, showed weaker homology with the RK2 trfA, region and hybridized to different-sized HaeII fragments than the other six plasmids. R751, R772, and R906 hybridized to the region of the RK2 replication origin which expresses P incompatibility but differed markedly from RK2 and the other six plasmids in the GC-rich region of the origin required for replication. These data indicate that the P-group plasmids can be divided into two subgroups: IncP alpha, which includes the RK2-like plasmids, and IncP beta which includes the R751-like plasmids. Images PMID:2985542

  6. Plasmid-mediated mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, M S; Hooper, S W; Sayler, G S

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from a mixed culture already proven to be proficient at complete mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls. These strains were shown to harbor a 35 X 10(6)-dalton plasmid mediating a complete pathway for 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) oxidation. Subsequent plasmid curing of these bacteria resulted in the abolishment of the 4CB mineralization phenotype and loss of even early 4CB metabolism by Acinetobacter spp. Reestablishment of the Alcaligenes plasmid, denoted pSS50, in the cured Acinetobacter spp. via filter surface mating resulted in the restoration of 4CB mineralization abilities. 4CB mineralization, however, proved to be an unstable characteristic in some subcultured strains. Such loss was not found to coincide with any detectable alteration in plasmid size. Cultures capable of complete mineralization, as well as those limited to partial metabolism of 4CB, produced 4-chlorobenzoate as a metabolite. Demonstration of mineralization of a purified 14C-labeled chlorobenzoate showed it to be a true intermediate in 4CB mineralization. Unlike the mineralization capability, the ability to produce a metabolite has proven to be stable on subculture. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel plasmid, or evolved catabolic plasmid, that mediates the complete mineralization of 4CB. Images PMID:2993249

  7. Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids.

    PubMed

    Freedman, John C; Theoret, James R; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell.

  8. Historical Events That Spawned the Field of Plasmid Biology.

    PubMed

    Kado, Clarence I

    2014-10-01

    This chapter revisits the historical development and outcome of studies focused on the transmissible, extrachromosomal genetic elements called plasmids. Early work on plasmids involved structural and genetic mapping of these molecules, followed by the development of an understanding of how plasmids replicate and segregate during cell division. The intriguing property of plasmid transmission between bacteria and between bacteria and higher cells has received considerable attention. The utilitarian aspects of plasmids are described, including examples of various plasmid vector systems. This chapter also discusses the functional attributes of plasmids needed for their persistence and survival in nature and in man-made environments. The term plasmid biology was first conceived at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference on Promiscuous Plasmids, 1990, Lake Tahoe, California. The International Society for Plasmid Biology was established in 2004 (www.ISPB.org).

  9. Historical Events That Spawned the Field of Plasmid Biology.

    PubMed

    Kado, Clarence I

    2014-10-01

    This chapter revisits the historical development and outcome of studies focused on the transmissible, extrachromosomal genetic elements called plasmids. Early work on plasmids involved structural and genetic mapping of these molecules, followed by the development of an understanding of how plasmids replicate and segregate during cell division. The intriguing property of plasmid transmission between bacteria and between bacteria and higher cells has received considerable attention. The utilitarian aspects of plasmids are described, including examples of various plasmid vector systems. This chapter also discusses the functional attributes of plasmids needed for their persistence and survival in nature and in man-made environments. The term plasmid biology was first conceived at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference on Promiscuous Plasmids, 1990, Lake Tahoe, California. The International Society for Plasmid Biology was established in 2004 (www.ISPB.org). PMID:26104369

  10. Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Pignatari, A; Pfaller, M; Hollis, R; Sesso, R; Leme, I; Herwaldt, L

    1990-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis in Brazil. Using restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmid DNA, we investigated the importance of chronic carriage of S. aureus in the development of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at the Division of Nephrology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 117 isolates (30 patients) of S. aureus were available for typing, including 51 isolates (22 patients) from the nares, 58 isolates (27 patients) from pericatheter skin, and 8 isolates (6 patients) from peritoneal fluid, from patients with peritonitis. Restriction endonuclease subtyping showed that although most patients harbored more than one subtype of S. aureus, in the majority of patients nasal and/or pericatheter skin isolates with identical restriction endonuclease digest patterns were recovered on more than one occasion. Furthermore, 95% of patients with both nasal and pericatheter colonization were colonized with the same subtypes at both sites. All of the patients with peritonitis were infected with a subtype which colonized the nares, pericatheter skin, or both. These results demonstrate the importance of an endogenous source of S. aureus in the development of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. Images PMID:2172293

  11. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with nosocomial infections in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Y A; Hiramatsu, K; Yokota, T

    1992-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a hospital pathogen has presented many clinical problems in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia since 1978. The need for control of spread of these organisms became evident by 1985 when it was noted that the incidence of MRSA among S. aureus isolated from hospital inpatients had increased from 11.5% in 1979 to 18.8% in 1985. The characteristics of 50 MRSA isolates associated with nosocomial infections in the hospital are described here. The predominant strains produced Type IV coagulase and 84% of isolates studied showed moderate to high resistance to methicillin with MIC values of 25 mg l-1 or higher. All the MRSA isolates that could be phagetyped were susceptible to Group III phages, with 76.6% of the isolates being susceptible to phage 85. At least 10 different patterns were distinguishable by plasmid typing, the majority of isolates harbouring up to four small plasmids.

  12. N15: the linear phage-plasmid.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2011-03-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends. Upon infection the phage DNA circularises via cohesive ends, then phage-encoded enzyme, protelomerase, cuts at an inverted repeat site and forms hairpin ends (telomeres) of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally resulting in formation of duplicated telomeres. Then the N15 protelomerase cuts duplicated telomeres generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike F sop, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lysogeny, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. Two N15-related lambdoid Siphoviridae phages, φKO2 in Klebsiella oxytoca and pY54 in Yersinia enterocolitica, also lysogenize their hosts as linear plasmids, as well as Myoviridae marine phages VP882 and VP58.5 in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and ΦHAP-1 in Halomonas aquamarina. The genomes of all these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny modules and replication genes, as well as plasmid-partitioning genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

  13. Molecular characterization of a new efficiently transducing bacteriophage identified in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Varga, Marian; Pantůček, Roman; Růžičková, Vladislava; Doškař, Jirˇí

    2016-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, generalized transduction mediated by temperate bacteriophages represents a highly efficient way of transferring antibiotic resistance genes between strains. In the present study, we identified and characterized in detail a new efficiently transducing bacteriophage of the family Siphoviridae, designated ϕJB, which resides as a prophage in the meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain Jevons B. Whole-genome sequencing followed by detailed in silico analysis uncovered a linear dsDNA genome consisting of 43 ,12 bp and comprising 70 ORFs, of which ∼40 encoded proteins with unknown function. A global genome alignment of ϕJB and other efficiently transducing phages ϕ11, ϕ53, ϕ80, ϕ80α and ϕNM4 showed a high degree of homology with ϕNM4 and substantial differences with regard to other phages. Using a model transduction system with a well-defined donor and recipient, ϕJB transferred the tetracycline resistance plasmid pT181 and a penicillinase plasmid with outstanding frequencies, beating most of the above-mentioned phages by an order of magnitude. Moreover, ϕJB demonstrated high frequencies of transferring antibiotic resistance plasmids even upon induction from a lysogenic donor strain. Considering such transducing potential, ϕJB and related bacteriophages may serve as a suitable tool for elucidating the nature of transduction and its contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in naturally occurring MRSA populations. PMID:26537974

  14. Molecular characterization of a new efficiently transducing bacteriophage identified in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Varga, Marian; Pantůček, Roman; Růžičková, Vladislava; Doškař, Jirˇí

    2016-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, generalized transduction mediated by temperate bacteriophages represents a highly efficient way of transferring antibiotic resistance genes between strains. In the present study, we identified and characterized in detail a new efficiently transducing bacteriophage of the family Siphoviridae, designated ϕJB, which resides as a prophage in the meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain Jevons B. Whole-genome sequencing followed by detailed in silico analysis uncovered a linear dsDNA genome consisting of 43 ,12 bp and comprising 70 ORFs, of which ∼40 encoded proteins with unknown function. A global genome alignment of ϕJB and other efficiently transducing phages ϕ11, ϕ53, ϕ80, ϕ80α and ϕNM4 showed a high degree of homology with ϕNM4 and substantial differences with regard to other phages. Using a model transduction system with a well-defined donor and recipient, ϕJB transferred the tetracycline resistance plasmid pT181 and a penicillinase plasmid with outstanding frequencies, beating most of the above-mentioned phages by an order of magnitude. Moreover, ϕJB demonstrated high frequencies of transferring antibiotic resistance plasmids even upon induction from a lysogenic donor strain. Considering such transducing potential, ϕJB and related bacteriophages may serve as a suitable tool for elucidating the nature of transduction and its contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in naturally occurring MRSA populations.

  15. The RepA_N replicons of Gram-positive bacteria: a family of broadly distributed but narrow host range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Keith E; Kwong, Stephen M; Firth, Neville; Francia, Maria Victoria

    2009-03-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multiresistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the RepA_N family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the RepA_N replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families.

  16. The RepA_N replicons of Gram-positive bacteria: a family of broadly distributed but narrow host range plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Keith E.; Kwong, Stephen M.; Firth, Neville; Francia, Maria Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multi-resistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the RepA_N family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the RepA_N replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families. PMID:19100285

  17. Human clinical trials of plasmid DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Margaret A; Ulmer, Jeffrey B

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of DNA vaccines with specific emphasis on the development of DNA vaccines for clinical trials and an overview of those trials. It describes the preclinical research that demonstrated the efficacy of DNA vaccines as well as an explication of the immunologic mechanisms of action. These include the induction of cognate immune responses, such as the generation of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) as well as the effect of the plasmid DNA upon the innate immune system. Specific issues related to the development of DNA as a product candidate are then discussed, including the manufacture of plasmid, the qualification of the plasmid DNA product, and the safety testing necessary for initiating clinical trials. Various human clinical trials for infectious diseases and cancer have been initiated or completed, and an overview of these trials is given. Finally, because the early clinical trials have shown less than optimal immunogenicity, methods to increase the potency of the vaccines are described. PMID:16291211

  18. Preparation of Pichia pastoris expression plasmids.

    PubMed

    Logez, Christel; Alkhalfioui, Fatima; Byrne, Bernadette; Wagner, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    When planning any heterologous expression experiment, the very first critical step is related to the design of the overall strategy, hence to the selection of the most adapted expression vector. The very flexible Pichia pastoris system offers a broad range of possibilities for the production of secreted, endogenous or membrane proteins thanks to a combination of various plasmid backbones, selection markers, promoters and fusion sequences introduced into dedicated host strains. The present chapter provides some guidelines on the choice of expression vectors and expression strategies. It also brings the reader a complete toolbox from which plasmids and fusion sequences can be picked and assembled to set up appropriate expression vectors. Finally, it provides standard starting protocols for the preparation of the selected plasmids and their use for host strain transformation.

  19. Distribution of small native plasmids in Streptococcus pyogenes in India.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; Nerlich, Andreas; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-05-01

    Complete characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes population from a defined geographic region comprises information on the plasmids that circulate in these bacteria. Therefore, we determined the distribution of small plasmids (<5kb) in a collection of 279 S. pyogenes isolates from India, where diversity of strains and incidence rates of S. pyogenes infections are high. The collection comprised 77 emm-types. For plasmid detection and discrimination, we developed PCRs for different plasmid replication initiation protein genes, the putative repressor gene copG and bacteriocin genes dysA and scnM57. Plasmid distribution was limited to 13 emm-types. Co-detection analysis using aforementioned PCRs revealed four distinct plasmid sub-types, two of which were previously unknown. Representative plasmids pA852 and pA996 of the two uncharacterized plasmid sub-types were sequenced. These two plasmids could be assigned to the pMV158 and the pC194/pUB110 family of rolling-circle plasmids, respectively. The majority of small plasmids found in India belonged to the two newly characterized sub-types, with pA852- and pA996-like plasmids amounting to 42% and 22% of all detected plasmids, respectively. None of the detected plasmids coded for a known antibiotic resistance gene. Instead, all of the four plasmid sub-types carried known or potential bacteriocin genes. These genes may have influence on the evolutionary success of certain S. pyogenes genotypes. Notably, pA852-like plasmids were found in all isolates of the most prevalent emm-type 11.0. Together, a priori fitness of this genotype and increased fitness due to the acquired plasmids may have rendered type emm11.0 successful and caused the prevalence of pA852-like plasmids in India.

  20. Electrotransfer of Plasmid Vector DNA into Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi

    Wolff et al. (1990) first reported that plasmid DNA injected into skeletal muscle is taken up by muscle cells and the genes in the plasmid are expressed for more than two months thereafter, although the transfected DNA does not usually undergo chromosomal integration (Wolff et al., 1991, 1992). However, the relatively low expression levels attained by this method have hampered its applications for uses other than as a DNA vaccine (Davis et al., 1995). There are a number of reports analyzing the conditions that affect the efficiency of gene transfer by intramuscular DNA injection and assessing the fine structures of expression plasmid vectors that may affect expression levels (Davis et al., 1993; Liang et al., 1996; Norman et al., 1997). Furthermore, various attempts were done to improve the efficiency of gene transfer by intramus cular DNA injection. Consequently, regenerating muscle was shown to produce 80-fold or more protein than did normal muscle, following injection of an expression plas-mid. Muscle regeneration was induced by treatment with cardiotoxin or bupivacaine (Wells, 1993; Vitadello et al., 1994). We previously demonstrated that by combining a strong promoter and bupivacaine pretreatment intramuscular injection of an IL-5 expression plasmid results in IL-5 production in muscle at a level sufficient to induce marked proliferation of eosinophils in the bone marrow and eosinophil infiltration of various organs (Tokui et al., 1997). It was also reported that a single intramuscular injection of an erythropoietin expression plasmid produced physiologically significant elevations in serum erythropoietin levels and increased hematocrits in adult mice (Tripathy et al., 1996). Hematocrits in these animals remained elevated at >60% for at least 90 days after a single injection. However, improvements to this method have not been sufficient to extend its applications including clinical use.

  1. Spread of Plasmids Carrying Multiple GES Variants.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Bogaerts, Pierre; Bauraing, Caroline; Huang, Te-Din; Bonnin, Rémy A; Glupczynski, Youri; Naas, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Five GES-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates that displayed an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype harbored two GES variants: GES-7 ESBL and GES-6 carbapenemase. In all isolates, the two GES alleles were located on the same integron that was inserted into an 80-kb IncM1 self-conjugative plasmid. Whole-genome sequencing suggested in vivo horizontal gene transfer of the plasmid along with clonal diffusion of Enterobacter cloacae To our knowledge, this is the first description in Europe of clustered Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying two GES β-lactamases, of which one has extended activity toward carbapenems. PMID:27216071

  2. Isolation and screening of plasmids from the epilithon which mobilize recombinant plasmid pD10.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K E; Weightman, A J; Fry, J C

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the potential of bacteria from river epilithon to mobilize a recombinant catabolic plasmid, pD10, encoding 3-chlorobenzoate degradation and kanamycin resistance. Fifty-four mobilizing plasmids were exogenously isolated by triparental matings between strains of Pseudomonas putida and epilithic bacteria from the River Taff (South Wales, United Kingdom). Frequencies for mobilization ranged from 1.7 x 10(-8) to 4.5 x 10(-3) per recipient at 20 degrees C. The sizes of the mobilizing plasmids isolated ranged from 40 kb to over 200 kb, and 19 of 54 were found to encode mercury resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was also found but not resistance to UV light or various heavy metals. Eight plasmids of epilithic bacteria, analyzed by comparing restriction fragmentation patterns, showed significant differences between those isolated from different independent matings. Optimal temperatures for mobilization of pD10 were between 15 and 25 degrees C. Four mercury resistance plasmids were found to be broad host range, transferring mercury resistance and mobilizing pD10 readily to representative species of beta- and gamma-purple bacteria. In general, frequencies of pD10 mobilization by plasmids of epilithic bacteria were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than conjugal transfer frequencies. Thus, there is a high potential for exchange of recombinant genes introduced into the epilithon by mobilization between a variety of bacterial species. Images PMID:1599248

  3. Plasmidal maintenance of composite DNA derived from polyoma related plasmid, L factor.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Uehara, H; Kusano, T; Oishi, M

    1987-01-01

    Recently, we reported a multicopy mammalian plasmid with a structure related to polyoma. The plasmid, named L factor, was found at a high copy number (5,000 or more per cell) in a subclone derived from mouse L cells. We attempted to utilize L factor as a plasmid vector for mammalian cells. A series of composite DNA consisting of L factor and a foreign (herpes simplex virus tk) were constructed. These DNA could be established as plasmids after transfection to several mouse cell lines, although the copy number of the re-established plasmids was considerably less than that observed for the original subclone. The composite DNA maintained the structure of the original DNA after prolonged culture and the copy number remained constant even with no selective pressure. A composite DNA, with no DNA sequence corresponding to polyoma T antigen, could also be established as a plasmid in a mouse L cell line in which polyoma T antigen is expressed. The potential use of the plasmid is discussed. Images PMID:2825120

  4. β-Carotene production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to plasmid stability and culture media.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used for the production of β-carotene. The episomal plasmid YEplac195YB/I/E was extended by a gene coding for the mevalonate kinase (mvaK1) from Staphylococcus aureus. The adh1 promoter was chosen for constitutive expression of mvaK1. The recombinant strain S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) synthesised β-carotene by expressing the carotenogenic genes of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous together with the mvaK1 gene. Cells of this strain were investigated for their carotenoid contents in YNB and YPD media. A corresponding mvaK1 transcript in the recombinant yeast host was verified. Growth experiments of a specific erg12 deletion mutant showed that the mevalonate kinase (MvaK1) was able to complement the function of the deleted native mevalonate kinase (Erg12) from S. cerevisiae in the MVA pathway under control of the constitutive adh1 promoter. Cells of S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) exhibited high plasmid stability under either selective or non-selective cultivation conditions. Time course experiments demonstrated high plasmid stability even over extended cultivation periods. Carotenoid production was therefore also stable in larger culture volumes. Due to the stability of the plasmid, cultivation of the cells in complex YPD medium was possible, and 14.3 mg β-carotene per litre and a cell density of 9 g cell dry matter (CDM) per litre were achieved. The highest amount of 3,897 μg β-carotene per gramme CDM at a cell density of 1 g CDM per litre was measured after cultivation of the cells in YNB medium with glucose as sole carbon source. PMID:21573686

  5. β-Carotene production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to plasmid stability and culture media.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used for the production of β-carotene. The episomal plasmid YEplac195YB/I/E was extended by a gene coding for the mevalonate kinase (mvaK1) from Staphylococcus aureus. The adh1 promoter was chosen for constitutive expression of mvaK1. The recombinant strain S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) synthesised β-carotene by expressing the carotenogenic genes of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous together with the mvaK1 gene. Cells of this strain were investigated for their carotenoid contents in YNB and YPD media. A corresponding mvaK1 transcript in the recombinant yeast host was verified. Growth experiments of a specific erg12 deletion mutant showed that the mevalonate kinase (MvaK1) was able to complement the function of the deleted native mevalonate kinase (Erg12) from S. cerevisiae in the MVA pathway under control of the constitutive adh1 promoter. Cells of S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) exhibited high plasmid stability under either selective or non-selective cultivation conditions. Time course experiments demonstrated high plasmid stability even over extended cultivation periods. Carotenoid production was therefore also stable in larger culture volumes. Due to the stability of the plasmid, cultivation of the cells in complex YPD medium was possible, and 14.3 mg β-carotene per litre and a cell density of 9 g cell dry matter (CDM) per litre were achieved. The highest amount of 3,897 μg β-carotene per gramme CDM at a cell density of 1 g CDM per litre was measured after cultivation of the cells in YNB medium with glucose as sole carbon source.

  6. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  7. Experimental Staphylococcus aureus brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, D R; Britt, R R; Obana, W G; Stuart, J; Murphy-Irwin, K

    1986-01-01

    The virulent organism Staphylococcus aureus produced brain abscesses that were quantitatively and qualitatively different from those caused by less virulent organisms. S. aureus abscesses created larger lesions, as earlier ependymitis, delayed progress toward healing, and caused areas of inflammatory escape outside the collagen capsule. Imaging tests revealed similar findings: the abscesses were larger, had more extensive central necrosis, and showed earlier evidence of ependymitis. This virulent organism also demonstrated that white matter is more susceptible than overlying gray matter to destruction by infection. The pattern of spread and other histologic findings suggest that collagen capsule formation has less of an infection "containment" function than was previously thought. PMID:3085444

  8. Plasmid introduction in metal-stressed, subsurface-derived microcosms: plasmid fate and community response.

    PubMed

    Smets, Barth F; Morrow, Jayne B; Arango Pinedo, Catalina

    2003-07-01

    The nonconjugal IncQ plasmids pMOL187 and pMOL222, which contain the metal resistance-encoding genes czc and ncc, were introduced by using Escherichia coli as a transitory delivery strain into microcosms containing subsurface-derived parent materials. The microcosms were semicontinuously dosed with an artificial groundwater to set a low-carbon flux and a target metal stress (0, 10, 100, and 1,000 micro M CdCl(2)), permitting long-term community monitoring. The broad-host-range IncPalpha plasmid RP4 was also transitorily introduced into a subset of microcosms. No novel community phenotype was detected after plasmid delivery, due to the high background resistances to Cd and Ni. At fixed Cd doses, however, small but consistent increases in Cd(r) or Ni(r) density were measured due to the introduction of a single pMOL plasmid, and this effect was enhanced by the joint introduction of RP4; the effects were most significant at the highest Cd doses. The pMOL plasmids introduced could, however, be monitored via czc- and ncc-targeted infinite-dilution PCR (ID-PCR) methods, because these genes were absent from the indigenous community: long-term presence of czc (after 14 or 27 weeks) was contingent on the joint introduction of RP4, although RP4 cointroduction was not yet required to ensure retention of ncc after 8 weeks. Plasmids isolated from Ni(r) transconjugants further confirmed the presence and retention of a pMOL222-sized plasmid. ID-PCR targeting the RP4-specific trafA gene revealed retention of RP4 for at least 8 weeks. Our findings confirm plasmid transfer and long-term retention in low-carbon-flux, metal-stressed subsurface communities but indicate that the subsurface community examined has limited mobilization potential for the IncQ plasmids employed.

  9. Structures of replication initiation proteins from staphylococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids reveal protein asymmetry and flexibility are necessary for replication

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stephen B.; Phillips, Simon E.V.; Thomas, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a continual threat to human health, often residing in extrachromosomal plasmid DNA. Plasmids of the pT181 family are widespread and confer various antibiotic resistances to Staphylococcus aureus. They replicate via a rolling circle mechanism that requires a multi-functional, plasmid-encoded replication protein to initiate replication, recruit a helicase to the site of initiation and terminate replication after DNA synthesis is complete. We present the first atomic resolution structures of three such replication proteins that reveal distinct, functionally relevant conformations. The proteins possess a unique active site and have been shown to contain a catalytically essential metal ion that is bound in a manner distinct from that of any other rolling circle replication proteins. These structures are the first examples of the Rep_trans Pfam family providing insights into the replication of numerous antibiotic resistance plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative phage and the mobilisation of DNA by conjugative transposons. PMID:26792891

  10. Mobilization of Genomic Islands of Staphylococcus aureus by Temperate Bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Joo Youn; Robinson, D Ashley; Thomas, Jonathan C; Park, Yong Ho; Thornton, Justin A; Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    The virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, in both human and animal hosts, is largely influenced by the acquisition of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Most S. aureus strains carry a variety of MGEs, including three genomic islands (νSaα, νSaβ, νSaγ) that are diverse in virulence gene content but conserved within strain lineages. Although the mobilization of pathogenicity islands, phages and plasmids has been well studied, the mobilization of genomic islands is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated the mobilization of νSaβ by the adjacent temperate bacteriophage ϕSaBov from strain RF122. In this study, we demonstrate that ϕSaBov mediates the mobilization of νSaα and νSaγ, which are located remotely from ϕSaBov, mostly to recipient strains belonging to ST151. Phage DNA sequence analysis revealed that chromosomal DNA excision events from RF122 were highly specific to MGEs, suggesting sequence-specific DNA excision and packaging events rather than generalized transduction by a temperate phage. Disruption of the int gene in ϕSaBov did not affect phage DNA excision, packaging, and integration events. However, disruption of the terL gene completely abolished phage DNA packing events, suggesting that the primary function of temperate phage in the transfer of genomic islands is to allow for phage DNA packaging by TerL and that transducing phage particles are the actual vehicle for transfer. These results extend our understanding of the important role of bacteriophage in the horizontal transfer and evolution of genomic islands in S. aureus.

  11. Mobilization of Genomic Islands of Staphylococcus aureus by Temperate Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Joo Youn; Robinson, D. Ashley; Thomas, Jonathan C.; Park, Yong Ho; Thornton, Justin A.; Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    The virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, in both human and animal hosts, is largely influenced by the acquisition of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Most S. aureus strains carry a variety of MGEs, including three genomic islands (νSaα, νSaβ, νSaγ) that are diverse in virulence gene content but conserved within strain lineages. Although the mobilization of pathogenicity islands, phages and plasmids has been well studied, the mobilization of genomic islands is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated the mobilization of νSaβ by the adjacent temperate bacteriophage ϕSaBov from strain RF122. In this study, we demonstrate that ϕSaBov mediates the mobilization of νSaα and νSaγ, which are located remotely from ϕSaBov, mostly to recipient strains belonging to ST151. Phage DNA sequence analysis revealed that chromosomal DNA excision events from RF122 were highly specific to MGEs, suggesting sequence-specific DNA excision and packaging events rather than generalized transduction by a temperate phage. Disruption of the int gene in ϕSaBov did not affect phage DNA excision, packaging, and integration events. However, disruption of the terL gene completely abolished phage DNA packing events, suggesting that the primary function of temperate phage in the transfer of genomic islands is to allow for phage DNA packaging by TerL and that transducing phage particles are the actual vehicle for transfer. These results extend our understanding of the important role of bacteriophage in the horizontal transfer and evolution of genomic islands in S. aureus. PMID:26953931

  12. P1 plasmid replication requires methylated DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, A L; Austin, S J

    1987-01-01

    Plasmids driven by the plasmid replication origin of bacteriophage P1 cannot be established in Escherichia coli strains that are defective for the DNA adenine methylase (dam). Using a composite plasmid that has two origins, we show that the P1 origin cannot function even in a plasmid that is already established in a dam strain. An in vitro replication system for the P1 origin was developed that uses as a substrate M13 replicative-form DNA containing the minimal P1 origin. The reaction mixture contains a crude extract of E. coli and purified P1 RepA protein. In addition to being RepA dependent, synthesis was shown to be dependent on methylation of the dam methylase-sensitive sites of the substrate DNA. As the P1 origin contains five such sites in a small region known to be critical for origin function, it can be concluded that methylation of these sites is a requirement for initiation. This suggests that the postreplicational methylation of the origin may control reinitiation and contribute to the accuracy of the highly stringent copy-number control of the origin in vivo. PMID:2826133

  13. Simple method for identification of plasmid-coded proteins.

    PubMed

    Sancar, A; Hack, A M; Rupp, W D

    1979-01-01

    Proteins encoded by plasmid DNA are specifically labeled in UV-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli carrying recA and uvrA mutations because extensive degradation of the chromosome DNA occurs concurrently with amplification of plasmid DNA.

  14. Plasmids spread very fast in heterogeneous bacterial communities.

    PubMed Central

    Dionisio, Francisco; Matic, Ivan; Radman, Miroslav; Rodrigues, Olivia R; Taddei, François

    2002-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids can mediate gene transfer between bacterial taxa in diverse environments. The ability to donate the F-type conjugative plasmid R1 greatly varies among enteric bacteria due to the interaction of the system that represses sex-pili formations (products of finOP) of plasmids already harbored by a bacterial strain with those of the R1 plasmid. The presence of efficient donors in heterogeneous bacterial populations can accelerate plasmid transfer and can spread by several orders of magnitude. Such donors allow millions of other bacteria to acquire the plasmid in a matter of days whereas, in the absence of such strains, plasmid dissemination would take years. This "amplification effect" could have an impact on the evolution of bacterial pathogens that exist in heterogeneous bacterial communities because conjugative plasmids can carry virulence or antibiotic-resistance genes. PMID:12524329

  15. A novel method of plasmid isolation using laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Yadav, P; Yadav, A; Garg, V; Datta, T K; Goswami, S L; De, S

    2011-07-01

    Since the discovery of plasmid, various methods have been developed to isolate plasmid DNA. All the methods have one common and important target of isolating plasmid DNA of high quality and quantity in less time. These methods are not completely safe because of use of toxic chemicals compounds. The developed protocol for plasmid extraction is based on the alkaline lysis method of plasmid preparation (extraction atpH 8.0) with slight modifications. Cell lysis reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate is replaced by lipase enzyme present in laundry detergent. A good plasmid preparation can be made, which is well suited for subsequent molecular biology applications. By taking safety measures on count, contaminants like, RNA and protein can be completely avoided with maximized plasmid yield. The resultant plasmid quality and quantity can be well comparable to other prevalent methods.

  16. Presence of a virulence-associated plasmid in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gemski, P; Lazere, J R; Casey, T; Wohlhieter, J A

    1980-01-01

    We have shown that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can possess plasmids which are similar in size and function to the previously described Vwa plasmids of Y. enterocolitica. These plasmids are associated with the production of V and W antigens (calcium dependency) and pathogenicity of the organism. Further investigation of these plasmids from Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica with restriction endonucleases revealed significant differences in their fragmentation pattern. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6249747

  17. The psmα locus regulates production of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin during infection.

    PubMed

    Berube, Bryan J; Sampedro, Georgia R; Otto, Michael; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human bacterial infection, causing a wide spectrum of disease ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening pneumonia and sepsis. S. aureus toxins play an essential role in disease pathogenesis, contributing to both immunomodulation and host tissue injury. Prominent among these toxins are the membrane-active pore-forming cytolysin alpha-toxin (Hla) and the amphipathic α-helical phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides. As deletion of either the hla or psm locus leads to a phenotypically similar virulence defect in skin and soft tissue infection, we sought to determine the relative contribution of each locus to disease pathogenesis. Here we show that production of Hla can be modulated by PSM expression. An S. aureus mutant lacking PSM expression exhibits a transcriptional delay in hla mRNA production and therefore fails to secrete normal levels of Hla at early phases of growth. This leads to attenuation of virulence in vitro and in murine skin and lung models of infection, correlating with reduced recovery of Hla from host tissues. Production of Hla and restoration of staphylococcal virulence can be achieved in the psm mutant by plasmid-driven overexpression of hla. Our study suggests the coordinated action of Hla and PSMs in host tissue during early pathogenesis, confirming a major role for Hla in epithelial injury during S. aureus infection. These findings highlight the possibility that therapeutics targeting PSM production may simultaneously prevent Hla-mediated tissue injury.

  18. Demonstration of plasmid-mediated drug resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Bispo, Paulo José Martins; Santin, Katiane; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2014-05-01

    Plasmid-mediated kanamycin resistance was detected in a strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii responsible for a nationwide epidemic of surgical infections in Brazil. The plasmid did not influence susceptibility to tobramycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, or ciprofloxacin. Plasmid-mediated drug resistance has not been described so far in mycobacteria. PMID:24574286

  19. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions.

  20. Cloning of a Thiobacillus ferrooxidans plasmid in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.S.; Lobos, J.H.; Bopp, L.H.; Welch, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Three separate plasmids of 6, 7, 16, and >23 kilobases were purified from a single clone of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 33020 grown in the presence of uranium. The 6.7-kilobase plasmid (pTfl) was cloned separately into the HindIII or BamHI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Restriction maps of the recombinant plasmids, termed pTf100 and pTf110, respectively, were constructed, creating potential cloning vehicles for exchanging genetic information between E. coli and T. ferrooxidans. Evidence from restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot DNA-DNA hybridization indicates that the three native plasmids share little sequence homology.

  1. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET), a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  2. Intrauterine Infection with Plasmid-Free Chlamydia muridarum Reveals a Critical Role of the Plasmid in Chlamydial Ascension and Establishes a Model for Evaluating Plasmid-Independent Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Tang, Lingli; Ding, Yiling; Xue, Min; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with plasmid-competent but not plasmid-free Chlamydia muridarum induces hydrosalpinx in mouse upper genital tract, indicating a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial pathogenicity. To evaluate the contribution of the plasmid to chlamydial ascension and activation of tubal inflammation, we delivered plasmid-free C. muridarum directly into the endometrium by intrauterine inoculation. We found that three of the six mouse strains tested, including CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J, developed significant hydrosalpinges when 1 × 107 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of plasmid-free C. muridarum were intrauterinally inoculated. Even when the inoculum was reduced to 1 × 104 IFU, the CBA/J mice still developed robust hydrosalpinx. The hydrosalpinx development in CBA/J mice correlated with increased organism ascension to the oviduct following the intrauterine inoculation. The CBA/J mice intravaginally infected with the same plasmid-free C. muridarum strain displayed reduced ascending infection and failed to develop hydrosalpinx. These observations have demonstrated a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial ascending infection. The intrauterine inoculation of the CBA/J mice with plasmid-free C. muridarum not only resulted in more infection in the oviduct but also stimulated more inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in the oviduct than the intravaginal inoculation, suggesting that the oviduct inflammation can be induced by plasmid-independent factors, which makes the hydrosalpinx induction in CBA/J mice by intrauterine infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum a suitable model for investigating plasmid-independent pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25870225

  3. Plasmid Flux in Escherichia coli ST131 Sublineages, Analyzed by Plasmid Constellation Network (PLACNET), a New Method for Plasmid Reconstruction from Whole Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M.; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ–proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  4. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET), a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages.

  5. Chloramphenicol Resistance Plasmids in Escherichia coli Isolated from Diseased Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Sigrid Tue

    1978-01-01

    The plasmids in 19 chloramphenicol-resistant Escherichia coli strains of three pig pathogenic antigen types were studied in conjugation and transduction experiments. The plasmids had identical resistance patterns: streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicol (Sm, Sp, Su, Cm) and belonged to IncFII. One plasmid carried ampicillin resistance in addition. Restriction enzyme analysis of the deoxyribonucleic acid from five of the plasmids originating from the same herd showed that their digestion patterns with EcoRI were indistinguishable. EcoRI cleaved the deoxyribonucleic acid of a sixth plasmid from the same herd and displayed nine of the ten bands of the other five plasmids plus an additional six. It appears that the five plasmids with identical restriction patterns have a common origin and may be copies of the same plasmid from which the sixth may have developed. Four strains carried two plasmids each. In two of these strains, a plasmid with a tetracycline marker (Tc), or possibly the tetracycline marker alone, recombined frequently with the Sm Sp Su Cm plasmid without destroying any known function of the latter. The possibility that Tc is carried on a translocation sequence is discussed. Images PMID:352263

  6. Plasmid-associated aggregation in Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, M.W.; Fee, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Thermus thermophilus HB8, a moderate thermophile, exhibits visible aggregation when growing on a rich broth. Strain HB8 also contains two cryptic plasmids. The authors isolated cured strains from HB8 and observed that loss of the 47-MDa plasmid was correlated with loss of aggregation. An enrichment procedure was developed for aggregating cells and used to demonstrate that aggregation was restored upon transformation of a cured strain with plasmid DNA. The aggregation phenotype of transformed cells was variably stable; most did not retain either the plasmid or the phenotype for prolonged periods of growth. Hybridization experiments using a partial sequence from the 47-MDa plasmid suggested the presence of a repeated DNA sequence on this plasmid and on the chromosome. This is the first report of a phenotype associated with a plasmid from a Thermus strain.

  7. The Influence of Biofilms in the Biology of Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura C C; Dunny, Gary M

    2014-10-01

    The field of plasmid biology has historically focused on bacteria growing in liquid culture. Surface-attached communities of bacterial biofilms have recently been understood to be the normal environment of bacteria in the natural world. Thus, studies examining plasmid replication, maintenance, and transfer in biofilms are essential for a true understanding of bacterial plasmid biology. This article reviews the current knowledge of the interplay between bacterial biofilms and plasmids, focusing on the role of plasmids in biofilm development and the role of biofilms in plasmid maintenance, copy-number control, and transfer. The studies examined herein highlight the importance of biofilms as an important ecological niche in which bacterial plasmids play an essential role.

  8. Pathway of plasmid transformation in pneumococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Guild, W.R.; Saunders, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Plasmids transform Streptococcus pneumoniae by a process involving low efficiency assembly of replicons from fragments of single strands that have entered the cell separately. Transformation of preexisting replicons is much more efficient. We have cloned the erm gene of pIP501 into pMV158, which so far as we know is the first example of cloning in a pneumococcus host-vector system.

  9. Plasmid DNA production for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Lara, Alvaro R; Ramírez, Octavio T; Wunderlich, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA) is the base for promising DNA vaccines and gene therapies against many infectious, acquired, and genetic diseases, including HIV-AIDS, Ebola, Malaria, and different types of cancer, enteric pathogens, and influenza. Compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines have many advantages such as high stability, not being infectious, focusing the immune response to only those antigens desired for immunization and long-term persistence of the vaccine protection. Especially in developing countries, where conventional effective vaccines are often unavailable or too expensive, there is a need for both new and improved vaccines. Therefore the demand of pDNA is expected to rise significantly in the near future. Since the injection of pDNA usually only leads to a weak immune response, several milligrams of DNA vaccine are necessary for immunization protection. Hence, there is a special interest to raise the product yield in order to reduce manufacturing costs. In this chapter, the different stages of plasmid DNA production are reviewed, from the vector design to downstream operation options. In particular, recent advances on cell engineering for improving plasmid DNA production are discussed. PMID:22160904

  10. Invasion of E. coli biofilms by antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Król, Jaroslaw E; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J; Rogers, Linda M; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Krone, Stephen M; Top, Eva M

    2013-07-01

    In spite of the contribution of plasmids to the spread of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens, little is known about the transferability of various drug resistance plasmids in bacterial biofilms. The goal of this study was to compare the efficiency of transfer of 19 multidrug resistance plasmids into Escherichia coli recipient biofilms and determine the effects of biofilm age, biofilm-donor exposure time, and donor-to-biofilm attachment on this process. An E. coli recipient biofilm was exposed separately to 19 E. coli donors, each with a different plasmid, and transconjugants were determined by plate counting. With few exceptions, plasmids that transferred well in a liquid environment also showed the highest transferability in biofilms. The difference in transfer frequency between the most and least transferable plasmid was almost a million-fold. The 'invasibility' of the biofilm by plasmids, or the proportion of biofilm cells that acquired plasmids within a few hours, depended not only on the type of plasmid, but also on the time of biofilm exposure to the donor and on the ability of the plasmid donor to attach to the biofilm, yet not on biofilm age. The efficiency of donor strain attachment to the biofilm was not affected by the presence of plasmids. The most invasive plasmid was pHH2-227, which based on genome sequence analysis is a hybrid between IncU-like and IncW plasmids. The wide range in transferability in an E. coli biofilm among plasmids needs to be taken into account in our fight against the spread of drug resistance.

  11. The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids.

    PubMed

    Chlebowicz, Monika A; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Kuntová, Lucie; Grundmann, Hajo; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    2014-07-01

    The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) confers methicillin resistance to Staphylococcus aureus. While SCCmec is generally regarded as a mobile genetic element, the precise mechanisms by which large SCCmec elements are exchanged between staphylococci have remained enigmatic. In the present studies, we observed that the clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate UMCG-M4 with the sequence type 398 contains four prophages belonging to the serological groups A, B and Fa. Previous studies have shown that certain serological group B bacteriophages of S. aureus are capable of generalized transduction. We therefore assessed the transducing capabilities of the phages from strain UMCG-M4. The results show that some of these phages can indeed transduce plasmid pT181 to the recipient S. aureus strain RN4220. Therefore, we also investigated the possible involvement of these transducing phages in the transmission of the large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element of S. aureus UMCG-M4. While no transduction of the complete SCCmec element was observed, we were able to demonstrate that purified phage particles did contain large parts of the SCCmec element of the donor strain, including the methicillin resistance gene mecA. This shows that staphylococcal phages can encapsulate the resistance determinant mecA of a large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element, which may lead to its transfer to other staphylococci.

  12. Cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus: a potential staphylococcal virulence factor.

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, S; Low, M G

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes a phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) which is able to hydrolyze the membrane lipid PI and membrane protein anchors containing glycosyl-PI. The gene for PI-PLC (plc) was cloned from S. aureus into Escherichia coli. Oligonucleotide probes based on partial protein sequence and polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified protein were used to identify positive clones. E. coli transformed with a plasmid containing the plc gene expressed PI-PLC enzyme activity which was abolished by mutagenesis with a tetracycline resistance gene. The plc gene was present in all 15 S. aureus strains examined but not in any of 6 coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. The plc gene contained 984 bp and coded for a mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34,107 Da. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that the staphylococcal plc gene was similar (51 to 56%) to the PI-PLCs from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Listeria monocytogenes. The recombinant PI-PLC expressed in E. coli was purified and exhibited biochemical properties identical to those of the native PI-PLC from S. aureus. PI-PLC production was decreased in agr mutant strains of S. aureus. However, PI-PLC production by both agr+ and agr mutant strains exhibited a similar dependence on the type of medium used. These data suggested that PI-PLC production was regulated by both agr-dependent and agr-independent mechanisms. Images PMID:8225585

  13. Chlorhexidine resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or just an elevated MIC? An in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    Cookson, B D; Bolton, M C; Platt, J H

    1991-10-01

    Chlorhexidine (Hibiscrub; ICI) is generally accepted to be effective as an antiseptic hand wash for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), but there is dispute whether the chlorhexidine MIC for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains is higher than that for MSSA strains and, indeed, whether it is relevant. In addition, the link between resistance to chlorhexidine, gentamicin, and "nucleic acid-binding" compounds (NAB; which code, in particular, for propamidine isethionate and ethidium bromide) requires clarification. We performed chlorhexidine MIC and rate of kill tests on a number of MSSA and MRSA isolates. Two gentamicin-resistant MRSA isolates without NAB plasmids were more susceptible (0.25 and 0.5 microgram/ml) than four of eight MSSA that we tested (range, 0.25 to 2 microgram/ml). Chlorhexidine MICs were higher (4 to 8 micrograms/ml) for seven distinct MRSA isolates with plasmids conveying resistance to gentamicin and NAB (GNAB). Curing of the GNAB plasmid from MRSA strains resulted in a fall in the MIC (1 to 3.3 micrograms/ml), but no consistent fall in killing by chlorhexidine was observed. No effect on the chlorhexidine MIC or killing was observed when we cured strains of methicillin resistance. GNAB plasmid transfer resulted in a rise in the chlorhexidine MIC for the strains but not consistent fall in killing by chlorhexidine. Ethical approval was granted for 10 volunteers to each have a methicillin-susceptible, GNAB-resistant, derived transcipient and its GNAB-susceptible isogenic parent applied to separate sites in an in vivo skin test; no significant difference was seen in survival rates after the application of chlorhexidine. These results suggest that chlorhexidine appears to be as effective as a hand-washing agent for MRSA isolates with or with out NAB plasmids as it is for MSSA isolates.

  14. Impact of target site distribution for Type I restriction enzymes on the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) populations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gareth A; Houston, Patrick J; White, John H; Chen, Kai; Stephanou, Augoustinos S; Cooper, Laurie P; Dryden, David T F; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2013-08-01

    A limited number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are responsible for MRSA infections worldwide, and those of different lineages carry unique Type I restriction-modification (RM) variants. We have identified the specific DNA sequence targets for the dominant MRSA lineages CC1, CC5, CC8 and ST239. We experimentally demonstrate that this RM system is sufficient to block horizontal gene transfer between clinically important MRSA, confirming the bioinformatic evidence that each lineage is evolving independently. Target sites are distributed randomly in S. aureus genomes, except in a set of large conjugative plasmids encoding resistance genes that show evidence of spreading between two successful MRSA lineages. This analysis of the identification and distribution of target sites explains evolutionary patterns in a pathogenic bacterium. We show that a lack of specific target sites enables plasmids to evade the Type I RM system thereby contributing to the evolution of increasingly resistant community and hospital MRSA.

  15. A promoter probe plasmid based on green fluorescent protein : a strategy for studying meningococcal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Webb, S A; Langford, P R; Kroll, J S

    2001-01-01

    Many bacterial genes are regulated in an environment-responsive fashion, and from the perspective of a pathogen, the host represents just another environment. Many genes that contribute to virulence are differentially expressed in response to host environments that they encounter during colonization and invasion (1). Recognition of this has led to the development of selection or reporter systems that utilize the increased activity of promoters during growth in vivo to identify genes that are selectively expressed during infection, and, thus, may contribute to the infection process (2-5). One of these techniques, differential fluorescence induction (2,3), involves the use of a promoter-probe plasmid that utilizes a variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as its reporter. The technique has been used successfully to identify novel Salmonella typhimurium genes that are selectively expressed following exposure to acid environments (3) and during infection of macrophages (2). GFP reporter systems have also been used to evaluate in vivo gene expression in other organisms including Staphylococcus aureus (6), Listeria monocytogenes (7), and Mycobacterium marinum (8). This chapter describes the use of the GFP-promoter-probe plasmid, pJSK411, which is suitable for the evaluation of differential gene expression in Neisseria meningitidis (Fig.1). Fig. 1. Map of pJSK411 demonstrating restriction sites within the multiple cloning site. The binding site for the 401 US primer overlies the XhoI site and the 41 1DS primer binding site lies within the coding region of GFPmut3.

  16. Antibacterial effect of cationic porphyrazines and anionic phthalocyanine and their interaction with plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham; Fazeli, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a public health issue and identification of new antibacterial agents is one of the most important goals of pharmacological research. Among the novel developed antibacterial agents, porphyrin complexes and their derivatives are ideal candidates for use in medical applications. Phthalocyanines differ from porphyrins by having nitrogen atoms link the individual pyrrol units. The aza analogues of the phthalocyanines (azaPcs) such as tetramethylmetalloporphyrazines are heterocyclic Pc analogues. In this investigation, interaction of an anionic phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two cationic tetrapyridinoporphyrazines including [Cu(2,3-tmtppa)]4+ and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)]4+ complexes with plasmid DNA was studied using spectroscopic and gel electrophoresis methods. In addition, antibacterial effect of the complexes against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria was investigated using dilution test method. The results indicated that both porphyrazines have significant antibacterial properties, but Cu(PcTs) has weak antibacterial effect. Compairing the binding of the phthalocyanine and the porphyrazines to DNA demonstrated that the interaction of cationic porphyrazines is stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine remarkably. The extent of hypochromicity and red shift of absorption spectra indicated preferential intercalation of the two porphyrazine into the base pairs of DNA helix. Gel electrophoresis result implied Cu(2,3-tmtppa) and Cu(3,4-tmtppa) are able to perform cleavage of the plasmid DNA. Consequently, DNA binding and cleavage might be one of the antibacterial mechanisms of the complexes.

  17. Transfer of Plasmid DNA to Clinical Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcal Pathogens by Using a Unique Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Kühner, Petra; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Rohde, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of emerging bacterial pathogens, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), is a major hurdle in clinical and basic microbiological research. Strong genetic barriers, such as restriction modification systems or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), usually interfere with available techniques for DNA transformation and therefore complicate manipulation of CoNS or render it impossible. Thus, current knowledge of pathogenicity and virulence determinants of CoNS is very limited. Here, a rapid, efficient, and highly reliable technique is presented to transfer plasmid DNA essential for genetic engineering to important CoNS pathogens from a unique Staphylococcus aureus strain via a specific S. aureus bacteriophage, Φ187. Even strains refractory to electroporation can be transduced by this technique once donor and recipient strains share similar Φ187 receptor properties. As a proof of principle, this technique was used to delete the alternative transcription factor sigma B (SigB) via allelic replacement in nasal and clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates at high efficiencies. The described approach will allow the genetic manipulation of a wide range of CoNS pathogens and might inspire research activities to manipulate other important pathogens in a similar fashion. PMID:25616805

  18. Transfer of plasmid DNA to clinical coagulase-negative staphylococcal pathogens by using a unique bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Winstel, Volker; Kühner, Petra; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Rohde, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Genetic manipulation of emerging bacterial pathogens, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), is a major hurdle in clinical and basic microbiological research. Strong genetic barriers, such as restriction modification systems or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), usually interfere with available techniques for DNA transformation and therefore complicate manipulation of CoNS or render it impossible. Thus, current knowledge of pathogenicity and virulence determinants of CoNS is very limited. Here, a rapid, efficient, and highly reliable technique is presented to transfer plasmid DNA essential for genetic engineering to important CoNS pathogens from a unique Staphylococcus aureus strain via a specific S. aureus bacteriophage, Φ187. Even strains refractory to electroporation can be transduced by this technique once donor and recipient strains share similar Φ187 receptor properties. As a proof of principle, this technique was used to delete the alternative transcription factor sigma B (SigB) via allelic replacement in nasal and clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates at high efficiencies. The described approach will allow the genetic manipulation of a wide range of CoNS pathogens and might inspire research activities to manipulate other important pathogens in a similar fashion.

  19. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Peres, Adam G.; Damian, Andreea C.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus. PMID:26580658

  20. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and carrier strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital settings of north India

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Javid A; Thoker, Manzoor A; Khan, Jamal A; Ali, Asif; Khan, Mohammed A; Rizwan, Mohammed; Bhat, Khalid H; Dar, Mohammad J; Ahmed, Niyaz; Ahmad, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    Background The study was conducted between 2000 and 2003 on 750 human subjects, yielding 850 strains of staphylococci from clinical specimens (575), nasal cultures of hospitalized patients (100) and eye & nasal sources of hospital workers (50 & 125 respectively) in order to determine their epidemiology, acquisition and dissemination of resistance genes. Methods Organisms from clinical samples were isolated, cultured and identified as per the standard routine procedures. Susceptibility was measured by the agar diffusion method, as recommended by the Nat ional Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The modified method of Birnboin and Takahashi was used for isolation of plasmids from staphylococci. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of clinical and carrier Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated during our study was performed as described previously. Results It was shown that 35.1% of Staphylococcus aureus and 22.5% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were resistant to methicillin. Highest percentage of MRSA (35.5%) was found in pus specimens (n = 151). The multiple drug resistance of all MRSA (n = 180) and Methicillin resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (MRCNS) (n = 76) isolates was detected. In case of both methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive Saphylococcal isolates zero resistance was found to vancomycin where as highest resistance was found to penicillin G followed by ampicillin. It was shown that the major reservoir of methicillin resistant staphylococci in hospitals are colonized/infected inpatients and colonized hospital workers, with carriers at risk for developing endogenous infection or transmitting infection to health care workers and patients. The results were confirmed by molecular typing using PFGE by SmaI-digestion. It was shown that the resistant markers G and T got transferred from clinical S. aureus (JS-105) to carrier S. aureus (JN-49) and the

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and the ecology of Escherichia coli plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Platt, D. J.; Sommerville, J. S.; Kraft, C. A.; Timbury, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Four hundred and seven clinical isolates of Escherichia coli were examined for the presence of plasmids. These isolates comprised 189 which were collected irrespective of antimicrobial resistance (VP) and 218 which were collected on the basis of high-level trimethoprim resistance (TPR). The VP isolates were divided into drug sensitive (VPS) and drug-resistant (VPR) subpopulations. Plasmids were detected in 88% of VP isolates (81% of VPS and 94% of VPR) and 98% of TPR isolates. The distribution of plasmids in both groups and subpopulations was very similar. However, there were small but statistically significant differences between the plasmid distributions. These showed that more isolates in the resistant groups harboured plasmids than in the sensitive subpopulation (VPS) and that the number of plasmids carried by resistant isolates was greater. Multiple drug resistance was significantly more common among TPR isolates than the VPR subpopulation and this was paralleled by increased numbers of plasmids. Fifty-eight per cent of VPR and 57% of TPR isolates transferred antimicrobial resistance and plasmids to E. coli K12. Of the R+ isolates, 60% carried small plasmids (MW less than 20Md) and 52% of these co-transferred with R-plasmids. These results are discussed. PMID:6389695

  2. Recombinant plasmids carrying promoters, genes and the origin of DNA replication of the early region of bacteriophage T7.

    PubMed Central

    Scherzinger, E; Lauppe, H F; Voll, N; Wanke, M

    1980-01-01

    Two full-length contiguous HpaI fragments of the 0 to 18.2% region of T7 H DNA (HpF-H and HpG) were inserted into plasmids pHV14 or pC194 using oligo(dG . dC) connectors or synthetic HindIII adaptors. Amplification of the two early T7 fragments was achieved by transforming lysostaphin-treated S. aureus W57 with the hybrid plasmids. Experimental evidence is presented suggesting that neither of these T7 segments can be cloned in an intact form in E. coli. One of the hybrids, pHV14-HpF-H, proved to be unstable even in B. subtilis 168. The supercoiled recombinant plasmids were tested for their capacity to support RNA synthesis by purified E. coli or T7 RNA polymerases and to serve as templates in a cell-free T7 DNA replication system. The results of these in vitro studies indicate the presence of active "early" promoters in the cloned fragment HpF-H and active "late" promoters, as well as a functional origin of replication in the cloned fragment HpG. Images PMID:7433121

  3. Exposing plasmids as the Achilles' heel of drug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julia J; Hergenrother, Paul J

    2008-08-01

    Many multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens harbor large plasmids that encode proteins conferring resistance to antibiotics. Although the acquisition of these plasmids often enables bacteria to survive in the presence of antibiotics, it is possible that plasmids also represent a vulnerability that can be exploited in tailored antibacterial therapy. This review highlights three recently described strategies designed to specifically combat bacteria harboring such plasmids: inhibition of plasmid conjugation, inhibition of plasmid replication, and exploitation of plasmid-encoded toxin-antitoxin systems.

  4. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  5. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  6. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening. PMID:16081989

  7. ENDOGENOUS RESPIRATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, H. H.

    1962-01-01

    Ramsey, H. H. (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.). Endogenous respiration of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 83:507–514. 1962.—The endogenous respiration of Staphylococcus aureus is dependent upon the medium used to grow the cell suspension. Within wide ranges, the concentration of glucose in the medium has no effect upon subsequent endogenous respiration of the cells, but the concentration of amino acids in the medium, within certain limits, has a very marked effect. The total carbohydrate content of the cells does not decrease during endogenous respiration. As endogenous respiration proceeds, ammonia appears in the supernatant, and the concentration of glutamic acid in the free amino acid pool decreases. Organisms grown in the presence of labeled glutamic acid liberate labeled CO2 when allowed to respire without added substrate. The principal source of this CO2 is the free glutamate in the metabolic pool; its liberation is not suppressed by exogenous glucose or glutamate. With totally labeled cells, the free pool undergoes a rapid, but not total, depletion and remains at a low level for a long time. Activity of the protein fraction declines with time and shows the largest net decrease of all fractions. Exogenous glucose does not inhibit the release of labeled CO2 by totally labeled cells. Other amino acids in the free pool which can serve as endogenous substrates are aspartic acid and, to much lesser extents, glycine and alanine. The results indicate that both free amino acids and cellular protein may serve as endogenous substrates of S. aureus. PMID:14490204

  8. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Ohri, Alpana; Shah, Forum

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis is rarely known to occur in children. We report an 11-year-old girl with fever, headache and vomiting, right hemiparesis with left-sided upper motor neuron facial nerve palsy and bladder incontinence. On investigation, she was found to have MRSA meningitis with an acute left thalamo-corpuscular infarct. She was treated with vancomycin, linezolid and rifampicin. She recovered successfully with residual right-sided lower limb monoparesis. MRSA meningitis is rare but can occur in children. PMID:26609421

  9. Community-wide plasmid gene mobilization and selection

    PubMed Central

    Sentchilo, Vladimir; Mayer, Antonia P; Guy, Lionel; Miyazaki, Ryo; Green Tringe, Susannah; Barry, Kerrie; Malfatti, Stephanie; Goessmann, Alexander; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; van der Meer, Jan R

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids have long been recognized as an important driver of DNA exchange and genetic innovation in prokaryotes. The success of plasmids has been attributed to their independent replication from the host's chromosome and their frequent self-transfer. It is thought that plasmids accumulate, rearrange and distribute nonessential genes, which may provide an advantage for host proliferation under selective conditions. In order to test this hypothesis independently of biases from culture selection, we study the plasmid metagenome from microbial communities in two activated sludge systems, one of which receives mostly household and the other chemical industry wastewater. We find that plasmids from activated sludge microbial communities carry among the largest proportion of unknown gene pools so far detected in metagenomic DNA, confirming their presumed role of DNA innovators. At a system level both plasmid metagenomes were dominated by functions associated with replication and transposition, and contained a wide variety of antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. Plasmid families were very different in the two metagenomes and grouped in deep-branching new families compared with known plasmid replicons. A number of abundant plasmid replicons could be completely assembled directly from the metagenome, providing insight in plasmid composition without culturing bias. Functionally, the two metagenomes strongly differed in several ways, including a greater abundance of genes for carbohydrate metabolism in the industrial and of general defense factors in the household activated sludge plasmid metagenome. This suggests that plasmids not only contribute to the adaptation of single individual prokaryotic species, but of the prokaryotic community as a whole under local selective conditions. PMID:23407308

  10. Large linear plasmids of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelley Campeau; Porcella, Stephen F; Raffel, Sandra J; Schwan, Tom G; Barbour, Alan G

    2013-08-01

    Borrelia species of relapsing fever (RF) and Lyme disease (LD) lineages have linear chromosomes and both linear and circular plasmids. Unique to RF species, and little characterized to date, are large linear plasmids of ∼160 kb, or ∼10% of the genome. By a combination of Sanger and next-generation methods, we determined the sequences of large linear plasmids of two New World species: Borrelia hermsii, to completion of its 174-kb length, and B. turicatae, partially to 114 kb of its 150 kb. These sequences were then compared to corresponding sequences of the Old World species B. duttonii and B. recurrentis and to plasmid sequences of LD Borrelia species. The large plasmids were largely colinear, except for their left ends, about 27 kb of which was inverted in New World species. Approximately 60% of the B. hermsii lp174 plasmid sequence was repetitive for 6 types of sequence, and half of its open reading frames encoded hypothetical proteins not discernibly similar to proteins in the database. The central ∼25 kb of all 4 linear plasmids was syntenic for orthologous genes for plasmid maintenance or partitioning in Borrelia species. Of all the sequenced linear and circular plasmids in Borrelia species, the large plasmid's putative partition/replication genes were most similar to those of the 54-kb linear plasmids of LD species. Further evidence for shared ancestry was the observation that two of the hypothetical proteins were predicted to be structurally similar to the LD species' CspA proteins, which are encoded on the 54-kb plasmids.

  11. Stably luminescent Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains for use in bioluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Roger D; Mocca, Christopher P; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Merkel, Tod J; Stibitz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescent imaging permits the visualization of bacteria in live animals, allowing researchers to monitor, both temporally and spatially, the progression of infection in each animal. We sought to engineer stably luminescent clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, with the goal of using such strains in mouse models. The gram-positive shuttle vector pMAD was used as the backbone for an integration plasmid. A chloramphenicol resistance gene, a modified lux operon from Photorhabdus luminescens, and approximately 650 bp of homology to the chromosome of the USA300 S. aureus strain NRS384 were added, generating plasmid pRP1195. Electroporation into strain RN4220 followed by temperature shift led to integration of pRP1195 into the chromosome. The integrated plasmid was transferred to clinical strains by phage transduction. Luminescent strains displayed no in vitro growth defects. Moreover, luminescence was stable in vitro after three rounds of subculture over 48 hours of growth in the absence of antibiotics. Mice were infected with a luminescent strain of NRS384 in skin and intravenous models. In a mouse skin model, luminescent bacteria were present in lesions that formed and cleared over the course of several days, and in an intravenous model, bacteria inoculated in the mouse tail vein were observed spreading to multiple tissues. No statistically significant difference in virulence was observed between NRS384 and the luminescent strain in either infection model. These preliminary data suggest that this luminescent USA300 strain is suitable for use in mouse models. Similar strains were engineered using other sequenced clinical strains. Because these strains are stably luminescent, they should prove useful in animal models of infection. PMID:23555002

  12. Ornamental fish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Kutilova, Iva; Piackova, Veronika; Vesely, Tomas; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika

    2014-07-16

    Growing ornamental fish industry is associated with public health concerns including extensive antibiotic use accompanied by increasing antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze Aeromonas isolates from imported tropical ornamental fish and coldwater koi carps bred in the Czech Republic to assess the potential risk of ornamental fish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) and antibiotic resistance plasmids. A collection of Aeromonas spp. with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.05 mg/L) was selected for the detection of PMQR genes. Isolates harbouring PMQR genes were further analyzed for the additional antibiotic resistance, integron content, clonality, biofilm production and transferability of PMQR genes by conjugation and transformation. Comparative analysis of plasmids carrying PMQR genes was performed. Fifteen (19%, n=80) isolates from koi carps and 18 (24%, n=76) isolates from imported ornamental fish were positive for qnrS2, aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrB17 genes. PMQR-positive isolates from imported ornamental fish showed higher MIC levels to quinolones, multiresistance and diverse content of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons compared to the isolates from the carps. Related IncU plasmids harbouring qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were found in Aeromonas spp. from imported ornamental fish and koi carps from various geographical areas. Ornamental fish may represent a potential source of multiresistant bacteria and mobile genetic elements for the environment and for humans.

  13. Photonic Plasmid Stability of Transformed Salmonella Typhimurium: A Comparison of Three Unique Plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella Typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium (S....

  14. Photonic plasmid stability of transformed Salmonella typhimurium: A comparison of three unique plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux) u...

  15. Transcriptome modulations due to A/C2 plasmid acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Plasmids play an important role in driving the genetic diversity of bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer via plasmids is crucial for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Many factors contribute to the persistence of plasmids within bacterial populations, and it has been suggested that epistatic interactions between the host chromosome and plasmid contribute to the fitness of a particular plasmid-host combination. However, such interactions have been shown to differ between bacterial hosts. In this study, RNA-Seq was performed in six different strains, spanning three species, to characterize the influence of host background on the A/C2 plasmid transcriptome. In five of these strains, chromosomal transcriptomes were compared in the presence and absence of A/C2 plasmid pAR060302. Host-specific effects on plasmid gene expression were identified, and acquisition of pAR060302 resulted in changes in the expression of chromosomal genes involved in metabolism and energy production. These results suggest that A/C2 plasmid fitness is, in part, dependent on host chromosome content, as well as environmental factors. PMID:26079188

  16. Plasmid genes required for microcin B17 production.

    PubMed Central

    San Millán, J L; Kolter, R; Moreno, F

    1985-01-01

    The production of the antibiotic substance microcin B17 (Mcc) is determined by a 3.5-kilobase DNA fragment from plasmid pMccB17. Several Mcc- mutations on plasmid pMccB17 were obtained by both transposon insertion and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Plasmids carrying these mutations were tested for their ability to complement Mcc- insertion or deletion mutations on pMM102 (pMM102 is a pBR322 derivative carrying the region encoding microcin B17). Results from these experiments indicate that at least four plasmid genes are required for microcin production. PMID:2993228

  17. Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer

    2009-08-01

    Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.

  18. Plasmid Recombination in a Rad52 Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, K. J.; Livingston, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Using plasmids capable of undergoing intramolecular recombination, we have compared the rates and the molecular outcomes of recombination events in a wild-type and a rad52 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plasmids contain his3 heteroalleles oriented in either an inverted or a direct repeat. Inverted repeat plasmids recombine approximately 20-fold less frequently in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. Most events from both cell types have continuous coconversion tracts extending along one of the homologous segments. Reciprocal exchange occurs in fewer than 30% of events. Direct repeat plasmids recombine at rates comparable to those of inverted repeat plasmids in wild-type cells. Direct repeat conversion tracts are similar to inverted repeat conversion tracts in their continuity and length. Inverted and direct repeat plasmid recombination differ in two respects. First, rad52 does not affect the rate of direct repeat recombination as drastically as the rate of inverted repeat recombination. Second, direct repeat plasmids undergo crossing over more frequently than inverted repeat plasmids. In addition, crossovers constitute a larger fraction of mutant than wild-type direct repeat events. Many crossover events from both cell types are unusual in that the crossover HIS3 allele is within a plasmid containing the parental his3 heteroalleles. PMID:1644271

  19. Bacteriophages Limit the Existence Conditions for Conjugative Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A. Jamie; Dytham, Calvin; Pitchford, Jonathan W.; Truman, Julie; Spiers, Andrew; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages are a major cause of bacterial mortality and impose strong selection on natural bacterial populations, yet their effects on the dynamics of conjugative plasmids have rarely been tested. We combined experimental evolution, mathematical modeling, and individual-based simulations to explain how the ecological and population genetics effects of bacteriophages upon bacteria interact to determine the dynamics of conjugative plasmids and their persistence. The ecological effects of bacteriophages on bacteria are predicted to limit the existence conditions for conjugative plasmids, preventing persistence under weak selection for plasmid accessory traits. Experiments showed that phages drove faster extinction of plasmids in environments where the plasmid conferred no benefit, but they also revealed more complex effects of phages on plasmid dynamics under these conditions, specifically, the temporary maintenance of plasmids at fixation followed by rapid loss. We hypothesized that the population genetic effects of bacteriophages, specifically, selection for phage resistance mutations, may have caused this. Further mathematical modeling and individual-based simulations supported our hypothesis, showing that conjugative plasmids may hitchhike with phage resistance mutations in the bacterial chromosome. PMID:26037122

  20. Plasmid genes required for microcin B17 production.

    PubMed

    San Millán, J L; Kolter, R; Moreno, F

    1985-09-01

    The production of the antibiotic substance microcin B17 (Mcc) is determined by a 3.5-kilobase DNA fragment from plasmid pMccB17. Several Mcc- mutations on plasmid pMccB17 were obtained by both transposon insertion and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Plasmids carrying these mutations were tested for their ability to complement Mcc- insertion or deletion mutations on pMM102 (pMM102 is a pBR322 derivative carrying the region encoding microcin B17). Results from these experiments indicate that at least four plasmid genes are required for microcin production.

  1. Plasmids foster diversification and adaptation of bacterial populations in soil.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2012-11-01

    It is increasingly being recognized that the transfer of conjugative plasmids across species boundaries plays a vital role in the adaptability of bacterial populations in soil. There are specific driving forces and constraints of plasmid transfer within bacterial communities in soils. Plasmid-mediated genetic variation allows bacteria to respond rapidly with adaptive responses to challenges such as irregular antibiotic or metal concentrations, or opportunities such as the utilization of xenobiotic compounds. Cultivation-independent detection and capture of plasmids from soil bacteria, and complete sequencing have provided new insights into the role and ecology of plasmids. Broad host range plasmids such as those belonging to IncP-1 transfer a wealth of accessory functions which are carried by similar plasmid backbones. Plasmids with a narrower host range can be more specifically adapted to particular species and often transfer genes which complement chromosomally encoded functions. Plasmids seem to be an ancient and successful strategy to ensure survival of a soil population in spatial and temporal heterogeneous conditions with various environmental stresses or opportunities that occur irregularly or as a novel challenge in soil.

  2. Selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a key bacterium commonly found in numerous infections. S. aureus infections are difficult to treat due to their biofilm formation and documented antibiotic resistance. While selenium has been used for a wide range of applications including anticancer applications, the effects of selenium nanoparticles on microorganisms remain largely unknown to date. The objective of this in vitro study was thus to examine the growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Results of this study provided the first evidence of strongly inhibited growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles after 3, 4, and 5 hours at 7.8, 15.5, and 31 μg/mL. The percentage of live bacteria also decreased in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Therefore, this study suggests that selenium nanoparticles may be used to effectively prevent and treat S. aureus infections and thus should be further studied for such applications.

  3. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  4. Functional characteristics of the Staphylococcus aureus δ-toxin allelic variant G10S.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Yeh, Anthony J; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Duong, Anthony C; Tuffuor, Kwame; Fu, Chih-Lung; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Diep, Binh A; Li, Min; Nakamura, Yuumi; Nunez, Gabriel; Peschel, Andreas; Otto, Michael

    2015-12-10

    Staphylococcus aureus δ-toxin is a member of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family. PSMs have multiple functions in staphylococcal pathogenesis; for example, they lyse red and white blood cells and trigger inflammatory responses. Compared to other PSMs, δ-toxin is usually more strongly expressed but has only moderate cytolytic capacities. The amino acid sequences of S. aureus PSMs are well conserved with two exceptions, one of which is the δ-toxin allelic variant G10S. This variant is a characteristic of the subspecies S. argenteus and S. aureus sequence types ST1 and ST59, the latter representing the most frequent cause of community-associated infections in Asia. δ-toxin G10S and strains expressing that variant from plasmids or the genome had significantly reduced cytolytic and pro-inflammatory capacities, including in a strain background with pronounced production of other PSMs. However, in murine infection models, isogenic strains expressing the two δ-toxin variants did not cause measurable differences in disease severity. Our findings indicate that the widespread G10S allelic variation of the δ-toxin locus has a significant impact on key pathogenesis mechanisms, but more potent members of the PSM peptide family may overshadow that impact in vivo.

  5. Development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Daum, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A vaccine to prevent infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus would have a tremendously beneficial impact on public health. In contrast to typical encapsulated bacterial pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and Neisseria meningitides, the capsule of S. aureus is not clearly linked to strain virulence in vivo. Furthermore, it is not clear that natural infection caused by S. aureus induces a protective humoral immune response, as does infection caused by typical encapsulated bacteria. Finally, pure B cell or antibody deficiency, in either animal models or in patients, does not predispose to more frequent or more severe S. aureus infections, as it does for infections caused by typical encapsulated bacteria. Rather, primary immune mechanisms necessary for protection against S. aureus infections include professional phagocytes and T lymphocytes (Th17 cells, in particular) which upregulate phagocytic activity. Thus, it is not clear whether an antibody-mediated neutralization of S. aureus virulence factors should be the goal of vaccination. Rather, the selection of antigenic targets which induce potent T cell immune responses that react to the broadest possible array of S. aureus strains should be the focus of antigen selection. Of particular promise is the potential to select antigens which induce both humoral and T cell-mediated immunity in order to generate immune synergy against S. aureus infections. A single-antigen vaccine may achieve this immune synergy. However, multivalent antigens may be more likely to induce both humoral and T cell immunity and to induce protection against a broader array of S. aureus isolates. A number of candidate vaccines are in development, raising the promise that effective vaccines against S. aureus will become available in the not-so-distant future. Possible development programs for such vaccines are discussed. PMID:22080194

  6. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong; Wendlandt, Sarah; Fessler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Kadlec, Kristina; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In staphylococci and other Firmicutes, resistance to numerous classes of antimicrobial agents, which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is mediated by genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements. The gene products of some of these antimicrobial resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a certain class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into any of three major categories: active efflux, enzymatic inactivation, and modification/replacement/protection of the target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Among the mobile genetic elements that carry such resistance genes, plasmids play an important role as carriers of primarily plasmid-borne resistance genes, but also as vectors for nonconjugative and conjugative transposons that harbor resistance genes. Plasmids can be exchanged by horizontal gene transfer between members of the same species but also between bacteria belonging to different species and genera. Plasmids are highly flexible elements, and various mechanisms exist by which plasmids can recombine, form cointegrates, or become integrated in part or in toto into the chromosomal DNA or into other plasmids. As such, plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci and other Firmicutes.

  7. Rapid compensatory evolution promotes the survival of conjugative plasmids.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ellie; Dytham, Calvin; Hall, James P J; Guymer, David; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids play a vital role in bacterial adaptation through horizontal gene transfer. Explaining how plasmids persist in host populations however is difficult, given the high costs often associated with plasmid carriage. Compensatory evolution to ameliorate this cost can rescue plasmids from extinction. In a recently published study we showed that compensatory evolution repeatedly targeted the same bacterial regulatory system, GacA/GacS, in populations of plasmid-carrying bacteria evolving across a range of selective environments. Mutations in these genes arose rapidly and completely eliminated the cost of plasmid carriage. Here we extend our analysis using an individual based model to explore the dynamics of compensatory evolution in this system. We show that mutations which ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage can prevent both the loss of plasmids from the population and the fixation of accessory traits on the bacterial chromosome. We discuss how dependent the outcome of compensatory evolution is on the strength and availability of such mutations and the rate at which beneficial accessory traits integrate on the host chromosome. PMID:27510852

  8. Horizontal gene transfer of stress resistance genes through plasmid transport.

    PubMed

    Shoeb, Erum; Badar, Uzma; Akhter, Jameela; Shams, Hina; Sultana, Maria; Ansari, Maqsood A

    2012-03-01

    The horizontal gene transfer of plasmid-determined stress tolerance was achieved under lab conditions. Bacterial isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (DGE50) and Escherichia coli (DGE57) were used throughout the study. Samples were collected from contaminated marine water and soil to isolate bacterial strains having tolerance against heavy metals and antimicrobial agents. We have demonstrated plasmid transfer, from Amp(+)Cu(+)Zn(-) strain (DGE50) to Amp(-)Cu(-)Zn(+) strain (DGE57), producing Amp(+)Cu(+)Zn(+) transconjugants (DGE(TC50→57)) and Amp(+)Cu(-)Zn(+) transformants (DGE(TF50→57)). DGE57 did not carry any plasmid, therefore, it can be speculated that zinc tolerance gene in DGE57 is located on chromosome. DGE50 was found to carry three plasmids, out of which two were transferred through conjugation into DGE57, and only one was transferred through transformation. Plasmid transferred through transformation was one out of the two transferred through conjugation. Through the results of transformation it was revealed that the genes of copper and ampicillin tolerance in DGE50 were located on separate plasmids, since only ampicillin tolerance genes were transferred through transformation as a result of one plasmid transfer. By showing transfer of plasmids under lab conditions and monitoring retention of respective phenotype via conjugation and transformation, it is very well demonstrated how multiple stress tolerant strains are generated in nature. PMID:22805823

  9. Functional identification of Xylella fastidiosa plasmid replication and stability factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  10. High frequency generalized transduction by miniMu plasmid phage.

    PubMed

    Wang, B M; Liu, L; Groisman, E A; Casadaban, M J; Berg, C M

    1987-06-01

    Deletion derivatives of phage Mu which replicate as multicopy plasmids, and also transpose and package like Mu, have been developed for the in vivo cloning of bacterial genes. We show here that these miniMu plasmid phage are also efficient at generalized transduction and that both in vivo cloning and generalized transduction of a given gene can be accomplished in a single experiment.

  11. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  12. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mark A; Harrison, Ewan M; Fisher, Elizabeth A; Graham, Elizabeth M; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  13. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mark A; Harrison, Ewan M; Fisher, Elizabeth A; Graham, Elizabeth M; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections.

  14. Prevention and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Mohini; Wozniak, Daniel J; Stoodley, Paul; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne

    2015-01-01

    S. aureus colonizes both artificial and tissue surfaces in humans causing chronic persistent infections that are difficult to cure. It is a notorious pathogen due to its antibiotic recalcitrance and phenotypic adaptability, both of which are facilitated by its ability to develop biofilms. S. aureus biofilms challenge conventional anti-infective approaches, most notably antibiotic therapy. Therefore there is an unmet need to develop and include parallel approaches that target S. aureus biofilm infections. This review discusses two broad anti-infective strategies: (1) preventative approaches (anti-biofilm surface coatings, the inclusion of biofilm-specific vaccine antigens); and (2) approaches aimed at eradicating established S. aureus biofilms, particularly those associated with implant infections. Advances in understanding the distinct nature of S. aureus biofilm development and pathogenesis have led to growing optimism in S. aureus biofilm targeted anti-infective strategies. Further research is needed however, to see the successful administration and validation of these approaches to the diverse types of infections caused by S. aureus biofilms from multiple clinical strains. PMID:26646248

  15. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  20. Sip, an integrase protein with excision, circularization and integration activities, defines a new family of mobile Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carles; Tormo, Ma Angeles; Cucarella, Carme; Trotonda, Pilar; Foster, Timothy J; Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2003-07-01

    We report the complete sequence of Staphylococcal pathogenicity island bovine 2 (SaPIbov2), encoding the biofilm-associated protein Bap. SaPIbov2 contains 24 open reading frames, including sip, which encodes a functional staphylococcal integrase protein. SaPIbov2 is bordered by 18 bp direct repeats. The integration site into the chromosome lies at the 3' end of a gene encoding GMP synthase. SaPIbov2 has extensive similarity to previously described pathogenicity islands of Staphylococcus aureus. The principal difference is that toxin genes present in the other pathogenicity islands are exchanged for a transposon-like element that carries the bap gene and genes encoding an ABC transporter and a transposase. Also, SaPIbov2 can be excised to form a circular element and can integrate site-specifically and RecA-independently at a chromosomal att site in a Sip-dependent manner. This was demonstrated both in S. aureus and with plasmid substrates ectopically in Escherichia coli. Thus, SaPIbov2 encodes a functional recombinase of the integrase family that promotes element excision and insertion/integration. In addition, we demonstrated that the presence of SaPIbov2 facilitated the persistence of S. aureus in an intramammary gland infection model. Finally, different bovine isolates of S. aureus were found to carry islands related to SaPIbov2, suggesting the existence of a family of related pathogenicity islands.

  1. [Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Lagier, J-C; Letranchant, L; Selton-Suty, C; Nloga, J; Aissa, N; Alauzet, C; Carteaux, J-P; May, T; Doco-Lecompte, T

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of Stapylococcus bacteriaemia is increasing worldwide, because of the increasing use of invasive procedures leading to nosocomial infections, but also of a changing way of life (increasing fashion for tattoos or piercing, use of intravenous drugs). Infective endocarditis develops in 10-30% of the cases of staphylococcus bacteriaemia. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis must be suspected when it develops in the year following heart surgery or implantation of permanent devices. In drug users, it usually involves the tricuspid valve. According to the resistance of the germ to meticillin, antibiotic therapy uses a combination of intravenous penicillin or glycopeptide and an aminoside. Other antibiotics such as fosfomycin, rifampicin, fusidic acid, or clindamycin can be used when aminosides are contra-indicated. The role of newer antibiotic agents, such as daptomycin or linezolide, remains to be established.

  2. Genetic environment and stability of cfr in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CM05.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Rahawi, Shahad; Lamarre, Jacqueline; Mankin, Alexander S; Shaw, Karen Joy

    2012-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers resistance to many 50S ribosomal subunit-targeted antibiotics, including linezolid (LZD), via methylation of the 23S rRNA base A2503 in the peptidyl transferase center. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain CM05 is the first clinical isolate documented to carry cfr. While cfr is typically plasmid borne, in CM05 it is located on the chromosome and is coexpressed with ermB as part of the mlr operon. Here we evaluated the chromosomal locus, association with mobile genetic elements, and stability of the cfr insertion region in CM05. The cfr-containing mlr operon is located within a 15.5-kb plasmid-like insertion into 23S rRNA allele 4. The region surrounding the cfr gene has a high degree of sequence similarity to the broad-host-range toxin/antitoxin multidrug resistance plasmid pSM19035, including a second ermB gene downstream of the mlr locus and istAS-istBS. Analysis of several individual CM05 colonies revealed two distinct populations for which LZD MICs were either 8 or 2 μg/ml. In the LZD(s) colonies (designated CM05Δ), a recombination event involving the two ermB genes had occurred, resulting in the deletion of cfr and the 3' flanking region (cfr-istAS-istBS-ermB). The fitness advantage of CM05Δ over CM05 (though not likely due to the cfr deletion itself) results in the predominance of CM05Δ in the absence of selective pressure. Minicircles resulting from the ermB recombination event and the novel association of cfr with the pSM19035 plasmid system support the potential for the continued dissemination of cfr.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of vibrio cholerae: special considerations of R-plasmids.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, S

    1978-09-01

    Studies on the transmission of R plasmid by conjugation between enterobacteria and vibrio or related bacteria were reviewed. The majority of the reports confirmed successful transmission from enterobacteria to Vibrio cholerae and related species, although the transmission frequencies were extremely low and the transmitted R plasmid was very unstable except for thermosensitive kanamycin plasmid and usual R plasmid coexisting with P plasmid. Strains of V. cholerae and Aeromonas liquefaciens as well as A. salmonicida bearing R plasmid were detected in nature. R plasmid was relatively unstable in V. cholerae strains with which transmission of R plasmid to enterobacteria was confirmed. At present, only 3 R plasmids have been obtained from naturally occurring strains of V. cholerae. Although the 2 European plasmids belong to the C incompatibility group with 98 megadalton closed covalent circular DNA molecule, one plasmid belongs to the J group with more than 25 megadalton molecular weight, and no CCC of satelite DNA was detected in bacteria harboring this plasmid.

  4. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids.

    PubMed

    San Millan, A; Peña-Miller, R; Toll-Riera, M; Halbert, Z V; McLean, A R; Cooper, B S; MacLean, R C

    2014-10-10

    Plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution, but it is challenging to understand how plasmids persist over the long term because plasmid carriage is costly. Classical models predict that horizontal transfer is necessary for plasmid persistence, but recent work shows that almost half of plasmids are non-transmissible. Here we use a combination of mathematical modelling and experimental evolution to investigate how a costly, non-transmissible plasmid, pNUK73, can be maintained in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compensatory adaptation increases plasmid stability by eliminating the cost of plasmid carriage. However, positive selection for plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance is required to maintain the plasmid by offsetting reductions in plasmid frequency due to segregational loss. Crucially, we show that compensatory adaptation and positive selection reinforce each other's effects. Our study provides a new understanding of how plasmids persist in bacterial populations, and it helps to explain why resistance can be maintained after antibiotic use is stopped.

  5. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Millan, A. San; Peña-Miller, R.; Toll-Riera, M.; Halbert, Z. V.; McLean, A. R.; Cooper, B. S.; MacLean, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution, but it is challenging to understand how plasmids persist over the long term because plasmid carriage is costly. Classical models predict that horizontal transfer is necessary for plasmid persistence, but recent work shows that almost half of plasmids are non-transmissible. Here we use a combination of mathematical modelling and experimental evolution to investigate how a costly, non-transmissible plasmid, pNUK73, can be maintained in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compensatory adaptation increases plasmid stability by eliminating the cost of plasmid carriage. However, positive selection for plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance is required to maintain the plasmid by offsetting reductions in plasmid frequency due to segregational loss. Crucially, we show that compensatory adaptation and positive selection reinforce each other’s effects. Our study provides a new understanding of how plasmids persist in bacterial populations, and it helps to explain why resistance can be maintained after antibiotic use is stopped. PMID:25302567

  6. Exogenous Isolation of Mobilizing Plasmids from Polluted Soils and Sludges

    PubMed Central

    Top, Eva; De Smet, Ingrid; Verstraete, Willy; Dijkmans, Roger; Mergeay, Max

    1994-01-01

    Exogenous plasmid isolation was used to assess the presence of mobilizing plasmids in several soils and activated sludges. Triparental matings were performed with Escherichia coli (a member of the γ subgroup of the Proteobacteria) as the donor of an IncQ plasmid (pMOL155, containing the heavy metal resistance genes czc: Cor, Znr, and Cdr), Alcaligenes eutrophus (a member of the β subgroup of the Proteobacteria) as the recipient, and indigenous microorganisms from soil and sludge samples as helper strains. We developed an assay to assess the plasmid mobilization potential of a soil ecosystem on the basis of the number of transconjugants obtained after exogenous isolations. After inoculation into soil of several concentrations of a helper strain (E. coli CM120 harboring IncP [IncP1] mobilizing plasmid RP4), the log numbers of transconjugants obtained from exogenous isolations with different soil samples were a linear function of the log numbers of helper strain CM120(RP4) present in the soils. Four soils were analyzed for the presence of mobilizing elements, and mobilizing plasmids were isolated from two of these soils. Several sludge samples from different wastewater treatment plants yielded much higher numbers of transconjugants than the soil samples, indicating that higher numbers of mobilizing strains were present. The mobilizing plasmids isolated from Gent-O sludge and one plasmid isolated from Eislingen soil hybridized to the repP probe, whereas the plasmids isolated from Essen soil did not hybridize to a large number of rep probes (repFIC, repHI1, repH12, repL/M, repN, repP, repT, repU, repW, repX). This indicates that in Essen soil, broad-host-range mobilizing plasmids belonging to other incompatibility groups may be present. Images PMID:16349216

  7. Competition between plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free organisms in a chemostat with nutrient recycling and an inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sanling; Xiao, Dongmei; Han, Maoan

    2006-07-01

    The asymptotic behavior of solutions of a model for competition between plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free organisms in the chemostat with two distributed delays and an external inhibitor is considered. The model presents a refinement of the one considered by Lu and Hadeler [Z. Lu, K.P. Hadeler, Model of plasmid-bearing plasmid-free competition in the chemostat with nutrient recycling and an inhibitor, Math. Biosci. 167 (2000) p. 177]. The delays model the fact that the nutrient is partially recycled after the death of the biomass by bacterial decomposition. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is inter-specific competition between the plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free organisms as well as intra-specific competition within each population. Conditions for boundedness of solutions and existence of non-negative equilibrium are given. Analysis of the extinction of the organisms, including plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free organisms, and the uniform persistence of the system are also carried out. By constructing appropriate Liapunov-like functionals, some sufficient conditions of global attractivity to the extinction equilibria are obtained and the combined effects of the delays and the inhibitor are studied.

  8. Generation of ramoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, John W; Greenough, Adrienne; Burns, Michelle; Luteran, Andrea E; McCafferty, Dewey G

    2010-09-01

    Ramoplanin is a lipoglycodepsipeptide antimicrobial active against clinically important Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. To proactively examine ramoplanin resistance, we subjected S. aureus NCTC 8325-4 to serial passage in the presence of increasing concentrations of ramoplanin, generating the markedly resistant strain RRSA16. Susceptibility testing of RRSA16 revealed the unanticipated acquisition of cross-resistance to vancomycin and nisin. RRSA16 displayed phenotypes, including a thickened cell wall and reduced susceptibility to Triton X-100-induced autolysis, which are associated with vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus strains. Passage of RRSA16 for 18 days in a drug-free medium yielded strain R16-18d with restored antibiotic susceptibility. The RRSA16 isolate may be used to identify the genetic and biochemical basis for ramoplanin resistance and to further our understanding of the evolution of antibiotic cross-resistance mechanisms in S. aureus. PMID:20659164

  9. Genetic Characterization of a Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolate from the Respiratory Tract of a Patient in a University Hospital in Northeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Amir; Fazeli, Hosein; Naderi, Mahmood; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Soleimani, Masoud; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar

    2012-01-01

    Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains has led to global concerns about treatments for staphylococcal infections. These strains are currently rare even though there is an upward trend in their reported incidence. Therefore, appropriate screening and epidemiological evaluation of VRSA strains can affect future global health care policies. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from various clinical samples and were then evaluated with agar screening, disk diffusion, and MIC methods to determine resistance to vancomycin and methicillin. After confirmation of the isolated VRSA strain, genetic analysis was performed by evaluating mecA and vanA gene presence, SCCmec, agr, and spa types, and toxin profiles. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and plasmid analysis were also performed. The VRSA strain was resistant to oxacillin (MIC of 128 μg/ml) and vancomycin (MIC of 512 μg/ml). Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance to oxacillin, vancomycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, rifampin, and tetracycline. The isolate was susceptible to minocycline and gentamicin. PCRs were positive for the mecA and vanA genes. Other genetic characteristics include SCCmec type III, agr I, spa type t037, and sequence type (ST) 1283. The plasmid profile shows five plasmids with a size of ∼1.7 kb to >10 kb. The isolated VRSA strain was obtained from a critically ill hospitalized patient. Genetic analysis of this strain suggested that the strain was a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone endemic in Asia that underwent some genetic changes, such as mutation in the gmk gene and acquisition of the vanA gene. PMID:22933598

  10. Plasmid Copy Number Determination by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Anindyajati; Artarini, A Anita; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins are biopharmaceutical products that develop rapidly for years. Recombinant protein production in certain hosts requires vector expression harboring the gene encoding the corresponding protein. Escherichia coli is the prokaryote organism mostly used in recombinant protein production, commonly using a plasmid as the expression vector. Recombinant protein production is affected by plasmid copy number harboring the encoded gene, hence the determination of plasmid copy number also plays an important role in establishing a recombinant protein production system. On the industrial scale, a low copy number of plasmids are more suitable due to their better stability. In the previous study we constructed pCAD, a plasmid derived from the low copy number pBR322 plasmid. This study was aimed to confirm pCAD's copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasmid copy number was determined by comparing the quantification signal from the plasmid to those from the chromosome. Copy number was then calculated by using a known copy number plasmid as a standard. Two pairs of primers, called tdk and ori, were designed for targeting a single gene tdk in the chromosome and a conserved domain in the plasmid's ori, respectively. Primer quality was analyzed in silico using PrimerSelect DNASTAR and PraTo software prior to in vitro evaluation on primer specificity and efficiency as well as optimization of qPCR conditions. Plasmid copy number determination was conducted on E. coli lysates harboring each plasmid, with the number of cells ranging from 10(2)-10(5) cells/μL. Cells were lysed by incubation at 95ºC for 10 minutes, followed by immediate freezing at -4°C. pBR322 plasmid with the copy number of ~19 copies/cell was used as the standard, while pJExpress414-sod plasmid possessing the high copy number pUC ori was also determined to test the method being used. In silico analysis based on primer-primer and primer-template interactions showed

  11. Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, J K; Hicks, R J; Li, S W; Brockman, F J

    1988-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu, Cr, and Hg for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of beta-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacteria to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those for drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds. PMID:16347789

  12. Bacterial plasmids: autonomous replication and vehicles for gene cloning.

    PubMed

    Helinski, D R

    1979-11-01

    The use of recombinant DNA techniques in the analysis of the structure and replication of bacterial plasmids has provided much information on the properties of these genetic elements and has led to the construction of plasmid elements that are potentially very useful as gene cloning vehicles in Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria. The genetic and molecular properties of plasmids mini-F, ColE1, and RK2 are described with particular emphasis on the origin and direction of replication and the identification of genetic regions essential for maintenance of these elements in the extra-chromosomal state. Low molecular weight derivatives of each of these plasmids have been obtained and a restriction enzyme map determined for these various derivatives. A hybrid DNA molecule consisting of a low molecular weight derivative of ColE1 joined to a segment of bacteriophage DNA has been constructed and shown to be capable of existing either as a plasmid element or packaged as an infectious viral particle. Finally, several of the low molecular weight derivatives of these plasmids described have certain advantages as vehicles for the cloning of DNA including derivatives of he broad host range plasmid RK2 that may be useful for gene cloning in gram-negative bacteria distantly related to E. coli.

  13. Plasmid-mediated mineralization of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene.

    PubMed Central

    Sanseverino, J; Applegate, B M; King, J M; Sayler, G S

    1993-01-01

    The well-characterized plasmid-encoded naphthalene degradation pathway in Pseudomonas putida PpG7(NAH7) was used to investigate the role of the NAH plasmid-encoded pathway in mineralizing phenanthrene and anthracene. Three Pseudomonas strains, designated 5R, DFC49, and DFC50, were recovered from a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading inoculum developed from a manufactured gas plant soil slurry reactor. Plasmids pKA1, pKA2, and pKA3, approximately 100 kb in size, were isolated from these strains and characterized. These plasmids have homologous regions of upper and lower NAH7 plasmid catabolic genes. By conjugation experiments, these plasmids, including NAH7, have been shown to encode the genotype for mineralization of [9-14C]phenanthrene and [U-14C]anthracene, as well as [1-14C]naphthalene. One strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL, which has the complete lower pathway inactivated by transposon insertion in nahG, accumulated a metabolite from phenanthrene and anthracene degradation. This is the first direct evidence to indicate that the NAH plasmid-encoded catabolic genes are involved in degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons other than naphthalene. Images PMID:8328809

  14. Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Hicks, R.J.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J. )

    1988-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Hg{sup 2+} for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of {beta}-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacterial to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds.

  15. Why There Are No Essential Genes on Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements such as plasmids are important for the evolution of prokaryotes. It has been suggested that there are differences between functions coded for by mobile genes and those in the "core" genome and that these differences can be seen between plasmids and chromosomes. In particular, it has been suggested that essential genes, such as those involved in the formation of structural proteins or in basic metabolic functions, are rarely located on plasmids. We model competition between genotypically varying bacteria within a single population to investigate whether selection favors a chromosomal location for essential genes. We find that in general, chromosomal locations for essential genes are indeed favored. This is because the inheritance of chromosomes is more stable than that for plasmids. We define the "degradation" rate as the rate at which chance genetic processes, for example, mutation, deletion, or translocation, render essential genes nonfunctioning. The only way in which plasmids can be a location for functioning essential genes is if chromosomal genes degrade faster than plasmid genes. If the two degradation rates are equal, or if plasmid genes degrade faster than chromosomal genes, functioning essential genes will be found only on chromosomes.

  16. Bioinformatics-Based Molecular Classification of Arthrobacter Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Mihăşan, Marius

    2015-12-01

    The omnipresence of Arthrobacter species in polluted and toxic soils indicates their great potential in environmental biotechnologies, but practical applications of these bacteria are scarce mainly due to the availability of useful genetic engineering tools. Although many fully sequenced Arthrobacter genomes have been deposited in GenBank, little is known about the biology of their plasmids, especially the core functions: replication and partition. In this study the available Arthrobacter plasmid sequences were analyzed in order to identify their putative replication origin. At least the oris from the cryptic plasmids pXZ10142, pCG1, and pBL1 appear to work in this genus. Based on ParA homolog sequences, the Arthrobacter specific plasmids were classified into 4 clades. Iteron-like sequences were identified on most of the plasmids, indicating the position of the putative Arthrobacter specific oris. Although attempts were made to identify the core gene set required for plasmid replication in this genus, it was not possible. The plasmid proteomes showed a rather low similarity.

  17. Investigation of plasmid-induced growth defect in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia; Sydow, Anne; Schempp, Florence; Becher, Daniela; Schewe, Hendrik; Schrader, Jens; Buchhaupt, Markus

    2016-08-10

    Genetic engineering in bacteria mainly relies on the use of plasmids. But despite their pervasive use for physiological studies as well as for the design and optimization of industrially used production strains, only limited information about plasmid induced growth defects is available for different replicons and organisms. Here, we present the identification and characterization of such a phenomenon for Pseudomonas putida transformants carrying the pBBR1-derived plasmid pMiS1. We identified the kanamycin resistance gene and the transcription factor encoding rhaR gene to be causal for the growth defect in P. putida. In contrast, this effect was not observed in Escherichia coli. The plasmid-induced growth defect was eliminated after introduction of a mutation in the plasmid-encoded rep gene, thus enabling construction of the non-toxic variant pMiS4. GFP reporters construct analyses and qPCR experiments revealed a distinctly lowered plasmid copy number for pMiS4, which is probably the reason for alleviation of the growth defect by this mutation. Our work expands the knowledge about plasmid-induced growth defects and provides a useful low-copy pBBR1 replicon variant. PMID:27287537

  18. Analysis of chromosomal integration and deletions of yeast plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J R; Philippsen, P; Davis, R W

    1977-01-01

    Plasmid DNAs from six strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared. Three different plasmids were found, designated Scp 1, Scp 2 and Scp 3, with monomer lengths of 6.19, 6.06 and 5.97 kilobases as referenced to sequenced phiX174 DNA. DNA from each of the plasmids was inserted into a lambda vector DNA. Hybrid phage containing inserted DNA of the desired size were enriched by genetic selection and their DNAs analysed by rapid techniques. All three plasmids share the same organization, two unique sequences separated by two inverted repeats, and share basically the same DNA sequences. Scp 2 and Scp 3 differ from Scp 1 by missing a unique HpaI site and by having small overlapping deletions in the same region. The HpaI site in Scp 1 is, therefore, in a nonessential region and suitable for insertion of foreign DNA in the potential use of the yeast plasmid as a vector. Hybridization of labelled cloned plasmid DNA to restriction fragments of linear yeast DNA separated on agarose gels showed that the plasmid DNA was not stably integrated into the yeast chromosomal DNA. Images PMID:331256

  19. Molecular classification of IncP-9 naphthalene degradation plasmids

    SciTech Connect

    Izmalkova, T.Y.; Mavrodi, D.V.; Sokolov, S.L.; Kosheleva, I.A.; Smalla, K.; Thomas, C.M.; Boronin, A.M.

    2006-07-15

    A large collection of naphthalene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from sites contaminated with coal tar and crude oil was screened for the presence of IncP-9 plasmids. Seventeen strains were found to carry naphthalene catabolic plasmids ranging in size from 83 to 120kb and were selected for further study. Results of molecular genotyping revealed that 15 strains were closely related to P. putida, one to P. fluorescens, and one to P. aeruginosa. All catabolic plasmids found in these strains, with the exception of pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1, turned out to belong to IncP-9 {beta}-subgroup. Plasmids pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1 were identified as members of IncP-9 {delta}-subgroup. One plasmid, pBS2, contains fused replicons of IncP-9 {beta} and IncP-7 groups. RFLP analyses of the naphthalene catabolic plasmids revealed that organisation of the replicon correlates well with the overall plasmid structure. Comparative PCR studies with conserved oligonucleotide primers indicated that genes for key enzymes of naphthalene catabolism are highly conserved among all studied plasmids. Three bacterial strains, P. putida BS202, P. putida BS3701, and P. putida BS3790, were found to have two different salicylate hydroxylase genes one of which has no similarity to the 'classic' enzyme encoded by nahG gene. Discovery of a large group of plasmid with unique nahR suggested that the regulatory loop may also represent a variable part of the pathway for catabolism of naphthalene in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

  20. [Isolation and determination of silver-resistant bacteria plasmids].

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin

    2006-02-01

    Through the enrichment of the active mud obtained from three chemical plants and the domestication with different concentration Ag+ solution, thirty bacteria strains with silver (Ag+)-resistance were isolated, among which, the highest Ag+ -resistant concentration was 80 mg x ml(-1). The plasmids in these bacteria were extracted, with the detection rate of 76.67%. The elimination rate of the plasmid in HAg4 bacteria was 98.75% by 40 mmol x L(-1) sodium benzoate, and 77.78% by 350 microg x ml(-1) acridine orange. It was suggested that the Ag+ -resistance of bacteria was highly correlated with their plasmids.

  1. Pharmaceutical grade large-scale plasmid DNA manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For pharmaceutical applications of plasmid DNA, either direct or indirect, certain quality standards are required. Whereas for direct gene transfer into human "Good Manufacturing Practice" (GMP) grade is mandatory, for GMP production of, e.g., viral vectors (AAV, etc.) the plasmid DNA used needs not necessarily be produced under GMP. Besides such regulatory aspects up-scaling of the plasmid DNA production process from research laboratory scale (up to a few milligrams) to industrial scales (milligram to gram scales) is an issue that is addressed here.

  2. Modern and simple construction of plasmid: saving time and cost.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hideki; Shimamoto, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    Construction of plasmids has been occupying a significant fraction of laboratory work in most fields of experimental biology. Tremendous effort was made to improve the traditional method for constructing plasmids, in which DNA fragments digested with restriction enzymes were ligated. However, the traditional method remained to be a standard protocol more than 40 years. At last, several recent inventions are rapidly and completely replacing the traditional method, because they are far quicker with less cost, and requiring less material. We here introduce three such methods that cover up most of the cases. Moreover, they are complementary with each other. Our lab protocols are provided for "no strain, no pain" construction of plasmids.

  3. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  4. Influenza Plasmid DNA Vaccines: Progress and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Diana; Queiroz, João António; Tomaz, Cândida Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines have long been used to fight flu infectious; however, recent advances highlight the importance of produce new alternatives. Even though traditional influenza vaccines are safe and usually effective, they need to be uploaded every year to anticipate circulating flu viruses. This limitation together with the use of embryonated chicken eggs as the substrate for vaccine production, is time-consuming and could involve potential biohazards in growth of new virus strains. Plasmid DNA produced by prokaryote microorganisms and encoding foreign proteins had emerged as a promising therapeutic tool. This technology allows the expression of a gene of interest by eukaryotic cells in order to induce protective immune responses against the pathogen of interest. In this review, we discuss the strategies to choose the best DNA vaccine to be applied in the treatment and prevention of influenza. Specifically, we give an update of influenza DNA vaccines developments, all involved techniques, their main characteristics, applicability and technical features to obtain the best option against influenza infections.

  5. Transposon-mediated mobilization of chromosomally located catabolic operons of the CAM plasmid by TOL plasmid transposon Tn4652 and CAM plasmid transposon Tn3614.

    PubMed

    Mäe, A A; Heinaru, A L

    1994-04-01

    The CAM (camphor degradation) plasmid is integrated into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida PaW-line strains and is not self-transferable as a plasmid via conjugation. Our results show that the mobilization of chromosomally located CAM and the integration of cam-operons into the chromosome of the new Cam+ transconjugants is a recA-independent process mediated by transposons Tn4652 (17 kbp) and Tn3614 (7.2 kbp). Transposon Tn3614 is apparently identical to the left-hand and the right-hand sequences of the TOL plasmid pWW0 transposon Tn4654. The insertion of Tn401 inside the left-hand terminal IR of Tn4652 completely inhibited the mobilization of CAM. According to our data transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 together with CAM plasmid catabolic operons are integrated into the chromosome. We propose that in pseudomonads the transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 play a key role in the evolution and spread of new catabolic plasmids in nature. PMID:8012608

  6. Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus replacing methicillin-susceptible S. aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Lipsitch, Marc; Regev-Yochay, Gili

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the emergence of and treatments for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), prior studies have not rigorously evaluated the impact of methicillin resistance on the overall incidence of S. aureus infections. Yet, there are direct clinical and research implications of determining whether methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) infection rates remain stable in the face of increasing MRSA prevalence or whether MSSA will be replaced over time. A synthesis of prior studies indicates that the emergence of healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has led to an increase in the overall incidence of S. aureus infections, with MRSA principally adding to, rather than replacing, MSSA. However, colonization with CA-MRSA may at least partially replace colonization with MSSA. So far, evidence indicates that MSSA still accounts for many infections. Therefore, eradication of MRSA alone is not sufficient to address the public health burden of S. aureus. PMID:21737459

  7. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  8. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  9. Photoinduced silver nanoparticles/nanorings on plasmid DNA scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Li, Songmei; Zhang, Jindan

    2012-01-23

    Biological scaffolds are being actively explored for the synthesis of nanomaterials with novel structures and unexpected properties. Toroidal plasmid DNA separated from the Bacillus host is applied as a sacrificial mold for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorings. The photoirradiation method is applied to reduce Ag(I) on the plasmid. The nanoparticles are obtained by varying the concentration of the Ag(I) ion solution and the exposure time of the plasmid-Ag(I) complex under UV light at 254 nm and room temperature. It is found that the plasmid serves not only as a template but also as a reductant to drive the silver nucleation and deposition. The resulting nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and 20-30 nm average diameter. The detailed mechanism is discussed, and other metals or alloys could also be synthesized with this method.

  10. A series of template plasmids for Escherichia coli genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Deb, Shalini S; Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic engineering strategies often employ multi-copy episomal vectors to overexpress genes. However, chromosome-based overexpression is preferred as it avoids the use of selective pressure and reduces metabolic burden on the cell. We have constructed a series of template plasmids for λ Red-mediated Escherichia coli genome engineering. The template plasmids allow construction of genome integrating cassettes that can be used to integrate single copies of DNA sequences at predetermined sites or replace promoter regions. The constructed cassettes provide flexibility in terms of expression levels achieved and antibiotics used for selection, as well as allowing construction of marker-free strains. The modular design of the template plasmids allows replacement of genetic parts to construct new templates. Gene integration and promoter replacement using the template plasmids are illustrated. PMID:27071533

  11. Plasmid maintenance systems suitable for GMO-based bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Spreng, Simone; Viret, Jean-François

    2005-03-18

    Live carrier-based bacterial vaccines represent a vaccine strategy that offers exceptional flexibility. Commensal or attenuated strains of pathogenic bacteria can be used as live carriers to present foreign antigens from unrelated pathogens to the immune system, with the aim of eliciting protective immune responses. As for oral immunisation, such an approach obviates the usual loss of antigen integrity observed during gastrointestinal passage and allows the delivery of a sufficient antigen dose to the mucosal immune system. Antibiotic and antibiotic-resistance genes have traditionally been used for the maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in bacteria used for biotechnological purposes. However, their continued use may appear undesirable in the field of live carrier-based vaccine development. This review focuses on strategies to omit antibiotic resistance determinants in live bacterial vaccines and discusses several balanced lethal-plasmid stabilisation systems with respect to maintenance of plasmid inheritance and antigenicity of plasmid-encoded antigen in vivo.

  12. Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

  13. The A to Z of A/C plasmids.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-07-01

    Plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups A and C (now A/C) were among the earliest to be associated with antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. A/C plasmids are large, conjugative plasmids with a broad host range. The prevalence of A/C plasmids in collections of clinical isolates has revealed their importance in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. They also mobilize SGI1-type resistance islands. Revived interest in the family has yielded many complete A/C plasmid sequences, revealing that RA1, designated A/C1, is different from the remainder, designated A/C2. There are two distinct A/C2 lineages. Backbones of 128-130 kb include over 120 genes or ORFs encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids, but very few have been characterized. Genes potentially required for replication, stability and transfer have been identified, but only the replication system of RA1 and the regulation of transfer have been studied. There is enormous variety in the antibiotic resistance genes carried by A/C2 plasmids but they are usually clustered in larger regions at various locations in the backbone. The ARI-A and ARI-B resistance islands are always at a specific location but have variable content. ARI-A is only found in type 1 A/C2 plasmids, which disseminate blaCMY-2 and blaNDM-1 genes, whereas ARI-B, carrying the sul2 gene, is found in both type 1 and type 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of A/C plasmids, and highlights areas of research to be considered in the future.

  14. Genetic procedures for identification of enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus from three food poisoning outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Martín, M C; Fueyo, J M; González-Hevia, M A; Mendoza, M C

    2004-08-01

    Three food poisoning restaurant outbreaks due to Staphylococcus aureus, occurring during June-October 2002 in the Principality of Asturias (PA), Spain, provided the basis for investigating some aspects of the molecular epidemiology of this organism. The methods applied to identify strains and lineages included multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nine enterotoxin (se) genes, and three DNA fingerprinting procedures: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with two selected primers, and plasmid restriction analysis with HindIII. Thirty-two isolates were differentiated into three non-se and 12 se strains, which were outbreak-specific, except for one that was represented in two of the outbreaks. In outbreak 1, the 16 food isolates analyzed had sec, seg and sei genes and generated a distinctive DNA fingerprint, being assigned to a single strain. This strain could be categorized as endemic in the PA and associated to manually handled dairy products and nasal carriers. In outbreak 2, the four food isolates analyzed fell into three strains, each one displaying a different se-gene profile (sea, sec and seg-seh-sei) and a distinctive DNA fingerprint. In outbreak 3, the five food isolates tested fell into four seg-sei strains generating identical RAPD but different PFGE and plasmid profiles, and one sea strain also collected from two nasal carriers. This last strain had also been found in manually handled vegetables in outbreak 2, and it belongs to a not very frequently found sea lineage in the PA. Multiplex-PCR to detect se genes together with the three applied DNA fingerprint typing procedures proved therefore to be useful tools in subclassifying S. aureus for epidemiological purposes.

  15. The Addgene repository: an international nonprofit plasmid and data resource

    PubMed Central

    Kamens, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The Addgene Repository (http://www.addgene.org) was founded to accelerate research and discovery by improving access to useful, high-quality research materials and information. The repository archives plasmids generated by scientists, conducts quality control, annotates the associated data and makes the plasmids and their data available to the scientific community. Plasmid associated data undergoes ongoing curation by members of the scientific community and by Addgene scientists. The growing database contains information on >31 000 unique plasmids spanning most experimental biological systems and organisms. The library includes a large number of plasmid tools for use in a wide variety of research areas, such as empty backbones, lentiviral resources, fluorescent protein vectors and genome engineering tools. The Addgene Repository database is always evolving with new plasmid deposits so it contains currently pertinent resources while ensuring the information on earlier deposits is still available. Custom search and browse features are available to access information on the diverse collection. Extensive educational materials and information are provided by the database curators to support the scientists that are accessing the repository's materials and data. PMID:25392412

  16. Plasmid copy number noise in monoclonal populations of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong Ng, Jérôme; Chatenay, Didier; Robert, Jérôme; Poirier, Michael Guy

    2010-01-01

    Plasmids are extra chromosomal DNA that can confer to their hosts’ supplementary characteristics such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmids code for their copy number through their own replication frequency. Even though the biochemical networks underlying the plasmid copy number (PCN) regulation processes have been studied and modeled, no measurement of the heterogeneity in PCN within a whole population has been done. We have developed a fluorescent-based measurement system, which enables determination of the mean and noise in PCN within a monoclonal population of bacteria. Two different fluorescent protein reporters were inserted: one on the chromosome and the other on the plasmid. The fluorescence of these bacteria was measured with a microfluidic flow cytometry device. We show that our measurements are consistent with known plasmid characteristics. We find that the partitioning system lowers the PCN mean and standard deviation. Finally, bacterial populations were allowed to grow without selective pressure. In this case, we were able to determine the plasmid loss rate and growth inhibition effect.

  17. Plasmid Stability in Pseudomonas fluorescens in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    van der Bij, A. J.; de Weger, L. A.; Tucker, W. T.; Lugtenberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Plasmids belonging to various incompatibility (Inc) groups were introduced into the efficiently root-colonizing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and their stabilities in complex and minimal media and in the rhizospheres of tomato, wheat, and potato plants grown under gnotobiotic conditions without selection pressure were tested. The IncP plasmid was found to be highly unstable under all conditions tested, whereas the IncQ and IncW plasmids showed intermediate stabilities and the plasmids pVSP41 and pWTT2081, for which the Inc group is unknown, both containing the origin of replication (rep) and stability (sta) regions of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pVS1 replicon, were stably maintained under all conditions tested. Growth experiments in which cells of strain WCS365 carrying the plasmid pWTT2081 were grown in the presence of WCS365 without the plasmid showed that the presence of pWTT2081 acts as a burden. We conclude that pVSP41 and pWTT2081 are valuable as stable vectors for the functional analysis of genes involved in root colonization, provided that control cells carry the empty vector. PMID:16535259

  18. Electrotransformation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with plasmids containing a mer determinant.

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, T; Sugawara, K; Inoue, C; Takeshima, T; Numata, M; Shiratori, T

    1992-01-01

    The mer operon from a strain of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (C. Inoue, K. Sugawara, and T. Kusano, Mol. Microbiol. 5:2707-2718, 1991) consists of the regulatory gene merR and an operator-promoter region followed by merC and merA structural genes and differs from other known gram-negative mer operons. We have constructed four potential shuttle plasmids composed of a T. ferrooxidans-borne cryptic plasmid, a pUC18 plasmid, and the above-mentioned mer determinant as a selectable marker. Mercury ion-sensitive T. ferrooxidans strains were electroporated with constructed plasmids, and one strain, Y4-3 (of 30 independent strains tested), was found to have a transformation efficiency of 120 to 200 mercury-resistant colonies per microgram of plasmid DNA. This recipient strain was confirmed to be T. ferrooxidans by physiological, morphological, and chemotaxonomical data. The transformants carried a plasmid with no physical rearrangements through 25 passages under no selective pressure. Cell extracts showed mercury ion-dependent NADPH oxidation activity. Images PMID:1400213

  19. A New Shuttle Plasmid That Stably Replicates in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Min-A; Choi, Sunwha; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a new shuttle plasmid, designated as pLK1-MCS that can replicate in both Clostridium acetobutylicum and Escherichia coli, by combining the pUB110 and pUC19 plasmids. Plasmid pLK1-MCS replicated more stably than previously reported plasmids containing either the pIM13 or the pAMβ1 replicon in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The transfer frequency of pLK1-MCS into C. acetobutylicum was similar to the transfer frequency of other shuttle plasmids. We complemented C. acetobutylicum ML1 (that does not produce solvents such as acetone, butanol, and ethanol owing to loss of the megaplasmid pSOL1 harboring the adhE1-ctfAB-adc operon) by introducing pLK1-MCS carrying the adhE1-ctfAB-adc operon into C. acetobutylicum ML1. The transformed cells were able to resume anaerobic solvent production, indicating that the new shuttle plasmid has the potential for practical use in microbial biotechnology.

  20. Transformation of Rhizobium meliloti 41 with plasmid DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, G B; Kálmán, Z

    1982-01-01

    Plasmid pGV1106, a derivative of the wide-host-range plasmid S-a of the W incompatibility group, was introduced into Rhizobium meliloti 41 by plasmid-mediated mobilization to overcome the restriction of foreign DNA. The mobilized plasmid pKK2 differed from the original pGV1106 by an extra piece of DNA of 1.3 kilobase pairs which supposedly originated from pJB3JI used for mobilization. If pKK2 was isolated from R. meliloti 41, it could be successfully reintroduced by transformation. The transformation frequency was low (10 to 54 colonies per micrograms of plasmid DNA) but reproducible, and several lines of evidence showed that it was the consequence of plasmid DNA uptake. The small size (10.3 kilobases) and elevated copy number (10 to 15 copies per cell) of pKK2 make it a potentially useful cloning vector for the study of symbiotic nitrogen fixation genes of R. meliloti 41. Images PMID:6279558

  1. Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus spreading by water

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Hui; Ke, Wan-Ju; Liu, Chao-Chin; Yang, Meng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to spread rapidly and form giant colonies on the surface of soft agar and animal tissues by a process called colony spreading. So far, the mechanisms underlying spreading remain poorly understood. This study investigated the spreading phenomenon by culturing S. aureus and its mutant derivatives on Tryptic Soy Agarose (TSA) medium. We found that S. aureus extracts water from the medium and floats on water at 2.5 h after inoculation, which could be observed using phase contrast microscopy. The floating of the bacteria on water could be verified by confocal microscopy using an S. aureus strain that constitutively expresses green fluorescence protein. This study also found that as the density of bacterial colony increases, a quorum sensing response is triggered, resulting in the synthesis of the biosurfactants, phenolic-soluble modulins (PSMs), which weakens water surface tension, causing water to flood the medium surface to allow the bacteria to spread rapidly. This study reveals a mechanism that explains how an organism lacking a flagellar motor is capable of spreading rapidly on a medium surface, which is important to the understanding of how S. aureus spreads in human tissues to cause infections. PMID:27125382

  2. Immunopathological features of rat Staphylococcus aureus arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bremell, T; Lange, S; Holmdahl, R; Rydén, C; Hansson, G K; Tarkowski, A

    1994-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial species found in nongonococcal bacterial arthritis in humans. We present the first description, to our knowledge, of an outbreak of spontaneous staphylococcal arthritis in a rat colony. In a group of 10 rats, 9 displayed arthritis. Clinically, the most obvious findings were arthritis of one or both hindpaws and malaise. Bacteriophage typing showed the common phage type 85 in isolates recovered from the joints, blood, and bedding of rats and from the nose and cheeks of one person from the staff of the animal facility. The S. aureus strain proved to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A and exhibited strong binding to collagen types I and II and bone sialoprotein, which are potentially important virulence factors. When the recovered S. aureus strain was injected intravenously into healthy rats, severe septic arthritis was induced in almost all of the animals. The arthritic lesions were characterized by infiltration of phagocytic cells and T lymphocytes into the synovium. Many of the synovial cells strongly expressed major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Increased levels of interleukin 6 in serum as well as a prominent polyclonal B-cell activation were noted throughout the disease course. Pretreatment of S. aureus-injected rats in vivo with an antibody to the alpha beta T-cell receptor significantly decreased the severity of the arthritis. Our results indicate that alpha beta + T lymphocytes contribute to an erosive and persistent course of S. aureus arthritis. Images PMID:8188356

  3. Sex, prions, and plasmids in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Shewmaker, Frank P; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Wickner, Reed B

    2012-10-01

    Even deadly prions may be widespread in nature if they spread by infection faster than they kill off their hosts. The yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] (amyloids of Sup35p and Ure2p) were not found in 70 wild strains, while [PIN+] (amyloid of Rnq1p) was found in ∼16% of the same population. Yeast prion infection occurs only by mating, balancing the detrimental effects of carrying the prion. We estimated the frequency of outcross mating as about 1% of mitotic doublings from the known detriment of carrying the 2-μm DNA plasmid (∼1%) and its frequency in wild populations (38/70). We also estimated the fraction of total matings that are outcross matings (∼23-46%) from the fraction of heterozygosity at the highly polymorphic RNQ1 locus (∼46%). These results show that the detriment of carrying even the mildest forms of [PSI+], [URE3], or [PIN+] is greater than 1%. We find that Rnq1p polymorphisms in wild strains include several premature stop codon alleles that cannot propagate [PIN+] from the reference allele and others with several small deletions and point mutations which show a small transmission barrier. Wild strains carrying [PIN+] are far more likely to be heterozygous at RNQ1 and other loci than are [pin-] strains, probably reflecting its being a sexually transmitted disease. Because sequence differences are known to block prion propagation or ameliorate its pathogenic effects, we hypothesize that polymorphism of RNQ1 was selected to protect cells from detrimental effects of the [PIN+] prion.

  4. Dye affinity cryogels for plasmid DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Çimen, Duygu; Yılmaz, Fatma; Perçin, Işık; Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare megaporous dye-affinity cryogel discs for the purification of plasmid DNA (pDNA) from bacterial lysate. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] cryogel discs were produced by free radical polymerization initiated by N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) redox pair in an ice bath. Cibacron Blue F3GA was used as an affinity ligand (loading amount: 68.9μmol/g polymer). The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs first increased and then reached a plateau value (i.e., 32.5mg/g cryogel) at 3.0mg/mL pDNA concentration. Compared with the PHEMA cryogel (0.11mg/g cryogel), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel (32.4mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the Cibacron Blue 3GA immobilization onto the polymeric matrix. pDNA adsorption amount decreased from 11.7mg/g to 1.1mg/g with the increasing of NaCl concentration. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 4°C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 90%. The PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs could be used five times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results show that the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs promise high selectivity for pDNA. PMID:26249596

  5. Radiosensitivity of plasmid DNA: role of topology and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustranti, C.; Pérez, C.; Rousset, S.; Balanzat, E.; Sage, E.

    1999-01-01

    Using the plasmid relaxation assay, the induction of single strand breaks (SSB) by ionizing radiation was investigated in two plasmids of different length, pBS and pSP189. The dose-response was linear for both plasmids but pSP189 exhibited a three times higher sensitivity than pBS. This disparity may be explained by a reduced accessibility to hydroxyl radicals due to a different topology of each plasmid, i.e. degree of compaction, as observed with electron microscopy. pBS plasmid was also exposed at various DNA concentrations to rays. The yield of SSB decreased with increasing concentration, suggesting a diminution in the amount of hydroxyl radicals efficient for radiolytic attack. This effect of concentration was also observed with densely ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the accessibility of DNA is a key-parameter in the formation of damage in vitro and in vivo as well. En utilisant la technique de relaxation de plasmide, l'induction de cassures simple brin (SSB) par les radiations ? a été comparée dans deux plasmides de taille différente, pSP189 et pBS. La relation dose-effet est linéaire pour les deux plasmides, mais il se forme trois fois plus de SSB dans pSP189 que dans pBS. Cette disparité semble pouvoir être reliée au degré de compaction différent des plasmides, observé en microscopie électronique. Elle s'expliquerait en terme d'accessibilité aux espèces radicalaires formées lors de la radiolyse de l'eau. Le plasmide pBS, à différentes concentrations, a été ensuite exposé aux radiations γ. Le taux de cassures décroit lorsque la concentration en ADN croit, suggérant une diminution du nombre de radicaux pouvant efficacement réagir avec l'ADN. Cet effet a également été mis en évidence lors d'une irradiation avec des particules de TEL élevé. En conclusion, l'accessibilité de l'ADN est un paramètre- clé dans la formation des dommages, tant in vitro que in vivo.

  6. Presence of Laminin Receptors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, J. D.; Dos Reis, M.; Brentani, R. R.

    1985-07-01

    A characteristic feature of infection by Staphylococcus aureus is bloodstream invasion and widespread metastatic abscess formation. The ability to extravasate, which entails crossing the vascular basement membrane, appears to be critical for the organism's pathogenicity. Extravasation by normal and neoplastic mammalian cells has been correlated with the presence of specific cell surface receptors for the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Similar laminin receptors were found in Staphylococcus aureus but not in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a noninvasive pathogen. There were about 100 binding sites per cell, with an apparent binding affinity of 2.9 nanomolar. The molecular weight of the receptor was 50,000 and pI was 4.2. Eukaryotic laminin receptors were visualized by means of the binding of S. aureus in the presence of laminin. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic invasive cells might utilize similar, if not identical, mechanisms for invasion.

  7. Mobile genetic elements of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Malachowa, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus are successful as commensal organisms or pathogens in part because they adapt rapidly to selective pressures imparted by the human host. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a central role in this adaptation process and are a means to transfer genetic information (DNA) among and within bacterial species. Importantly, MGEs encode putative virulence factors and molecules that confer resistance to antibiotics, including the gene that confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Inasmuch as MRSA infections are a significant problem worldwide and continue to emerge in epidemic waves, there has been significant effort to improve diagnostic assays and to develop new antimicrobial agents for treatment of disease. Our understanding of S. aureus MGEs and the molecules they encode has played an important role toward these ends and has provided detailed insight into the evolution of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and virulence. PMID:20668911

  8. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thomer, Lena; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , a Gram-positive bacterium colonizing nares, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract, frequently invades the skin, soft tissues, and bloodstreams of humans. Even with surgical and antibiotic therapy, bloodstream infections are associated with significant mortality. The secretion of coagulases, proteins that associate with and activate the host hemostatic factor prothrombin, and the bacterial surface display of agglutinins, proteins that bind polymerized fibrin, are key virulence strategies for the pathogenesis of S. aureus bloodstream infections, which culminate in the establishment of abscess lesions. Pathogen-controlled processes, involving a wide spectrum of secreted factors, are responsible for the recruitment and destruction of immune cells, transforming abscess lesions into purulent exudate, with which staphylococci disseminate to produce new infectious lesions or to infect new hosts. Research on S. aureus bloodstream infections is a frontier for the characterization of protective vaccine antigens and the development of immune therapeutics aiming to prevent disease or improve outcomes. PMID:26925499

  9. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research.

  10. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research. PMID:27482738

  11. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm.

  12. Transduction of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Dependent on an Unusual Specificity of the Recipient Strain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sidney; Sweeney, Helen M.

    1970-01-01

    Resistance to methicillin was transduced by phage 80 or 53 from two naturally occurring methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus to methicillin-susceptible recipient strains at frequencies of 10−7 to 10−9. Ultraviolet irradiation of transducing phage and posttransductional incubation at 30 C were essential for useful frequencies of transduction. Effectiveness as a recipient for this transduction was highly specific. Strain NCTC 8325 (PS47) in its native state was an ineffective recipient but became effective after it had received by transduction one of several penicillinase plasmids. This acquired effectiveness was retained in most cases after elimination of the plasmid by ethidium bromide treatment. Like the donor strain, the progeny were heterogeneous in the degree of their resistance to methicillin, which was expressed by a higher proportion of cells as the temperature of incubation was lowered from 37 to 30 C. Separate transductants varied widely in the degree of resistance acquired by transduction. Methicillin resistance was stable in the donor and transductant strains. We favored the interpretation that methicillin resistance in our strains was determined by a single chromosomal gene, although the possibility that it was determined by two or more closely linked genes could not be excluded. PMID:16559089

  13. Attenuation and Persistence of and Ability To Induce Protective Immunity to a Staphylococcus aureus aroA Mutant in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Buzzola, Fernanda R.; Barbagelata, María Sol; Caccuri, Roberto L.; Sordelli, Daniel O.

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important etiological agent of bovine mastitis, a disease that causes significant economic losses to the dairy industry. Several vaccines to prevent the disease have been tested, with limited success. The aim of this study was to obtain a suitable attenuated aro mutant of S. aureus by transposon mutagenesis and to demonstrate its efficacy as a live vaccine to induce protective immunity in a murine model of intramammary infection. To do this, we transformed S. aureus RN6390 with plasmid pTV1ts carrying Tn917. After screening of 3,493 erythromycin-resistant colonies, one mutant incapable of growing on plates lacking phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine was isolated and characterized. Molecular characterization of the mutant showed that the affected gene was aroA and that the insertion occurred 756 bp downstream of the aroA start codon. Complementation of the aroA mutant with a plasmid carrying aroA recovered the wild-type phenotype. The mutant exhibited a 50% lethal dose (1 × 106 CFU/mouse) higher than that of the parental strain (4.3 × 104 CFU/mouse). The aroA mutant showed decreased ability to persist in the lungs, spleens, and mammary glands of mice. Intramammary immunization with the aroA mutant stimulated both Th1 and Th2 responses in the mammary gland, as ascertained by reverse transcription-PCR, and induced significant protection from challenge with either the parental wild-type or a heterologous strain isolated from a cow with mastitis. PMID:16714581

  14. Characterization of the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, A J; Larsen, A R; Skov, R; Henriksen, A S; Chopra, I

    2007-05-01

    Resistance to the antibiotic fusidic acid in European strains of Staphylococcus aureus causing impetigo has increased in recent years. This increase appears to have resulted from clonal expansion of a strain we have designated the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC), which carries the fusidic acid resistance determinant fusB on its chromosome. To understand better the properties of the EEFIC responsible for its success, we have performed detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this clone. Molecular typing revealed the EEFIC to be ST123, spa type t171, and agr type IV and therefore unrelated to earlier prevalent fusB(+) strains found in the United Kingdom. EEFIC strains exhibited resistance to fusidic acid, penicillin, and, in some cases, erythromycin, which are all used in the treatment of impetigo. PCR analysis of the EEFIC and complete DNA sequencing of the 39.3 Kb plasmid it harbors identified genes encoding several toxins previously implicated in impetigo (exfoliative toxins A and B and EDIN-C). The location of fusB was mapped on the chromosome and found to be associated with a novel 16.6-kb genomic island integrated downstream of groEL. Although this element is related to classical staphylococcal pathogenicity islands, it does not encode any known virulence factors and consequently has been designated SaRI(fusB) (for "S. aureus resistance island carrying fusB").

  15. Bacteriocin production by Staphylococcus aureus involved in bovine mastitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Hilana; Nascimento, Janaína dos Santos; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos de Paiva; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, 257 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases in 56 different Brazilian dairy herds located in the southeast region of the country and tested for antimicrobial substance (AMS) production. Forty-six strains (17.9%) exhibited AMS production and their identification as Staphylococcus aureus was based on the presence of Gram-positive cocci and on positive results in tests for the ability to coagulate rabbit plasma, to ferment mannitol, and to produce acetoin. The AMS were characterized as bacteriocins (Bac) by their sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes. The Bac(+) strains were tested for resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents showing different profiles. Eighteen strains (39.0%) expressed a multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype. Forty-five strains exhibited at least one plasmid DNA. Cross-immunity analysis against strain S. aureus A70, which produces aureocin A70, amplification of the aurABCD operon (which encodes aureocin A70) or detection of this same operon by DNA/DNA hybridization revealed that 34 strains produce bacteriocins either identical or similar to aureocin A70. The remaining 12 Bac(+) strains produce antimicrobial peptides that seem to be distinct from the best characterized staphylococcal bacteriocins described thus far. The bacteriocin produced by strain 4185 may possess potential practical applications, since it was able to inhibit important pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from nosocomial infections. PMID:19635553

  16. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Chidambaram, M.; Heath, J. D.; Mallary, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.

  17. Extrachromosomal plasmids in the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Jabaji-Hare, S H; Burger, G; Forget, L; Lang, B F

    1994-05-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA elements were found in field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) 1-5. An isolate of AG-5 (Rh41) contains a 3.6-kbp plasmid (pRS188) which has a similar A+T content to mitochondrial DNA. pRS188 is linear and has knob structures at its ends, as revealed by electron microscopy. Exonuclease digestions show that the linear ends of pRS188 are protected, and remain protected even after proteinase K digestion. pRS188 does not hybridise to nuclear or mitochondrial DNAs of its host isolate (Rh41), to total DNAs of other plasmid-less AG-5 isolates, or to total DNA of plasmid-harbouring isolates belonging to different AGs. Cellular-fractionation experiments suggest that pRS188 is associated with mitochondria, but it remains undecided whether this occurs inside or outside of the organelles. The nucleotide sequence of about 60% of the plasmid has been determined, revealing no open reading frame longer than 91 amino acids, and no known gene or genetic element is detected in the sequence contigs of 300-1572 bp length. Similar studies were performed with the plasmid pRS104 present in an isolate of AG-4 (Rh36), the sequence of which exhibits essentially the same features as pRS188 except that its A+T content resembles that of nuclear DNA. Pathogenicity tests reveal that the isolates Rh41 and R36 are as virulent as the plasmid-less isolates of AG-4 and -5, indicating that the plasmids do not play any role in pathogenicity.

  18. Plasmids and Rickettsial Evolution: Insight from Rickettsia felis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Beier, Magda S.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Shallom, Joshua M.; Purkayastha, Anjan; Sobral, Bruno S.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2007-01-01

    Background The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis revealed a number of rickettsial genetic anomalies that likely contribute not only to a large genome size relative to other rickettsiae, but also to phenotypic oddities that have confounded the categorization of R. felis as either typhus group (TG) or spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Most intriguing was the first report from rickettsiae of a conjugative plasmid (pRF) that contains 68 putative open reading frames, several of which are predicted to encode proteins with high similarity to conjugative machinery in other plasmid-containing bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings Using phylogeny estimation, we determined the mode of inheritance of pRF genes relative to conserved rickettsial chromosomal genes. Phylogenies of chromosomal genes were in agreement with other published rickettsial trees. However, phylogenies including pRF genes yielded different topologies and suggest a close relationship between pRF and ancestral group (AG) rickettsiae, including the recently completed genome of R. bellii str. RML369-C. This relatedness is further supported by the distribution of pRF genes across other rickettsiae, as 10 pRF genes (or inactive derivatives) also occur in AG (but not SFG) rickettsiae, with five of these genes characteristic of typical plasmids. Detailed characterization of pRF genes resulted in two novel findings: the identification of oriV and replication termination regions, and the likelihood that a second proposed plasmid, pRFδ, is an artifact of the original genome assembly. Conclusion/Significance Altogether, we propose a new rickettsial classification scheme with the addition of a fourth lineage, transitional group (TRG) rickettsiae, that is unique from TG and SFG rickettsiae and harbors genes from possible exchanges with AG rickettsiae via conjugation. We offer insight into the evolution of a plastic plasmid system in rickettsiae, including the role plasmids may have played in the acquirement of

  19. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  20. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  1. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  2. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  3. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  4. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panesso, Diana; Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Tran, Truc T; Narechania, Apurva; Munita, Jose M; Rincon, Sandra; Carvajal, Lina P; Reyes, Jinnethe; Londoño, Alejandra; Smith, Hannah; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E; Rossi, Flavia; Arthur, Michel; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-10-01

    We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat. PMID:26402569

  5. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panesso, Diana; Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Tran, Truc T; Narechania, Apurva; Munita, Jose M; Rincon, Sandra; Carvajal, Lina P; Reyes, Jinnethe; Londoño, Alejandra; Smith, Hannah; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E; Rossi, Flavia; Arthur, Michel; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-10-01

    We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  6. The MazEF Toxin-Antitoxin System Alters the β-Lactam Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher F; Mechler, Lukas; Nolle, Nicoletta; Krismer, Bernhard; Zelder, Marc-Eric; Götz, Friedrich; Bertram, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements of prokaryotes which encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that can counteract toxicity. TA systems residing on plasmids are often involved in episomal maintenance whereas those on chromosomes can have multiple functions. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses at least four different families of TA systems but their physiological roles are elusive. The chromosomal mazEF system encodes the RNase toxin MazF and the antitoxin MazE. In the light of ambiguity regarding the cleavage activity, we here verify that MazF specifically targets UACAU sequences in S. aureus in vivo. In a native strain background and under non-stress conditions, cleavage was observed in the absence or presence of mazE. Transcripts of spa (staphylococcal protein A) and rsbW (anti-σB factor) were cut, but translational reporter fusions indicated that protein levels of the encoded products were unaffected. Despite a comparable growth rate as the wild-type, an S. aureus mazEF deletion mutant was more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, which suggests that further genes, putatively involved in the antibiotic stress response or cell wall synthesis or turnover, are controlled by this TA system.

  7. Expression of a Cryptic Secondary Sigma Factor Gene Unveils Natural Competence for DNA Transformation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Kazuya; Takemura, Aya J.; Inose, Yumiko; Tsai, Melody; Nguyen Thi, Le Thuy; Ohta, Toshiko; Msadek, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    It has long been a question whether Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, is able to develop natural competence for transformation by DNA. We previously showed that a novel staphylococcal secondary sigma factor, SigH, was a likely key component for competence development, but the corresponding gene appeared to be cryptic as its expression could not be detected during growth under standard laboratory conditions. Here, we have uncovered two distinct mechanisms allowing activation of SigH production in a minor fraction of the bacterial cell population. The first is a chromosomal gene duplication rearrangement occurring spontaneously at a low frequency [≤10−5], generating expression of a new chimeric sigH gene. The second involves post-transcriptional regulation through an upstream inverted repeat sequence, effectively suppressing expression of the sigH gene. Importantly, we have demonstrated for the first time that S. aureus cells producing active SigH become competent for transformation by plasmid or chromosomal DNA, which requires the expression of SigH-controlled competence genes. Additionally, using DNA from the N315 MRSA strain, we successfully transferred the full length SCCmecII element through natural transformation to a methicillin-sensitive strain, conferring methicillin resistance to the resulting S. aureus transformants. Taken together, we propose a unique model for staphylococcal competence regulation by SigH that could help explain the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer in this important pathogen. PMID:23133387

  8. The MazEF Toxin-Antitoxin System Alters the β-Lactam Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Christopher F.; Mechler, Lukas; Nolle, Nicoletta; Krismer, Bernhard; Zelder, Marc-Eric; Götz, Friedrich; Bertram, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements of prokaryotes which encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that can counteract toxicity. TA systems residing on plasmids are often involved in episomal maintenance whereas those on chromosomes can have multiple functions. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses at least four different families of TA systems but their physiological roles are elusive. The chromosomal mazEF system encodes the RNase toxin MazF and the antitoxin MazE. In the light of ambiguity regarding the cleavage activity, we here verify that MazF specifically targets UACAU sequences in S. aureus in vivo. In a native strain background and under non-stress conditions, cleavage was observed in the absence or presence of mazE. Transcripts of spa (staphylococcal protein A) and rsbW (anti-σB factor) were cut, but translational reporter fusions indicated that protein levels of the encoded products were unaffected. Despite a comparable growth rate as the wild-type, an S. aureus mazEF deletion mutant was more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, which suggests that further genes, putatively involved in the antibiotic stress response or cell wall synthesis or turnover, are controlled by this TA system. PMID:25965381

  9. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps

    PubMed Central

    Tintino, Saulo R.; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D.; Campina, Fábia F.; Pereira, Raimundo L.; Costa, Maria do S.; Braga, Maria Flaviana B.M.; Limaverde, Paulo W.; Andrade, Jacqueline C.; Siqueira-Junior, José P.; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C.; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure. PMID:27298617

  10. Genotypic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus from milk of dairy cows with mastitis in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Buzzola, F. R.; Quelle, L.; Gomez, M. I.; Catalano, M.; Steele-Moore, L.; Berg, D.; Gentilini, E.; Denamiel, G.; Sordelli, D. O.

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen causing mastitis of dairy ruminants. This study was developed to ascertain the genotypes and genealogical relationship among strains isolated from milk of bovines with mastitis in Argentina. Molecular epidemiological analysis of S. aureus was performed on 112 isolates from 21 districts. Clonality was assessed by SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, automated EcoRI ribotyping and restriction enzyme analysis of plasmid (REAP) DNA profiles. A total of 22 band patterns distributed in four clusters were found by SmaI PFGE analysis. The similarity of clusters 2, 3 and 4 with cluster 1 was 0.73, 0.69 and 0.33, respectively, and 101 of 112 isolates belonged in cluster 1. PFGE band patterns from 42 isolates within cluster I were indistinguishable from each other (type A). The second largest group of isolates with indistinguishable PFGE band patterns was subtype A11, which was composed of 19 isolates. Automated ribotyping assigned the 112 isolates into 13 ribotypes. Among these, the most prevalent ribotypes I and VI were composed of 49 and 35 isolates respectively. Although there was certain correspondence between PFGE genotypes and ribotypes, further discrimination was achieved by combining both methods. REAP DNA profile analysis was useful to provide even further discrimination between isolates with identical PFGE genotype and ribotype. The most prevalent S. aureus strains A/I and A11/VI were widely distributed in the country and were not restricted to individual nearby locations. Prevalence of these two strains varied consecutively within a period of 8 years. Whether the shift in type prevalence was due to selection of a phenotypic trait remains undisclosed. PMID:11467802

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Vancomycin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Related to Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Matyi, Stephanie A; Sundararajan, Anitha; Lindquist, Ingrid E; Devitt, Nicolas P; Schilkey, Faye D; Lamichhane-Khadka, Reena; Hoyt, Peter R; Mudge, Joann; Gustafson, John E

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of three vancomycin-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. S. aureus strain MV8 is a sequence type 8 (ST-8) staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element type IV (SCCmec IV) derivative, while the other two strains (S. aureus MM25 and MM61) are ST-5 SCCmec II strains. MM61 is also closely related to the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain MM66. PMID:25301662

  12. Isolation and characterization of linear deoxyribonucleic acid plasmids from Kluyveromyces lactis and the plasmid-associated killer character.

    PubMed Central

    Gunge, N; Tamaru, A; Ozawa, F; Sakaguchi, K

    1981-01-01

    Two linear deoxyribonucleic acid plasmids, designated pGK11 and pGK12, were isolated from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis IFO 1267. pGK11 and pGK12 had molecular weights of 5.4 X 10(6) and 8.4 X 10(6), respectively. Both plasmids possessed the same density of 1.687 g/cm3, lighter than the densities of mitochondrial (1.692 g/cm3) and nuclear (1.699 g/cm3) deoxyribonucleic acids. A restriction map of pGK11 was constructed from digestions by EcoRI, HindIII, PstI, and BamHI. pGK12 was cleaved by EcoRI into seven fragments and by BamHI into two fragments K. lactis IFO 1267 killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae sensitive and killer strains and certain strains of Saccharomyces italicus, K. lactis, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, and K. vanudenii. All K. lactis strains lacking the pGK1 plasmids were nonkillers. A hybrid was constructed between K. lactis IFO 1267 and a nonkiller K. lactis strain lacking the plasmids and subjected to tetrad analysis after sporulation. The killer character was extrachromosomally transmitted in all tetrads in association with the pGK1 plasmids. The double-stranded ribonucleic acid killer plasmid could not be detected in any K. lactis killer strains. It is thus highly probable that the killer character is mediated by the linear deoxyribonucleic acid plasmids. A single chromosomal gene was found which was responsible for the resistance to the K. lactis killer. Images PMID:6257636

  13. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  14. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  15. Mitochondrial DNAs and plasmids as taxonomic characteristics in Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R J

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was purified from 12 isolates of the Trichoderma viride aggregate and found to be, on the average, 32.7 kb in size. Plasmids were present in the mtDNA preparations from 8 of 12 strains of T. viride examined. Plasmids in four of the strains produced ladderlike banding patterns on gels, and these plasmids were studied in detail. The ladderlike patterns were produced by single molecules that were supercoiled to various degrees. Plasmids from two of the strains do not have homology with the mtDNA but do have a limited amount of homology with each other. No phenotype could be associated with the presence of a plasmid. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the mtDNAs produced patterns in which the presence or absence of certain fragments correlated with the classification of the strains into T. viride group I or II. Phenetic cluster analysis and parsimony analysis of the fragment patterns produced groups that corresponded to T. viride groups I and II. The fragment patterns were very diverse, with nearly all strains having a unique pattern. However, two strains of T. viride group I from widely different geographical locations did have identical restriction patterns for all the enzymes used in this study. This result indicates that it may not be possible to use mtDNA restriction patterns alone to identify Trichoderma strains. Images PMID:1768099

  16. Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Adam M; Olson, Daniel G.; Caiazza, Nicky; Lynd, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Industrial production of biofuels and other products by cellulolytic microorganisms is of interest but hindered by the nascent state of genetic tools. Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. RESULTS: We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. When isolated from a dam+ dcm+ E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid pAMG205, which contains an additional Dcm methylation site in the pyrF gene. Upon removal of Dcm methylation, transformation with pAMG206 showed a four- to seven-fold increase in efficiency; however, transformation efficiency of pAMG205 increased 500-fold. Removal of the Dcm methylation site from the pAM205 pyrF gene via silent mutation resulted in increased transformation efficiencies equivalent to that of pAMG206. Upon proper methylation, transformation efficiency of plasmids bearing the pMK3 and pB6A origins of replication increased ca. three orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid DNA should facilitate genetic manipulation of this industrially relevant bacterium.

  17. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  18. Conjugative plasmids: vessels of the communal gene pool

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative whole-genome analyses have demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) provides a significant contribution to prokaryotic genome innovation. The evolution of specific prokaryotes is therefore tightly linked to the environment in which they live and the communal pool of genes available within that environment. Here we use the term supergenome to describe the set of all genes that a prokaryotic ‘individual’ can draw on within a particular environmental setting. Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules’ to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements’ that contribute adaptive traits to the hosts and, potentially, other resident prokaryotes within specific environmental niches. Insight into the evolution of plasmid modules therefore contributes to our knowledge of gene dissemination and evolution within prokaryotic communities. This communal pool provides the prokaryotes with an important mechanistic framework for obtaining adaptability and functional diversity that alleviates the need for large genomes of specialized ‘private genes’. PMID:19571247

  19. Synthesis of hybrid bacterial plasmids containing highly repeated satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Brutlag, D; Fry, K; Nelson, T; Hung, P

    1977-03-01

    Hybrid plasmid molecules containing tandemly repeated Drosophila satellite DNA were constructed using a modification of the (dA)-(dT) homopolymer procedure of Lobban and Kaiser (1973). Recombinant plasmids recovered after transformation of recA bacteria contained 10% of the amount of satellite DNA present in the transforming molecules. The cloned plasmids were not homogenous in size. Recombinant plasmids isolated from a single colony contained populations of circular molecules which varied both in the length of the satellite region and in the poly(dA)-(dt) regions linking satellite and vector. While subcloning reduced the heterogeneity of these plasmid populations, continued cell growth caused further variations in the size of the repeated regions. Two different simple sequence satellites of Drosophila melanogaster (1.672 and 1.705 g/cm3) were unstable in both recA and recBC hosts and in both pSC101 and pCR1 vectors. We propose that this recA-independent instability of tandemly repeated sequences is due to unequal intramolecular recombination events in replicating DNA molecules, a mechanism analogous to sister chromatid exchange in eucaryotes. PMID:403010

  20. Genetic transformation of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides by plasmid DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fornari, C S; Kaplan, S

    1982-01-01

    A broad-host-range cloning vector, pUI81, was constructed in vitro from plasmids RSF1010 and pSL25 (a pBR322 derivative) and used to assay for transformation in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Washing cells with 500 mM Tris was an effective means of inducing competence for DNA uptake. Transformation frequencies as high as 10(-5) (transformants per viable cell) have been achieved by incubating Tris-treated cells with plasmid DNA, 100 mM CaCl2, and 20% polyethylene glycol 6000. Maximum frequencies were obtained when recipient cells were spread onto selective media after a 6.5-h outgrowth period in antibiotic-free medium. The structure (open circular versus closed, covalent circular), size, and concentration of plasmid DNA all significantly affected the transformation frequency. Four different plasmids, all small and suitable as cloning vectors, have been introduced by transformation into several different R. sphaeroides strains. Recombinant DNA carried on small, nonconjugative plasmids with broad host ranges can now be directly transferred to R. sphaeroides by this method. Images PMID:6981642

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  2. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    PubMed

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  3. Staphylococcus aureus persisters tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Sabrina; Lewis, Kim; Bertram, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are non- or slow growing reversible phenotypic variants of the wild type, tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics. We here analyzed Staphylococcus aureus persister levels by monitoring colony forming unit (CFU) counts of planktonically grown cells treated with six different antimicrobials over time. Model laboratory strains HG001-HG003, SA113 and small colony variant (SCV) strains hemB and menD were challenged by the compounds at different logs of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in exponential or stationary growth phase. Antibiotic tolerance was usually elevated in SCV strains compared to normally growing cells and in stationary vs. exponential phase cultures. Biphasic killing kinetics, typical for persister cell enrichment, were observed in both growth phases under different selective conditions. Treatment of exponential phase cultures of HG001-HG003 with 10-fold MIC of tobramycin resulted in the isolation of persisters which upon cultivation on plates formed either normal or phenotypically stable small colonies. Trajectories of different killing curves indicated physiological heterogeneity within persister subpopulations. Daptomycin added at 100-fold MIC to stationary phase SA113 cells rapidly isolated very robust persisters. Fractions of antibiotic tolerant cells were observed with all S. aureus strains and mutants tested. Our results refute the hypothesis that S. aureus stationary phase cells are equivalent to persisters, as not all of these cells showed antibiotic tolerance. Isolation of S. aureus persisters of different robustness seems to dependent on the kind and concentration of the antibiotic, as well as on the strain used. PMID:22986269

  4. Modern and simple construction of plasmid: saving time and cost.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hideki; Shimamoto, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    Construction of plasmids has been occupying a significant fraction of laboratory work in most fields of experimental biology. Tremendous effort was made to improve the traditional method for constructing plasmids, in which DNA fragments digested with restriction enzymes were ligated. However, the traditional method remained to be a standard protocol more than 40 years. At last, several recent inventions are rapidly and completely replacing the traditional method, because they are far quicker with less cost, and requiring less material. We here introduce three such methods that cover up most of the cases. Moreover, they are complementary with each other. Our lab protocols are provided for "no strain, no pain" construction of plasmids. PMID:25359266

  5. Association between specific plasmids and relapse in typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Gotuzzo, E; Morris, J G; Benavente, L; Wood, P K; Levine, O; Black, R E; Levine, M M

    1987-01-01

    We studied isolates from 73 patients hospitalized with typhoid fever in Lima, Peru. Of these 73 patients, 11 (15%) suffered a clinical relapse, with fever and positive blood cultures, within 3 months of their original illness. Using plasmids as epidemiologic markers, we found that three patients who subsequently relapsed were initially infected with more than one strain of Salmonella typhi. There was a highly significant association between relapse and isolation of a strain containing either a 24- or a 38-kilobase plasmid at the time of the original infection; however, we were unable to show any evidence of homology between these two plasmids. Our data indicate that infection with multiple strains is not uncommon in this endemic area and suggest that relapse may be partly strain dependent. Images PMID:2821064

  6. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents. PMID:25178659

  7. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents.

  8. SAMMD: Staphylococcus aureus Microarray Meta-Database

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Elasri, Mohamed O

    2007-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen, causing a wide variety of diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to severe life threatening infections. S. aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Its ability to resist multiple antibiotics poses a growing public health problem. In order to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis of S. aureus, several global expression profiles have been developed. These transcriptional profiles included regulatory mutants of S. aureus and growth of wild type under different growth conditions. The abundance of these profiles has generated a large amount of data without a uniform annotation system to comprehensively examine them. We report the development of the Staphylococcus aureus Microarray meta-database (SAMMD) which includes data from all the published transcriptional profiles. SAMMD is a web-accessible database that helps users to perform a variety of analysis against and within the existing transcriptional profiles. Description SAMMD is a relational database that uses MySQL as the back end and PHP/JavaScript/DHTML as the front end. The database is normalized and consists of five tables, which holds information about gene annotations, regulated gene lists, experimental details, references, and other details. SAMMD data is collected from the peer-reviewed published articles. Data extraction and conversion was done using perl scripts while data entry was done through phpMyAdmin tool. The database is accessible via a web interface that contains several features such as a simple search by ORF ID, gene name, gene product name, advanced search using gene lists, comparing among datasets, browsing, downloading, statistics, and help. The database is licensed under General Public License (GPL). Conclusion SAMMD is hosted and available at . Currently there are over 9500 entries for regulated genes, from 67 microarray experiments. SAMMD will help staphylococcal scientists to analyze their

  9. Conjugative plasmid transfer in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Muth, Günther; Espinosa, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Conjugative transfer of bacterial plasmids is the most efficient way of horizontal gene spread, and it is therefore considered one of the major reasons for the increase in the number of bacteria exhibiting multiple-antibiotic resistance. Thus, conjugation and spread of antibiotic resistance represents a severe problem in antibiotic treatment, especially of immunosuppressed patients and in intensive care units. While conjugation in gram-negative bacteria has been studied in great detail over the last decades, the transfer mechanisms of antibiotic resistance plasmids in gram-positive bacteria remained obscure. In the last few years, the entire nucleotide sequences of several large conjugative plasmids from gram-positive bacteria have been determined. Sequence analyses and data bank comparisons of their putative transfer (tra) regions have revealed significant similarities to tra regions of plasmids from gram-negative bacteria with regard to the respective DNA relaxases and their targets, the origins of transfer (oriT), and putative nucleoside triphosphatases NTP-ases with homologies to type IV secretion systems. In contrast, a single gene encoding a septal DNA translocator protein is involved in plasmid transfer between micelle-forming streptomycetes. Based on these clues, we propose the existence of two fundamentally different plasmid-mediated conjugative mechanisms in gram-positive microorganisms, namely, the mechanism taking place in unicellular gram-positive bacteria, which is functionally similar to that in gram-negative bacteria, and a second type that occurs in multicellular gram-positive bacteria, which seems to be characterized by double-stranded DNA transfer. PMID:12794193

  10. Involvement of Linear Plasmids in Aerobic Biodegradation of Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-14

    Pseudomonas putida strain AJ and Ochrobactrum strain TD were isolated from hazardous waste sites based on their ability to use vinyl chloride (VC) as a sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions. Strains AJ and TD also use ethene and ethylene oxide as growth substrates. Strain AJ contained a linear megaplasmid (approximately 260 kb) when grown on VC or ethene, but no circular plasmids. While growing on ethylene oxide, the size of the linear plasmid in strain AJ decreased to approximately 100 kb, although its ability to use VC as a substrate was retained. The linear plasmids in strain AJ were cured and its ability to consume VC, ethene, and ethylene oxide was lost following growth on a rich substrate (Luria-Bertani broth) through at least three transfers. Strain TD contained three linear plasmids, ranging in size from approximately 100 kb to 320 kb, when growing on VC or ethene. As with strain AJ, the linear plasmids in strain TD were cured following growth on Luria -Bertani broth and its ability to consume VC and ethene was lost. Further analysis of these linear plasmids may help reveal the pathway for VC biodegradation in strains AJ and TD and explain why this process occurs at many but not all sites where groundwater is contaminated with chloroethenes. Metabolism of VC and ethene by strains AJ and TD is initiated by an alkene monooxygenase. Their yields during growth on VC (0.15-0.20 mg total suspended solids per mg VC) are similar to the yields reported for other isolates i.e., Mycobacterium sp., Nocardioides sp., and Pseudomonas sp.

  11. Plasmid vector with temperature-controlled gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, V.V.; Yamshchikov, V.F.; Pletnev, A.G.

    1986-02-01

    In plasmid pBR327, a fragment 169 b.p. long including promotor p/sub 3/ of the bla gene has been deleted. The deletional derivative so obtained (pSP2) has been used to construct a recombinant plasmid bearing a fragment of phage lambda DNA with the p/sub R/ promotor and the gene of the temperature-sensitive repressor cI. It has been shown that the plasmid vector so constructed (pCE119) with promotor cR performs repressor-cI-controlled transcription of the bla gene, as a result of which induction for an hour at 42/sup 0/C leads to an almost 100-fold increase in the amount of product of the bla gene as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C. The possibility of the use of plasmid cPE119 for the expression of other genes has been demonstrated for the case of the semisynthetic ..beta..-galactosidase gene of E. coli. In this case, on induction of the cells with recombinant plasmid pCEZ12 for 3 hours at 42/sup 0/C, a 300-fold increase in the amount of active ..beta..-galactosidase, as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C, was observed. It is important to point out that under these conditions (at 42/sup 0/C), at least 99% of the cells containing the plasmid retain the phenotype lacZ/sup +/, which indicates the stability of the proposed vector system

  12. Replication and Maintenance of Linear Phage-Plasmid N15.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into the chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends (telomeres). Upon infection, the phage DNA circularizes via cohesive ends, and then a special phage enzyme of the tyrosine recombinase family, protelomerase, cuts at another site and joins the ends, forming hairpin telomeres of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in the formation of duplicated telomeres. The N15 protelomerase cuts them, generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by a partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike the F centromere, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in the N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lytic development, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. The family of N15-like linear phage-plasmids includes lambdoid phages ɸKO2 and pY54, as well as Myoviridae phages ΦHAP-1, VHML, VP882, Vp58.5, and vB_VpaM_MAR of marine gamma-proteobacteria. The genomes of these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny control modules, and replication genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

  13. Anion exchange purification of plasmid DNA using expanded bed adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G N; Cabral, J M; Prazeres, D M

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in gene therapy with non-viral vectors and DNA vaccination have increased the demand for large amounts of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA. The high viscosity of process streams is of major concern in the purification of plasmids, since it can cause high back pressures in column operations, thus limiting the throughput. In order to avoid these high back pressures, expanded bed anion exchange chromatography was evaluated as an alternative to fixed bed chromatography. A Streamline 25 column filled with 100 ml of Streamline QXL media, was equilibrated with 0.5 M NaCl in TE (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH = 8.0) buffer at an upward flow of 300 cmh-1, E. coli lysates (obtained from up to 3 liters of fermentation broth) were injected in the column. After washing out the unbound material, the media was allowed to sediment and the plasmid was eluted with 1 M NaCl in TE buffer at a downward flow of 120 cmh-1. Purification factors of 36 +/- 1 fold, 26 +/- 0.4 plasmid purity, and close to 100% yields were obtained when less than one settled column volume of plasmid feed was injected. However, both recovery yield and purity abruptly decreased when larger amounts were processed-values of 35 +/- 2 and 5 +/- 0.7 were obtained for the recovery yield and purity, respectively, when 250 ml of feedstock were processed. In these cases, gel clogging and expansion collapse were observed. The processing of larger volumes, thus larger plasmid quantities, was only possible by performing an isopropanol precipitation step prior to the chromatographic step. This step led to an enhancement of the purification step.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus NorD, a Putative Efflux Pump Coregulated with the Opp1 Oligopeptide Permease, Contributes Selectively to Fitness In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanpeng; Fu, Yingmei; Lee, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus readily infects humans, causing infections from mild superficial skin infections to lethal bacteremia and endocarditis. Transporters produced by S. aureus allow the pathogen to adapt to a variety of settings, including survival at sites of infection and in the presence of antibiotics. The native functions of many transporters are unknown, but their potential dual contribution to fitness and antimicrobial resistance highlights their importance in staphylococcal infections. Here, we show that S. aureus NorD, a newly recognized efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, contributes to fitness in a murine subcutaneous abscess model. In community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain MW2, norD was selectively upregulated 36-fold at the infection site relative to growth in vitro, and the norD mutant demonstrated significant fitness impairment in abscesses, with fitness 20- to 40-fold lower than that of the parent MW2 strain. Plasmid-encoded NorD could complement the fitness defect of the MW2 norD mutant. Chromosomal norD expression is polycistronic with the upstream oligopeptide permease genes (opp1ABCDF), which encode an ABC oligopeptide transporter. Both norD and opp1 were upregulated in abscesses and iron-restricted culture medium and negatively regulated by Fur, but only NorD contributed to fitness in the murine abscess model. PMID:23042988

  15. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: diagnostic properties of specific media.

    PubMed

    Graber, H U; Pfister, S; Burgener, P; Boss, R; Meylan, M; Hummerjohann, J

    2013-08-01

    As accurate discrimination between Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and NSA (non-S. aureus staphylococci) involved in bovine mastitis is essential in terms of clinical prognosis and outcome, the aim of this study was to reevaluate the classical bacteriological procedures to identify these agents. Various media and the coagulase tube test were investigated using 116 strains of S. aureus and 115 of NSA, all isolated from cows with spontaneous intramammary infections (IMI). Furthermore, 25 NSA reference strains were analyzed. The study demonstrated that a few media were appropriate for differentiating S. aureus from NSA, provided that the staphylococci were isolated from bovine IMI. Evaluation of hemolysis further revealed that double or incomplete hemolysis are specific for S. aureus and are, therefore, a decisive diagnostic criterion. For strains showing complete hemolysis, maximal discrimination between S. aureus and NSA was observed by subculturing them on CHROMagar Staph. aureus.

  16. Clinical implications of vancomycin heteroresistant and intermediately susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diane M; Ward, Kristina E; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has proven to be a major pathogen with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections and recently with heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) infections. Although vancomycin is traditionally a first-line and relatively effective antibiotic, its continued use is under question because reports of heteroresistance in S. aureus isolates are increasing. Both hVISA and VISA infections are associated with complicated clinical courses and treatment failures. The prevalence, mechanism of resistance, clinical significance, and laboratory detection of hVISA and VISA infections are not conclusive, making it difficult to apply research findings to clinical situations. We provide an evidence-based review of S. aureus isolates expressing heterogenic and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin.

  17. Characterization of the replicon from plasmid pAC1 from Acetobacter pasteurianus.

    PubMed

    Grones, J; Králová, A; Turna, J

    1993-02-26

    A panel of recombinant plasmids pACK5 and pACT7 was prepared by introducing kanamycin and tetracycline resistance into the partially split plasmid pAC1 which contained replicon isolated from Acetobacter pasteurianus. The replicon in plasmid pAC1 is compatible with the ColE1 replicon. Compared to pBR322, the plasmid had more than 30 copies per chromosome in Escherichia coli cells. Plasmids were transformed into E. coli DH1, Acetobacter pasteurianus 3614, Acetobacter aceti 3620, Shigella, Citrobacter, and Brevibacterium flavum cells, and the stability of plasmid DNA was tested after cultivation in nonselective conditions.

  18. Conjugation is necessary for a bacterial plasmid to survive under protozoan predation.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Johannes; Jalasvuori, Matti; Ojala, Ville; Brockhurst, Michael; Hiltunen, Teppo

    2016-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer by conjugative plasmids plays a critical role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Interactions between bacteria and other organisms can affect the persistence and spread of conjugative plasmids. Here we show that protozoan predation increased the persistence and spread of the antibiotic resistance plasmid RP4 in populations of the opportunist bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens. A conjugation-defective mutant plasmid was unable to survive under predation, suggesting that conjugative transfer is required for plasmid persistence under the realistic condition of predation. These results indicate that multi-trophic interactions can affect the maintenance of conjugative plasmids with implications for bacterial evolution and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

  19. Mutagenesis of dimeric plasmids by the transposon. gamma. delta. (Tn1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Escherichia coli F factor mediates conjugal transfer of a plasmid such as pBR322 primarily by replicative transposition of transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) from F to that plasmid to form a cointegrate intermediate. Although resolution of this cointegrate always yields a plasmid containing a single {gamma}{delta} insertion, the occasional recovery of transposon-free plasmids after connuugal transfer has led to alternative hypotheses for F mobilization. The authors show here that {gamma}{delta}-free plasmids are found after F-mediated conjugal transfer only when the donor plasmid is a dimer and the recipient is Rec{sup +}.

  20. PCR-directed in vivo plasmid construction using homologous recombination in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erik C

    2011-01-01

    A variety of applications require the creation of custom-designed plasmids, including transgenic reporters, heterologous gene fusions, and phenotypic rescue plasmids. These plasmids are created traditionally using restriction digests and in vitro ligation reactions, but these techniques are dependent on available restriction sites and can be laborious given the size and number of fragments to be ligated. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a powerful platform to create nearly any plasmid through PCR-directed yeast-mediated ligation. This technique can ligate complex plasmids of up to 50 kilobasepairs (kb) in vivo to produce plasmids with precisely defined sequences.

  1. Construction of a bioluminescence reporter plasmid for Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Bina, Xiaowen R; Miller, Mark A; Bina, James E

    2010-11-01

    A Francisella tularensis shuttle vector that constitutively expresses the Photorhabdus luminescens lux operon in type A and type B strains of F. tularensis was constructed. The bioluminescence reporter plasmid was introduced into the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis and used to follow F. tularensis growth in a murine intranasal challenge model in real-time by bioluminescence imaging. The results show that the new bioluminescence reporter plasmid represents a useful tool for tularemia research that is suitable for following F. tularensis growth in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. PMID:20620161

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  4. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract), plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for

  5. A highly selectable and highly transferable Ti plasmid to study conjugal host range and Ti plasmid dissemination in complex ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Teyssier-Cuvelle, S; Oger, P; Mougel, C; Groud, K; Farrand, S K; Nesme, X

    2004-07-01

    A conjugal donor system, ST2, was constructed to study the conjugal dissemination of a Ti plasmid to wild-type recipient bacteria in vitro and in situ. The system consisted of a polyauxotrophic derivative of C58 harboring a hyperconjugative and highly selectable Ti plasmid, pSTiEGK, which was constructed by inserting a multiple antibiotic resistance cassette in the traM- mcpA region of pTiC58Delta accR. ST2 transfers pSTiEGK constitutively at frequencies up to 10(-1) to plasmidless Agrobacterium recipients. The host range of pSTiEGK includes all the known genomic species of Agrobacterium, indigenous soil agrobacteria and some Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium spp. All transconjugants became pathogenic upon acquisition of the Ti plasmid and were also able to transfer pSTiEGK by conjugation. This host range was indistinguishable from that of its wild-type parent pTiC58, and therefore pSTiEGK constitute a valid proxy to study the dissemination of Ti plasmids directly in the environment. Transconjugants can be selected on a combination of four antibiotics, which efficiently prevents the growth of the indigenous microbiota present in complex environments. The transfer of pSTiEGK to members of the genus Agrobacterium was affected primarily by the plasmid content of the recipient strain (10(3)- to 10(5)-fold reduction), e.g., the presence of incompatible plasmids. As a consequence, a species should be considered permissive to Ti transfer whenever one permissive isolate is found. PMID:15164241

  6. Amelioration of the cost of conjugative plasmid carriage in Eschericha coli K12.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Cecilia; Chao, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Although plasmids can provide beneficial functions to their host bacteria, they might confer a physiological or energetic cost. This study examines how natural selection may reduce the cost of carrying conjugative plasmids with drug-resistance markers in the absence of antibiotic selection. We studied two plasmids, R1 and RP4, both of which carry multiple drug resistance genes and were shown to impose an initial fitness cost on Escherichia coli. To determine if and how the cost could be reduced, we subjected plasmid-containing bacteria to 1100 generations of evolution in batch cultures. Analysis of the evolved populations revealed that plasmid loss never occurred, but that the cost was reduced through genetic changes in both the plasmids and the bacteria. Changes in the plasmids were inferred by the demonstration that evolved plasmids no longer imposed a cost on their hosts when transferred to a plasmid-free clone of the ancestral E. coli. Changes in the bacteria were shown by the lowered cost when the ancestral plasmids were introduced into evolved bacteria that had been cured of their (evolved) plasmids. Additionally, changes in the bacteria were inferred because conjugative transfer rates of evolved R1 plasmids were lower in the evolved host than in the ancestral host. Our results suggest that once a conjugative bacterial plasmid has invaded a bacterial population it will remain even if the original selection is discontinued. PMID:14704155

  7. Genetic Characterization of ExPEC-Like Virulence Plasmids among a Subset of NMEC.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Bryon A; West, Aaron C; Mangiamele, Paul; Barbieri, Nicolle; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; Li, Ganwu

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal Meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is one of the most common causes of neonatal bacterial meningitis in the US and elsewhere resulting in mortality or neurologic deficits in survivors. Large plasmids have been shown experimentally to increase the virulence of NMEC in the rat model of neonatal meningitis. Here, 9 ExPEC-like plasmids were isolated from NMEC and sequenced to identify the core and accessory plasmid genes of ExPEC-like virulence plasmids in NMEC and create an expanded plasmid phylogeny. Results showed sequenced virulence plasmids carry a strongly conserved core of genes with predicted functions in five distinct categories including: virulence, metabolism, plasmid stability, mobile elements, and unknown genes. The major functions of virulence-associated and plasmid core genes serve to increase in vivo fitness by adding multiple iron uptake systems to the genetic repertoire to facilitate NMEC's survival in the host's low iron environment, and systems to enhance bacterial resistance to host innate immunity. Phylogenetic analysis based on these core plasmid genes showed that at least two lineages of ExPEC-like plasmids could be discerned. Further, virulence plasmids from Avian Pathogenic E. coli and NMEC plasmids could not be differentiated based solely on the genes of the core plasmid genome.

  8. A new plasmid-encoded proteic killer gene system: cloning, sequencing, and analyzing hig locus of plasmid Rts1.

    PubMed

    Tian, Q B; Ohnishi, M; Tabuchi, A; Terawaki, Y

    1996-03-18

    A new proteic killer gene system, hig, was identified on the plasmid Rts1. The hig locus consisting of a higA and higB is directly related to the temperature sensitive host cell growth conferred by Rts1. We proved that higB encoding presumably a 92-amino-acid polypeptide inhibited segregation of plasmid free cells, and higA encoding a 104-amino-acid polypeptide suppressed the higB function both in cis and in trans.

  9. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  10. [Chromatographic separation of plasmid DNA by anion-exchange cryogel].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Yun, Junxian; Yao, Kejian

    2012-08-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA) is used as an important vector for gene therapy, and its wide application is restricted by the purity and yield. To obtain high-purity pDNA, a chromatographic method based on anion-exchange supermacroporous cryogel was explored. The anion-exchange cryogel was prepared by grafting diethylaminoethyl-dextran to the epoxide groups of polyacrylamide-based matrix and pUC19 plasmid was used as a target to test the method. The plasmid was transferred into Escherichia coli DH5alpha, cultivated, harvested and lysed. The obtained culture was centrifuged and the supernatant was used as the plasmid feedstock, which was loaded into the anion-exchange cryogel bed for chromatographic separation. By optimizing the pH of running buffer and the elution conditions, high-purity pDNA was obtained by elution with 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride solution at pH 6.6. Compared to the traditional methods for purification of pDNA, animal source enzymes and toxic reagents were not involved in the present separation process, ensuring the safety of both the purification operations and the obtained pDNA.

  11. Controlled plasmid gene transfer to murine renal carcinoma by hexadecylphosphocholine.

    PubMed

    Settelen, Nathalie; Roch, Olivier; Bock, David; Rooke, Ronald; Braun, Serge; Meyer, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We report here that the anticancer drug hexadecylphosphocholine (HPC) can control plasmid DNA-mediated gene transfer to renal carcinoma following intratumoral administration. Significant improvement of gene expression levels could be achieved depending on HPC dose administered. Optimal concentration of HPC co-injected with plasmid DNA was found to be 0.2% (w/v) showing up to a 10-fold increase in reporter gene expression levels when compared to DNA administered alone. In vivo gene transfer activity of HPC was not affected by the nature of the diluent used, i.e. glucose-based or saline-based isotonic solutions. Although in vitro transfection activity of HPC formulations could not be evidenced, a liposome leakage assay revealed that HPC could significantly destabilize stable lipid membranes suggesting that a possible membrane permeation enhancer activity of HPC combined to the physical stress induced by the intratumor injection may facilitate plasmid DNA entry inside the cells resulting in increased gene expression. HPC/plasmid formulations represent new and attractive non-viral gene delivery systems with potential in cancer gene therapy and vaccination. PMID:14684287

  12. Tragedy of the commons among antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    As social interactions are increasingly recognized as important determinants of microbial fitness, sociobiology is being enlisted to better understand the evolution of clinically relevant microbes and, potentially, to influence their evolution to aid human health. Of special interest are situations in which there exists a "tragedy of the commons," where natural selection leads to a net reduction in fitness for all members of a population. Here, I demonstrate the existence of a tragedy of the commons among antibiotic resistance plasmids of bacteria. In serial transfer culture, plasmids evolved a greater ability to superinfect already-infected bacteria, increasing plasmid fitness when evolved genotypes were rare. Evolved plasmids, however, fell victim to their own success, reducing the density of their bacterial hosts when they became common and suffering reduced fitness through vertical transmission. Social interactions can thus be an important determinant of evolution for the molecular endosymbionts of bacteria. These results also identify an avenue of evolution that reduces proliferation of both antibiotic resistance genes and their bacterial hosts. PMID:22486703

  13. Tragedy of the commons among antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    As social interactions are increasingly recognized as important determinants of microbial fitness, sociobiology is being enlisted to better understand the evolution of clinically relevant microbes and, potentially, to influence their evolution to aid human health. Of special interest are situations in which there exists a "tragedy of the commons," where natural selection leads to a net reduction in fitness for all members of a population. Here, I demonstrate the existence of a tragedy of the commons among antibiotic resistance plasmids of bacteria. In serial transfer culture, plasmids evolved a greater ability to superinfect already-infected bacteria, increasing plasmid fitness when evolved genotypes were rare. Evolved plasmids, however, fell victim to their own success, reducing the density of their bacterial hosts when they became common and suffering reduced fitness through vertical transmission. Social interactions can thus be an important determinant of evolution for the molecular endosymbionts of bacteria. These results also identify an avenue of evolution that reduces proliferation of both antibiotic resistance genes and their bacterial hosts.

  14. [Chromatographic separation of plasmid DNA by anion-exchange cryogel].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Yun, Junxian; Yao, Kejian

    2012-08-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA) is used as an important vector for gene therapy, and its wide application is restricted by the purity and yield. To obtain high-purity pDNA, a chromatographic method based on anion-exchange supermacroporous cryogel was explored. The anion-exchange cryogel was prepared by grafting diethylaminoethyl-dextran to the epoxide groups of polyacrylamide-based matrix and pUC19 plasmid was used as a target to test the method. The plasmid was transferred into Escherichia coli DH5alpha, cultivated, harvested and lysed. The obtained culture was centrifuged and the supernatant was used as the plasmid feedstock, which was loaded into the anion-exchange cryogel bed for chromatographic separation. By optimizing the pH of running buffer and the elution conditions, high-purity pDNA was obtained by elution with 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride solution at pH 6.6. Compared to the traditional methods for purification of pDNA, animal source enzymes and toxic reagents were not involved in the present separation process, ensuring the safety of both the purification operations and the obtained pDNA. PMID:23185899

  15. Stilbenes reduce Staphylococcus aureus hemolysis, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ryu, Shi Yong; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-09-01

    Stilbenoids have a broad range of beneficial health effects. On the other hand, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus presents a worldwide problem that requires new antibiotics or nonantibiotic strategies. S. aureus produces α-hemolysin (a pore-forming cytotoxin) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and pneumonia. Furthermore, the biofilms formed by S. aureus constitute a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we investigated the hemolytic and antibiofilm activities of 10 stilbene-related compounds against S. aureus. trans-Stilbene and resveratrol at 10 μg/mL were found to markedly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus, and trans-stilbene also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation without affecting its bacterial growth. Furthermore, trans-stilbene and resveratrol attenuated S. aureus virulence in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is normally killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analysis showed that trans-stilbene repressed the α-hemolysin hla gene and the intercellular adhesion locus (icaA and icaD) in S. aureus, and this finding was in line with observed reductions in virulence and biofilm formation. In addition, vitisin B, a stilbenoid tetramer, at 1 μg/mL was observed to significantly inhibit human blood hemolysis by S. aureus.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Matthew M.; Freire, Marcelo O.; Gabrilska, Rebecca A.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Lemon, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe–microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  17. Characterization of the Lactobacillus plantarum plasmid pCD033 and generation of the plasmid free strain L. plantarum 3NSH.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Silvia; Grabherr, Reingard; Heinl, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CD033, a strain isolated from grass silage in Austria, harbors a 7.9 kb plasmid designated pCD033. Sequence analysis identified 14 open reading frames and 8 of these were supposed to be putative coding sequences. Gene annotation revealed no putative essential genes being plasmid encoded, but a plasmid addiction system based on a PemI/PemK-like toxin-antitoxin system, able to stabilize plasmid maintenance. Absence of a replication initiation protein, a double strand origin as well as a single strand origin on plasmid pCD033 suggests replication via a new type of theta mechanism, whereby plasmid replication is potentially initiated and regulated by non-coding RNA. Detailed examination of segregational stability of plasmid vectors consisting of pCD033-fragments, combined with a selection marker, resulted in definition of a stably maintained minimal replicon. A gene encoding a RepB/OrfX-like protein was found to be not essential for plasmid replication. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of this protein with related proteins unveiled a highly conserved amino acid motif (LLDQQQ). L. plantarum CD033 was cured of pCD033 resulting in the novel plasmid free strain L. plantarum 3NSH. Plasmid curing demonstrated that no essential features are provided by pCD033 under laboratory conditions.

  18. Evolution of IncHI1 plasmids: two distinct lineages.

    PubMed

    Cain, Amy K; Hall, Ruth M

    2013-09-01

    The IncHI1 plasmid pSRC27-H from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium carries a region containing several genes that confer resistance to different antibiotics, and this resistance region is in the same position as related resistance regions in a group of sequenced IncHI1 plasmids from various sources that includes pHCM1. Four further additional segments are found in pHCM1 relative to another IncHI1 plasmid, R27. Using PCR or DNA sequencing to detect the presence or absence of each of these additional segments in the same position in the IncHI1 backbone, plasmid pSRC27-H was found to include them. However, in one case the additional segment was smaller in pSRC27-H, lacking a transposon carrying a second resistance region in pHCM1. The sequences of IncHI1 plasmids, pO111_1 and pMAK1, were also examined and found to share the same or closely related additional segments. The structure of the additional material in pHCM1, pO111_1 and pMAK1 was examined, and potential novel transposons were identified. These additional segments define an IncHI1 lineage (pHCM1, pO111_1, pMAK1, pSRC27-H) which we designated type 2 to distinguish it from type 1 (R27, pAKU_1, pP-stx-12). A segment from the Escherichia coli genome and an adjacent copy of IS1 in pHCM1 was defined by comparison to pO111_1 and pMAK1, which lack it. pSRC27-H also lacks it. This structure is present in the same position in R27 and type 1 plasmids, but in the opposite orientation, and appears to have been incorporated via IS1-mediated transposition. The PCRs developed provide a simple means of distinguishing type 1 and type 2 IncHI1 plasmids based on the presence or absence of variable regions.

  19. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 α-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The oriV of this plasmid resides

  20. Nucleotide sequence of a small cryptic plasmid from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain A-6

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2003-10-01

    A 2.1 kb cryptic plasmid from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain A-6 was isolated and cloned into the E. coli vector plasmid, pUC128. The cloned plasmid was mapped by restriction enzyme fragment analysis and subsequently sequenced. At this time over half the plasmid sequence has been determined and compared to sequences in the GenBank nucleotide and protein sequence databases. Much of the plasmid remains cryptic, but substantial nucleotide and protein sequence similarities have been observed to the putative replication protein, RepA, of the small cryptic plasmids pAYS and pAYL found in the ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonas sp. Strain ENI-11. These results suggest an entirely new class of plasmid is maintained in at least one strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and other acidophilic bacteria, and raises interesting questions about the origin of this plasmid in acidic environments.

  1. A Time-Efficient and User-Friendly Method for Plasmid DNA Restriction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank; Berg, Claire M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which plasmid DNA is digested with restriction enzymes that cleave the plasmid either once or twice. The DNA is stained, loaded on a gel, electrophoresed, and viewed under normal laboratory conditions during electrophoresis. (DDR)

  2. Small plasmids in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolated from human infections in southern India and sequence analysis of two novel plasmids.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2015-05-01

    Small plasmids are frequently found in S. pyogenes isolates from human infections in India. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a streptococcal subspecies that is genetically similar to S. pyogenes and has a similar ecology. Therefore, we determined the distribution of small plasmids in a collection of 254 SDSE isolates, comprising 44 different emm-types and emm non-typable strains, from southern India, utilizing an established PCR based method. Briefly, 1.2% (n=3) of the isolates were positive for repA (encoding the replication initiation protein A) and 1.6% (n=4) were repB positive (encoding the replication initiation protein B). One isolate (G315) showed a co-detection of repB and dysA (encoding the bacteriocin dysgalacticin) which is characteristic for previously described pDN281/pW2580-like plasmids, observed in SDSE and S. pyogenes. The remaining plasmid bearing isolates showed no characteristic co-detection of known plasmid-associated genes. Thus, plasmids pG271 and pG279, representatives for repB and repA harboring plasmids, respectively, were analyzed. The plasmids pG271 and pG279 could be assigned to the pMV158 and the pC194/pUB110 family of rolling-circle plasmids, respectively. Like the characterized small native plasmids of S. pyogenes from India, the SDSE plasmids discovered and described in this study did not carry any of the known antibiotic resistance genes. SDSE bore less of the investigated small native plasmids that were distinct from the small native plasmids of S. pyogenes of the same geographic region. This indicates a low rate of lateral transfer of these genetic elements between these two related streptococcal species.

  3. A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Patti, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    This current presentation describes the in vitro and in vivo characterization of Aurexis (tefibazumab), a humanized monoclonal antibody that exhibits a high affinity and specificity and for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM (Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules) protein ClfA. Aurexis inhibited ClfA binding to human fibrinogen, and enhanced the opsonophagocytic uptake of ClfA-coated beads. Preclinical in vivo testing revealed that a single administration of Aurexis significantly protected against an IV challenge with a methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain in murine septicemia and rabbit infective endocarditis (IE) models. Safety and pharmacokinetic data from a 19-patient phase I study support continued evaluation of Aurexis in phase II studies. PMID:15576200

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Clumping Factor A Remains a Viable Vaccine Target for Prevention of S. aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Ingrid L.; Buurman, Ed T.; Eiden, Joseph; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a recent article, X. Li et al. [mBio 7(1):e02232-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02232-15] investigate the utility of a vaccine composed of the Staphylococcus aureus protein clumping factor A (ClfA) in protecting mice from S. aureus infection. ClfA, one of the first proteins to be identified as a potential vaccine antigen for S. aureus prophylaxis, is currently a component of several investigational vaccines. The authors conclude that ClfA may not be effective for S. aureus prophylaxis. In contrast, previously published papers reporting positive data suggested that ClfA was potentially an important vaccine target to prevent invasive S. aureus disease. This commentary addresses the observed differences between the findings of Li et al. and those from other publications, highlighting the importance for preclinical vaccine antigen assessments to reflect the biological role of said antigen in virulence and, consequently, the importance of choosing appropriate preclinical disease models to test such antigens. PMID:26956591

  5. Description of a 2,683-Base-Pair Plasmid Containing qnrD in Two Providencia rettgeri Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Cambau, Emmanuelle; Neuwirth, Catherine; Nenninger, Thomas; Mbadi, Aurore; Brasme, Lucien; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Bajolet, Odile; de Champs, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    qnr genes are plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes mainly harbored on large conjugative multiresistant plasmids. The qnrD gene was recently observed in Salmonella enterica on a small nonconjugative plasmid (p2007057). We describe two strains of Providencia rettgeri harboring qnrD on nonconjugative plasmids. The plasmids were 99% identical, with 2,683 bp and four open reading frames, including qnrD, but exhibited only 53% identity with the plasmid found in S. enterica. PMID:21986831

  6. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samples were isolated and the Gram-negative bacteria were identified using phenotypic method and API 20E System. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile were determined by standard Agar disc diffusion and plasmid spin column extraction methods. Results: Totally 117 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, the most common were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (37.6%), P. fluorescens (25.6%), Acinetobacter baumanii (20/5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.6%), respectively. The isolates showed high frequency of antibiotic resistance against ceftazidime and co-amoxiclave (100%) and low frequency of antibiotic resistance against amikacin with (70%).The results indicated that 60% of the isolates harboured plasmid. On the other hand, the patients infected with A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa were cured (with 60% frequency) whereas, those infected with P. fluorescens were not cured. Hence, probably antibiotic resistance markers of A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa are plasmid mediated; however, P. fluorescens is chromosomally mediated. Conclusions: Based on our findings, P. aerugionsa is a major causative agent of wound infections and amikacin could be considered as a more effective antibiotic for treatment of the burned patients. PMID:25789121

  7. Plasmid copy number underlies adaptive mutability in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sano, Emiko; Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Aboubechara, John Paul; Quiñones-Soto, Semarhy; Roth, John R

    2014-11-01

    The origin of mutations under selection has been intensively studied using the Cairns-Foster system, in which cells of an Escherichia coli lac mutant are plated on lactose and give rise to 100 Lac+ revertants over several days. These revertants have been attributed variously to stress-induced mutagenesis of nongrowing cells or to selective improvement of preexisting weakly Lac+ cells with no mutagenesis. Most revertant colonies (90%) contain stably Lac+ cells, while others (10%) contain cells with an unstable amplification of the leaky mutant lac allele. Evidence is presented that both stable and unstable Lac+ revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells with multiple copies of the F'lac plasmid, which carries the mutant lac allele. The tetracycline analog anhydrotetracycline (AnTc) inhibits growth of cells with multiple copies of the tetA gene. Populations with tetA on their F'lac plasmid include rare cells with an elevated plasmid copy number and multiple copies of both the tetA and lac genes. Pregrowth of such populations with AnTc reduces the number of cells with multiple F'lac copies and consequently the number of Lac+ colonies appearing under selection. Revertant yield is restored rapidly by a few generations of growth without AnTc. We suggest that preexisting cells with multiple F'lac copies divide very little under selection but have enough energy to replicate their F'lac plasmids repeatedly until reversion initiates a stable Lac+ colony. Preexisting cells whose high-copy plasmid includes an internal lac duplication grow under selection and produce an unstable Lac+ colony. In this model, all revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells and cannot be stress induced. PMID:25173846

  8. Supercoiling, knotting and replication fork reversal in partially replicated plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Olavarrieta, L.; Martínez-Robles, M. L.; Sogo, J. M.; Stasiak, A.; Hernández, P.; Krimer, D. B.; Schvartzman, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    To study the structure of partially replicated plasmids, we cloned the Escherichia coli polar replication terminator TerE in its active orientation at different locations in the ColE1 vector pBR18. The resulting plasmids, pBR18-TerE@StyI and pBR18-TerE@EcoRI, were analyzed by neutral/neutral two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Replication forks stop at the Ter–TUS complex, leading to the accumulation of specific replication intermediates with a mass 1.26 times the mass of non-replicating plasmids for pBR18-TerE@StyI and 1.57 times for pBR18-TerE@EcoRI. The number of knotted bubbles detected after digestion with ScaI and the number and electrophoretic mobility of undigested partially replicated topoisomers reflect the changes in plasmid topology that occur in DNA molecules replicated to different extents. Exposure to increasing concentrations of chloroquine or ethidium bromide revealed that partially replicated topoisomers (CCCRIs) do not sustain positive supercoiling as efficiently as their non-replicating counterparts. It was suggested that this occurs because in partially replicated plasmids a positive ΔLk is absorbed by regression of the replication fork. Indeed, we showed by electron microscopy that, at least in the presence of chloroquine, some of the CCCRIs of pBR18-Ter@StyI formed Holliday-like junction structures characteristic of reversed forks. However, not all the positive supercoiling was absorbed by fork reversal in the presence of high concentrations of ethidium bromide. PMID:11809877

  9. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to

  10. GeneGuard: A modular plasmid system designed for biosafety.

    PubMed

    Wright, Oliver; Delmans, Mihails; Stan, Guy-Bart; Ellis, Tom

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology applications in biosensing, bioremediation, and biomining envision the use of engineered microbes beyond a contained laboratory. Deployment of such microbes in the environment raises concerns of unchecked cellular proliferation or unwanted spread of synthetic genes. While antibiotic-resistant plasmids are the most utilized vectors for introducing synthetic genes into bacteria, they are also inherently insecure, acting naturally to propagate DNA from one cell to another. To introduce security into bacterial synthetic biology, we here took on the task of completely reformatting plasmids to be dependent on their intended host strain and inherently disadvantageous for others. Using conditional origins of replication, rich-media compatible auxotrophies, and toxin-antitoxin pairs we constructed a mutually dependent host-plasmid platform, called GeneGuard. In this, replication initiators for the R6K or ColE2-P9 origins are provided in trans by a specified host, whose essential thyA or dapA gene is translocated from a genomic to a plasmid location. This reciprocal arrangement is stable for at least 100 generations without antibiotic selection and is compatible for use in LB medium and soil. Toxin genes ζ or Kid are also employed in an auxiliary manner to make the vector disadvantageous for strains not expressing their antitoxins. These devices, in isolation and in concert, severely reduce unintentional plasmid propagation in E. coli and B. subtilis and do not disrupt the intended E. coli host's growth dynamics. Our GeneGuard system comprises several versions of modular cargo-ready vectors, along with their requisite genomic integration cassettes, and is demonstrated here as an efficient vector for heavy-metal biosensors.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus persisters tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Sabrina; Lewis, Kim; Bertram, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are non- or slow-growing reversible phenotypic variants of the wild type, tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics. We analyzed here Staphylococcus aureus persister levels by monitoring colony-forming unit counts of planktonically grown cells treated with six different antimicrobials over time. The model laboratory strains HG001-HG003, SA113 and the small colony variant (SCV) strains hemB and menD were challenged by the compounds at different logs of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in exponential or stationary growth phase. Antibiotic tolerance was usually elevated in SCV strains compared to normally growing cells and in stationary versus exponential phase cultures. Biphasic killing kinetics, typical for persister cell enrichment, were observed in both growth phases under different selective conditions. Treatment of exponential phase cultures of HG001-HG003 with 10-fold MIC of tobramycin resulted in the isolation of persisters which upon cultivation on plates formed either normal or phenotypically stable small colonies. Trajectories of different killing curves indicated physiological heterogeneity within persister subpopulations. Daptomycin added at 100-fold MIC to stationary phase SA113 cells rapidly isolated very robust persisters. Fractions of antibiotic-tolerant cells were observed with all S. aureus strains and mutants tested. Our results refute the hypothesis that S. aureus stationary phase cells are equivalent to persisters, as not all of these cells showed antibiotic tolerance. Isolation of S. aureus persisters of different robustness seems to depend on the kind and concentration of the antibiotic, as well as on the strain used. PMID:22986269

  12. [Ecthyma gangrenosum caused by Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Jaque, Alejandra; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Dossi, María Teresa; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Araos-Baeriswyl, Esteban; Monsalve, Ximena

    2016-06-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is an uncommon necrotizing vasculitis, in most cases secondary to sepsis by Pseudo-mona aeruginosa in immunocompromised patients. However, there have been several reports of ecthyma gangre-nosum caused by other infectious etiologies. We report an unusual case of ecthyma gangrenosum associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a patient without the classic immunological risk factors described in the literature. PMID:27598286

  13. Virulence genes promote conjugative transfer of the Ti plasmid between Agrobacterium strains.

    PubMed Central

    Steck, T R; Kado, C I

    1990-01-01

    Certain virulence region operons of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid promoted conjugative Ti plasmid transfer. Mutations in the vir region of pTiC58 inhibited conjugative plasmid transfer between A. tumefaciens strains. Mutations in virA, virG, 5' virB, and virE had the greatest effect on plasmid transfer, and mutations in virC had no effect. Transfer inhibition in vir mutants occurred in the presence or absence of acetosyringone. PMID:2318813

  14. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp.

  15. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher F; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-05-05

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery.

  16. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Christopher F.; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery. PMID:27164142

  17. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. PMID:25687923

  18. Plasmid vectors for Xylella fastidiosa utilizing a toxin-antitoxin system for plasmid stability in the absence of antibiotic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacte...

  19. Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus Agar Medium to Conventional Media for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Flayhart, Diane; Lema, Clara; Borek, Anita; Carroll, Karen C.

    2004-01-01

    Screening for Staphylococcus aureus has become routine in certain patient populations. This study is the first clinical evaluation of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar (CSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, Md.) for detection of S. aureus in nasal surveillance cultures and in respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. S. aureus colonies appear mauve on CSA. Other organisms are inhibited or produce a distinctly different colony color. S. aureus was identified from all media by slide coagulase, exogenous DNase, and mannitol fermentation assays. Susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. A total of 679 samples were evaluated. All samples were inoculated onto CSA. Nasal surveillance cultures were inoculated onto sheep blood agar (SBA) (BD Diagnostics), and samples from CF patients were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar (MSA) (BD Diagnostics). Of the 679 samples cultured, 200 organisms produced a mauve color on CSA (suspicious for S. aureus) and 180 were positive for S. aureus on SBA or MSA. Of 200 CSA-positive samples 191 were identified as S. aureus. Nine mauve colonies were slide coagulase negative and were subsequently identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis (one), Staphylococcus epidermidis (three), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one), and Corynebacterium species (four). CSA improved the ability to detect S. aureus by recovering 12 S. aureus isolates missed by conventional media. Of the 192 S. aureus isolates recovered, 122 were methicillin susceptible and 70 were methicillin resistant. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in this study were 99.5 and 98%, respectively. There was no difference in the performance of the slide coagulase test or in susceptibility testing performed on S. aureus recovered from CSA compared to SBA or MSA. Our data support the use of CSA in place of standard culture media for detection of S. aureus in heavily contaminated respiratory samples. PMID:15297498

  20. Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar medium to conventional media for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in respiratory samples.

    PubMed

    Flayhart, Diane; Lema, Clara; Borek, Anita; Carroll, Karen C

    2004-08-01

    Screening for Staphylococcus aureus has become routine in certain patient populations. This study is the first clinical evaluation of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar (CSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, Md.) for detection of S. aureus in nasal surveillance cultures and in respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. S. aureus colonies appear mauve on CSA. Other organisms are inhibited or produce a distinctly different colony color. S. aureus was identified from all media by slide coagulase, exogenous DNase, and mannitol fermentation assays. Susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. A total of 679 samples were evaluated. All samples were inoculated onto CSA. Nasal surveillance cultures were inoculated onto sheep blood agar (SBA) (BD Diagnostics), and samples from CF patients were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar (MSA) (BD Diagnostics). Of the 679 samples cultured, 200 organisms produced a mauve color on CSA (suspicious for S. aureus) and 180 were positive for S. aureus on SBA or MSA. Of 200 CSA-positive samples 191 were identified as S. aureus. Nine mauve colonies were slide coagulase negative and were subsequently identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis (one), Staphylococcus epidermidis (three), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one), and Corynebacterium species (four). CSA improved the ability to detect S. aureus by recovering 12 S. aureus isolates missed by conventional media. Of the 192 S. aureus isolates recovered, 122 were methicillin susceptible and 70 were methicillin resistant. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in this study were 99.5 and 98%, respectively. There was no difference in the performance of the slide coagulase test or in susceptibility testing performed on S. aureus recovered from CSA compared to SBA or MSA. Our data support the use of CSA in place of standard culture media for detection of S. aureus in heavily contaminated respiratory samples.

  1. Chromosome and Plasmids of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Agent Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Borrelia hermsii bears its multiple paralogous genes for variable antigens on several linear plasmids. Application of combined long-read and short-read next-generation sequencing provided complete sequences for antigen-encoding plasmids as well as other linear and circular plasmids and the linear chromosome of the genome. PMID:27284141

  2. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  3. Mix and match of KPC-2 encoding plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae-comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Chmelnitsky, Inna; Shklyar, Maya; Leavitt, Azita; Sadovsky, Evgeniya; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Ben Dalak, Maayan; Edgar, Rotem; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2014-06-01

    We performed comparative sequence analysis of 3 blaKPC-2 encoding plasmids to examine evolution of these plasmids and their dissemination. We found that all of them have an IncN replicon with a newly determined IncN plasmid sequence type (ST), ST15. The 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPN) plasmids also harbor an IncF2A1-B1- replicon. The blaKPC-2 is located in the Tn4401c transposon with a newly discovered mutation in the P2 promoter. Screening of the 27 additional blaKPC-2 carrying plasmids from Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli (EC), and K. pneumoniae showed that: all KPN and EC plasmids are IncN plasmids belonging to ST15; 4/7 KPN and 1/6 EC plasmids contain an additional IncF2A1-B1- replicon; all Enterobacter plasmids belong to neither IncN nor IncF2A1-B1- replicon plasmids; 6/7 KPN and 2/5 EC plasmids carry the mutated P2 promoter. Study of the blaKPC-2 environment, transposon, pMLST, and Inc group suggests transposon and plasmid inter- and intra-species dissemination and evolution.

  4. Approaches to investigating the ecology of plasmids in marine bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Sobecky, Patricia A

    2002-11-01

    To better understand prokaryotic gene flux in marine ecosystems and to determine whether or not environmental parameters can effect the composition and structure of plasmid populations in marine bacterial communities, information on the distribution, diversity, and ecological traits of marine plasmids is necessary. This mini-review highlights recent insights gained into the molecular diversity and ecology of plasmids occurring in marine microbial communities.

  5. Plasmid-chromosome recombination of irradiated shuttle vector DNA in African Green Monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mudgett, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double-strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp/sup r/ recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome.

  6. Controlling meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: not simply meticillin-resistant S. aureus revisited.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Lucet, J-C

    2013-05-01

    Despite a large body of work evaluating the ability of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and decolonization to decrease the risk of MRSA infection and transmission, many uncertainties remain regarding the efficacy of this strategy in hospitals located in endemic areas. With meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), the objective is simply to eradicate the organism in order to diminish the risk of infection. MSSA decolonization was recently found to be effective in high-risk clean surgery, where the intervention was cost-effective and cost-saving. The many unanswered issues include the role for rapid screening tests, the optimal decolonization regimen, the indication for decolonization in other situations at risk, the frequency of replacement of S. aureus infections with infections due to other micro-organisms, and the risk of emergence of mupirocin resistance. PMID:23523159

  7. Bacillithiol: a key protective thiol in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Perera, Varahenage R; Newton, Gerald L; Pogliano, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Bacillithiol is a low-molecular-weight thiol analogous to glutathione and is found in several Firmicutes, including Staphylococcus aureus. Since its discovery in 2009, bacillithiol has been a topic of interest because it has been found to contribute to resistance during oxidative stress and detoxification of electrophiles, such as the antibiotic fosfomycin, in S. aureus. The rapid increase in resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to available therapeutic agents is a great health concern, and many research efforts are focused on identifying new drugs and targets to combat this organism. This review describes the discovery of bacillithiol, studies that have elucidated the physiological roles of this molecule in S. aureus and other Bacilli, and the contribution of bacillithiol to S. aureus fitness during pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacillithiol biosynthesis pathway is evaluated as a novel drug target that can be utilized in combination with existing therapies to treat S. aureus infections.

  8. Novel antibody-antibiotic conjugate eliminates intracellular S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Lehar, Sophie M; Pillow, Thomas; Xu, Min; Staben, Leanna; Kajihara, Kimberly K; Vandlen, Richard; DePalatis, Laura; Raab, Helga; Hazenbos, Wouter L; Morisaki, J Hiroshi; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Darwish, Martine; Lee, Byoung-Chul; Hernandez, Hilda; Loyet, Kelly M; Lupardus, Patrick; Fong, Rina; Yan, Donghong; Chalouni, Cecile; Luis, Elizabeth; Khalfin, Yana; Plise, Emile; Cheong, Jonathan; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Strandh, Magnus; Koefoed, Klaus; Andersen, Peter S; Flygare, John A; Wah Tan, Man; Brown, Eric J; Mariathasan, Sanjeev

    2015-11-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is considered to be an extracellular pathogen. However, survival of S. aureus within host cells may provide a reservoir relatively protected from antibiotics, thus enabling long-term colonization of the host and explaining clinical failures and relapses after antibiotic therapy. Here we confirm that intracellular reservoirs of S. aureus in mice comprise a virulent subset of bacteria that can establish infection even in the presence of vancomycin, and we introduce a novel therapeutic that effectively kills intracellular S. aureus. This antibody-antibiotic conjugate consists of an anti-S. aureus antibody conjugated to a highly efficacious antibiotic that is activated only after it is released in the proteolytic environment of the phagolysosome. The antibody-antibiotic conjugate is superior to vancomycin for treatment of bacteraemia and provides direct evidence that intracellular S. aureus represents an important component of invasive infections. PMID:26536114

  9. Magnetic nanoparticle targeted hyperthermia of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Yamayoshi, Itsukyo; Mathew, Steven; Lin, Hubert; Nayfach, Joseph; Simon, Scott I

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of wound infections that do not adequately respond to standard-of-care antimicrobial treatment has been increasing. To address this challenge, a novel antimicrobial magnetic thermotherapy platform has been developed in which a high-amplitude, high-frequency, alternating magnetic field is used to rapidly heat magnetic nanoparticles that are bound to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antimicrobial efficacy of this platform was evaluated in the treatment of both an in vitro culture model of S. aureus biofilm and a mouse model of cutaneous S. aureus infection. We demonstrated that an antibody-targeted magnetic nanoparticle bound to S. aureus was effective at thermally inactivating S. aureus and achieving accelerated wound healing without causing tissue injury.

  10. Health care-associated Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Duncan; Chui, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Marrie, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION While Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon but serious cause of traditional community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), it is a predominant cause of nosocomial pneumonia in addition to the unique clinical entity of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). A cohort of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases was reviewed to determine the role of HCAP among the cohort, and to assess for differences between CAP and HCAP. PATIENTS AND METHODS Bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases were identified from a prospective study of all patients diagnosed with CAP who presented to hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, between November 2000 and November 2002. These cases were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were obtained, and patients were classified as having CAP or HCAP. Relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis in conjunction with epidemiological information. RESULTS There were 28 cases of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia identified. Fifty-seven per cent were reclassified as having HCAP, and 43% remained classified as having CAP. The CAP cohort was significantly younger than the HCAP cohort (mean age 49.0±23.7 years versus 67.8±18.6 years; P=0.035) with higher rates of intravenous drug use (50% versus 0%; P=0.002). Long-term care facility residence (44%) was common in the HCAP cohort. The HCAP cohort presented with more severe illness, having a higher mean pneumonia severity index score (143.1±41.1 versus 98.2±54.6; P=0.028), and despite fewer embolic complications, there was a trend toward a significantly higher mortality rate (31% versus 0%; P=0.052). Two community-acquired isolates cultured in the setting of intravenous drug use were methicillin-resistant, and no isolates were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. There was evidence of relatedness involving 44% of the HCAP isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSION HCAP accounts for a significant number of

  11. Isolation of a novel plasmid from Couchioplanes caeruleus and construction of two plasmid vectors for gene expression in Actinoplanes missouriensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moon-Sun; Fujita, Azusa; Ikawa, Satomi; Hanawa, Keitaro; Yamamura, Hideki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Tezuka, Takeaki; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    To date, no plasmid vector has been developed for the rare actinomycete Actinoplanes missouriensis. Moreover, no small circular plasmid has been reported to exist in the genus Actinoplanes. Here, a novel plasmid, designated pCAZ1, was isolated from Couchioplanes caeruleus subsp. azureus via screening for small circular plasmids in Actinoplanes (57 strains) and Couchioplanes (2 strains). Nucleotide sequencing revealed that pCAZ1 is a 5845-bp circular molecule with a G + C content of 67.5%. The pCAZ1 copy number was estimated at 30 per chromosome. pCAZ1 contains seven putative open reading frames, one of which encodes a protein containing three motifs conserved among plasmid-encoded replication proteins that are involved in the rolling-circle mechanism of replication. Detection of single-stranded DNA intermediates in C. caeruleus confirmed that pCAZ1 replicates by this mechanism. The ColE1 origin from pBluescript SK(+) and the oriT sequence with the apramycin resistance gene aac(3)IV from pIJ773 were inserted together into pCAZ1, to construct the Escherichia coli-A. missouriensis shuttle vectors, pCAM1 and pCAM2, in which the foreign DNA fragment was inserted into pCAZ1 in opposite directions. pCAM1 and pCAM2 were successfully transferred to A. missouriensis through the E. coli-mediated conjugative transfer system. The copy numbers of pCAM1 and pCAM2 in A. missouriensis were estimated to be one and four per chromosome, respectively. Thus, these vectors can be used as effective genetic tools for homologous and heterologous gene expression studies in A. missouriensis.

  12. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R; Kennedy, Adam D; Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and, unexpectedly, uptake of S. aureus by adherent neutrophils occurred efficiently in the absence of opsonins. An antibody specific for S. aureus promoted uptake of unopsonized bacteria in suspension, but had little or no capacity to enhance phagocytosis of S. aureus opsonized with normal human serum or by adherent neutrophils. Collectively, these results indicate that assay conditions can have a significant influence on the phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by neutrophils. More importantly, the results suggest a vaccine approach directed to enhance opsonophagocytosis alone is not sufficient to promote increased killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. With the emergence and reemergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, establishing parameters that are optimal for studying neutrophil-S. aureus interactions will pave the way towards developing immune-directed strategies for anti-staphylococcal therapies.

  13. High salivary Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate among healthy paedodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Boss, Maurizio; Messano, Giuseppe A; Protano, Carmela; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can be responsible for oral and dental healthcare-associated infections. Patients with high salivary S. aureus levels are potential sources of infection, because saliva is spread in the environment during dental therapy. This study assessed the salivary S. aureus carriage rate in 97 children (6-12 years) in good general health, attending a paedodontic department. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected, S. aureus was presumptively identified. The salivary carriage rate was 43% (95% confidence interval, 33%-53%). 6.2% children harboured levels >103 colony forming units/mL. These data suggest that the risk for environmental contamination and infection in dental healthcare settings could be high.

  14. Superantigens Modulate Bacterial Density during Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Stacey X.; Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; McCormick, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are potent microbial toxins that function to activate large numbers of T cells in a T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ-specific manner, resulting in excessive immune system activation. Staphylococcus aureus possesses a large repertoire of distinct SAgs, and in the context of host-pathogen interactions, staphylococcal SAg research has focused primarily on the role of these toxins in severe and invasive diseases. However, the contribution of SAgs to colonization by S. aureus remains unclear. We developed a two-week nasal colonization model using SAg-sensitive transgenic mice expressing HLA-DR4, and evaluated the role of SAgs using two well-studied stains of S. aureus. S. aureus Newman produces relatively low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and although we did not detect significant TCR-Vβ specific changes during wild-type S. aureus Newman colonization, S. aureus Newman Δsea established transiently higher bacterial loads in the nose. S. aureus COL produces relatively high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and colonization with wild-type S. aureus COL resulted in clear Vβ8-specific T cell skewing responses. S. aureus COL Δseb established consistently higher bacterial loads in the nose. These data suggest that staphylococcal SAgs may be involved in regulating bacterial densities during nasal colonization. PMID:26008236

  15. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on tampons and menses components.

    PubMed

    Veeh, Richard H; Shirtliff, Mark E; Petik, Jill R; Flood, Janine A; Davis, Catherine C; Seymour, Jon L; Hansmann, Melanie A; Kerr, Kathy M; Pasmore, Mark E; Costerton, John W

    2003-08-15

    Culturing has detected vaginal Staphylococcus aureus in 10%-20% of women. Because growth mode can affect virulence expression, this study examined S. aureus-biofilm occurrence in 44 paired-tampon and vaginal-wash-specimens from 18 prescreened women, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). All 44 specimens were also analyzed for S. aureus by standard culturing on mannitol salt agar, which produced positive results for 15 of the 44 specimens. FISH detected S. aureus cells in all 44 specimens, and S. aureus biofilm was observed in 37 of the 44 specimens. Independent confirmation of the presence of S. aureus in specimens from all 18 women was also obtained by amplification, via polymerase chain reaction, of an S. aureus-specific nuclease gene. The results of this study demonstrate that S. aureus biofilm can form on tampons and menses components in vivo. Additionally, the prevalence of vaginal S. aureus carriage may be more prevalent than what is currently demonstrated by standard culturing techniques.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus in Acne Pathogenesis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khorvash, Farzin; Abdi, Fatemeh; Kashani, Hessam H.; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Narimani, Tahmineh

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence which suggests a possible pathogenetic role for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in acne vulgaris. Aim: The study was to determine S. aureus colonization and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in patients with acne and of healthy people. Materials and Methods: In the case-control study, a total of 324 people were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus: 166 acne patients and 158 healthy persons. One control subject was individually matched to one case. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of individuals were cultured and identified as S. aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed with recognized laboratory techniques. Results: S. aureus was detected in 21.7% of the subjects in acne, and in 26.6% of control groups. There was no statistical difference in colonization rates between two groups (P=0.3). In patient group, most of S. aureus isolates were resistant to doxicycline and tetracycline (P=0.001), and were more sensitive to rifampicin compared to other drugs. In control samples, the isolated demonstrated higher resistance to cotrimoxazole compared to patient samples (P=0.0001). There was no difference between groups regarding resistance to rifampicin, vancomycin, methicillin, and oxacillin. Conclusion: It is still unclear whether S. aureus is actually a causal agent in the pathogenesis of acne. Based on microbiological data of both healthy and acne-affected persons, we propose that contribution of S. aureus in acne pathogenesis is controversial. PMID:23181229

  17. The stb Operon Balances the Requirements for Vegetative Stability and Conjugative Transfer of Plasmid R388

    PubMed Central

    Guynet, Catherine; Cuevas, Ana; Moncalián, Gabriel; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The conjugative plasmid R388 and a number of other plasmids carry an operon, stbABC, adjacent to the origin of conjugative transfer. We investigated the role of the stbA, stbB, and stbC genes. Deletion of stbA affected both conjugation and stability. It led to a 50-fold increase in R388 transfer frequency, as well as to high plasmid loss. In contrast, deletion of stbB abolished conjugation but provoked no change in plasmid stability. Deletion of stbC showed no effect, neither in conjugation nor in stability. Deletion of the entire stb operon had no effect on conjugation, which remained as in the wild-type plasmid, but led to a plasmid loss phenotype similar to that of the R388ΔstbA mutant. We concluded that StbA is required for plasmid stability and that StbA and StbB control conjugation. We next observed the intracellular positioning of R388 DNA molecules and showed that they localize as discrete foci evenly distributed in live Escherichia coli cells. Plasmid instability of the R388ΔΔstbA mutant correlated with aberrant localization of the plasmid DNA molecules as clusters, either at one cell pole, at both poles, or at the cell center. In contrast, plasmid molecules in the R388ΔΔstbB mutant were mostly excluded from the cell poles. Thus, results indicate that defects in both plasmid maintenance and transfer are a consequence of variations in the intracellular positioning of plasmid DNA. We propose that StbA and StbB constitute an atypical plasmid stabilization system that reconciles two modes of plasmid R388 physiology: a maintenance mode (replication and segregation) and a propagation mode (conjugation). The consequences of this novel concept in plasmid physiology will be discussed. PMID:21625564

  18. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudgett, John Stuart

    1987-09-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  19. Parallel compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism continuum.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ellie; Guymer, David; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Plasmids drive genomic diversity in bacteria via horizontal gene transfer [1, 2]; nevertheless, explaining their survival in bacterial populations is challenging [3]. Theory predicts that irrespective of their net fitness effects, plasmids should be lost: when parasitic (costs outweigh benefits), plasmids should decline due to purifying selection [4-6], yet under mutualism (benefits outweigh costs), selection favors the capture of beneficial accessory genes by the chromosome and loss of the costly plasmid backbone [4]. While compensatory evolution can enhance plasmid stability within populations [7-15], the propensity for this to occur across the parasitism-mutualism continuum is unknown. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and its mercury resistance mega-plasmid, pQBR103 [16], across an environment-mediated parasitism-mutualism continuum. Compensatory evolution stabilized plasmids by rapidly ameliorating the cost of plasmid carriage in all environments. Genomic analysis revealed that, in both parasitic and mutualistic treatments, evolution repeatedly targeted the gacA/gacS bacterial two-component global regulatory system while leaving the plasmid sequence intact. Deletion of either gacA or gacS was sufficient to completely ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage. Mutation of gacA/gacS downregulated the expression of ∼17% of chromosomal and plasmid genes and appears to have relieved the translational demand imposed by the plasmid. Chromosomal capture of mercury resistance accompanied by plasmid loss occurred throughout the experiment but very rarely invaded to high frequency, suggesting that rapid compensatory evolution can limit this process. Compensatory evolution can explain the widespread occurrence of plasmids and allows bacteria to retain horizontally acquired plasmids even in environments where their accessory genes are not immediately useful.

  20. Transcriptional regulation by TrsN of conjugative transfer genes on staphylococcal plasmid pGO1.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V K; Johnston, J L; Morton, T M; Archer, G L

    1994-01-01

    The major conjugative transfer gene cluster of staphylococcal plasmid pGO1 (trs) consists of 13 open reading frames (trsA to trsM) transcribed from one DNA strand and a single 189-bp open reading frame (trsN) within the first 348 bp of trs that is transcribed divergently. Promoter regions for trsN and trsA partially overlap. TrsN, a 7,181-Da protein, was purified as a fusion to glutathione S-transferase and found to have DNA-binding activity. Increasing concentrations of the fusion protein progressively retarded the gel migration of PCR-generated DNA fragments containing predicted promoters 5' to trsL, trsA, and trsN. The target sequences contained areas of identity, including regions of dyad symmetry, that were protected in DNase I footprinting studies. The binding of TrsN to its trsL target was required for this target DNA to be stably introduced into Staphylococcus aureus on a high-copy-number vector. Provision of excess TrsN from this high-copy-number vector in S. aureus decreased beta-galactosidase activity from a trsL-lacZ transcriptional fusion and decreased pGO1 conjugation frequency. Conversely, both transcription and conjugation increased in the presence of excess trsL target. We propose that TrsN negatively regulates the transcription of genes essential for conjugative transfer by binding to regions 5' to their translational start sites. Images PMID:8206820

  1. Complete sequence of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4 environmental isolate and comparison with related plasmids from the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Ariel F; Benintende, Graciela B; Zandomeni, Rubén O

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen used worldwide as a bioinsecticide. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group as well as Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. Plasmids from this group of organisms have been implicated in pathogenicity as they carry the genes responsible for different types of diseases that affect mammals and insects. Some plasmids, like pAW63 and pBT9727, encode a functional conjugation machinery allowing them to be transferred to a recipient cell. They also share extensive homology with the non-functional conjugation apparatus of pXO2 from B. anthracis. In this study we report the complete sequence of three plasmids from an environmental B. thuringiensis isolate from Argentina, obtained by a shotgun sequencing method. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pFR12 (12,095bp), pFR12.5 (12,459bp) and pFR55 (55,712bp) from B. thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4. pFR12 and pFR12.5 were classified as cryptic as they do not code for any obvious functions besides replication and mobilization. Both small plasmids were classified as RCR plasmids due to similarities with the replicases they encode. Plasmid pFR55 showed a structural organization similar to that observed for plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. pFR55 also shares a tra region with these plasmids, containing genes related to T4SS and conjugation. A comparison between pFR55 and conjugative plasmids led to the postulation that pFR55 is a conjugative plasmid. Genes related to replication functions in pFR55 are different to those described for plasmids with known complete sequences. pFR55 is the first completely sequenced plasmid with a replication machinery related to that of ori44. The analysis of the complete sequence of plasmids from an environmental isolate of B. thuringiensis permitted the identification of a near complete conjugation apparatus in pFR55, resembling those of plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. The availability of this sequence is a step forward in the study

  2. Incidence of Plasmids in Marine Vibrio spp. Isolated from an Oil Field in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Howard S.; Sizemore, Ronald K.

    1981-01-01

    Presumptive marine Vibrio spp. were collected from an operational oil field and control site located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Of 440 isolates analyzed for the presence of extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid elements or plasmids by using the cleared lysate and agarose gel techniques, 31% showed distinct plasmid bands on agarose gels. A majority of the plasmids detected were estimated to have molecular masses of 10 × 106 or less. Multiple plasmids were observed in approximately half of the plasmid-containing strains. A number of isolates contained plasmids with similar banding and mobility patterns. The oil field area had noticeably more plasmid-containing strains (35 versus 23% in the control site) and a greater number of plasmids per plasmid-containing strain (an average of 2.5 plasmids, versus 1.5 in the control site). Oil field discharges might have resulted in increased plasmid incidence and diversity. Images PMID:16345685

  3. [Plasmids of streptomycetes strains isolated from soils of Ukraine with different anthropogenic loading].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianchuk, V V; Polishchuk, L V; Matseliukh, B P

    2010-01-01

    Screening of plasmid DNA was carried out among 94 streptomycetes cultures which were isolated from the samples of Ukrainian soils with different anthropogenic contamination. Seventeen streptomycetes strains containing plasmid DNA were found. It is established that some cultures contain more than one plasmid (Streptomyces sp.M15, S.sp.T8, S.sp.T19). Depending on a molecular sizes the found plasmids were divided in 2 groups: 3 kb-15 kb, and 30 kb-70 kb. Research of a few morphological and physiological properties of plasmid strains of streptomycetes was carried out. The paper is presented in Ukrainian. PMID:21117293

  4. Bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus efficiently package various bacterial genes and mobile genetic elements including SCCmec with different frequencies.

    PubMed

    Mašlaňová, Ivana; Doškař, Jiří; Varga, Marian; Kuntová, Lucie; Mužík, Jan; Malúšková, Denisa; Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human and veterinary pathogen in which new strains with increasing virulence and antimicrobial resistance occur due to acquiring new genes by horizontal transfer. It is generally accepted that temperate bacteriophages play a major role in gene transfer. In this study, we proved the presence of various bacterial genes of the S. aureus COL strain directly within the phage particles via qPCR and quantified their packaging frequency. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that transducing bacteriophages φ11, φ80 and φ80α of serogroup B, in contrast to serogroup A bacteriophage φ81, efficiently package selected chromosomal genes localized in 4 various loci of the chromosome and 8 genes carried on variable elements, such as staphylococcal cassette chromosome SCCmec, staphylococcal pathogenicity island SaPI1, genomic islands vSaα and vSaβ, and plasmids with various frequency. Bacterial gene copy number per ng of DNA isolated from phage particles ranged between 1.05 × 10(2) for the tetK plasmid gene and 3.86 × 10(5) for the SaPI1 integrase gene. The new and crucial finding that serogroup B bacteriophages can package concurrently ccrA1 (1.16 × 10(4)) and mecA (1.26 × 10(4)) located at SCCmec type I into their capsids indicates that generalized transduction plays an important role in the evolution and emergence of new methicillin-resistant clones.

  5. Hybridization studies with a DNA probe derived from the virulence region of the 60 Mdal plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C; Curtiss, R; Gulig, P A; Gyles, C L

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid DNA of 68 strains of Salmonella that belonged to 18 serovars and exhibited 48 different plasmid profiles was examined for hybridization with a 32P-labelled DNA probe which consisted of a 3750 base pairs (bp) HindIII-HindIII fragment derived from the virulence region of the 60 megadalton (Mdal) plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. The 32 Mdal plasmid of S. cholerae-suis, the 50 Mdal plasmid of S. dublin, the 36 Mdal plasmid of S. enteritidis, the 60 Mdal plasmid of S. gallinarum, the 60 Mdal plasmid of S. pullorum, and the 60 Mdal plasmid of S. typhimurium, plasmids that have been associated with virulence, all hybridized with the probe. Digestion of plasmid DNA of these strains with PvuII and hybridization with the probe revealed that the plasmids of strains of all six serovars contained fragments of approximately 2520 and 1520 bp that hybridized with the probe. Similarly, hybridization with BglI digests of DNA of the virulence-associated plasmids of strains of these six serovars showed that all six plasmids contained a fragment of approximately 3690 bp that hybridized with the probe. No other plasmids of these strains nor any plasmids of 12 other Salmonella serovars hybridized with the probe. Chromosomal DNA did not hybridize with the probe. The 60 Mdal plasmids of S. gallinarum and S. pullorum showed similar digestion patterns with restriction endonucleases BglI, BglII and PvuII. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2686827

  6. Abnormal humoral immune response to Staphylococcus aureus in patients with Staphylococcus aureus hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matter, L; Wilhelm, J A; Roth, F; Schopfer, K

    1986-11-01

    Patients with the S. aureus hyper IgE syndrome (SAHIGES) have an abnormal IgE response to cell wall and surface antigens of S. aureus. In this paper we describe the detection of IgE antibodies to soluble antigens of staphylococci (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and qualitative abnormalities of the IgG response to soluble S. aureus antigens in patients with SAHIGES. These findings may be of pathogenetic importance and help to delineate SAHIGES from other diseases. PMID:3815899

  7. Plasmid DNA damage induced by helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Cantrell, William A.; Escobar, Erika E.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is applied to induce damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. The resulting fractions of the DNA conformers, which indicate intact molecules or DNA with single- or double-strand breaks, are determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA strand breaks increase with a decrease in the distance between the APPJ and DNA samples under two working conditions of the plasma source with different parameters of applied electric pulses. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time. The reactive species generated in the APPJ are characterized by optical emission spectra, and their roles in possible DNA damage processes occurring in an aqueous environment are also discussed.

  8. Rapid Construction of Recombinant Plasmids by QuickStep-Cloning.

    PubMed

    Jajesniak, Pawel; Wong, Tuck Seng

    2017-01-01

    QuickStep-Cloning is a novel molecular cloning technique that builds upon the concepts of asymmetric PCR and megaprimer-based amplification of whole plasmid. It was designed specifically to address the major drawbacks of previously reported cloning methods. The fully optimized protocol allows for a seamless integration of a long DNA fragment into any position within a plasmid of choice, in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner, without the need of a tedious DNA gel purification, a restriction digestion, and an enzymatic ligation. QuickStep-Cloning can be completed in less than 6 h, significantly faster than most of the existing cloning methods, while retaining high efficiency. PMID:27671943

  9. Replisome Assembly at Bacterial Chromosomes and Iteron Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Katarzyna E.; Gross, Marta; Uciechowska, Urszula; Konieczny, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The proper initiation and occurrence of DNA synthesis depends on the formation and rearrangements of nucleoprotein complexes within the origin of DNA replication. In this review article, we present the current knowledge on the molecular mechanism of replication complex assembly at the origin of bacterial chromosome and plasmid replicon containing direct repeats (iterons) within the origin sequence. We describe recent findings on chromosomal and plasmid replication initiators, DnaA and Rep proteins, respectively, and their sequence-specific interactions with double- and single-stranded DNA. Also, we discuss the current understanding of the activities of DnaA and Rep proteins required for replisome assembly that is fundamental to the duplication and stability of genetic information in bacterial cells. PMID:27563644

  10. Current trends in separation of plasmid DNA vaccines: a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ashraf; Healey, Robert; Adly, Frady G

    2013-01-14

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines offer more rapid avenues for development and production if compared to those of conventional virus-based vaccines. They do not rely on time- or labour-intensive cell culture processes and allow greater flexibility in shipping and storage. Stimulating antibodies and cell-mediated components of the immune system are considered as some of the major advantages associated with the use of pDNA vaccines. This review summarizes the current trends in the purification of pDNA vaccines for practical and analytical applications. Special attention is paid to chromatographic techniques aimed at reducing the steps of final purification, post primary isolation and intermediate recovery, in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to reach a purified end product from the crude plasmid.

  11. The Standard European Vector Architecture (SEVA) plasmid toolkit.

    PubMed

    Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Martínez-García, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The Standard European Vector Architecture (SEVA) toolkit is a simple and powerful resource for constructing optimal plasmid vectors based on a backbone and three interchangeable modules flanked by uncommon restriction sites. Functional modules encode several origins of replication, diverse antibiotic selection markers, and a variety of cargoes with different applications. The backbone and DNA modules have been minimized and edited for flaws in their sequence and/or functionality. A protocol for the utilization of the SEVA platform to construct transcriptional and translational fusions between a promoter under study (the arsenic-responsive Pars of Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and the reporter lacZ gene is described. The resulting plasmid collection was instrumental to measure and compare the β-galactosidase activity that report gene expression (i.e., transcription and translation) in different genetic backgrounds.

  12. Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases of Plasmid DNA in Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Ziv; Wachtel, Ellen J.; Minsky, Abraham

    1994-06-01

    Bacterial plasmids may often reach a copy number larger than 1000 per cell, corresponding to a total amount of DNA that may exceed the amount of DNA within the bacterial chromosome. This observation highlights the problem of cellular accommodation of large amounts of closed-circular nucleic acids, whose interwound conformation offers negligible DNA compaction. As determined by x-ray scattering experiments conducted on intact bacteria, supercoiled plasmids segregate within the cells into dense clusters characterized by a long-range order. In vitro studies performed at physiological DNA concentrations indicated that interwound DNA spontaneously forms liquid crystalline phases whose macroscopic structural properties are determined by the features of the molecular supercoiling. Because these features respond to cellular factors, DNA supercoiling may provide a sensitive regulatory link between cellular parameters and the packaging modes of interwound DNA in vivo.

  13. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  14. Spheroplast formation and plasmid isolation from Rhodococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Assaf, N A; Dick, W A

    1993-12-01

    The genus Rhodococcus comprises aerobic gram-positive actinomycetes that show considerable morphological and metabolic diversity and are known to be involved in the development of plant diseases and degradation of environmental pollutants. We describe a method for cell lysis and large plasmid DNA isolation from Rhodococcus by creating lysozyme susceptible cells by predigestion with the enzyme mutanolysin. Mutanolysin action resulted in the liberation of reducing sugars and free amino acids from the peptidoglycan layers of the cell wall. A 1-h predigestion with mutanolysin followed by a 0.5-h incubation with lysozyme resulted in spheroplast formation. Complete lysis of cells and efficient isolation of intact large plasmid DNA (108 kb) from wild-type Rhodococcus strains was confirmed.

  15. Cationic lipids delay the transfer of plasmid DNA to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, R; Jadot, M; Laurent, N; Dubois, F; Wattiaux-De Coninck, S

    1996-10-14

    Plasmid 35S DNA, naked or associated with different cationic lipid preparations was injected to rats. Subcellular distribution of radioactivity in the liver one hour after injection, was established by centrifugation methods. Results show that at that time, 35S DNA has reached lysosomes. On the contrary, when 35S DNA was complexed with lipids, radioactivity remains located in organelles whose distribution after differential and isopycnic centrifugation, is clearly distinct from that of arylsulfatase, lysosome marker enzyme. Injection of Triton WR 1339, a specific density perturbant of lysosomes, four days before 35S DNA injection causes a density decrease of radioactivity bearing structures, apparent one hour after naked 35S DNA injection but visible only after more than five hours, when 35S DNA associated with a cationic lipid is injected. These observations show that cationic lipids delay the transfer to lysosomes, of plasmid DNA taken up by the liver.

  16. Quantification of plasmid DNA copies in the nucleus after lipoplex and polyplex transfection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Richard N; van der Aa, Marieke A E M; Macaraeg, Nichole; Lee, Ai Ping; Szoka, Francis C

    2009-04-17

    Nuclear uptake of plasmid DNA is one of the many cellular barriers that limit the efficiency of non-viral gene delivery systems. We have determined the number of plasmids that reach the nucleus of a transfected cell using an internally standardized quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. We isolated nuclei using two different protocols: a density gradient technique and a detergent-based method. The density gradient procedure yielded nuclei with substantially less adhering plasmids on the outside of the nuclei. Using the density gradient protocol we determined that cells transfected with Lipofectamine lipoplexes or polyethylenimine polyplexes contained between 75 and 50,000 plasmids/nucleus, depending on the applied plasmid dose. Any increase above 3000 plasmids/nucleus resulted in only marginal increases in transgene expression. Furthermore, lipoplex-delivered plasmids were more efficiently expressed, on the basis of protein expression per plasmid number in the nucleus, than polyplex-delivered plasmids. This indicates that polymer may remain bound to some plasmids in the nucleus. Lastly, by sorting transfected cells into high- and low-expressing sub-populations, we observe that a sub-population of cells contain 3x greater plasmids/nucleus but express nearly 100x more transgene than other cells within a single transfection reaction. Taken together these results suggest the importance of considering the processes downstream from nuclear entry for strategies to improve the efficiency of gene transfer reagents.

  17. Investigating the impact of bisphosphonates and structurally related compounds on bacteria containing conjugative plasmids.

    PubMed

    Nash, Rebekah P; McNamara, Dan E; Ballentine, W Keith; Matson, Steven W; Redinbo, Matthew R

    2012-08-10

    Bacterial plasmids propagate through microbial populations via the directed process of conjugative plasmid transfer (CPT). Because conjugative plasmids often encode antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors, several approaches to inhibit CPT have been described. Bisphosphonates and structurally related compounds (BSRCs) were previously reported to disrupt conjugative transfer of the F (fertility) plasmid in Escherichia coli. We have further investigated the effect of these compounds on the transfer of two additional conjugative plasmids, pCU1 and R100, between E. coli cells. The impact of BSRCs on E. coli survival and plasmid transfer was found to be dependent on the plasmid type, the length of time the E. coli were exposed to the compounds, and the ratio of plasmid donor to plasmid recipient cells. Therefore, these data indicate that BSRCs produce a range of effects on the conjugative transfer of bacterial plasmids in E. coli. Since their impact appears to be plasmid type-dependent, BSRCs are unlikely to be applicable as broad inhibitors of antibiotic resistance propagation.

  18. Presence and analysis of plasmids in human and animal associated arcobacter species.

    PubMed

    Douidah, Laid; De Zutter, Lieven; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Ingmer, Hanne; Vandenberg, Olivier; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Houf, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the screening of four Arcobacter species for the presence of small and large plasmids. Plasmids were present in 9.9% of the 273 examined strains. One Arcobacter cryaerophilus and four Arcobacter butzleri plasmids were selected for further sequencing. The size of three small plasmids isolated from A. butzleri and the one from A. cryaerophilus strains ranged between 4.8 and 5.1 kb, and the size of the large plasmid, isolated from A. butzleri, was 27.4 kbp. The G+C content of all plasmids ranged between 25.4% and 26.2%. A total of 95% of the large plasmid sequence represents coding information, which contrasts to the 20 to 30% for the small plasmids. Some of the open reading frames showed a high homology to putative conserved domains found in other related organisms, such as replication, mobilization and genes involved in type IV secretion system. The large plasmid carried 35 coding sequences, including seven genes in a contiguous region of 11.6 kbp that encodes an orthologous type IV secretion system found in the Wolinella succinogenes genome, Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni plasmids, which makes this plasmid interesting for further exploration.

  19. Characterization of two novel plasmids from Geobacillus sp. 610 and 1121 strains.

    PubMed

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Butaitė, Elena; Citavičius, Donaldas

    2014-01-01

    We describe two cryptic low molecular weight plasmids, pGTD7 (3279bp) and pGTG5 (1540bp), isolated from Geobacillus sp. 610 and 1121 strains, respectively. Homology analysis of the replication protein (Rep) sequences and detection of ssDNA indicate that both of them replicate via rolling circle mechanism. As revealed by sequence similarities of dso region and Rep protein, plasmid pGTD7 belongs to pC194/pUB110 plasmid family. The replicon of pGTD7 was proved to be functional in another Geobacillus host. For this purpose, a construct pUCK7, containing a replicon of the analyzed plasmid, was created and transferred to G. stearothermophilus NUB3621R strain by electroporation. Plasmid pGTG5, based on Rep protein sequence similarity, was found to be related mostly to some poorly characterized bacterial plasmids. Rep proteins encoded by these plasmids contain conservative motifs that are most similar to those of Microviridae phages. This feature suggests that pGTG5, together with other plasmids containing the same motifs, could constitute a new family of bacterial plasmids. To date, pGTG5 is the smallest plasmid identified in bacteria belonging to the genus Geobacillus. The two plasmids described in this study can be used for the construction of new vectors suitable for biotechnologically important bacteria of the genus Geobacillus.

  20. Dynamics of the IncW genetic backbone imply general trends in conjugative plasmid evolution.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Raúl; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Revilla, Carlos; Lázaro, Miguel; Vielva, Luis; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2006-11-01

    Plasmids cannot be understood as mere tools for genetic exchange: they are themselves subject to the forces of evolution. Their genomic and phylogenetic features have been less studied in this respect. Focusing on the IncW incompatibility group, which includes the smallest known conjugative plasmids, we attempt to unveil some common trends in plasmid evolution. The functional modules of IncW genetic backbone are described, with emphasis on their architecture and relationships to other plasmid groups. Some plasmid regions exhibit strong phylogenetic mosaicism, in striking contrast to others of unusual synteny conservation. The presence of genes of unknown function that are widely distributed in plasmid genomes is also emphasized, exposing the existence of ill-defined yet conserved plasmid functions. Conjugation is an essential hallmark of IncW plasmid biology and special attention is given to the organization and evolution of its transfer modules. Genetic exchange between plasmids and their hosts is analysed by following the evolution of the type IV secretion system. Adaptation of the trw conjugative machinery to pathogenicity functions in Bartonella is discussed as an example of how plasmids can change their host modus vivendi. Starting from the phage paradigm, our analysis articulates novel concepts that apply to plasmid evolution.

  1. Major Families of Multiresistant Plasmids from Geographically and Epidemiologically Diverse Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Julia E. S.; Wireman, Joy; Hostetler, Jessica; Forberger, Heather; Borman, Jon; Gill, John; Sanchez, Susan; Mankin, Alexander; LaMarre, Jacqueline; Lindsay, Jodi A.; Bayles, Kenneth; Nicholson, Ainsley; O’Brien, Frances; Jensen, Slade O.; Firth, Neville; Skurray, Ronald A.; Summers, Anne O.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococci are increasingly aggressive human pathogens suggesting that active evolution is spreading novel virulence and resistance phenotypes. Large staphylococcal plasmids commonly carry antibiotic resistances and virulence loci, but relatively few have been completely sequenced. We determined the plasmid content of 280 staphylococci isolated in diverse geographical regions from the 1940s to the 2000s and found that 79% of strains carried at least one large plasmid >20 kb and that 75% of these large plasmids were 20–30 kb. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we grouped 43% of all large plasmids into three major families, showing remarkably conserved intercontinental spread of multiresistant staphylococcal plasmids over seven decades. In total, we sequenced 93 complete and 57 partial staphylococcal plasmids ranging in size from 1.3 kb to 64.9 kb, tripling the number of complete sequences for staphylococcal plasmids >20 kb in the NCBI RefSeq database. These plasmids typically carried multiple antimicrobial and metal resistances and virulence genes, transposases and recombinases. Remarkably, plasmids within each of the three main families were >98% identical, apart from insertions and deletions, despite being isolated from strains decades apart and on different continents. This suggests enormous selective pressure has optimized the content of certain plasmids despite their large size and complex organization. PMID:22384369

  2. [Evolutionary engineering in Salmonella: emergence of hybrid virulence-resistance plasmids in non-typhoid serotypes].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, María Del Carmen; Herrero, Ana; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2009-01-01

    An example of evolutive engineering in bacterial pathogens is the emergence of hybrid virulence-resistance (VR) plasmids in Salmonella enterica, resulting from an association between antimicrobial resistance determinants and specific virulence plasmids of the S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis serotypes. VR plasmids all possess the spv (Salmonella plasmid virulence) operon, which is involved in systemic infection; however, they differ in the presence of other virulence determinants and in the resistance gene profile. VR plasmids of S. typhimurium have been found in Europe, and show resistance regions with different levels of complexity that can include class 1 integrons and various transposons. VR plasmids of S. choleraesuis, detected in strains isolated in Taiwan, only confer resistance to ampicillin and sulfonamides. Both serotypes are zoonotic and the presence of hybrid VR plasmids may confer an adaptive advantage under certain conditions, resulting in bacterial strains that are more difficult to treat and have a higher epidemic potential.

  3. Characterization of two new plasmid DNAs found in mitochondria of wild-type Neurospora intermedia strains.

    PubMed Central

    Stohl, L L; Collins, R A; Cole, M D; Lambowitz, A M

    1982-01-01

    Mitochondria from two Neurospora intermedia strains (P4O5-Labelle and Fiji N6-6) were found to contain plasmid DNAs in addition to the standard mitochondrial DNA species. The plasmid DNAs consist of monomeric circles (4.1-4.3 kbp and 5.2-5.3 kbp for Labelle and Fiji, respectively) and oligomers in which monomers are organized as head-to-tail repeats. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the plasmids have no substantial sequence homology to mtDNA, to each other, or to a previously characterized mitochondrial plasmid from N. crassa strain Mauriceville-lc (Collins et al. Cell 24, 443-452, 1981). The intramitochondrial location of the plasmids was established by cell fractionation and nuclease protection experiments. In sexual crosses, the plasmids showed strict maternal inheritance, the same as Neurospora mitochondrial DNA. The plasmids may represent a novel class of mitochondrial genetic elements. Images PMID:6280144

  4. Characterization of a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid from Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Willson, P J; Albritton, W L; Slaney, L; Setlow, J K

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pLS88 from a clinical isolate of Haemophilus ducreyi encoded resistance determinants for sulfonamides and streptomycin related to those of RSF1010 and for kanamycin related to Tn903 but lacked the inverted repeats of the transposon. Its host range included Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Escherichia coli; and it was compatible with pDM2 and RSF1010. Images PMID:2684012

  5. Evaluation of Staphylococcus aureus Eradication Therapy in Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Donker, J. M. W.; van Rijen, M. M. L.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; van der Laan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSI) are a serious complication in vascular surgery which may lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is associated with increased risk for development of SSIs in central vascular surgery. The risk for SSI can be reduced by perioperative eradication of S. aureus carriage in cardiothoracic and orthopedic surgery. This study analyzes the relation between S. aureus eradication therapy and SSI in a vascular surgery population. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed, including all patients undergoing vascular surgery between February 2013 and April 2015. Patients were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage and, when tested positive, were subsequently treated with eradication therapy. The presence of SSI was recorded based on criteria of the CDC. The control group consisted of a cohort of vascular surgery patients in 2010, who were screened, but received no treatment. Results A total of 444 patients were screened. 104 nasal swabs were positive for S. aureus, these patients were included in the intervention group. 204 patients were screened in the 2010 cohort. 51 tested positive and were included in the control group. The incidence of S. aureus infection was 5 out of 51 (9.8%) in the control group versus 3 out of 104 in the eradication group (2.2%; 95% confidence interval 0.02–1.39; P = 0.13). A subgroup analysis showed that the incidence of S. aureus infection was 3 out of 23 (13.0%) in the control group in central reconstructive surgery versus 0 out of 44 in the intervention group (P = 0.074). The reduction of infection pressure by S. aureus was stronger than the reduction of infection pressure by other pathogens (exact maximum likelihood estimation; OR = 0.0724; 95% CI: 0.001–0.98; p = 0.0475). Conclusion S. aureus eradication therapy reduces the infection pressure of S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of SSIs caused by S. aureus. PMID:27529551

  6. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs during traditional Austrian raw milk cheese production.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Georg; Gonano, Monika; Kümmel, Judith; Barker, Gary C; Lebl, Karin; Bereuter, Othmar; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-11-01

    Sampling approaches following the dairy chain, including microbiological hygiene status of critical processing steps and physicochemical parameters, contribute to our understanding of how Staphylococcus aureus contamination risks can be minimised. Such a sampling approach was adopted in this study, together with rapid culture-independent quantification of Staph. aureus to supplement standard microbiological methods. A regional cheese production chain, involving 18 farms, was sampled on two separate occasions. Overall, 51·4% of bulk milk samples were found to be Staph. aureus positive, most of them (34·3%) at the limit of culture-based detection. Staph. aureus positive samples >100 cfu/ml were recorded in 17·1% of bulk milk samples collected mainly during the sampling in November. A higher number of Staph. aureus positive bulk milk samples (94·3%) were detected after applying the culture-independent approach. A concentration effect of Staph. aureus was observed during curd processing. Staph. aureus were not consistently detectable with cultural methods during the late ripening phase, but >100 Staph. aureus cell equivalents (CE)/ml or g were quantifiable by the culture-independent approach until the end of ripening. Enterotoxin gene PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing provided evidence that livestock adapted strains of Staph. aureus mostly dominate the post processing level and substantiates the belief that animal hygiene plays a pivotal role in minimising the risk of Staph. aureus associated contamination in cheese making. Therefore, the actual data strongly support the need for additional sampling activities and recording of physicochemical parameters during semi-hard cheese-making and cheese ripening, to estimate the risk of Staph. aureus contamination before consumption.

  7. Fitness cost of VanA-type vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated.

  8. Origin and Evolution of European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S.; Skov, Robert L.; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E.; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E.; Vigh, Henrik E.; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B.; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R.; Laurent, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. PMID:25161186

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain HG003, an NCTC8325 Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325 derivative, strain HG003. HG003 contains functional global regulators rsbU and tcaR and is therefore considered as a reference for studies of regulation and virulence. The genome is composed of 2,797,898 bp and will be essential for subsequent RNAseq analysis. PMID:25169861

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain HG003, an NCTC8325 Derivative.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mohamed; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325 derivative, strain HG003. HG003 contains functional global regulators rsbU and tcaR and is therefore considered as a reference for studies of regulation and virulence. The genome is composed of 2,797,898 bp and will be essential for subsequent RNAseq analysis. PMID:25169861

  11. Plasmid DNA purification using a multimodal chromatography resin.

    PubMed

    Matos, Tiago; Queiroz, João A; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Multimodal chromatography is widely used for isolation of proteins because it often results in improved selectivity compared to conventional separation resins. The binding potential and chromatographic behavior of plasmid DNA have here been examined on a Capto Adhere resin. Capto Adhere is a recent multimodal chromatography material allowing molecular recognition between the ligand and target molecule, which is based on combined ionic and aromatic interactions. Capto Adhere proved to offer a very strong binding of nucleic acids. This property could be used to isolate plasmid DNA from a crude Escherichia coli extract. Using a stepwise NaCl gradient, pure plasmid DNA could be obtained without protein and endotoxin contaminations. The RNA fraction bound most strongly to the resin and could be eluted only at very high salt concentrations (2.0 M NaCl). The chromatographic separation behavior was very robust between pH values 6 and 9, and the dynamic binding capacity was estimated to 60 µg/ml resin.

  12. Stable transformation of tobacco by electroporation: evidence for plasmid concatenation.

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, C D; Bates, G W

    1986-01-01

    Electroporation (electric field-mediated DNA transfer) of tobacco protoplasts in the presence of the linearized plasmid pMON200 has led to the formation of transgenic plants. Defined electric shocks were delivered by capacitive discharges with readily available, low-cost electrical components. This transformation procedure is simple and efficient and may suggest a quick method for determining the appropriate electric fields for new cell systems. An optimal transformation frequency of 2.2 X 10(-4) (based on the number of cells subjected to the shock) was obtained with a single 2000-V/cm, 250-microseconds-duration capacitive discharge. Calli transformed to kanamycin resistance have been regenerated into whole plants. Southern blots of DNA from the transgenic plants demonstrate the integration of the selectable marker gene (neomycin phosphotransferase) at single or multiple genomic sites. In some cases, the plasmid appears to be integrated intact; in others, it is rearranged. The blots also provide evidence of plasmid recircularization and/or the formation of head-to-head and head-to-tail concatemers in most of the plants analyzed. Although some plants apparently have multiple integration sites, analysis of progeny obtained by self-fertilization of the transgenic plants indicates that the kanamycin-resistance marker is inherited as a single dominant gene. Images PMID:3016708

  13. Primary structure of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specified by R plasmids.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W V; Packman, L C; Burleigh, B D; Dell, A; Morris, H R; Hartley, B S

    Naturally occurring isolates of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria commonly synthesise chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.28; CAT) in amounts which are sufficient to account for the resistance phenotype and often harbour plasmids which carry the structural gene for CAT. The findings of CAT in such diverse prokaryotes as Proteus mirabilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Streptomyces sp., and a soil Flavobacterium has led to speculation concerning the origin and evolution of the more commonly observed CAT variants specified by plasmids in clinically important bacteria. To provide a more solid basis for studying the evolution and spread of CAT within prokaryotes we chose to determine the complete amino acid sequence of a type I variant of CAT, the variant known to be associated with most F-like plasmids conferring chloramphenicol resistance. The sequence has been determined by combining the results obtained from manual and automated sequential degradation with those obtained by mass spectrometry of peptides generated by enzymatic digestion. The directly determined primary structure is identical with that predicted by the DNA sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transponson Tn9 known to specify a type I variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

  14. Virulence Plasmids of Nonsporulating Gram-Positive Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Van Tyne, Daria; Gilmore, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are leading causes of many types of human infection, including pneumonia, skin and nasopharyngeal infections, as well as urinary tract and surgical wound infections among hospitalized patients. These infections have become particularly problematic because many of the species causing them have become highly resistant to antibiotics. The role of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria has been well studied; less well understood is the role of mobile elements in the evolution and spread of virulence traits among these pathogens. While these organisms are leading agents of infection, they are also prominent members of the human commensal ecology. It appears that these bacteria are able to take advantage of the intimate association between host and commensal, via virulence traits that exacerbate infection and cause disease. However, evolution into an obligate pathogen has not occurred, presumably because it would lead to rejection of pathogenic organisms from the host ecology. Instead, in organisms that exist as both commensal and pathogen, selection has favored the development of mechanisms for variability. As a result, many virulence traits are localized on mobile genetic elements, such as virulence plasmids and pathogenicity islands. Virulence traits may occur within a minority of isolates of a given species, but these minority populations have nonetheless emerged as a leading problem in infectious disease. This chapter reviews virulence plasmids in nonsporulating Gram-positive bacteria, and examines their contribution to disease pathogenesis.

  15. Shape of adsorbed supercoiled plasmids: An equilibrium description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nam-Kyung; Schmatko, Tatiana; Muller, P.; Maaloum, M.; Johner, A.

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by recent atomic force microscope (AFM) images of plasmids deposited on oppositely charged supported lipid bilayers from salt free solution, we propose a model for strongly adsorbed supercoiled cyclic stiff polyelectrolytes. We discuss how the excess linking number Lk of the deposited cycle is shared between writhe Wr and twist Tw at equilibrium and obtain the typical number of self-crossings in the deposited cycle as a function of surface charge density. The number of crossings at equilibrium is simply determined by the crossing penalty which is a local quantity and by the excess linking number. The number of crossings is well defined despite versatile plasmid shapes. For moderate numbers of crossings the loops are rather small and localized along the primary cycle, as expected from entropic loops. In the regime of many crossings, the cycle takes the shape of a regular flat ply ruled by local stiffness. The model allows for a semiquantitative comparison with the AFM images of deposited plasmids which are strongly charged.

  16. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    As the causative agent of foodborne related illness, Vibrio species causes a huge impact on the public health and management. Vibrio species is often associated with seafood as the latter plays a role as a vehicle to transmit bacterial infections. Hence, antibiotics are used not to promote growth but rather to prevent and treat bacterial infections. The extensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry and environment has led to the emerging of antibiotic resistant strains. This phenomenon has triggered an alarming public health concern due to the increase number of pathogenic Vibrio strains that are resistant to clinically used antibiotics and is found in the environment. Antibiotic resistance and the genes location in the strains can be detected through plasmid curing assay. The results derived from plasmid curing assay is fast, cost effective, sufficient in providing insights, and influence the antibiotic management policies in the aquaculture industry. This presentation aims in discussing and providing insights on various curing agents in Vibrio species. To our best of knowledge, this is a first review written discussing on plasmid curing in Vibrio species. PMID:26347714

  17. Spaceflight Effects on Genetics and Plasmids of Streptomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikova, T. A.; Emelyanova, L. K.; Tyaglov, B. V.; Novikova, L. M.; Goins, T. L.; Pyle, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    In 2007, experiments with streptomycetes were conducted during a 12-day flight of the Russian Foton-M3 spacecraft. The flight (F), synchronous control (SC) and laboratory control (LC) specimens were kept at 30°C. The objective of the experiments was to study spaceflight effects on the streptomycetes growth, differentiation, pigmentation, enzyme formation, genetic stability of plasmid and crossing between strains. It was found that the frequency of strain Streptomyces lividans segregation, the enzyme synthesis, pigmentation, and the level of sporulation were higher in F than in SC organisms. The study of pIJ702 plasmid inheritance in S. lividans showed that the frequency of plasmid loss in F and LC was similar and lower than that in SC specimens. The study of melanin synthesis in S. lividans (pIJ702) strain demonstrated decreased melanin specific yield and increased biomass accumulation in F microorganisms. HPTLC analysis of melanin showed that the number, molecular mass and the percentage of fractions were similar in SC and LC but different in F organisms. The study of spaceflight effects on genetic recombination in crosses between Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) auxotrophic mutants showed that the frequency of various recombinant classes in F specimens differed from that in SC and LC. The frequency of a distal donor marker entry to the recipient in F was higher than in SC and LC.

  18. DNA immunization with plasmids expressing hCGbeta-chimeras.

    PubMed

    Terrazzini, Nadia; Hannesdóttir, Sólveig; Delves, Peter J; Lund, Torben

    2004-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin has been used as an anti-fertility vaccine and as a target for cancer immunotherapy. We have explored the use of DNA immunization with the aim of improving the immunogenicity of this hormone. Stimulating the muscle with electric pulses following intramuscular injection of plasmids expressing hCGbeta resulted in higher levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-specific antibodies, which could be further enhanced following a protein boost with hCG mixed with adjuvant. DNA vaccines encoding a membrane attached or a secreted form of hCGbeta produced similar-albeit relatively modest-antibody responses. Providing hCGbeta with additional T cell help by vaccinating with a plasmid encoding a hCGbeta-hFc fusion protein did not further increase the antibody levels in the immunized animals. However, immunization of mice with a construct encoding hCGbeta fused to C3d(3) produced significantly lower antibody levels relative to mice immunized with the hCGbeta-alone expression plasmid, even though the hCGbeta-C3d(3) chimera was expected to facilitate cross-linking of the antigen-specific B-cell receptor and CR2 thereby lowering the threshold of activation. Thus the limiting factor determining the antibody levels following hCGbeta immunization, at least for DNA immunization, is related to the amount of protein available rather than the form of protein produced or lack of T cell epitopes. PMID:15149771

  19. Chlamydial Lytic Exit from Host Cells Is Plasmid Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunfu; Starr, Tregei; Song, Lihua; Carlson, John H.; Sturdevant, Gail L.; Beare, Paul A.; Whitmire, William M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is a globally important human pathogen. The chlamydial plasmid is an attenuating virulence factor, but the molecular basis for attenuation is not understood. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion, where they undergo a biphasic developmental growth cycle and differentiate from noninfectious into infectious organisms. Late in the developmental cycle, the fragile chlamydia-laden inclusion retains its integrity by surrounding itself with scaffolds of host cytoskeletal proteins. The ability of chlamydiae to developmentally free themselves from this cytoskeleton network is a fundamental virulence trait of the pathogen. Here, we show that plasmidless chlamydiae are incapable of disrupting their cytoskeletal entrapment and remain intracellular as stable mature inclusions that support high numbers of infectious organisms. By using deletion mutants of the eight plasmid-carried genes (Δpgp1 to Δpgp8), we show that Pgp4, a transcriptional regulator of multiple chromosomal genes, is required for exit. Exit of chlamydiae is dependent on protein synthesis and is inhibited by the compound C1, an inhibitor of the type III secretion system (T3S). Exit of plasmid-free and Δpgp4 organisms, which failed to lyse infected cells, was rescued by latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Our findings describe a genetic mechanism of chlamydial exit from host cells that is dependent on an unknown pgp4-regulated chromosomal T3S effector gene. PMID:26556273

  20. Cytoplasmic peptidoglycan intermediate levels in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Harika; Ayon, Navid J; Gutheil, William G

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular cytoplasmic peptidoglycan (PG) intermediate levels were determined in Staphylococcus aureus during log-phase growth in enriched media. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates were quantitatively determined using ion pairing LC-MS/MS in negative mode, and amine intermediates were quantitatively determined stereospecifically as their Marfey's reagent derivatives in positive mode. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates in S. aureus varied from 1.4 μM for UDP-GlcNAc-Enolpyruvyate to 1200 μM for UDP-MurNAc. Levels of amine intermediates (L-Ala, D-Ala, D-Ala-D-Ala, L-Glu, D-Glu, and L-Lys) varied over a range of from 860 μM for D-Ala-D-Ala to 30-260 mM for the others. Total PG was determined from the D-Glu content of isolated PG, and used to estimate the rate of PG synthesis (in terms of cytoplasmic metabolite flux) as 690 μM/min. The total UDP-linked intermediates pool (2490 μM) is therefore sufficient to sustain growth for 3.6 min. Comparison of UDP-linked metabolite levels with published pathway enzyme characteristics demonstrates that enzymes on the UDP-branch range from >80% saturation for MurA, Z, and C, to <5% saturation for MurB. Metabolite levels were compared with literature values for Escherichia coli, with the major difference in UDP-intermediates being the level of UDP-MurNAc, which was high in S. aureus (1200 μM) and low in E. coli (45 μM). PMID:26612730

  1. The broad-host-range plasmid pSFA231 isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment represents a new member of the PromA plasmid family

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobin; Top, Eva M.; Wang, Yafei; Brown, Celeste J.; Yao, Fei; Yang, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    A self-transmissible broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pSFA231 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment in Shen-fu wastewater irrigation zone, China, using the triparental mating exogenous plasmid capture method. Based on its complete sequence the plasmid has a size of 41.5 kb and codes for 50 putative open reading frames (orfs), 29 of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer functions of the plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis grouped pSFA231 into the newly defined PromA plasmid family, which currently includes five members. Further comparative genomic analysis shows that pSFA231 shares the common backbone regions with the other PromA plasmids, i.e., genes involved in replication, maintenance and control, and conjugative transfer. Nevertheless, phylogenetic divergence was found in specific gene products. We propose to divide the PromA group into two subgroups, PromA-α (pMRAD02, pSB102) and PromA-β (pMOL98, pIPO2T, pSFA231, pTer331), based on the splits network analysis of the RepA protein. Interestingly, a cluster of hypothetical orfs located between parA and traA of pSFA231 shows high similarity with the corresponding regions on pMOL98, pIPO2T, and pTer331, suggesting these hypothetical orfs may represent “essential” plasmid backbone genes for the PromA-β subgroup. Alternatively, they may also be accessory genes that were first acquired and then stayed as the plasmid diverged. Our study increases the available collection of complete genome sequences of BHR plasmids, and since pSFA231 is the only characterized PromA plasmid from China, our findings also enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity of this plasmid group in different parts of the world. PMID:25628616

  2. The mosaicism of plasmids revealed by atypical genes detection and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background From an evolutionary viewpoint, prokaryotic genomes are extremely plastic and dynamic, since large amounts of genetic material are continuously added and/or lost through promiscuous gene exchange. In this picture, plasmids play a key role, since they can be transferred between different cells and, through genetic rearrangement(s), undergo gene(s) load, leading, in turn, to the appearance of important metabolic innovations that might be relevant for cell life. Despite their central position in bacterial evolution, a massive analysis of newly acquired functional blocks [likely the result of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events] residing on plasmids is still missing. Results We have developed a computational, composition-based, pipeline to scan almost 2000 plasmids for genes that differ significantly from their hosting molecule. Plasmids atypical genes (PAGs) were about 6% of the total plasmids ORFs and, on average, each plasmid possessed 4.4 atypical genes. Nevertheless, conjugative plasmids were shown to possess an amount of atypical genes than that found in not mobilizable plasmids, providing strong support for the central role suggested for conjugative plasmids in the context of HGT. Part of the retrieved PAGs are organized into (mainly short) clusters and are involved in important biological processes (detoxification, antibiotic resistance, virulence), revealing the importance of HGT in the spreading of metabolic pathways within the whole microbial community. Lastly, our analysis revealed that PAGs mainly derive from other plasmid (rather than coming from phages and/or chromosomes), suggesting that plasmid-plasmid DNA exchange might be the primary source of metabolic innovations in this class of mobile genetic elements. Conclusions In this work we have performed the first large scale analysis of atypical genes that reside on plasmid molecules to date. Our findings on PAGs function, organization, distribution and spreading reveal the importance of

  3. Survival and Evolution of a Large Multidrug Resistance Plasmid in New Clinical Bacterial Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Porse, Andreas; Schønning, Kristian; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution of these plasmids within pathogenic hosts are poorly understood. Here we study plasmid–host adaptations following transfer of a 73 kb conjugative multidrug resistance plasmid to naïve clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. We use experimental evolution, mathematical modelling and population sequencing to show that the long-term persistence and molecular integrity of the plasmid is highly influenced by multiple factors within a 25 kb plasmid region constituting a host-dependent burden. In the E. coli hosts investigated here, improved plasmid stability readily evolves via IS26 mediated deletions of costly regions from the plasmid backbone, effectively expanding the host-range of the plasmid. Although these adaptations were also beneficial to plasmid persistence in a naïve K. pneumoniae host, they were never observed in this species, indicating that differential evolvability can limit opportunities of plasmid adaptation. While insertion sequences are well known to supply plasmids with adaptive traits, our findings suggest that they also play an important role in plasmid evolution by maintaining the plasticity necessary to alleviate plasmid–host constrains. Further, the observed evolutionary strategy consistently followed by all evolved E. coli lineages exposes a trade-off between horizontal and vertical transmission that may ultimately limit the dissemination potential of clinical multidrug resistance plasmids in these hosts. PMID:27501945

  4. Diverse broad-host-range plasmids from freshwater carry few accessory genes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Celeste J; Sen, Diya; Yano, Hirokazu; Bauer, Matthew L; Rogers, Linda M; Van der Auwera, Geraldine A; Top, Eva M

    2013-12-01

    Broad-host-range self-transferable plasmids are known to facilitate bacterial adaptation by spreading genes between phylogenetically distinct hosts. These plasmids typically have a conserved backbone region and a variable accessory region that encodes host-beneficial traits. We do not know, however, how well plasmids that do not encode accessory functions can survive in nature. The goal of this study was to characterize the backbone and accessory gene content of plasmids that were captured from freshwater sources without selecting for a particular phenotype or cultivating their host. To do this, triparental matings were used such that the only required phenotype was the plasmid's ability to mobilize a nonconjugative plasmid. Based on complete genome sequences of 10 plasmids, only 5 carried identifiable accessory gene regions, and none carried antibiotic resistance genes. The plasmids belong to four known incompatibility groups (IncN, IncP-1, IncU, and IncW) and two potentially new groups. Eight of the plasmids were shown to have a broad host range, being able to transfer into alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria. Because of the absence of antibiotic resistance genes, we resampled one of the sites and compared the proportion of captured plasmids that conferred antibiotic resistance to their hosts with the proportion of such plasmids captured from the effluent of a local wastewater treatment plant. Few of the captured plasmids from either site encoded antibiotic resistance. A high diversity of plasmids that encode no or unknown accessory functions is thus readily found in freshwater habitats. The question remains how the plasmids persist in these microbial communities.

  5. Competing ParA structures space bacterial plasmids equally over the nucleoid.

    PubMed

    Ietswaart, Robert; Szardenings, Florian; Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable.

  6. Analysis and comparison of plasmid profiles of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Johnson, R C

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between plasmid profiles and genospecies of the Lyme disease borreliae was investigated by using 40 strains from diverse biological and geographical sources. The genospecies of the strains were determined by examination of rRNA gene restriction patterns with cDNA probes complementary to the 16S and 23S rRNAs of Escherichia coli. Plasmid profiles were obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of plasmids per strain and the size of these plasmids ranged from 4 to 10 and from 13.3 to 57.7 kb, respectively. The strains all contained a single large plasmid of 50 to 57.7 kb, with the exception of two Borrelia garinii strains that contained two or three of the large plasmids. The large plasmids of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains ranged in size from 51.4 to 52.7 kb and were consistently smaller than the 54.0- to 57.7-kb plasmids present in B. garinii and Borrelia afzelii. The exceptions of this observation were the two B. garinii strains with multiple large plasmids; in this case the large plasmids were 50.6 to 53 kb. Although a large degree of heterogeneity in the sizes and frequencies of occurrence of smaller plasmids was observed, there were some differences among the three genospecies. The differences in plasmids were further studied by using two BamHI DNA fragments from a 28.7-kb plasmid of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto 297 as probes. Both probes hybridized with the 27- to 29-kb plasmids of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains. In contrast, two patterns of hybridization were observed with B. garinii and B. afzelii.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567905

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus laryngitis.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Tracey; Kaye, Keith; Rubin, Adam D

    2010-09-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become more prevalent, in part because of the emergence and spread of community-acquired MRSA. This trend is particularly concerning because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA infections, and because MRSA strains are often resistant to many classes of antibiotics. Reports of infections of the head and neck, including wound infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and otitis externa, are well documented. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of bacterial laryngitis due to MRSA. We report the first published case of bacterial laryngitis caused by MRSA.

  8. Bacillus anthracis Virulent Plasmid pX02 Genes Found in Large Plasmids of Two Other Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra S.; Peak, K. Kealy; Reeves, Frank; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Veguilla, William; Heller, L.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Cannons, Andrew C.; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    In order to cause the disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis requires two plasmids, pX01 and pX02, which carry toxin and capsule genes, respectively, that are used as genetic targets in the laboratory detection of the bacterium. Clinical, forensic, and environmental samples that test positive by PCR protocols established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for B. anthracis are considered to be potentially B. anthracis until confirmed by culture and a secondary battery of tests. We report the presence of 10 genes (acpA, capA, capB, capC, capR, capD, IS1627, ORF 48, ORF 61, and repA) and the sequence for the capsule promoter normally found on pX02 in Bacillus circulans and a Bacillus species closely related to Bacillus luciferensis. Tests revealed these sequences to be present on a large plasmid in each isolate. The 11 sequences consistently matched to B. anthracis plasmid pX02, GenBank accession numbers AF188935.1, AE011191.1, and AE017335.3. The percent nucleotide identities for capD and the capsule promoter were 99.9% and 99.7%, respectively, and for the remaining nine genes, the nucleotide identity was 100% for both isolates. The presence of these genes, which are usually associated with the pX02 plasmid, in two soil Bacillus species unrelated to B. anthracis alerts us to the necessity of identifying additional sequences that will signal the presence of B. anthracis in clinical, forensic, and environmental samples. PMID:16825351

  9. Concerted transfer of the virulence Ti plasmid and companion At plasmid in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumour.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julien; Planamente, Sara; Mondy, Samuel; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2013-12-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 harbours three independent type IV secretion (T4SS) machineries. T4SST-DNA promotes the transfer of the T-DNA to host plant cells, provoking tumour development and accumulation of opines such as nopaline and agrocinopines. T4SSpTi and T4SSpAt control the bacterial conjugation of the Ti and At plasmids respectively. Expression of T4SSpTi is controlled by the agrocinopine-responsive transcriptional repressor AccR. In this work, we compared the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the wild-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 with that of its accR KO-mutant to delineate the AccR regulon. In addition to the genes that encode agrocinopine catabolism and T4SSpTi , we found that AccR also regulated genes coding for nopaline catabolism and T4SSpAt . Further opine detection and conjugation assays confirmed the enhancement of nopaline consumption and At plasmid conjugation frequency in accR. Moreover, co-regulation of the T4SSpTi and T4SSpAt correlated with the co-transfer of the At and Ti plasmids both in vitro and in plant tumours. Finally, unlike T4SSpTi , T4SSpAt activation does not require quorum-sensing. Overall this study highlights the regulatory interplays between opines, At and Ti plasmids that contribute to a concerted dissemination of the two replicons in bacterial populations colonizing the plant tumour. PMID:24118167

  10. Growth and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus in shrimp.

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, H. J.; Van Leusden, F. M.; Tips, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from shrimp were examined for phage pattern and enterotoxin production; 63% of the strains isolated from North Sea shrimp were typable with the International and additional set of phages, as were 38% of the strains isolated from South-East Asian shrimp. Staphylococcal enterotoxin(s) (SE) were produced by 48% and 35% of strains isolated from North Sea and South-East Asian shrimp respectively. Growth and enterotoxin production by S. aureus in shrimp was examined in storage experiments at 22 degrees C. S. aureus increased by 1-2 log units in 24 h when the organism was only a minor part of the total microflora of shrimp. When S. aureus was an equivalent part of the total flora its numbers increased by 3-4 log units in 24 h. Enterotoxins A and B became detectable when the number of S. aureus exceeded 10(7) per g in aseptically peeled shrimp. Results indicate that S. aureus is able to produce enterotoxin in shrimp, but its production depends upon a number of factors, including the relationship between S. aureus and competitive micro-organisms. It is concluded that the presence of S. aureus on commercially produced shrimp represents a potential hazard to health. PMID:4093610

  11. Agglutinating serum for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus of human biotype.

    PubMed

    Live, I

    1975-08-01

    Antiserum to Staphylococcus aureus strain 17 was treated with S. aureus strain 61218 until the antibodies against thermostable agglutinogen were removed. The absorbed serum agglutinated phage-typable as well as phageuntypable staphylococci of human biotype, whether recovered from people or from dogs. PMID:125241

  12. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  13. Early infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus following dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Gentian; Refatllari, Etleva; Dumani, Selman; Refatllari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is now the most common cause of infective endocarditis (IE) in many areas of the developed world. Patients with S. aureus IE exhibit different characteristics compared to patients with IE deriving from oth- er organisms [1]. IE in general is a complication of bacteremia following invasive procedures. PMID:25648038

  14. S. aureus Toxins Join the DARC Side.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Adam J

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, like other bacterial pathogens, scavenges host iron for growth through incompletely understood mechanisms. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Spaan et al. (2015) demonstrate that two Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxins, HlgAB and LukED, target the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines on erythrocytes, resulting in lysis and iron release. PMID:26355213

  15. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors. PMID:27427591

  16. Determinants of Acquisition and Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Sharon J.; Justice, Anita; Griffiths, D.; de Silva, G. D. I.; Kantzanou, M. N.; Crook, Derrick; Sleeman, Karen; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus disease. The aim of this study was to define factors associated with carriage. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal community-based study of infants and their mothers for a period of 6 months following delivery. The epidemiology of carriage was examined for 100 infant-mother pairs. Infant carriage varied significantly with age, falling from 40 to 50% during the first 8 weeks to 21% by 6 months. Determinants of infant S. aureus carriage included maternal carriage, breastfeeding, and number of siblings. Bacterial typing of S. aureus was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. The majority of individuals carried a single strain of S. aureus over time, and the mother was the usual source for colonizing isolates in infants. The effect of other components of the normal nasal flora on the development of S. aureus carriage was examined in 157 consecutive infants. Negative associations (putative bacterial interference) between S. aureus and other species occurred early in infancy but were not sustained. An increasing antistaphylococcal effect observed over time was not attributable to bacterial interference. S. aureus carriage in infants is likely to be determined by a combination of host, environmental, and bacterial factors, but bacterial interference does not appear to be an ultimate determinant of carrier status. PMID:14662966

  17. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  18. Effect of plasmid copy number and lac operator sequence on antibiotic-free plasmid selection by operator-repressor titration in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cranenburgh, Rocky M; Lewis, Kathryn S; Hanak, Julian A J

    2004-01-01

    The Escherichia coli strain DH1lacdapD enables plasmid selection and maintenance that is free from antibiotics and selectable marker genes. This is achieved by using only the lac operator sequence as a selectable element. This strain is currently used to generate high copy number plasmids with no antibiotic resistance genes for use as DNA vaccines and for expression of recombinant proteins. Until now these have been limited to pUC-based plasmids containing a high copy number pMB1-derived origin of replication, and the principle lacO(1) and auxiliary lacO(3) operators. In this study we have shown that this system can also be used to select and maintain pBR322-based plasmids with the lower copy number pMB1 origin of replication, and that lacO(1) alone or a palindromic version of lacO(1) can provide a sufficient level of repressor titration for plasmid selection. This is advantageous for recombinant protein production, where low copy number plasmids are often used and plasmid maintenance is important. The degree of repressor titration due to these plasmids was measured using the natural lactose operon in E. coli DH1 as a model. PMID:15383717

  19. Conjugative transferability of the A/C plasmids from Salmonella enterica isolates that possess or lack blaCMY in the A/C plasmid backbone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids from 205 Salmonella enterica strains, isolated from cattle to E. coli or Salmonella recipients. PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) was used to type incompatibility plasmid r...

  20. Xylella fastidiosa isolates from mulberry harbor a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian isolates of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  1. Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

  2. A Site-Specific Integrative Plasmid Found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolate HS87 along with A Plasmid Carrying an Aminoglycoside-Resistant Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Cui; Jiang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Harrison, Ewan M.; Jia, Shiru; Deng, Zixin; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids play critical roles in bacterial fitness and evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here two plasmids found in a drug-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate HS87 were completely sequenced. The pHS87b plasmid (11.2 kb) carries phage-related genes and function-unknown genes. Notably, pHS87b encodes an integrase and has an adjacent tRNAThr-associated attachment site. A corresponding integrated form of pHS87b at the tRNAThr locus was identified on the chromosome of P. aeruginosa, showing that pHS87b is able to site-specifically integrate into the 3’-end of the tRNAThr gene. The pHS87a plasmid (26.8 kb) displays a plastic structure containing a putative replication module, stability factors and a variable region. The RepA of pHS87a shows significant similarity to the replication proteins of pPT23A-family plasmids. pHS87a carries a transposon Tn6049, a truncated insertion sequence ΔIS1071 and a Tn402-like class 1 integron which contains an aacA4 cassette that may confer aminoglycoside resistance. Thus, pHS87b is a site-specific integrative plasmid whereas pHS87a is a plastic antibiotic resistance plasmid. The two native plasmids may promote the fitness and evolution of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26841043

  3. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  4. Gastrointestinal Dissemination and Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus following Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations that alter virulence and antibiotic susceptibility arise and persist during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, an experimental system demonstrating transmission following bacteremia has been lacking, and thus implications of within-host adaptation for between-host transmission are unknown. We report that S. aureus disseminates to the gastrointestinal tract of mice following intravenous injection and readily transmits to cohoused naive mice. Both intestinal dissemination and transmission were linked to the production of virulence factors based on gene deletion studies of the sae and agr two-component systems. Furthermore, antimicrobial selection for antibiotic-resistant S. aureus displaced susceptible S. aureus from the intestine of infected hosts, which led to the preferential transmission and dominance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among cohoused untreated mice. These findings establish an animal model to investigate gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of S. aureus and suggest that adaptation during the course of systemic infection has implications beyond the level of a single host. PMID:25385792

  5. Staphylococcus aureus vs. Osteoblast: Relationship and Consequences in Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Jérôme; Velard, Frédéric; Gangloff, Sophie C.

    2015-01-01

    Bone cells, namely osteoblasts and osteoclasts work in concert and are responsible for bone extracellular matrix formation and resorption. This homeostasis is, in part, altered during infections by Staphylococcus aureus through the induction of various responses from the osteoblasts. This includes the over-production of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors, thus suggesting a role for these cells in both innate and adaptive immunity. S. aureus decreases the activity and viability of osteoblasts, by induction of apoptosis-dependent and independent mechanisms. The tight relationship between osteoclasts and osteoblasts is also modulated by S. aureus infection. The present review provides a survey of the relevant literature discussing the important aspects of S. aureus and osteoblast interaction as well as the ability for antimicrobial peptides to kill intra-osteoblastic S. aureus, hence emphasizing the necessity for new anti-infectious therapeutics. PMID:26636047

  6. Impact of Staphylococcus aureus on Pathogenesis in Polymicrobial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Nisha; Biswas, Raja; Götz, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial infections involving Staphylococcus aureus exhibit enhanced disease severity and morbidity. We reviewed the nature of polymicrobial interactions between S. aureus and other bacterial, fungal, and viral cocolonizers. Microbes that were frequently recovered from the infection site with S. aureus are Haemophilus influenzae, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corynebacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp., Candida albicans, and influenza virus. Detailed analyses of several in vitro and in vivo observations demonstrate that S. aureus exhibits cooperative relations with C. albicans, E. faecalis, H. influenzae, and influenza virus and competitive relations with P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus sp., and Corynebacterium sp. Interactions of both types influence changes in S. aureus that alter its characteristics in terms of colony formation, protein expression, pathogenicity, and antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:24643542

  7. Exploring Staphylococcus aureus pathways to disease for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    DeDent, Andrea; Kim, Hwan Keun; Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human skin or nares and a pathogen that frequently causes skin and soft tissue infections as well as bacteremia and sepsis. Recent efforts in understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis revealed key virulence strategies of S. aureus in host tissues: bacterial scavenging of iron, induction of coagulation pathways to promote staphylococcal agglutination in the vasculature, and suppression of innate and adaptive immune responses. Advances in all three areas have been explored for opportunities in vaccine design in an effort to identify the critical protective antigens of S. aureus. Human clinical trials with specific subunit vaccines have failed, yet provide important insights for the design of future trials that must address the current epidemic of S. aureus infections with drug-resistant isolates (MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus). PMID:22130613

  8. Recruitment of the mecA Gene Homologue of Staphylococcus sciuri into a Resistance Determinant and Expression of the Resistant Phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shang Wei; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become the most important causative agents of hospital-acquired diseases worldwide. The genetic determinant of resistance, mecA, is not a gene native to S. aureus but was acquired from an extraspecies source by an unknown mechanism. We recently identified a close homologue of this gene in isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri, a taxonomically primitive staphylococcal species recovered most frequently from rodents and primitive mammals. In spite of the close sequence similarity between the mecA homologue of S. sciuri and the antibiotic resistance determinant mecA of S. aureus, S. sciuri strains were found to be uniformly susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics. In an attempt to activate the apparently “silent” mecA gene of S. sciuri, a methicillin-resistant derivative, K1M200 (for which the MIC of methicillin is 200 μg/ml), was obtained through stepwise exposure of the parental strain S. sciuri K1 (methicillin MIC of 4 μg/ml) to increasing concentrations of methicillin. DNA sequencing of the mecA homologue from K1M200 revealed the introduction of a point mutation into the −10 consensus of the promoter: the replacement of a thymine residue at nucleotide 1577 in the susceptible strain K1 by adenine in the resistant strain K1M200, which was accompanied by a drastic increase in transcription rate and the appearance of a new protein that reacted with monoclonal antibody prepared against the penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A), i.e., the gene product of S. aureus mecA. Transduction of mecA from K1M200 (cloned into a plasmid vector) into a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus mutant resulted in a significant increase of methicillin resistance (from a methicillin MIC of 4 μg/ml to 12 and up to 50 μg/ml), the appearance of a low-affinity PBP detectable by the fluorographic assay, and the production of a protein that reacted in a Western blot with monoclonal antibody to PBP2A. Antibiotic resistance and the

  9. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need

  10. Hidden Staphylococcus aureus Carriage: Overrated or Underappreciated?

    PubMed

    van Belkum, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a persistent companion bacterial species in one-third of humankind. Reservoirs include the nasal and nasopharyngeal cavities, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Despite earlier claims that colonization of individuals is caused by clonal organisms, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed that resident type heterogeneity is not exceptional. Carriage, whether overt or hidden, is correlated with a risk of autoinfection. In a recent article in mBio, it was shown that, based on staphylococcal genome sequencing, low-level GI persistence may cause long-term nosocomial outbreaks [L. Senn et al., 7(1):e02039-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.02039-15]. Institutional endemicity with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) is shown to originate not from high-level nasal carriage or poor compliance with infection control practice but from low-grade asymptomatic GI colonization. This shows the power of NGS in elucidating staphylococcal epidemiology and, even more important, demonstrates that (drug-resistant) microorganisms may possess stealthy means of persistence. Identifying these persistence mechanisms is key to successful infection control. PMID:26884429

  11. Tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Proctor, A R; Kloos, W E

    1973-04-01

    Tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes were assayed in various tryptophan mutants of Staphylococcus aureus strain 655 and the wild-type parent. All mutants, except trpB mutants, lacked only the activity corresponding to the particular biosynthetic block, as suggested previously by analysis of accumulated intermediates and auxonography. Tryptophan synthetase A was not detected in extracts of either trpA or trpB mutants but appeared normal in other mutants. Mutants in certain other classes exhibited partial loss of another particular tryptophan enzyme activity. Tryptophan synthetase B activity was not detected in cell extract preparations but was detected in whole cells. The original map order proposed for the S. aureus tryptophan gene cluster was clarified by the definition of trpD (phosphoribosyl transferase(-)) and trpF (phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase(-)) mutants. These mutants were previously unresolved and designated as trp(DF) mutants (anthranilate accumulators). Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase and indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase enzymes were separable by molecular sieve chromatography, suggesting that these functions are coded by separate loci. Molecular sieve chromatography failed to reveal aggregates involving anthranilate synthetase, phosphoribosyl transferase, phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase, and indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase, and this procedure provided an estimate of the molecular weights of these enzymes. Tryptophan was shown to repress synthesis of all six tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes, and derepression of all six activities was incident upon tryptophan starvation. Tryptophan inhibited the activity of anthranilate synthetase, the first enzyme of the pathway. PMID:4698207

  12. Progress Toward a Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Spellberg, Brad

    2012-01-01

    High attack rates and the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to develop resistance to all antibiotics in medical practice heightens the urgency for vaccine development. S. aureus causes many disease syndromes, including invasive disease, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections. It remains unclear whether a single vaccine could protect against all of these. Vaccine composition is also challenging. Active immunization with conjugated types 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides, an iron scavenging protein, isdB, and passive immunization against clumping factor A and lipoteichoic acid have all proven unsuccessful in clinical trials. Many experts advocate an approach using multiple antigens and have suggested that the right combination of antigens has not yet been identified. Others advocate that a successful vaccine will require antigens that work by multiple immunologic mechanisms. Targeting staphylococcal protein A and stimulating the T-helper 17 lymphocyte pathway have each received recent attention as alternative approaches to vaccination in addition to the more traditional identification of opsonophagocytic antibodies. Many questions remain as to how to successfully formulate a successful vaccine and to whom it should be deployed. PMID:22186773

  13. Molecular Correlates of Host Specialization in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Herron-Olson, Lisa; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Musser, James M.; Kapur, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    Background The majority of Staphylococcus aureus isolates that are recovered from either serious infections in humans or from mastitis in cattle represent genetically distinct sets of clonal groups. Moreover, population genetic analyses have provided strong evidence of host specialization among S. aureus clonal groups associated with human and ruminant infection. However, the molecular basis of host specialization in S. aureus is not understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the genome of strain ET3-1, a representative isolate of a common bovine mastitis-causing S. aureus clone. Strain ET3-1 encodes several genomic elements that have not been previously identified in S. aureus, including homologs of virulence factors from other Gram-positive pathogens. Relative to the other sequenced S. aureus associated with human infection, allelic variation in ET3-1 was high among virulence and surface-associated genes involved in host colonization, toxin production, iron metabolism, antibiotic resistance, and gene regulation. Interestingly, a number of well-characterized S. aureus virulence factors, including protein A and clumping factor A, exist as pseudogenes in ET3-1. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridization revealed considerable similarity in the gene content of highly successful S. aureus clones associated with bovine mastitis, but not among those clones that are only infrequently recovered from bovine hosts. Conclusions/Significance Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses revealed a set of molecular genetic features that distinguish clones of highly successful bovine-associated S. aureus optimized for mastitis pathogenesis in cattle from those that infect human hosts or are only infrequently recovered from bovine sources. Further, the results suggest that modern bovine specialist clones diverged from a common ancestor resembling human-associated S. aureus clones through a combination of foreign DNA acquisition and gene decay. PMID:17971880

  14. Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Münch, Karin M; Müller, Johannes; Wienecke, Sarah; Bergmann, Simone; Heyber, Steffi; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. The plasmid-based expression systems employed use a xylose-controlled promoter. Protein production analyses at the single-cell level using green fluorescent protein as a model product revealed cell culture heterogeneity characterized by a significant proportion of less productive bacteria. Due to the enormous size of B. megaterium, such bistable behavior seen in subpopulations was readily analyzed by time lapse microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell culture heterogeneity was not caused simply by plasmid loss: instead, an asymmetric distribution of plasmids during cell division was detected during the exponential-growth phase. Multicopy plasmids are generally randomly distributed between daughter cells. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that under conditions of strong protein production, plasmids are retained at one of the cell poles. Furthermore, it was found that cells with accumulated plasmids and high protein production ceased cell division. As a consequence, the overall protein production of the culture was achieved mainly by the subpopulation with a sufficient plasmid copy number. Based on our experimental data, we propose a model whereby the distribution of multicopy plasmids is controlled by polar fixation under protein production conditions. Thereby, cell lines with fluctuating plasmid abundance arise, which results in population heterogeneity. Our results provide initial insights into the mechanism of cellular heterogeneity during plasmid-based recombinant protein production in a Bacillus species. PMID:26116677

  15. Exploring antibiotic resistance genes and metal resistance genes in plasmid metagenomes from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Li, An-Dong; Li, Li-Guan; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids operate as independent genetic elements in microorganism communities. Through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), they can provide their host microorganisms with important functions such as antibiotic resistance and heavy metal resistance. In this study, six metagenomic libraries were constructed with plasmid DNA extracted from influent, activated sludge (AS) and digested sludge (DS) of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Compared with the metagenomes of the total DNA extracted from the same sectors of the wastewater treatment plant, the plasmid metagenomes had significantly higher annotation rates, indicating that the functional genes on plasmids are commonly shared by those studied microorganisms. Meanwhile, the plasmid metagenomes also encoded many more genes related to defense mechanisms, including ARGs. Searching against an antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) database and a metal resistance genes (MRGs) database revealed a broad-spectrum of antibiotic (323 out of a total 618 subtypes) and MRGs (23 out of a total 23 types) on these plasmid metagenomes. The influent plasmid metagenomes contained many more resistance genes (both ARGs and MRGs) than the AS and the DS metagenomes. Sixteen novel plasmids with a complete circular structure that carried these resistance genes were assembled from the plasmid metagenomes. The results of this study demonstrated that the plasmids in WWTPs could be important reservoirs for resistance genes, and may play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of these genes. PMID:26441947

  16. RK2 plasmid dynamics in Caulobacter crescentus cells--two modes of DNA replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Witosinska, Monika; Schweiger, Pawel; Bury, Katarzyna; Jenal, Urs; Konieczny, Igor

    2013-06-01

    Undisturbed plasmid dynamics is required for the stable maintenance of plasmid DNA in bacterial cells. In this work, we analysed subcellular localization, DNA synthesis and nucleoprotein complex formation of plasmid RK2 during the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. Our microscopic observations showed asymmetrical distribution of plasmid RK2 foci between the two compartments of Caulobacter predivisional cells, resulting in asymmetrical allocation of plasmids to progeny cells. Moreover, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method, we estimated that multiple plasmid particles form a single fluorescent focus and that the number of plasmids per focus is approximately equal in both swarmer and predivisional Caulobacter cells. Analysis of the dynamics of TrfA-oriV complex formation during the Caulobacter cell cycle revealed that TrfA binds oriV primarily during the G1 phase, however, plasmid DNA synthesis occurs during the S and G2 phases of the Caulobacter cell cycle. Both in vitro and in vivo analysis of RK2 replication initiation in C. crescentus cells demonstrated that it is independent of the Caulobacter DnaA protein in the presence of the longer version of TrfA protein, TrfA-44. However, in vivo stability tests of plasmid RK2 derivatives suggested that a DnaA-dependent mode of plasmid replication initiation is also possible.

  17. Insights into Dynamics of Mobile Genetic Elements in Hyperthermophilic Environments from Five New Thermococcus Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Krupovic, Mart; Gonnet, Mathieu; Hania, Wajdi Ben; Forterre, Patrick; Erauso, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    Mobilome of hyperthermophilic archaea dwelling in deep-sea hydrothermal vents is poorly characterized. To gain insight into genetic diversity and dynamics of mobile genetic elements in these environments we have sequenced five new plasmids from different Thermococcus strains that have been isolated from geographically remote hydrothermal vents. The plasmids were ascribed to two subfamilies, pTN2-like and pEXT9a-like. Gene content and phylogenetic analyses illuminated a robust connection between pTN2-like plasmids and Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1), with roughly half of the viral genome being composed of genes that have homologues in plasmids. Unexpectedly, pEXT9a-like plasmids were found to be closely related to the previously sequenced plasmid pMETVU01 from Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7. Our data suggests that the latter observation is most compatible with an unprecedented horizontal transfer of a pEXT9a-like plasmid from Thermococcales to Methanococcales. Gene content analysis revealed that thermococcal plasmids encode Hfq-like proteins and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of two different families, VapBC and RelBE. Notably, although abundant in archaeal genomes, to our knowledge, TA and hfq-like genes have not been previously found in archaeal plasmids or viruses. Finally, the plasmids described here might prove to be useful in developing new genetic tools for hyperthermophiles. PMID:23326305

  18. Piggery manure used for soil fertilization is a reservoir for transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Heuer, Holger; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia

    2008-10-01

    In this study, the prevalence and types of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids in piggery manure were investigated. Samples from manure storage tanks of 15 farms in Germany were analysed, representing diverse sizes of herds, meat or piglet production. Antibiotic resistance plasmids from manure bacteria were captured in gfp-tagged rifampicin-resistant Escherichia coli and characterized. The occurrence of plasmid types was also detected in total community DNA by PCR and hybridization. A total of 228 transconjugants were captured from 15 manures using selective media supplemented with amoxicillin, sulfadiazine or tetracycline. The restriction patterns of 81 plasmids representing different antibiotic resistance patterns or different samples clustered into seven groups. Replicon probing revealed that 28 of the plasmids belonged to IncN, one to IncW, 13 to IncP-1 and 19 to the recently discovered pHHV216-like plasmids. The amoxicillin resistance gene bla-TEM was detected on 44 plasmids, and sulphonamide resistance genes sul1, sul2 and/or sul3 on 68 plasmids. Hybridization of replicon-specific sequences amplified from community DNA revealed that IncP-1 and pHHV216-like plasmids were detected in all manures, while IncN and IncW ones were less frequent. This study showed that 'field-scale' piggery manure is a reservoir of broad-host range plasmids conferring multiple antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:18557938

  19. Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Karin M.; Müller, Johannes; Wienecke, Sarah; Bergmann, Simone; Heyber, Steffi; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. The plasmid-based expression systems employed use a xylose-controlled promoter. Protein production analyses at the single-cell level using green fluorescent protein as a model product revealed cell culture heterogeneity characterized by a significant proportion of less productive bacteria. Due to the enormous size of B. megaterium, such bistable behavior seen in subpopulations was readily analyzed by time lapse microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell culture heterogeneity was not caused simply by plasmid loss: instead, an asymmetric distribution of plasmids during cell division was detected during the exponential-growth phase. Multicopy plasmids are generally randomly distributed between daughter cells. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that under conditions of strong protein production, plasmids are retained at one of the cell poles. Furthermore, it was found that cells with accumulated plasmids and high protein production ceased cell division. As a consequence, the overall protein production of the culture was achieved mainly by the subpopulation with a sufficient plasmid copy number. Based on our experimental data, we propose a model whereby the distribution of multicopy plasmids is controlled by polar fixation under protein production conditions. Thereby, cell lines with fluctuating plasmid abundance arise, which results in population heterogeneity. Our results provide initial insights into the mechanism of cellular heterogeneity during plasmid-based recombinant protein production in a Bacillus species. PMID:26116677

  20. Transformation of Streptococcus sanguis Challis by plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, D J; Hassell, F P

    1976-01-01

    Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Streptococcus faecalis, strain DS5, was transferred to the Challis strain of Streptococcus sanguis by transformation. Two antibiotic resistance markers carried by the beta plasmid from strain DS5, erythromycin and lincomycin, were transferred to S. sanguis at a maximum frequency of 1.8 x 10-5/colony-forming unit. Approximately 70% of the covalently closed circular DNA isolated from transformant cultures by dye buoyant density gradients was shown to be hybridizable to beta plasmid DNA. Two major differences were observed between the beta plasmid from S. faecalis and the plasmid isolated from transformed S. sanguis: (i) the beta plasmid from strain DS5 sedimented in velocity gradients at 43S, whereas the covalently closed circular DNA from transformed Challis sedimented at 41S, suggesting a 1.5-Mdal deletion from the beta plasmid occurred; (ii) although the 43S beta plasmid remained in the supercoiled configuration for several weeks after isolation, the 41S plasmid was rapidly converted to a linear double-stranded molecule. Attempts to transform S. sanguis with the alpha plasmid from S. faecalis, strain DS5, were unsuccessful. PMID:824275

  1. Comparative Genomics Provides Insight into the Diversity of the Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli Virulence Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Kaper, James B.; Nataro, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains are a genomically diverse group of diarrheagenic E. coli strains that are characterized by the presence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genomic island, which encodes a type III secretion system that is essential to virulence. AEEC strains can be further classified as either enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), or atypical EPEC, depending on the presence or absence of the Shiga toxin genes or bundle-forming pilus (BFP) genes. Recent AEEC genomic studies have focused on the diversity of the core genome, and less is known regarding the genetic diversity and relatedness of AEEC plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses in this study demonstrated genetic similarity among AEEC plasmid genes involved in plasmid replication conjugative transfer and maintenance, while the remainder of the plasmids had sequence variability. Investigation of the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmids, which carry the BFP genes, demonstrated significant plasmid diversity even among isolates within the same phylogenomic lineage, suggesting that these EAF-like plasmids have undergone genetic modifications or have been lost and acquired multiple times. Global transcriptional analyses of the EPEC prototype isolate E2348/69 and two EAF plasmid mutants of this isolate demonstrated that the plasmid genes influence the expression of a number of chromosomal genes in addition to the LEE. This suggests that the genetic diversity of the EAF plasmids could contribute to differences in the global virulence regulons of EPEC isolates. PMID:26238712

  2. Nucleoid-associated proteins encoded on plasmids: Occurrence and mode of function.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Masaki; Suzuki-Minakuchi, Chiho; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) play a role in changing the shape of microbial DNA, making it more compact and affecting the regulation of transcriptional networks in host cells. Genes that encode NAPs include H-NS family proteins (H-NS, Ler, MvaT, BpH3, Bv3F, HvrA, and Lsr2), FIS, HU, IHF, Lrp, and NdpA, and are found in both microbial chromosomes and plasmid DNA. In the present study, NAP genes were distributed among 442 plasmids out of 4602 plasmid sequences, and many H-NS family proteins, and HU, IHF, Lrp, and NdpA were found in plasmids of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, while HvrA, Lsr2, HU, and Lrp were found in other classes including Actinobacteria and Bacilli. Larger plasmids frequently carried multiple NAP genes. In addition, NAP genes were more frequently found in conjugative plasmids than non-transmissible plasmids. Several host cells carried the same types of H-NS family proteins on both their plasmids and chromosome(s), while this was not observed for other NAPs. Recent studies have shown that NAP genes on plasmids and chromosomes play important roles in the physical and regulatory integration of plasmids into the host cell.

  3. Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Münch, Karin M; Müller, Johannes; Wienecke, Sarah; Bergmann, Simone; Heyber, Steffi; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. The plasmid-based expression systems employed use a xylose-controlled promoter. Protein production analyses at the single-cell level using green fluorescent protein as a model product revealed cell culture heterogeneity characterized by a significant proportion of less productive bacteria. Due to the enormous size of B. megaterium, such bistable behavior seen in subpopulations was readily analyzed by time lapse microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell culture heterogeneity was not caused simply by plasmid loss: instead, an asymmetric distribution of plasmids during cell division was detected during the exponential-growth phase. Multicopy plasmids are generally randomly distributed between daughter cells. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that under conditions of strong protein production, plasmids are retained at one of the cell poles. Furthermore, it was found that cells with accumulated plasmids and high protein production ceased cell division. As a consequence, the overall protein production of the culture was achieved mainly by the subpopulation with a sufficient plasmid copy number. Based on our experimental data, we propose a model whereby the distribution of multicopy plasmids is controlled by polar fixation under protein production conditions. Thereby, cell lines with fluctuating plasmid abundance arise, which results in population heterogeneity. Our results provide initial insights into the mechanism of cellular heterogeneity during plasmid-based recombinant protein production in a Bacillus species.

  4. Comparative Genomics Provides Insight into the Diversity of the Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli Virulence Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Tracy H; Kaper, James B; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A

    2015-10-01

    Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains are a genomically diverse group of diarrheagenic E. coli strains that are characterized by the presence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genomic island, which encodes a type III secretion system that is essential to virulence. AEEC strains can be further classified as either enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), or atypical EPEC, depending on the presence or absence of the Shiga toxin genes or bundle-forming pilus (BFP) genes. Recent AEEC genomic studies have focused on the diversity of the core genome, and less is known regarding the genetic diversity and relatedness of AEEC plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses in this study demonstrated genetic similarity among AEEC plasmid genes involved in plasmid replication conjugative transfer and maintenance, while the remainder of the plasmids had sequence variability. Investigation of the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmids, which carry the BFP genes, demonstrated significant plasmid diversity even among isolates within the same phylogenomic lineage, suggesting that these EAF-like plasmids have undergone genetic modifications or have been lost and acquired multiple times. Global transcriptional analyses of the EPEC prototype isolate E2348/69 and two EAF plasmid mutants of this isolate demonstrated that the plasmid genes influence the expression of a number of chromosomal genes in addition to the LEE. This suggests that the genetic diversity of the EAF plasmids could contribute to differences in the global virulence regulons of EPEC isolates.

  5. Peaceful coexistence amongst Borrelia plasmids: getting by with a little help from their friends?

    PubMed

    Chaconas, George; Norris, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Borrelia species comprise a unique genus of bacterial pathogens. These organisms contain a segmented genome with up to two dozen plasmids ranging in size from 5 kb up to about 200 kb. The plasmids have also been referred to as mini-chromosomes or essential genetic elements, as some of them carry information important for infection of vertebrates or for survival in the tick vector. Most of the plasmids are linear with covalently closed hairpin telomeres and these linear plasmids are in a constant state of genetic rearrangement. The mechanisms of plasmid replication, maintenance and partitioning remain largely obscure and are complicated by a long doubling time, the requirement for expensive media and inefficient genetic manipulation. A set of five parologous protein families (PFs) are believed to confer the ability for autonomous replication and plasmid maintenance. The number of plasmids also complicates analyses because of the possibility that PFs from one plasmid may sometimes function in trans on other plasmids. Two papers in the last year have moved the field forward and their combined data suggest that trans complementation amongst Borrelia plasmids may sometimes occur.

  6. Distribution of Genes Encoding Nucleoid-Associated Protein Homologs in Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Toshiharu; Yun, Choong-Soo; Shintani, Masaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) form nucleoprotein complexes and influence the expression of genes. Recent studies have shown that some plasmids carry genes encoding NAP homologs, which play important roles in transcriptional regulation networks between plasmids and host chromosomes. In this study, we determined the distributions of the well-known NAPs Fis, H-NS, HU, IHF, and Lrp and the newly found NAPs MvaT and NdpA among the whole-sequenced 1382 plasmids found in Gram-negative bacteria. Comparisons between NAP distributions and plasmid features (size, G+C content, and putative transferability) were also performed. We found that larger plasmids frequently have NAP gene homologs. Plasmids with H-NS gene homologs had less G+C content. It should be noted that plasmids with the NAP gene homolog also carried the relaxase gene involved in the conjugative transfer of plasmids more frequently than did those without the NAP gene homolog, implying that plasmid-encoded NAP homologs positively contribute to transmissible plasmids. PMID:21350637

  7. Enhanced expressions and histological characteristics of intravenously administered plasmid DNA in rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Rha, S. J.; Wang, Y. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cationic liposome-mediated gene transfection is a promising method for gene therapy. In this study, the transfection efficiency and histological patterns were evaluated in rat lung after intravenous administration via femoral vein of naked plasmid DNA, naked plasmid DNA with pretreatment of DOTAP, and DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex. Plasmid DNA encoding bacterial LacZ gene was used. For quantification of LacZ gene expression, beta-galactosidase assay was performed. For histologic examination, X-gal staining and immunohistochemical staining for transfected gene products were performed. Pretreatment of DOTAP prior to the infusion of naked plasmid DNA increased transfection efficiency up to a level comparable to DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex injection. Transfected genes were mainly expressed in type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in all animals. We conclude that the high transfection efficiency is achievable by intravenous administration of naked plasmid DNA with pretreatment of DOTAP, to a level comparable to DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex. In this regard, naked plasmid DNA administration with pretreatment of DOTAP could be a more feasible option for intravenous gene transfer than DOTAP-cholesterol-plasmid DNA complex, in that the former is technically easier and more cost-effective than the latter with a comparable efficacy, in terms of intravenous gene delivery to the lung. PMID:11641524

  8. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-10-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ~ 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  9. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ∼ 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  10. Plasmid CDS5 influences infectivity and virulence in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J H; Smith, B J; Wang, Y; Jham, B C; O'Hagan, K P; Thomson, N R; Murthy, A K; Skilton, R J; Chu, P; Clarke, I N

    2014-08-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  11. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  12. Exploring antibiotic resistance genes and metal resistance genes in plasmid metagenomes from wastewater treatment plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, An-Dong; Li, Li-Guan; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids operate as independent genetic elements in microorganism communities. Through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), they can provide their host microorganisms with important functions such as antibiotic resistance and heavy metal resistance. In this study, six metagenomic libraries were constructed with plasmid DNA extracted from influent, activated sludge (AS) and digested sludge (DS) of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Compared with the metagenomes of the total DNA extracted from the same sectors of the wastewater treatment plant, the plasmid metagenomes had significantly higher annotation rates, indicating that the functional genes on plasmids are commonly shared by those studied microorganisms. Meanwhile, the plasmid metagenomes also encoded many more genes related to defense mechanisms, including ARGs. Searching against an antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) database and a metal resistance genes (MRGs) database revealed a broad-spectrum of antibiotic (323 out of a total 618 subtypes) and MRGs (23 out of a total 23 types) on these plasmid metagenomes. The influent plasmid metagenomes contained many more resistance genes (both ARGs and MRGs) than the AS and the DS metagenomes. Sixteen novel plasmids with a complete circular structure that carried these resistance genes were assembled from the plasmid metagenomes. The results of this study demonstrated that the plasmids in WWTPs could be important reservoirs for resistance genes, and may play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of these genes. PMID:26441947

  13. Evolutionary Paths That Expand Plasmid Host-Range: Implications for Spread of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Yano, Hirokazu; Burleigh, Stephen; Simmons, Ryan S; Hughes, Julie M; Rogers, Linda M; Hunter, Samuel S; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Ponciano, José M; Top, Eva M

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization has declared the emergence of antibiotic resistance to be a global threat to human health. Broad-host-range plasmids have a key role in causing this health crisis because they transfer multiple resistance genes to a wide range of bacteria. To limit the spread of antibiotic resistance, we need to gain insight into the mechanisms by which the host range of plasmids evolves. Although initially unstable plasmids have been shown to improve their persistence through evolution of the plasmid, the host, or both, the means by which this occurs are poorly understood. Here, we sought to identify the underlying genetic basis of expanded plasmid host-range and increased persistence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid using a combined experimental-modeling approach that included whole-genome resequencing, molecular genetics and a plasmid population dynamics model. In nine of the ten previously evolved clones, changes in host and plasmid each slightly improved plasmid persistence, but their combination resulted in a much larger improvement, which indicated positive epistasis. The only genetic change in the plasmid was the acquisition of a transposable element from a plasmid native to the Pseudomonas host used in these studies. The analysis of genetic deletions showed that the critical genes on this transposon encode a putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) and a cointegrate resolution system. As evolved plasmids were able to persist longer in multiple naïve hosts, acquisition of this transposon also expanded the plasmid's host range, which has important implications for the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26668183

  14. Plasmids of the pRM/pRF family occur in diverse Rickettsia species.

    PubMed

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Felsheim, Roderick F; Kurtti, Timothy J; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2008-02-01

    The recent discoveries of the pRF and pRM plasmids of Rickettsia felis and R. monacensis have contravened the long-held dogma that plasmids are not present in the bacterial genus Rickettsia (Rickettsiales; Rickettsiaceae). We report the existence of plasmids in R. helvetica, R. peacockii, R. amblyommii, and R. massiliae isolates from ixodid ticks and in an R. hoogstraalii isolate from an argasid tick. R. peacockii and four isolates of R. amblyommii from widely separated geographic locations contained plasmids that comigrated with pRM during pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and larger plasmids with mobilities similar to that of pRF. The R. peacockii plasmids were lost during long-term serial passage in cultured cells. R. montanensis did not contain a plasmid. Southern blots showed that sequences similar to those of a DnaA-like replication initiator protein, a small heat shock protein 2, and the Sca12 cell surface antigen genes on pRM and pRF were present on all of the plasmids except for that of R. massiliae, which lacked the heat shock gene and was the smallest of the plasmids. The R. hoogstraalii plasmid was most similar to pRM and contained apparent homologs of proline/betaine transporter and SpoT stringent response genes on pRM and pRF that were absent from the other plasmids. The R. hoogstraalii, R. helvetica, and R. amblyommii plasmids contained homologs of a pRM-carried gene similar to a Nitrobacter sp. helicase RecD/TraA gene, but none of the plasmids hybridized with a probe derived from a pRM-encoded gene similar to a Burkholderia sp. transposon resolvase gene.

  15. Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family.

    PubMed

    Fricke, W Florian; Welch, Timothy J; McDermott, Patrick F; Mammel, Mark K; LeClerc, J Eugene; White, David G; Cebula, Thomas A; Ravel, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids belonging to the IncA/C plasmid family are widely distributed among Salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant Yersinia pestis isolate (IP275) from Madagascar. Here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic IncA/C plasmid pRAx (49,763 bp), isolated from Escherichia coli transconjugant D7-3, which was obtained through pRA1 transfer in 1980. Using comparative sequence analysis of pRA1 and pRAx with recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family, we show that both plasmids provide novel insights into the evolution of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family and the minimal machinery necessary for stable IncA/C plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family evolved from a common ancestor, similar in composition to pRA1, through stepwise integration of horizontally acquired resistance gene arrays into a conserved plasmid backbone. Phylogenetic comparisons predict type IV secretion-like conjugative transfer operons encoded on the shared plasmid backbones to be closely related to a group of integrating conjugative elements, which use conjugative transfer for horizontal propagation but stably integrate into the host chromosome during vegetative growth. A hipAB toxin-antitoxin gene cluster found on pRA1, which in Escherichia coli is involved in the formation of persister cell subpopulations, suggests persistence as an early broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the evolution of IncA/C resistance plasmids. PMID:19482926

  16. Evolutionary Paths That Expand Plasmid Host-Range: Implications for Spread of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Yano, Hirokazu; Burleigh, Stephen; Simmons, Ryan S; Hughes, Julie M; Rogers, Linda M; Hunter, Samuel S; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Ponciano, José M; Top, Eva M

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization has declared the emergence of antibiotic resistance to be a global threat to human health. Broad-host-range plasmids have a key role in causing this health crisis because they transfer multiple resistance genes to a wide range of bacteria. To limit the spread of antibiotic resistance, we need to gain insight into the mechanisms by which the host range of plasmids evolves. Although initially unstable plasmids have been shown to improve their persistence through evolution of the plasmid, the host, or both, the means by which this occurs are poorly understood. Here, we sought to identify the underlying genetic basis of expanded plasmid host-range and increased persistence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid using a combined experimental-modeling approach that included whole-genome resequencing, molecular genetics and a plasmid population dynamics model. In nine of the ten previously evolved clones, changes in host and plasmid each slightly improved plasmid persistence, but their combination resulted in a much larger improvement, which indicated positive epistasis. The only genetic change in the plasmid was the acquisition of a transposable element from a plasmid native to the Pseudomonas host used in these studies. The analysis of genetic deletions showed that the critical genes on this transposon encode a putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) and a cointegrate resolution system. As evolved plasmids were able to persist longer in multiple naïve hosts, acquisition of this transposon also expanded the plasmid's host range, which has important implications for the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Curing the Megaplasmid pTT27 from Thermus thermophilus HB27 and Maintaining Exogenous Plasmids in the Plasmid-Free Strain

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Masaru; Itaya, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Stepwise deletions in the only plasmid in Thermus thermophilus HB27, megaplasmid pTT27, showed that two distantly located loci were important for maintenance of the plasmid. One is a minimum replicon including one gene, repT, coding a replication initiator, and the other encodes subunits of class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) for deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis. Since the initiator protein, RepT, bound to direct repeats downstream from its own gene, it was speculated that a more-downstream A+T-rich region, which was critical for replication ability, could be unwound for replication initiation. On the other hand, the class I RNR is not necessarily essential for cell growth, as evidenced by the generation of the plasmid-free strain by the loss of pTT27. However, the plasmid-free strain culture has fewer viable cells than the wild-type culture, probably due to a dNTP pool imbalance in the cell. This is because of the introduction of the class I RNR genes or the supplementation of 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, which stimulated class II RNR encoded in the chromosome, resolved the decrease in the number of viable cells in the plasmid-free strain. Likewise, these treatments dramatically enhanced the efficiency of transformation by exogenous plasmids and the stability of the plasmids in the strain. Therefore, the class I RNR would enable the stable maintenance of plasmids, including pTT27, as a result of genome replication normalized by reversing the dNTP pool imbalance. The generation of this plasmid-free strain with great natural competence and its analysis in regard to exogenous plasmid maintenance will expand the availability of HB27 for thermophilic cell factories. PMID:26712540

  18. Plasmid DNA Supercoiling and Gyrase Activity in Escherichia coli Wild-Type and rpoS Stationary-Phase Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Domínguez, Yazmid; Contreras-Ferrat, Gabriel; Ramírez-Santos, Jesús; Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge; Gómez-Eichelmann, M. Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Stationary-phase cells displayed a distribution of relaxed plasmids and had the ability to recover plasmid supercoiling as soon as nutrients became available. Preexisting gyrase molecules in these cells were responsible for this recovery. Stationary-phase rpoS cells showed a bimodal distribution of plasmids and failed to supercoil plasmids after the addition of nutrients, suggesting that rpoS plays a role in the regulation of plasmid topology during the stationary phase. PMID:12533486

  19. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  20. Control of an outbreak of an epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus also resistant to mupirocin.

    PubMed

    Irish, D; Eltringham, I; Teall, A; Pickett, H; Farelly, H; Reith, S; Woodford, N; Cookson, B

    1998-05-01

    An epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus (EMRSA-3) appeared in a District hospital in June 1989 as part of a regional outbreak. The dynamics of the outbreak were complex and involved patient transfer between hospitals and wards. Control measures followed UK guidelines and included the use of nasal mupirocin. During these efforts a mupirocin-resistant MRSA [MuMRSA: mupirocin minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L] emerged, probably in a patient who had been given eight mupirocin courses over nine months. The MuMRSA had a narrower phage-typing pattern than EMRSA-3, but was indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI chromosomal restriction enzyme digests and its susceptibility pattern to other antibiotics. The results of in vitro curing and gene probing indicated that mupirocin resistance was encoded on a 48 Md plasmid. MuMRSA spread occurred in 12 patients and 11 staff. The affected patients were nursed on the same ward. The strain was eradicated from patients with oral ciprofloxacin and rifampicin, triclosan skin treatment and nasal fusidic acid and bacitracin cream. The control of the outbreak had significant medical, social and financial implications. Fortunately, there were alternative topical agents to mupirocin, an agent which has played such a key role in MRSA eradication in recent years.

  1. Control of spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Burns Units.

    PubMed

    Muthotho, James N.; Waiyaki, Peter G.; Mbalu, Michael; Wairugu, Anne; Mwanthi, Beth; Odongo, Ben

    1995-02-01

    Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary. PMID:12160450

  2. Efficient transformation of Neurospora crassa by utilizing hybrid plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Case, Mary E.; Schweizer, Michael; Kushner, Sidney R.; Giles, Norman H.

    1979-01-01

    An efficient transformation system has been developed for Neurospora crassa that uses spheroplasts and pVK88 plasmid DNA. pVK88 is a recombinant Escherichia coli plasmid carrying the N. crassa qa-2+ gene which encodes catabolic dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.10) and is part of the qa gene cluster. The recipient strain carries a stable qa-2- mutation and an arom-9- mutation, thus lacking both catabolic and biosynthetic dehydroquinase activities. Transformants were selected as colonies able to grow in the absence of an aromatic amino acid supplement. These colonies were qa-2+ and had normal levels of catabolic dehydroquinase. DNA·DNA hybridization evidence with appropriate labeled probes indicates clearly that in some instances transformation involves the integration of bacterial plasmid sequences together with the qa-2+ gene into the N. crassa genome. On the basis of genetic, enzyme assay, and DNA hybridization data, at least three types of transformation events can be distinguished: (i) replacement of the qa-2- gene by the qa-2+ gene without any effect on the expression of the other genes in the qa cluster, (ii) linked insertion of a normal qa-2+ gene accompanied by inactivation of the adjacent qa-4+ gene, and (iii) insertion of a normal qa-2+ gene at an unlinked site in the N. crassa genome. This newly integrated qa-2+ genetic material is inherited in a typical Mendelian fashion. A low level of transformation has also been obtained by using linear total N. crassa DNA. Two such qa-2+ transformants are unlinked to the qa-2- gene of the recipient. Images PMID:159454

  3. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies-uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián R; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which-despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria-are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions. PMID:26074886

  4. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies—uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Julián R.; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E.; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which—despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria—are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions. PMID:26074886

  5. Directional motion of foreign plasmid DNA to nuclear HP1 foci.

    PubMed

    Ondrej, Vladan; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lukásová, Emílie; Falk, Martin; Matula, Pavel; Matula, Petr; Kozubek, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Movement of labelled plasmid DNA relative to heterochromatin foci in nuclei, visualized with HP1-GFP, was studied using live-cell imaging and object tracking. In addition to Brownian motion of plasmid DNA we found a pronounced, non-random movement of plasmid DNA towards the nearest HP1 focus, while time-lapse microscopy showed that HP1 foci are relatively immobile and positionally stable. The movement of plasmid DNA was much faster than that of the HP1 foci. Contact of transgene DNA with an HP1 focus usually resulted in cessation of the directional motion. Moreover, the motion of plasmid DNA inside the heterochromatin compartment was more restricted (limited to 0.25 microm) than when the plasmid DNA was outside heterochromatin (R = 0.7 microm). Three days after transfection most of the foreign labelled DNA colocalized with centromeric heterochromatin.

  6. Stable transformation of a mosquito cell line results in extraordinarily high copy numbers of the plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, T J; Muhlmann-Diaz, M C; Kovach, M J; Carlson, J O; Bedford, J S; Beaty, B J

    1992-01-01

    Stable incorporation of high copy numbers (greater than 10,000 per cell) of a plasmid vector containing a gene conferring resistance to the antibiotic hygromycin was achieved in a cell line derived from the Aedes albopictus mosquito. Plasmid sequences were readily observed by ethidium bromide staining of cellular DNA after restriction endonuclease digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. The plasmid was demonstrated by in situ hybridization to be present in large arrays integrated in metaphase chromosomes and in minute and double-minute replicating elements. In one subclone, approximately 60,000 copies of the plasmid were organized in a large array that resembles a chromosome, morphologically and in the segregation of its chromatids during anaphase. The original as well as modified versions of the plasmid were rescued by transformation of Escherichia coli using total cellular DNA. Southern blot analyses of recovered plasmids indicate the presence of mosquito-derived sequences. Images PMID:1631052

  7. In vivo generation of linear plasmids with addition of telomeric sequences by Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Woods, J P; Goldman, W E

    1992-12-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus that is a major cause of respiratory and systemic mycosis. We previously developed a transformation system for Histoplasma and demonstrated chromosomal integration of transforming plasmid sequences. In this study, we describe another Histoplasma mechanism for maintaining transforming DNA i.e. the generation of modified, multicopy linear plasmids carrying DNA from the transforming Escherichia coli plasmid. Under selective conditions, these linear plasmids were stable and capable of retransforming Histoplasma without further modification. In vivo modification of the transforming DNA included duplication of plasmid sequence and telomeric addition at the termini of linear DNA. Apparently Histoplasma telomerase, like that of other organisms such as humans and Tetrahymena, is able to act on non-telomeric substrates. The terminus of a Histoplasma linear plasmid was cloned and shown to contain multiple repeats of GGGTTA, the telomeric repeat unit also found in vertebrates, trypanosomes, and slime moulds. PMID:1474902

  8. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet interactions with plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, D.; Cox, L. J.; Hyland, W. B.; McMahon, S. J.; Reuter, S.; Graham, W. G.; Gans, T.; Currell, F. J.

    2011-01-24

    The effect of a cold (<40 deg. C) radio frequency-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on plasmid DNA has been investigated. Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the DNA forms post-treatment. The experimental data are fitted to a rate equation model that allows for quantitative determination of the rates of single and double strand break formation. The formation of double strand breaks correlates well with the atomic oxygen density. Taken with other measurements, this indicates that neutral components in the jet are effective in inducing double strand breaks.

  9. Indole and 7-benzyloxyindole attenuate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Hyun Seob; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Banskota, Suhrid; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2013-05-01

    Human pathogens can readily develop drug resistance due to the long-term use of antibiotics that mostly inhibit bacterial growth. Unlike antibiotics, antivirulence compounds diminish bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability and thus, may not lead to drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections and produces diverse virulence factors, such as the yellow carotenoid staphyloxanthin, which promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the host immune system. To identify novel antivirulence compounds, bacterial signal indole present in animal gut and diverse indole derivatives were investigated with respect to reducing staphyloxanthin production and the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Treatment with indole or its derivative 7-benzyloxyindole (7BOI) caused S. aureus to become colorless and inhibited its hemolytic ability without affecting bacterial growth. As a result, S. aureus was more easily killed by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and by human whole blood in the presence of indole or 7BOI. In addition, 7BOI attenuated S. aureus virulence in an in vivo model of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is readily infected and killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that both indole and 7BOI repressed the expressions of several virulence genes such as α-hemolysin gene hla, enterotoxin seb, and the protease genes splA and sspA and modulated the expressions of the important regulatory genes agrA and sarA. These findings show that indole derivatives are potential candidates for use in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection. PMID:23318836

  10. Vaccine review: "Staphyloccocus aureus vaccines: problems and prospects".

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kathrin U; Girgenti, Douglas Q; Scully, Ingrid L; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both healthcare- and community-associated infections globally. S. aureus exhibits diverse clinical presentations, ranging from benign carriage and superficial skin and soft tissue infections to deep wound and organ/space infections, biofilm-related prosthesis infections, life-threatening bacteremia and sepsis. This broad clinical spectrum, together with the high incidence of these disease manifestations and magnitude of the diverse populations at risk, presents a high unmet medical need and a substantial burden to the healthcare system. With the increasing propensity of S. aureus to develop resistance to essentially all classes of antibiotics, alternative strategies, such as prophylactic vaccination to prevent S. aureus infections, are actively being pursued in healthcare settings. Within the last decade, the S. aureus vaccine field has witnessed two major vaccine failures in phase 3 clinical trials designed to prevent S. aureus infections in either patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery or patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. This review summarizes the potential underlying reasons why these two approaches may have failed, and proposes avenues that may provide successful vaccine approaches to prevent S. aureus disease in the future.

  11. Molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus associated with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Thunberg, Ulrica; Hugosson, Svante; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Söderquist, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The anterior nares have been regarded as the major carriage site of Staphylococcus aureus. From here, the organism can spread to other parts of the body where it might act as harmless commensal or cause mild to severe infections. Nasal sinuses are normally sterile, but in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the finding of S. aureus in maxillary sinus cultures is common. Isolates were obtained from the nares and maxillary sinus of patients with CRS and the nares of healthy controls. A significantly higher frequency of S. aureus was found in nares samples from patients (24/42) compared to controls (16/57) (p = 0.004). There is no consensus regarding whether S. aureus is a relevant pathogen in CRS. A DNA microarray was used to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus virulence genes with focus on staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, agr types, and cell wall-associated proteins. The genotyping of S. aureus isolates revealed only small and non-significant differences in gene prevalence between isolates collected from patients with CRS and those collected from healthy nasal carriers. This study provides an increased knowledge of the genetic pattern of virulence genes among S. aureus collected in CRS. PMID:25131615

  12. Salicylic acid diminishes Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5 expression.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Gordiola, Mariana; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2010-03-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CP) of serotypes 5 (CP5) and 8 (CP8) are major Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors. Previous studies have shown that salicylic acid (SAL), the main aspirin metabolite, affects the expression of certain bacterial virulence factors. In the present study, we found that S. aureus strain Reynolds (CP5) cultured with SAL was internalized by MAC-T cells in larger numbers than strain Reynolds organisms not exposed to SAL. Furthermore, the internalization of the isogenic nonencapsulated Reynolds strain into MAC-T cells was not significantly affected by preexposure to SAL. Pretreatment of S. aureus strain Newman with SAL also enhanced internalization into MAC-T cells compared with that of untreated control strains. Using strain Newman organisms, we evaluated the activity of the major cap5 promoter, which was significantly decreased upon preexposure to SAL. Diminished transcription of mgrA and upregulation of the saeRS transcript, both global regulators of CP expression, were found in S. aureus cultured in the presence of SAL, as ascertained by real-time PCR analysis. In addition, CP5 production by S. aureus Newman was also decreased by treatment with SAL. Collectively, our data demonstrate that exposure of encapsulated S. aureus strains to low concentrations of SAL reduced CP production, thus unmasking surface adhesins and leading to an increased capacity of staphylococci to invade epithelial cells. The high capacity of internalization of the encapsulated S. aureus strains induced by SAL pretreatment may contribute to the persistence of bacteria in certain hosts.

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Monofunctional Glycosyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q. May; Peery, Robert B.; Johnson, Robert B.; Alborn, William E.; Yeh, Wu-Kuang; Skatrud, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    A gene (mgt) encoding a monofunctional glycosyltransferase (MGT) from Staphylococcus aureus has been identified. This first reported gram-positive MGT shared significant homology with several MGTs from gram-negative bacteria and the N-terminal glycosyltransferase domain of class A high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins from different species. S. aureus MGT contained an N-terminal hydrophobic domain perhaps involved with membrane association. It was expressed in Escherichia coli cells as a truncated protein lacking the hydrophobic domain and purified to homogeneity. Analysis by circular dichroism revealed that secondary structural elements of purified truncated S. aureus MGT were consistent with predicted structural elements, indicating that the protein might exhibit the expected folding. In addition, purified S. aureus MGT catalyzed incorporation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into peptidoglycan, proving that it was enzymatically active. MGT activity was inhibited by moenomycin A, and the reaction product was sensitive to lysozyme treatment. Moreover, a protein matching the calculated molecular weight of S. aureus MGT was identified from an S. aureus cell lysate using antibodies developed against purified MGT. Taken together, our results suggest that this enzyme is natively present in S. aureus cells and that it may play a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:11466281

  14. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  15. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M.; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  16. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15-17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85-90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  17. Cloning in Streptococcus lactis of plasmid-mediated UV resistance and effect on prophage stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chopin, M.C.; Chopin, A.; Rouault, A.; Simon, D.

    1986-02-01

    Plasmid pIL7 (33 kilobases) from Streptococcus lactis enhances UV resistance and prophage stability. A 5.4-kilobase pIL7 fragment carrying genes coding for both characters was cloned into S. lactis, using plasmid pHV1301 as the cloning vector. The recombinant plasmid was subsequently transferred to three other S. lactis strains by transformation or protoplast fusion. Cloned genes were expressed in all tested strains.

  18. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  19. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  20. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud; Sannazzarro, Analia; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Smets, Barth F

    2015-03-17

    Conjugal plasmids can provide microbes with full complements of new genes and constitute potent vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugal plasmid transfer is deemed responsible for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among microbes. While broad host range plasmids are known to transfer to diverse hosts in pure culture, the extent of their ability to transfer in the complex bacterial communities present in most habitats has not been comprehensively studied. Here, we isolated and characterized transconjugants with a degree of sensitivity not previously realized to investigate the transfer range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse donor strains. This fraction, comprising 80% of the identified transconjugants, thus has the potential to dominate IncP- and IncPromA-type plasmid transfer in soil. Our results demonstrate that these broad host range plasmids have a hitherto unrecognized potential to transfer readily to very diverse bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids.

  1. Broad-host-range plasmids in treated wastewater effluent and receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tatsuya; Asfahl, Kyle L; Savin, Mary C

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid amplicons belonging to incompatibility (Inc) groups IncA/C, IncN, IncP, and IncW in two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and effluent-receiving streams in Northwest Arkansas, Mud Creek and Spring Creek, was determined. Community DNA captured on filter membranes and plasmid DNA extracted from antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Mud Creek was used for polymerase chain reaction at amplification of partial gene sequences specific to BHR plasmids. IncP plasmid amplicons were detected in effluent and downstream sites in both streams, while IncN and IncW plasmid amplicons were detected in Spring Creek in effluent and downstream but not upstream. IncA/C plasmid amplicons, in contrast, were detected at all sites, including upstream in most samples in Spring Creek and in one sample from Mud Creek. One IncP and two IncN were the only BHR plasmid amplicons found in 85 screened antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates, and were detected only in isolates from effluent and downstream samples. Broad-host-range plasmids frequently carry antibiotic-resistance genes and can facilitate horizontal transfer of those genes. While BHR plasmids have been detected in WWTPs, WWTPs do not target these genetic elements for destruction. This study indicates that BHR plasmids are in WWTP effluent and are introducing BHR plasmids into streams. Additionally, species other than E. coli may be better targets as indicator bacteria for future studies of the impact of treated effluent on environmental dissemination of BHR plasmids.

  2. Linear Plasmids and the Rate of Sequence Evolution in Plant Mitochondrial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jessica M; Simmons, Mark P; Wu, Zhiqiang; Sloan, Daniel B

    2016-01-11

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants experience frequent insertions of foreign sequences, including linear plasmids that also exist in standalone forms within mitochondria, but the history and phylogenetic distribution of plasmid insertions is not well known. Taking advantage of the increased availability of plant mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these plasmids and plasmid-derived insertions. Mitochondrial genomes from multiple land plant lineages (including liverworts, lycophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms) include fragmented remnants from ancient plasmid insertions. Such insertions are much more recent and widespread in angiosperms, in which approximately 75% of sequenced mitochondrial genomes contain identifiable plasmid insertions. Although conflicts between plasmid and angiosperm phylogenies provide clear evidence of repeated horizontal transfers, we were still able to detect significant phylogenetic concordance, indicating that mitochondrial plasmids have also experienced sustained periods of (effectively) vertical transmission in angiosperms. The observed levels of sequence divergence in plasmid-derived genes suggest that nucleotide substitution rates in these plasmids, which often encode their own viral-like DNA polymerases, are orders of magnitude higher than in mitochondrial chromosomes. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the periodic incorporation of mitochondrial genes into plasmids contributes to the remarkable heterogeneity in substitution rates among genes that has recently been discovered in some angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. In support of this hypothesis, we show that the recently acquired ψtrnP-trnW gene region in a maize linear plasmid is evolving significantly faster than homologous sequences that have been retained in the mitochondrial chromosome in closely related grasses.

  3. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew TG; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7 kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  4. Linear Plasmids and the Rate of Sequence Evolution in Plant Mitochondrial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jessica M; Simmons, Mark P; Wu, Zhiqiang; Sloan, Daniel B

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants experience frequent insertions of foreign sequences, including linear plasmids that also exist in standalone forms within mitochondria, but the history and phylogenetic distribution of plasmid insertions is not well known. Taking advantage of the increased availability of plant mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these plasmids and plasmid-derived insertions. Mitochondrial genomes from multiple land plant lineages (including liverworts, lycophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms) include fragmented remnants from ancient plasmid insertions. Such insertions are much more recent and widespread in angiosperms, in which approximately 75% of sequenced mitochondrial genomes contain identifiable plasmid insertions. Although conflicts between plasmid and angiosperm phylogenies provide clear evidence of repeated horizontal transfers, we were still able to detect significant phylogenetic concordance, indicating that mitochondrial plasmids have also experienced sustained periods of (effectively) vertical transmission in angiosperms. The observed levels of sequence divergence in plasmid-derived genes suggest that nucleotide substitution rates in these plasmids, which often encode their own viral-like DNA polymerases, are orders of magnitude higher than in mitochondrial chromosomes. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the periodic incorporation of mitochondrial genes into plasmids contributes to the remarkable heterogeneity in substitution rates among genes that has recently been discovered in some angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. In support of this hypothesis, we show that the recently acquired ψtrnP-trnW gene region in a maize linear plasmid is evolving significantly faster than homologous sequences that have been retained in the mitochondrial chromosome in closely related grasses. PMID:26759362

  5. Ammonia Inhibition of Plasmid pRmeGR4a Conjugal Transfer between Rhizobium meliloti Strains

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Cervera, J. A.; Olivares, J.; Sanjuan, J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined nutritional factors influencing conjugal transfer of the two nonsymbiotic large plasmids, pRmeGR4a and pRmeGR4b, of Rhizobium meliloti GR4. To monitor transfer, each plasmid was tagged with a different antibiotic resistance marker. Transfer of plasmid pRmeGR4b was dependent upon the presence of plasmid pRmeGR4a on the same donor cell. Transconjugants for pRmeGR4b were obtained at frequencies 5-to 10-fold higher than transconjugants carrying both plasmids, indicating that mobilization of pRmeGR4b by pRmeGR4a probably occurred in trans. Conjugal transfer of the tagged plasmids between R. meliloti strains was tested on minimal medium supplemented with single amino acids, nitrate, or ammonium as the single nitrogen source. A higher number of transconjugants was obtained when glutamate was the only nitrogen source, whereas conjugation was virtually undetectable on ammonium. No relationship was found between donor or recipient growth rate and plasmid transfer rate on a given nitrogen source. Furthermore, in media containing both glutamate and ammonium as nitrogen sources, transfer was reduced almost 100-fold compared with that in media containing glutamate alone. Inhibition was readily detected at 2.5 mM or higher concentrations of either ammonium chloride or ammonium sulfate and appeared to be specific for exogenously supplied ammonium. Inhibition of conjugal transfer between R. meliloti strains by ammonium was only observed for rhizobial plasmids, not for a heterologous plasmid such as RP4. Apparently, ammonium did not affect the plasmid-encoded transfer machinery, as it had no influence on rhizobial plasmid transfer from R. meliloti to Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The effect of ammonium seemed to take place on R. meliloti recipient cells, thereby reducing the efficiency of plasmid conjugation, probably by affecting mating pair formation or stabilization. PMID:16535284

  6. Transfer of Plasmids to an Antibiotic-Sensitive Mutant of Zymomonas mobilis†

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Steven E.; Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Zymomonas mobilis exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance and thus restrict the use of many broad-host-range plasmids in them as cloning vehicles. Antibiotic-sensitive mutants of Z. mobilis were isolated and used as hosts for the conjugal transfer of broad-host-range plasmids from Escherichia coli. Such antibiotic-sensitive strains can facilitate the application of broad-host-range plasmids to the study of Z. mobilis. Images PMID:16347136

  7. Linear Plasmids and the Rate of Sequence Evolution in Plant Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jessica M.; Simmons, Mark P.; Wu, Zhiqiang; Sloan, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants experience frequent insertions of foreign sequences, including linear plasmids that also exist in standalone forms within mitochondria, but the history and phylogenetic distribution of plasmid insertions is not well known. Taking advantage of the increased availability of plant mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these plasmids and plasmid-derived insertions. Mitochondrial genomes from multiple land plant lineages (including liverworts, lycophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms) include fragmented remnants from ancient plasmid insertions. Such insertions are much more recent and widespread in angiosperms, in which approximately 75% of sequenced mitochondrial genomes contain identifiable plasmid insertions. Although conflicts between plasmid and angiosperm phylogenies provide clear evidence of repeated horizontal transfers, we were still able to detect significant phylogenetic concordance, indicating that mitochondrial plasmids have also experienced sustained periods of (effectively) vertical transmission in angiosperms. The observed levels of sequence divergence in plasmid-derived genes suggest that nucleotide substitution rates in these plasmids, which often encode their own viral-like DNA polymerases, are orders of magnitude higher than in mitochondrial chromosomes. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the periodic incorporation of mitochondrial genes into plasmids contributes to the remarkable heterogeneity in substitution rates among genes that has recently been discovered in some angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. In support of this hypothesis, we show that the recently acquired ψtrnP-trnW gene region in a maize linear plasmid is evolving significantly faster than homologous sequences that have been retained in the mitochondrial chromosome in closely related grasses. PMID:26759362

  8. Transfer of plasmids to an antibiotic-sensitive mutant of Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, S.E.; Eveleigh, D.E.

    1986-08-01

    Wild-type strains of Zymomonas mobilis exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance and thus restrict the use of many broad-host-range plasmids in them as cloning vehicles. Antibiotic-sensitive mutants of Z. mobilis were isolated and used as hosts for the conjugal transfer of broad-host-range plasmids from Escherichia coli. Such antibiotic-sensitive strains can facilitate the application of broad-host-range plasmids to the study of Z. mobilis.

  9. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15–17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85–90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  10. Role of Plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 Hop Tolerance and Beer Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate. PMID:25501474

  11. Association of tellurium resistance and bacteriophage inhibition conferred by R plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D E; Summers, A O

    1979-01-01

    Concomitant resistance to tellurium compounds (Ter) and inhibition of coli-phage development (Phi) are properties mediated by many H2 incompatibility group R plasmids which have been isolated from diverse bacterial and geographic sources. Ter plasmids from tellurium-resistant bacteria that were isolated from sewage and industrial wastes also mediated phage inhibition. Of these Ter plasmids, three from Citrobacter freundii belonged to the H incompatibility group, whereas three from Klebsiella pneumoniae did not. Images PMID:374351

  12. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate. PMID:25501474

  13. Insights on Evolution of Virulence and Resistance from the Complete Genome Analysis of an Early Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain and a Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain†

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Steven R.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Archer, Gordon L.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Ravel, Jacques; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolonay, James F.; Brinkac, Lauren; Beanan, Mauren; Dodson, Robert J.; Daugherty, Sean C.; Madupu, Ramana; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Durkin, A. Scott; Haft, Daniel H.; Vamathevan, Jessica; Khouri, Hoda; Utterback, Terry; Lee, Chris; Dimitrov, George; Jiang, Lingxia; Qin, Haiying; Weidman, Jan; Tran, Kevin; Kang, Kathy; Hance, Ioana R.; Nelson, Karen E.; Fraser, Claire M.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the major causative agent of numerous hospital- and community-acquired infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a causative agent of infections often associated with implanted medical devices. We have sequenced the ∼2.8-Mb genome of S. aureus COL, an early methicillin-resistant isolate, and the ∼2.6-Mb genome of S. epidermidis RP62a, a methicillin-resistant biofilm isolate. Comparative analysis of these and other staphylococcal genomes was used to explore the evolution of virulence and resistance between these two species. The S. aureus and S. epidermidis genomes are syntenic throughout their lengths and share a core set of 1,681 open reading frames. Genome islands in nonsyntenic regions are the primary source of variations in pathogenicity and resistance. Gene transfer between staphylococci and low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria appears to have shaped their virulence and resistance profiles. Integrated plasmids in S. epidermidis carry genes encoding resistance to cadmium and species-specific LPXTG surface proteins. A novel genome island encodes multiple phenol-soluble modulins, a potential S. epidermidis virulence factor. S. epidermidis contains the cap operon, encoding the polyglutamate capsule, a major virulence factor in Bacillus anthracis. Additional phenotypic differences are likely the result of single nucleotide polymorphisms, which are most numerous in cell envelope proteins. Overall differences in pathogenicity can be attributed to genome islands in S. aureus which encode enterotoxins, exotoxins, leukocidins, and leukotoxins not found in S. epidermidis. PMID:15774886

  14. VirA and VirG activate the Ti plasmid repABC operon, elevating plasmid copy number in response to wound-released chemical signals

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hongbaek; Winans, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    The vir genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids direct the transfer of oncogenic portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells (T-DNA) into plant cells and are coordinately induced by plant-released phenolic chemical signals. We have used DNA microarrays, representing all genes of the octopine- and nopaline-type Ti plasmids, to identify all Ti-plasmid-encoded genes in the vir regulons of both plasmids. Acetosyringone (AS) induced the expression of all known members of the vir regulons, as well as a small number of additional genes. Unexpectedly, AS also caused a modest induction of virtually every Ti plasmid gene. This suggested that the copy number of the Ti plasmid might increase in response to AS, a hypothesis confirmed by DNA dot blotting. VirA and VirG were the only Vir proteins required for this copy number increase. Promoter resections and primer extension analysis of the repABC promoter region showed that expression of the promoter closest to repA (promoter P4) was induced by AS. We also identified a sequence resembling a consensus VirG-binding motif ≈70 nucleotides upstream from the P4 transcription start site. Mutating this sequence blocked the AS-induced copy number increase of a RepABC-dependent miniplasmid, indicating that phospho-VirG increases copy number solely by enhancing repABC expression. PMID:16195384

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Lynne; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearman, John W.; Christiansen, Keryn; Grubb, Warren B.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals. PMID:16318700

  16. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Nicholas A; Holmes, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely accepted method of DNA sequencebased typing that relies on analysis of relatively conserved genes that encode essential proteins. For Staphylococcus aureus, the level of discrimination provided by MLST is sufficient to provide a relatively detailed picture of the global dissemination of the organism. The technique is not restrictive in the precise methodology used to acquire the sequences, but the method of assigning types requires that the data be of high quality. Excellent Web-based tools have been developed and are curated by the groups that launched MLST. These tools have allowed the scheme to be maintained as a coherent global asset and assist users in the analysis of their data.

  17. Clinical Management of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Thomas L.; Arnold, Christopher; Fowler, Vance G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Several management strategies may improve outcomes in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). The strength of evidence supporting these management strategies, however, varies widely. Objective To perform a systematic review of the evidence for two unresolved questions involving management strategies for SAB: 1) is transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) necessary in all cases of SAB; and 2) what is the optimal antibiotic therapy for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia? Evidence acquisition A PubMed search from inception through May 2014 was performed to find studies that addressed the role of TEE in SAB. A second search of PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from 1/1/1990 to 5/28/2014 was performed to find studies that addressed antibiotic treatment of MRSA bacteremia. Studies that reported outcomes of systemic antibiotic therapy for MRSA bacteremia were included. All searches were augmented by review of bibliographic references from included studies. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system by consensus of independent evaluations by at least two authors. Results In 9 studies with a total of 3513 patients, use of TEE was associated with higher rates of diagnosis of endocarditis (14–25%) when compared with TTE (2–14%). Five studies proposed criteria to identify patients in whom TEE might safely be avoided. Only one high-quality trial of antibiotic therapy for MRSA bacteremia was identified from the 83 studies considered. Conclusions and relevance Most contemporary management strategies for SAB are based upon low quality evidence. TEE is indicated in most patients with SAB. It may be possible to identify a subset of SAB patients for whom TEE can be safely avoided. Vancomycin and daptomycin are the first-line antibiotic choices for MRSA bacteremia. Well-designed studies to address the management of SAB are desperately needed. PMID:25268440

  18. Hofmeister series salts enhance purification of plasmid DNA by non-ionic detergents.

    PubMed

    Lezin, George; Kuehn, Michael R; Brunelli, Luca

    2011-08-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the standard technique used for plasmid DNA purification, an essential molecular biology procedure. Non-ionic detergents (NIDs) have been used for plasmid DNA purification, but it is unclear whether Hofmeister series salts (HSS) change the solubility and phase separation properties of specific NIDs, enhancing plasmid DNA purification. After scaling-up NID-mediated plasmid DNA isolation, we established that NIDs in HSS solutions minimize plasmid DNA contamination with protein. In addition, large-scale NID/HSS solutions eliminated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) contamination of plasmid DNA more effectively than Qiagen ion-exchange columns. Large-scale NID isolation/NID purification generated increased yields of high-quality DNA compared to alkali isolation/column purification. This work characterizes how HSS enhance NID-mediated plasmid DNA purification, and demonstrates that NID phase transition is not necessary for LPS removal from plasmid DNA. Specific NIDs such as IGEPAL CA-520 can be utilized for rapid, inexpensive, and efficient laboratory-based large-scale plasmid DNA purification, outperforming Qiagen-based column procedures.

  19. The Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid mediates systemic but not enteric phases of salmonellosis in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, T S; Paulin, S M; Plested, J S; Watson, P R; Jones, P W

    1995-01-01

    Plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free isolates and a plasmid-cured strain of Salmonella dublin were compared for virulence in calves. The plasmid-bearing strains were highly virulent, causing severe enteric and systemic disease with high mortality. In contrast, the plasmid</