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Sample records for australia key findings

  1. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  2. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  3. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  4. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 5: Indonesian/Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Peter

    The report on the status of the Indonesian and Malay languages in Australia documents the history of those languages in Australian education, within selected communities, in international trade, and among high school students. The first chapter gives a brief history of the Indonesian and Malay languages and comments on their place in the life of…

  5. Toxicology in Australia: a key component of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Priestly, Brian G; Di Marco, Peter; Sim, Malcolm; Moore, Michael R; Langley, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    Managing public concerns relating to chemical exposures can consume substantial public health resources, particularly as the scientific basis around these issues is often contentious. Toxicology remains underrecognized as a public health discipline in Australia, although Australian toxicologists are making significant contributions from academia, government, and the commercial sector toward assessing the level of risk and protecting the community from environmental hazards. Internationally, the growth of environmental toxicology and the promotion of sound science in risk assessment as a basis for making regulatory decisions have been, to some extent, driven by the outcomes of the 1992 UNCED Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio Summit) and its Chapter 19 Agenda 21 activities. The promotion of safe chemical management practices and the need for global strengthening of capabilities in toxicology are among the initiatives of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS), which was formed after the Rio Summit to manage these programs. This article describes some of the initiatives in capacity building that marked the development of environmental toxicology in Australia since 1992 in response to these international environmental health initiatives. PMID:17763075

  6. Powering Down: Green IT in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Powering Down: Green IT in Higher Education," the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of green IT. The study examines the stance institutions and their central IT organizations are taking on environmental sustainability (ES), the progress they are making on a variety of key…

  7. Institutional Data Management in Higher Education. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of institutional data management, which examines the policies and practices by which higher education institutions effectively collect, protect, and use digital information assets to meet academic and business needs. Importantly, it also…

  8. Perceptual Tests of an Algorithm for Musical Key-Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuckler, Mark A.; Tomovski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Perceiving the tonality of a musical passage is a fundamental aspect of the experience of hearing music. Models for determining tonality have thus occupied a central place in music cognition research. Three experiments investigated 1 well-known model of tonal determination: the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm. In Experiment 1,…

  9. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  10. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  11. Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS

  12. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  13. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  14. Human Health Effects of Dichloromethane: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Paul M.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Gibbons, Catherine F.; Wilkins, Amina

    2014-01-01

    effects of dichloromethane: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 123:114–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308030 PMID:25325283

  15. Key innovation or adaptive change? A test of leaf traits using Triodiinae in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Toon, A.; Crisp, M. D.; Gamage, H.; Mant, J.; Morris, D. C.; Schmidt, S.; Cook, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of novel traits (“key innovations”) allows some lineages to move into new environments or adapt to changing climates, whereas other lineages may track suitable habitat or go extinct. We test whether, and how, trait shifts are linked to environmental change using Triodiinae, C4 grasses that form the dominant understory over about 30% of Australia. Using phylogenetic and relaxed molecular clock estimates, we assess the Australian biogeographic origins of Triodiinae and reconstruct the evolution of stomatal and vascular bundle positioning. Triodiinae diversified from the mid-Miocene, coincident with the aridification of Australia. Subsequent niche shifts have been mostly from the Eremaean biome to the savannah, coincident with the expansion of the latter. Biome shifts are correlated with changes in leaf anatomy and radiations within Triodiinae are largely regional. Symplectrodia and Monodia are nested within Triodia. Rather than enabling biome shifts, convergent changes in leaf anatomy have probably occurred after taxa moved into the savannah biome—they are likely to have been subsequent adaptions rather than key innovations. Our study highlights the importance of testing the timing and origin of traits assumed to be phenotypic innovations that enabled ecological shifts. PMID:26215163

  16. Key innovation or adaptive change? A test of leaf traits using Triodiinae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Toon, A; Crisp, M D; Gamage, H; Mant, J; Morris, D C; Schmidt, S; Cook, L G

    2015-07-28

    The evolution of novel traits ("key innovations") allows some lineages to move into new environments or adapt to changing climates, whereas other lineages may track suitable habitat or go extinct. We test whether, and how, trait shifts are linked to environmental change using Triodiinae, C4 grasses that form the dominant understory over about 30% of Australia. Using phylogenetic and relaxed molecular clock estimates, we assess the Australian biogeographic origins of Triodiinae and reconstruct the evolution of stomatal and vascular bundle positioning. Triodiinae diversified from the mid-Miocene, coincident with the aridification of Australia. Subsequent niche shifts have been mostly from the Eremaean biome to the savannah, coincident with the expansion of the latter. Biome shifts are correlated with changes in leaf anatomy and radiations within Triodiinae are largely regional. Symplectrodia and Monodia are nested within Triodia. Rather than enabling biome shifts, convergent changes in leaf anatomy have probably occurred after taxa moved into the savannah biome-they are likely to have been subsequent adaptions rather than key innovations. Our study highlights the importance of testing the timing and origin of traits assumed to be phenotypic innovations that enabled ecological shifts.

  17. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  18. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  19. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: (1) describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, (2) outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, (3) illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and (4) highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory, and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with brain

  20. Hydrocarbon-related diagenesis: The key to understanding trap integrity and hydrocarbon charge history in Australia`s Timor Sea?

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.W.; Woods, E.P.; Lisk, M.; Fellows, M.

    1996-12-31

    In the Late Miocene, the effects of continental collision partially to completely breached many charged, Mesozoic traps in Australia`s Timor Sea. An integrated geophysical and geochemical study has shown that the biodegradation of hydrocarbons leaking from these Mesozoic traps produced hydrocarbon-related diagenetic zones or HRDZs within overlying, Eocene aquifer sands. These HRDZs, which are principally defined by zones of intense carbonate cementation, are seismically-resolvable, with both their size and velocity being directly related to the amount of hydrocarbons that have passed through the aquifer sands. Consequently, the integration of observations on the seismic, velocity and isotopic characteristics of the HRDZs, the nature of present-day hydrocarbon seepage (as defined by sniffer and ALF data), and geometric relationships between the reactivation (Miocene) and trap (Jurassic) fault geometries, can provide a powerful predictive tool for evaluating and ranking undrilled structures and prospects within the Timor Sea.

  1. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  2. HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Sharon R; Kaldor, John M; Cooper, David A

    2006-01-01

    Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, particularly within the Asia-Pacific region. It is therefore fitting that the 4th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention will be held in Sydney in July 2007. The meeting is expected to attract over 5000 participants and will have a dynamic and innovative programme within the three major themes of HIV basic science, clinical research and biomedical prevention. PMID:17140433

  3. Avoiding Failure for Australia's Digital Health Record: The Findings from a Rural E-Health Participatory Research Project.

    PubMed

    Almond, H; Cummings, E; Turner, P

    2016-01-01

    Low adoption and use of Australia's digital health record has driven the Australian Government to trial 'opt-out' registration from mid-June 2016. The assumption that automatic registration will increase use and thereby deliver benefit requires further investigation especially amongst those sections of the population in rural, regional, remote Australia living with complex chronic conditions. This paper reports on findings from a community based participatory e-health research project based on an initiative where people with complex chronic conditions and their carers attended a rural health promotion and lifestyle modification program. Through co-operative enquiry, health promotion officers and their clients were actively supported to adopt and use Australia's digital health record as an intervention. Simultaneously they were encouraged to reflect on its design and their perceptions of its overall impact on their individual ability to self-manage complex chronic conditions. The findings, ultimately contributing to a conceptual implementation and evaluation framework for Australia's digital health record that could directly avoid failure of the new 'opt-out' approach being adopted. PMID:27440282

  4. Avoiding Failure for Australia's Digital Health Record: The Findings from a Rural E-Health Participatory Research Project.

    PubMed

    Almond, H; Cummings, E; Turner, P

    2016-01-01

    Low adoption and use of Australia's digital health record has driven the Australian Government to trial 'opt-out' registration from mid-June 2016. The assumption that automatic registration will increase use and thereby deliver benefit requires further investigation especially amongst those sections of the population in rural, regional, remote Australia living with complex chronic conditions. This paper reports on findings from a community based participatory e-health research project based on an initiative where people with complex chronic conditions and their carers attended a rural health promotion and lifestyle modification program. Through co-operative enquiry, health promotion officers and their clients were actively supported to adopt and use Australia's digital health record as an intervention. Simultaneously they were encouraged to reflect on its design and their perceptions of its overall impact on their individual ability to self-manage complex chronic conditions. The findings, ultimately contributing to a conceptual implementation and evaluation framework for Australia's digital health record that could directly avoid failure of the new 'opt-out' approach being adopted.

  5. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  6. Audio Key Finding: Considerations in System Design and Case Studies on Chopin's 24 Preludes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Ching-Hua; Chew, Elaine

    2006-12-01

    We systematically analyze audio key finding to determine factors important to system design, and the selection and evaluation of solutions. First, we present a basic system, fuzzy analysis spiral array center of effect generator algorithm, with three key determination policies: nearest-neighbor (NN), relative distance (RD), and average distance (AD). AD achieved a 79% accuracy rate in an evaluation on 410 classical pieces, more than 8% higher RD and NN. We show why audio key finding sometimes outperforms symbolic key finding. We next propose three extensions to the basic key finding system—the modified spiral array (mSA), fundamental frequency identification (F0), and post-weight balancing (PWB)—to improve performance, with evaluations using Chopin's Preludes (Romantic repertoire was the most challenging). F0 provided the greatest improvement in the first 8 seconds, while mSA gave the best performance after 8 seconds. Case studies examine when all systems were correct, or all incorrect.

  7. U of M Civil Service Wellness Survey: Finding Out Employees' Health and Wellness Needs. A Report of Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Key findings from a wellness survey conducted with University of Minnesota civil service employees are discussed. The survey was designed to provide information to guide future campus health and wellness programming. Four topics were covered: physical fitness/exercise, nutrition, self-improvement/psychological health, and general health/preventive…

  8. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors.

  9. SEROLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS FINDINGS IN THE WATER SUPPLY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    From July to September, 1998, high levels of Cryptospordium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected in Sydney, Australia drinking water. To evaluate whether Sydney residents had an elevated risk of infection, serological responses to two Cryptospordium antigen groups (15/17 - an...

  10. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508

  11. AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

  12. "State of the Nation": A Discussion of Some of the Project's Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers several of the key findings of the State of the Nation research. Specific reference is made to three areas--impact evaluation, strategic leadership of professional development, and barriers and constraints to effective CPD practice--which are considered with reference to findings from the other TDA-funded projects conducted at…

  13. Key informants' perspectives of implementing chromosomal microarrays into clinical practice in Australia.

    PubMed

    Turbitt, Erin; Halliday, Jane L; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2013-08-01

    High-resolution genomic tests have the potential to revolutionize healthcare by vastly improving mutation detection. The use of chromosomal microarray (CMA) represents one of the earliest examples of these new genomic tests being introduced and disseminated in the clinic. While CMA has clear advantages over traditional karyotyping in terms of mutation detection, little research has investigated the process by which CMA was implemented in clinical settings. Fifteen key informants, six clinicians, and nine laboratory scientists from four Australian states were interviewed about their experiences during and in the time since CMA was adopted for clinical use. Participants discussed challenges such as result interpretation and communication. Strengths were also highlighted, including the collaborative approaches of some centers. Clinical experiences and opinions can inform larger studies with a range of stakeholders, including patients. The historical perspectives from this retrospective study can be helpful in guiding the implementation of future genomic technologies such as whole exome/genome sequencing.

  14. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  15. Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project TPACK Survey: Summary of the Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Jamieson-Proctor, Romina; Cavanagh, Rob; Albion, Peter; Grimbeek, Peter; Bond, Trevor; Fitzgerald, Robert; Romeo, Geoff; Lloyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the key findings of the TTF TPACK Survey developed and administered for the Teaching the Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project implemented in 2011. The TTF Project, funded by an Australian Government ICT Innovation Fund grant, involved all 39 Australian Higher Education Institutions which provide initial teacher…

  16. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We ask…

  17. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study, "Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud," by Philip J. Goldstein. The study explores a multitude of strategies used by colleges and university information technology organizations to deliver the breadth of technologies…

  18. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  19. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  20. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  1. Cyclists’ experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076

  2. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-03-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity

  3. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-02-27

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.

  4. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  5. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults' leisure-time physical activity: findings from Belgium, Australia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2013-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the strength, direction and shape of the associations of environmental perceptions with recreational walking and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, using pooled data from four study sites (Baltimore [USA], Seattle [USA], Adelaide [Australia] and Ghent [Belgium]). Moreover, site- and gender-specificity of the associations were examined. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) completed the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Both a 'recreational walking-friendliness' index and a 'leisure-time activity friendliness' index had a positive linear association with recreational walking and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. The associations were significant in all study sites except Ghent. Present findings were clearly site-specific, imposing possible challenges for built environment recommendations. In Belgium, interventions to promote leisure-time activity may need to target promotion of existing opportunities rather than built environment improvements. PMID:23178650

  6. Mundrabilla 012: A New CV2(?) Chondrite Find from the Southwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulff-Moller, F.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Grundvig, S.

    1993-07-01

    A carbonaceous chondrite with a total mass of 30.6 g was found in the Mundrabilla area on the Nullarbor Plains in Southwest Australia in 1992. The meteorite contains more than 30 vol% chondrules and is heavily altered. No metal or glassy chondrule mesostasis are preserved. The chondrules vary from spheres with 1 mm diameter to ellipsoids up to 2 mm long with an aspect ratio of 3 that seems to be aligned. The chondrule textures are typically olivine-microporphyritic; one "barred olivine" chondrule contains rosy spinel. Spherical metal grains (now iron-oxide pseudomorphs) are frequently seen at chondrule margins. The olivines have highly magnesian cores (Fa 0.3-6) whereas margins and narrow zones along fractures are strongly Fe-enriched (Fa 20). The altered mesostasis retained its primary chemistry in part, but shows strong local enrichment of K. Hydrothermal alteration has turned some chondrules into "ghosts" that are just barely recognizable. The fine-grained matrix is semitransparent with a reddish-brown color and consists of sheet silicates. The matrix contains diffuse, recrystallized patches that consist of iron-rich olivine (Fa 44), diopside, and calcium carbonate. Iron-sulphide-rich domains are typically associated with magnetite. High-T(?) Inclusions: We found a single, 20-my-sized, green, transparent spinel grain with an irregular surface in the matrix. In addition, we found a 0.5-mm kidney-shaped inclusion with a submicroscopic Ca-Al-silicate-rich matrix with tiny, dispersed grains of ilmenite (hem 8.5). Low totals of the microprobe analyses suggest that the matrix contains carbonates or hydroxides. Secondary Processes: Our observations indicate that the chondrite parent body underwent a long period of pervasive hydrothermal alteration under relatively high-P/lowT conditions where hydrous silicates and calcium carbonate crystallized in the matrix. We believe that oxidation of the metal took place during this event along with the Fe enrichment of the surface

  7. Encarsia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Australia and the Pacific Islands attacking Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)--a pictorial key and descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Naumann, I D; De Barro, P J

    2001-10-01

    After the recent introduction of the pest whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B into Australia, research was undertaken to study the parasitoids of the long established native B. tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The genus Encarsia contains species which are important biological control agents of whiteflies and hard scales. The taxonomy of the Encarsia species attacking B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum in Australia and the Pacific Islands is revised. DNA sequencing of the 28S D2 ribosomal DNA was used to characterize species. Sixteen species are recognized, with 12 occurring in Australia, eight in the Pacific region, and four in both regions. All except one species (E. formosa Gahan) are new records for Australia. Four species are described as new from Australia: E. accenta Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., E. adusta Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., E. oakeyensis Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., and E. ustulata Schmidt & Naumann sp. n. Diagnostic descriptions are given for all species and each species is illustrated. A pictorial key is provided to allow the identification of species by non-specialists.

  8. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  9. Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.H.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1991-05-01

    The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain repository program and the trust Nevadans currently addressing the siting issues. In order to provide place in key public officials who are Longitudinal data on the repository program, the 1991 questionnaire consisted of questions that were used in the 1989 NWPO survey which was conducted by Mountain West Research. As a result, the findings from this survey are compared with analogous items from the 1989 survey, and with the results from a survey commissioned by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and reported in their issue of October 21, 1990. The Review-Journal survey was conducted by Bruce Merri11 of the Arizona State University Media Research Center. A more complete comparison of the 1989 and 1991 surveys sponsored by NWPO is possible since the researchers at Decision Research had access to both these databases. The only source of information for the Review-Journal findings was the articles published in the Fall, 1990. The findings of the 1991 survey show that Nevadans oppose the federal government attempts to locate a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. They support a policy of opposition on the part of Nevada officials. They believe that Nevadans should have the final say in whether to accept the repository or not, and they reject the proposition that benefits from the repository program will outweigh the harms. These findings are very similar to survey results from 1989 and 1990 and once again demonstrate very widespread public opposition by Nevadans to the current federal repository program.

  10. How the World's Best Schools Stay on Top: Study's Key Findings Pinpoint Practices That Align with Learning Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    Key findings from a new study highlight how Learning Forward's long-standing position on professional learning correlates with practices in high-performing systems in Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia. The purpose of this article is to share key findings from the study so that educators might apply them to strengthening…

  11. Comparison of work related fatal injuries in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand: method and overall findings

    PubMed Central

    Feyer, A; Williamson, A; Stout, N; Driscoll, T; Usher, H; Langley, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the extent, distribution, and nature of fatal occupational injury in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Setting—Workplaces in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Methods—Data collections based on vital records were used to compare overall rates and distribution of fatal injuries covering the period 1989–92 in Australia and the United States, and 1985–94 in New Zealand. Household labour force data (Australia and the United States) and census data (New Zealand) provided denominator data for calculation of rates. Case definition, case inclusion criteria, and classification of occupation and industry were harmonised across the three datasets. Results—New Zealand had the highest average annual rate (4.9/100 000), Australia an intermediate rate (3.8/100 000), and the United States the lowest rate (3.2/100 000) of fatal occupational injury. Much of the difference between countries was accounted for by differences in industry distribution. In each country, male workers, older workers, and those working in agriculture, forestry and fishing, in mining and in construction, were consistently at higher risk. Intentional fatal injury was more common in the United States, being rare in both Australia and New Zealand. This difference is likely to be reflected in the more common incidence of work related fatal injuries for sales workers in the United States compared with Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions—The present results contrasted with those obtained by a recent study that used published omnibus statistics, both in terms of absolute rates and relative ranking of the three countries. Such differences underscore the importance of using like datasets for international comparisons. The consistency of high risk areas across comparable data from comparable nations provides clear targets for further attention. At this stage, however, it is unclear whether the same specific occupations and/or hazards are contributing to

  12. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-01

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia. PMID:24168089

  13. Hydrocarbon-related diagenesis: The key to understanding trap integrity and hydrocarbon charge history in Australia's Timor Sea

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, G.W.; Woods, E.P.; Lisk, M.; Fellows, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Late Miocene, the effects of continental collision partially to completely breached many charged, Mesozoic traps in Australia's Timor Sea. An integrated geophysical and geochemical study has shown that the biodegradation of hydrocarbons leaking from these Mesozoic traps produced hydrocarbon-related diagenetic zones or HRDZs within overlying, Eocene aquifer sands. These HRDZs, which are principally defined by zones of intense carbonate cementation, are seismically-resolvable, with both their size and velocity being directly related to the amount of hydrocarbons that have passed through the aquifer sands. Consequently, the integration of observations on the seismic, velocity and isotopic characteristics of the HRDZs, the nature of present-day hydrocarbon seepage (as defined by sniffer and ALF data), and geometric relationships between the reactivation (Miocene) and trap (Jurassic) fault geometries, can provide a powerful predictive tool for evaluating and ranking undrilled structures and prospects within the Timor Sea.

  14. Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Christina A.

    The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

  15. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  16. Finding solid ground: law enforcement, key populations and their health and rights in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Andrew; Howell, Simon; Müller, Alexandra; Katumba, Munyaradzi; Langen, Bram; Artz, Lillian; Marks, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect. This paper explores how relationship building can create positive outcomes while taking into account the challenges associated with reforming police strategies in relation to key populations, and vice versa. Discussion We argue that relationships between law enforcement agencies and key populations need to be re-examined and reconstituted to enable appropriate responses and services. The antagonistic positioning, “othering” and blame assignment frequently seen in interactions between law enforcement officials and key populations can negatively influence both, albeit for different reasons. In addressing these concerns, we argue that mediation based on consensual dialogue is required, and can be harnessed through a process that highlights points of familiarity that are often shared, but not understood, by both parties. Rather than laying blame, we argue that substantive changes need to be owned and executed by all role-players, informed by a common language that is cognisant of differing perspectives. Conclusions Relational approaches can be used to identify programmes that align goals that are part of law enforcement, human rights and public health despite not always being seen as such. Law enforcement champions and representatives of key populations need to be identified and supported to promote interventions that are mutually reinforcing, and address perceived differences by highlighting commonality

  17. A Survey of American Voter Attitudes Concerning Child Care Services: Highlights and Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttila & Kiley, Inc., Boston, MA.

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 901 voters was conducted to measure voter attitudes toward child care and, in particular, the Act for Better Child Care Services (ABC). The survey also explored attitudes toward parental leave. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority of Americans think of child care as an urgent need and…

  18. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

  19. Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

  20. The Effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning in European Education: Key Findings from the Andalusian Bilingual Sections Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Francisco; Casal, Sonia; Moore, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) represents an increasingly popular pedagogic approach that has evolved in response to the recognised need for plurilingual competence in Europe. In this article, we present key findings from one of the first large-scale, multidimensional CLIL evaluation projects. We begin by outlining the emergence…

  1. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Two-Part Study on Gender and Media. Summary of Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This pamphlet summarizes the key findings of a two-part study that investigated the messages that young women (age 10 to 17) get from the media. A content analysis examined messages to girls across a range of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine…

  2. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  3. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  4. Key components of anaphylaxis management plans: consensus findings from a national electronic Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Allison; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There is no international consensus on the components of anaphylaxis management plans and responsibility for their design and delivery is contested. We set out to establish consensus among relevant specialist and generalist clinicians on this issue to inform future randomized controlled trials. Design A two-round electronic Delphi study completed by a 25-person, multidisciplinary expert panel. Participants scored the importance of a range of statements on anaphylaxis management, identified from a systematic review of the literature, on a five-point scale ranging from ‘very important’ to ‘irrelevant’. Consensus was defined a priori as being achieved if 80% or more of panel members rated a statement as ‘important’ or ‘very important’ after Round 2. Setting Primary and secondary care and academic settings in the UK and Ireland. Participants Twenty-five medical, nursing and allied health professionals. Main outcome measures Consensus on the key components of anaphylaxis management plans. Results The response rate was 84% (n = 21) for Round 1 and 96% (n = 24) for Round 2. The key components of emergency care on which consensus was achieved included: awareness of trigger factors (100%); recognition and emergency management of reactions of different severity (100%); and clear information on adrenaline (epinephrine) use (100%). Consensus on longer-term management issues included: clear written guidelines on anaphylaxis management (96%); annual review of plans (87%); and plans that were tailored to individual needs (82%). Conclusions This national consensus-building exercise generated widespread agreement that emergency plans need to be simple, clear and generic, making them easy to implement in a crisis. In contrast, long-term plans need to be negotiated between patient/carers and professionals, and tailored to individual needs. The effectiveness of this expert-agreed long-term plan now needs to be evaluated rigorously. PMID:21103134

  5. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, M

    2007-01-01

    This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple‐symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

  6. Investigating Ideomotor Cognition with Motorvisual Priming Paradigms: Key Findings, Methodological Challenges, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Thomaschke, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Ideomotor theory claims that perceptual representations of action-effects are functionally involved in the planning of actions. Strong evidence for this claim comes from a phenomenon called motorvisual priming. Motorvisual priming refers to the finding that action planning directly affects perception, and that the effects are selective for stimuli that share features with the planned action. Motorvisual priming studies have provided detailed insights into the processing of perceptual representations in action planning. One important finding is that such representations in action planning have a categorical format, whereas metric representations are not anticipated in planning. Further essential findings regard the processing mechanisms and the time course of ideomotor cognition. Perceptual representations of action-effects are first activated by action planning and then bound into a compound representation of the action plan. This compound representation is stabilized throughout the course of the action by the shielding of all involved representations from other cognitive processes. Despite a rapid growth in the number of motorvisual priming studies in the current literature, there are still many aspects of ideomotor cognition which have not yet been investigated. These aspects include the scope of ideomotor processing with regard to action types and stimulus types, as well as the exact nature of the binding and shielding mechanisms involved. PMID:23189067

  7. Key findings of the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's clinical practice benchmarking project.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Quinton, Hebe B; Marshall, Bruce C; Schechter, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Benchmarking is the process of using outcome data to identify high-performing centres and determine practices associated with their outstanding performance. The US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Patient Registry contains centre-specific outcomes data for all CFF-certified paediatric and adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programmes in the USA. The CFF benchmarking project analysed these registry data, adjusting for differences in patient case mix known to influence outcomes, and identified the top-performing US paediatric and adult CF care programmes for pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. Separate multidisciplinary paediatric and adult benchmarking teams each visited 10 CF care programmes, five in the top quintile for pulmonary outcomes and five in the top quintile for nutritional outcomes. Key practice patterns and approaches present in both paediatric and adult programmes with outstanding clinical outcomes were identified and could be summarised as systems, attitudes, practices, patient/family empowerment and projects. These included: (1) the presence of strong leadership and a well-functioning care team working with a systematic approach to providing consistent care; (2) high expectations for outcomes among providers and families; (3) early and aggressive management of clinical declines, avoiding reliance on 'rescues'; and (4) patients/families that were engaged, empowered and well informed on disease management and its rationale. In summary, assessment of practice patterns at CF care centres with top-quintile pulmonary and nutritional outcomes provides insight into characteristic practices that may aid in optimising patient outcomes.

  8. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  9. Specific Shrinkage of Carotid Forks in Moyamoya Disease: A Novel Key Finding for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    KURODA, Satoshi; KASHIWAZAKI, Daina; AKIOKA, Naoki; KOH, Masaki; HORI, Emiko; NISHIKATA, Manabu; UMEMURA, Kimiko; HORIE, Yukio; NOGUCHI, Kyo; KUWAYAMA, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the outer diameter of the involved arteries in moyamoya disease, using three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady state (CISS) and direct surgical inspection. Radiological evaluation was performed in 64 patients with moyamoya disease. As the controls, six patients with severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis and 17 healthy subjects were also recruited. On 3D-CISS, the outer diameter was quantified in the supraclinoid portion of internal carotid artery (C1), the horizontal portions of MCA (M1) and anterior cerebral artery (A1), and basilar artery. The involved carotid fork was directly observed during surgery in another series of three adult patients with moyamoya disease. In 53 adult patients with moyamoya disease, the outer diameters of C1, M1, and A1 segments were 2.3 ± 0.7 mm, 1.3 ± 0.5 mm, and 1.0 ± 0.4 mm in the involved side (n = 91), being significantly smaller than the control (n = 17), severe M1 stenosis (n = 6), and non-involved side in moyamoya disease (n = 15, P < 0.01). There were significant correlations between Suzuki’s angiographical stage and the outer diameters of C1, M1, and A1 (P < 0.001). The laterality ratio of C1 and M1 was significantly smaller in unilateral moyamoya disease (n = 20) than the controls and severe MCA stenosis (P < 0.01). Direct observations revealed a marked decrease in the outer diameter of the carotid fork (n = 3). These findings strongly suggest specific shrinkage of the involved arteries in moyamoya disease, which may provide essential information to distinguish moyamoya disease from other intracranial arterial stenosis and shed light on the etiology and novel diagnosis cue of moyamoya disease. PMID:26369872

  10. Tectonic history of Sweetgrass Arch, Montana and Alberta-key to finding new hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W. Shepard, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Sweetgrass arch of northwestern Montana and southern Alberta is a major ancient structural feature. Initial anticlinal emplacement occurred during the early Paleozoic and was parallel with the cratonic margin. Strong uplift followed by peneplanation occurred during the Late Jurassic and basal Cretaceous during the westward drifting of the North American plate following the breakup of Pangea. During Cretaceous and early Tertiary times, the Sweetgrass arch was quiescent, but was rejuvenated in mid to late Tertiary, upwarped by a basement flexure to its present structural configuration: a 200 mi (322 km) long, north-plunging anticline showing 10,000 ft (350 m) of structural relief. Midway down its plunge, the anticline is offset 30 mi (48 km) by a right-lateral transcurrent fault. During Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, plutonic uplifts were emplaced on the east flank, forming traps for oil then migrating updip from the Williston and Alberta basins. Oil and gas accumulated in Mississippian, Jurassic, and basal Cretaceous reservoirs in structural and stratigraphic traps around these plutonic uplifts. Subsequent late Tertiary doming of the Sweetgrass arch tilted the earlier structural traps and drained them, resulting in remigration of much of the oil and gas to the crest of the arch. The tilting failed to destroy many of the stratigraphic traps. As a result, down the flanks of the Sweetgrass arch are many frozen stratigraphic traps including Cut Bank field, the largest single-pay stratigraphic trap in the north Rockies. On the crest are large structure accumulations of remigrated oil at Kevin Sunburst and Pondera. Evidence of remigration is recorded by live oil show tracks in the reservoirs and remnant gas caps throughout the area of earlier accumulations. A potential exists for finding new frozen traps on the flanks and remigrated oil accumulations on or near the crest of the Sweetgrass arch.

  11. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  12. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage, and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses, such as psychosis, are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper, thus, examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health, and health service utilization in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilizes quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, SA, Australia. Participants (42% female) provided information about socioeconomic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilization. The paper highlights that socioeconomic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact, and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by this disadvantage be

  13. Does the hand that controls the cigarette packet rule the smoker? Findings from ethnographic interviews with smokers in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone; Robinson, Jude; Moore, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, packaging was a carefully cultivated element of the appeal of the cigarette. However, the tobacco industry's control over cigarette packaging has been steadily eroded through legislation that aims to rebrand the packet from a desirable to a dangerous commodity-epitomized in Australia's introduction of plain packaging in 2012. Evident in both the enactment of cigarette packaging legislation and industry efforts to overturn it is the assumption that packets do things-i.e. that they have a critical role to play in either promoting or discouraging the habit. Drawing on 175 ethnographic interviews conducted with people smoking in public spaces in Vancouver, Canada; Canberra, Australia; Liverpool, England; and San Francisco, USA, we produce a 'thick description' of smokers' engagements with cigarette packets. We illustrate that despite the very different types of cigarette packaging legislation in place in the four countries, there are marked similarities in the ways smokers engage with their packets. In particular, they are not treated as a purely visual sign; instead, a primary means through which one's own cigarette packet is apprehended is by touch rather than by sight. Smokers perceive cigarette packets largely through the operations of their hands-through their 'handiness'. Thus, our study findings problematize the assumption that how smokers engage with packets when asked to do so on a purely intellectual or aesthetic level reflects how they engage with packets as they are enfolded into their everyday lives. PMID:26301486

  14. Tick paralysis in spectacled flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus) in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground-dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Petra G; Westcott, David A; Maclean, Jennefer; Brown, Lawrence; McKeown, Adam; Johnson, Ashleigh; Wilson, Karen; Blair, David; Luly, Jonathan; Skerratt, Lee; Muller, Reinhold; Speare, Richard

    2013-01-01

    When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF) (Pteropus conspicillatus), a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus), resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum), had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998-2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host. PMID:24066028

  15. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage, and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses, such as psychosis, are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper, thus, examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health, and health service utilization in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilizes quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, SA, Australia. Participants (42% female) provided information about socioeconomic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilization. The paper highlights that socioeconomic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact, and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by this disadvantage be

  16. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  17. Issues Affecting Skill Demand and Supply in Australia's Education and Training Sector. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    The responses to a 1999 study of Australian employers and an examination of skill shortages by Australia's Department for Employment, Work Relations, and Small Business were analyzed to identify issues affecting skill demand and supply in Australia's education and training sector. The following were among the key findings: (1) in recent years, the…

  18. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: Key Findings from a Large-Scale Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Wong, Ping Man

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper was to examine key hindering and facilitating factors in schools during the first stage of the curriculum reform (2001-2006) in Hong Kong and to identify key strategies to address these challenges. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 150 primary and 120 secondary schools with 7,869 key stakeholders…

  19. Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilised komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah's Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vaillant, Margaux; Saleem, Ahmad; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Miller, John; Beresford, Steve; Perring, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The Sarah's Find nickel deposit, located 4.5 km north of the Mount Keith nickel mine, Western Australia, was chosen as a case study to investigate the nature and three-dimensional geometry of a geochemical halo created by the hydrothermal remobilisation of base metals and platinum group elements into the country rock surrounding a small massive Ni sulphide orebody. Portable and laboratory-based XRF analyses were carried out on samples from a shear zone localised along the basal komatiite-dacite contact that hosts the orebody. A geochemical halo was identified that extends along the shear zone up to 1780 m away from the massive sulphides, parallel to a prominent stretching lineation. Elevated Ni and Pd are associated with high As, Co, Cu and S. Palladium and Pt concentrations increase with proximity to massive sulphides (from 6 to 1190 ppb Pd). These anomalous concentrations reflect the presence of sulfarsenides and sulphides, either physically remobilised and forming veinlets close to the massive sulphides, or hydrothermally transported and redeposited within the foliation. In situ laser ablation ICP-MS indicates that Pd and Pt are hosted within these nickel sulfarsenides. This Ni-Co-As-Pd geochemical halo, observed around the Sarah's Find ore body, is interpreted as forming syn deformation, by the circulation of As-rich hydrothermal fluids dissolving base metals, Pd and Pt from the orebody and redepositing them along the sheared footwall contact. Similar Ni-Co-Pd-Pt-As geochemical haloes could potentially exist around any magmatic nickel sulphide mineral system that has undergone a phase of arsenic metasomatism and may be a generally applicable proximity indicator for nickel sulphides in hydrothermally altered terranes.

  20. Key findings from HSC's 2010 site visits: health care markets weather economic downturn, brace for health reform.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie E; Grossman, Joy M; Tu, Ha T

    2011-05-01

    Lingering fallout--loss of jobs and employer coverage--from the great recession slowed demand for health care services but did little to slow aggressive competition by dominant hospital systems for well-insured patients, according to key findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Hospitals with significant market clout continued to command high payment rate increases from private insurers, and tighter hospital-physician alignment heightened concerns about growing provider market power. High and rising premiums led to increasing employer adoption of consumer-driven health plans and continued increases in patient cost sharing, but the broader movement to educate and engage consumers in care decisions did not keep pace. State and local budget deficits led to some funding cuts for safety net providers, but an influx of federal stimulus funds increased support to community health centers and shored up Medicaid programs, allowing many people who lost private insurance because of job losses to remain covered. Hospitals, physicians and insurers generally viewed health reform coverage expansions favorably, but all worried about protecting revenues as reform requirements phase in. PMID:21614861

  1. Key Findings of the AMAP 2015 Assessment on Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone as Arctic Climate Forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.

    2015-12-01

    emission from each sector and region) were also calculated. Key findings from the 2015 assessment will be presented.

  2. El Niño-Southern Oscillation influence on the dust storm activity in Australia: Can the past provide a key to the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudmenzky, C.; Stone, R.; Allan, R.; Butler, H.

    2011-12-01

    Wind erosion is an internationally recognised land degradation problem and affects approximately 28% of the global land area. The Australian continent is the largest dust source in the Southern Hemisphere with an emission rate of around 100 Tg yr-1 or approximate 5% of the global total. The climate (especially eastern Australian climate) is greatly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which is the strongest natural fluctuation of climate on interannual time-scales and also affects climate conditions globally. ENSO is the core driver of extreme weather events such as drought, flooding, bushfires, dust storms and tropical cyclones and up to 50% of annual rainfall variability in northern and eastern Australia is linked to ENSO. These drier conditions will reduce vegetation cover and result in an increased dust storm activity in the future in central eastern Australia during dry El Niño phases of the Southern Oscillation. The Lake Eyre Basin, Channel Country and the Mallee region are the main dust source areas and severe dust storms have the potential to transport millions of tonnes of fertile topsoil from inland Australia to places as far as New Zealand, New Caledonia and Antarctic. The research project will investigate the influence of the ENSO on dust storm activity in Australia. This will be achieved through major reanalysis of past climate conditions for the past 150 years or more using the global 'Atmospheric Circulation Reconstruction over the Earth' (ACRE) project outputs which will reconstruct both upper-air dynamics, surface conditions and then all major dust storm events of the past. Australia has one of the most variable rainfall climates in the world and observational and modelling results suggest that more frequent or stronger ENSO events are possible in the future. Drought in Australia is probably the most economically costly climate event and has environmental and social impacts by reducing agricultural output and having social

  3. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  4. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  5. E-Learning in Australia and Korea: Learning from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie; Choi, Jihee; Hong, Sun Yee; Lee, In Sook

    2004-01-01

    This project investigates the uptake of e-learning in two countries (Australia and Korea) which have experienced a rapid expansion of the use of information technology in education and training. A key finding is that although e-learning can increase flexibility and cost efficiencies in the delivery of training, it cannot on its own guarantee…

  6. YoungStar in Wisconsin: Analysis of Data as of July 2014. Executive Summary: Key Findings and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    YoungStar is a five-star quality rating system for child care providers based on education, learning environment, business methods, and practices around child health and well-being. Through this rating system, the state is addressing several key issues in Wisconsin's child care system. The rating system will: (1) Improve the overall quality of…

  7. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  8. Competency Based Training. NCVER Research Forum (Adelaide, Australia, November 10, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This publication reports on a forum on competency based training (CBT) research in Australia. Section 1 contains biographies of presenters and panel members. Section 2 presents an overview of the research and highlights key findings. Summaries follow of each of the five key projects. "The CBT Decade: Teaching for Flexibility and Adaptability"…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparities: Key Findings from the National Survey of America's Families. Series B, No. B-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staveteig, Sarah; Wigton, Alyssa

    This brief outlines findings from the National Survey of America's Families, a survey of 44,461 households, on 7 indicators of well-being by race and ethnicity: poverty, family structure, child support, food hardship, housing hardship, health status, and health insurance coverage. For the purpose of this brief, all persons of Hispanic origin were…

  10. Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning in the Primary School--Findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19…

  11. Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings…

  12. Key Findings and Recommendations from the Coös Youth Study: Research from the First Half of the Study. Regional Issue Brief Number 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunton, Michael S.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, authors Michael Staunton and Eleanor Jaffee review the key findings and recommendations from research conducted in the first half of the Coös Youth Study, which began in 2008 and is planned to continue through 2018. The study explores young people's decisions about their educational and job opportunities in rural northern New…

  13. Comparative Study of Human and Mouse Postsynaptic Proteomes Finds High Compositional Conservation and Abundance Differences for Key Synaptic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O.; Croning, Mike D. R.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease. PMID:23071613

  14. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  15. Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

    2011-01-01

    research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale. PMID:22048036

  16. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  17. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments.

  18. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter ... lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the ...

  19. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  20. Who Are the Young People Choosing Web-based Mental Health Support? Findings From the Implementation of Australia's National Web-based Youth Mental Health Service, eheadspace

    PubMed Central

    Rickwood, Debra; Webb, Marianne; Telford, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Background The adolescent and early adult years are periods of peak prevalence and incidence for most mental disorders. Despite the rapid expansion of Web-based mental health care, and increasing evidence of its effectiveness, there is little research investigating the characteristics of young people who access Web-based mental health care. headspace, Australia’s national youth mental health foundation, is ideally placed to explore differences between young people who seek Web-based mental health care and in-person mental health care as it offers both service modes for young people, and collects corresponding data from each service type. Objective The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive profile of young people seeking Web-based mental health care through eheadspace (the headspace Web-based counseling platform), and to compare this with the profile of those accessing help in-person through a headspace center. Methods Demographic and clinical presentation data were collected from all eheadspace clients aged 12 to 25 years (the headspace target age range) who received their first counseling session between November 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015 via online chat or email (n=3414). These Web-based clients were compared with all headspace clients aged 12 to 25 who received their first center-based counseling service between October 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 (n=20,015). Results More eheadspace than headspace center clients were female (78.1% compared with 59.1%), and they tended to be older. A higher percentage of eheadspace clients presented with high or very high levels of psychological distress (86.6% compared with 73.2%), but they were at an earlier stage of illness on other indicators of clinical presentation compared with center clients. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that eheadspace is reaching a unique client group who may not otherwise seek help or who might wait longer before seeking help if in-person mental health support was

  1. Sexual and reproductive health communication among Sudanese and Eritrean women: an exploratory study from Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Claire; Earnest, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study piloted in Brisbane, Australia, reports on findings from in-depth focus-group discussions conducted with Sudanese and Eritrean women in Brisbane. We investigated and documented their experiences and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and contraception, and explored their views on sexuality and relationships education within the family environment of minority ethnic communities in Australia. Underpinned by a qualitative psychosocial framework, the study also involved key-informant interviews with health and multicultural not-for-profit sector professionals. Through the knowledge and experiences shared by the participants, the key themes of cultural insensitivity, exclusion and poor communication within the family were highlighted by participants as determining factors in the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and good quality sex and relationships education. Participants proposed recommendations for how minority ethnic communities in Australia can more effectively support and communicate within the family environment to increase their own and their children's knowledge and understanding. PMID:25346993

  2. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations

  3. Australia's Political Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawer, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)

  4. Planning Australia's hospital workforce.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mary; Gavel, Paul; Conn, Warwick

    2002-01-01

    Growing government support has been evident during the past decade for macro-level workforce planning to ensure that future populations have access to appropriate health care services. Population ageing is impacting on workforce requirements and on workforce supply within Australia and internationally. Changes in financing and the organisation of health services are impacting on the availability of training and on the quality of working life. The age and gender profile and career expectations of young Australians are changing. These factors are all adding to the importance and complexity of workforce planning. This paper draws on data from various sources to describe Australia's hospital workforce, to explore supply-side workforce trends and to discuss some contemporary issues of concern to policy makers and workforce planners. The paper finds that in recent years there has been a 3 per cent decline in the number of full time equivalent staff in public hospitals, while the number in the private hospital workforce has increased by 28 per cent. The paper concludes that, nationally, there are serious limitations in the data available to describe and monitor the hospital workforce and that there is a need to remedy this situation.

  5. Making a Difference: Findings from "Better Beginnings" a Family Literacy Intervention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt-Pugh, Caroline; Allen, Nola

    2011-01-01

    Since 2005, "Better Beginnings", an early intervention, statewide family literacy programme developed by The State Library of Western Australia, has provided thousands of families with strategies and resources to promote and support book-sharing from birth. This paper reports on the key findings of an independent longitudinal evaluation of the…

  6. Still in the Shadows with Their Future Uncertain. A Report on Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), 2011. Summary of Key Findings and a Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynda; Larson, Sheryl A.; Wuorio, Allise; Lakin, K. Charlie

    2011-01-01

    In light of the fiftieth anniversary of President Kennedy's call to action back in 1961, The Arc wanted to know if people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are still living in the shadows. So, they launched a national online survey, Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), from July 22, 2010 to October 31,…

  7. Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

  8. Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Lack of researcher consensus on how to measure disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching has made it challenging for practitioners to draw lessons from the data. This brief aims to help policymakers understand the emerging evidence by synthesizing findings from three peer-reviewed studies that collectively span 17 states. The studies…

  9. WHO Atlas on Global Resources for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities 2007: Key Findings Relevant for Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Celine; Saxena, Shekhar; Lecomte, Jocelin; Cumbrera, Marco Garrido; Harnois, Gaston

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas-ID project was designed to collect, compile, and disseminate information on intellectual disabilities (ID) services and resources from across the world. This paper aims at selecting findings in the Atlas-ID that can be used as a tool for advocacy, human rights awareness, development planning, and…

  10. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    PubMed

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  11. Trust, Respect and Friendship: The Key Attributes of Significant Others in the Lives of Young Working Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 146 male construction industry apprentices (predominantly young men) in Australia self-reported on their significant relationships, as well as the key attributes of these relationships. The findings indicated that the young men shared events, disclosed confidences and looked for help and support from family, romantic partners and close…

  12. Information Activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeyoshi

    The last few years have seen an explosive growth in database and computer networking activities in Australia. At present there are six major information networks in Australia, which carry more than 400 locally produced databases and many others from overseas. AUSINET databases are exemplified. MIDAS (Multi-mode International Data Aquisition System) provides lower cost access to overseas databases than before. The paper also gives brief outline of various bodies which relate to information and library policy in Australia and regional cooperative activities.

  13. PictureAustralia--Participating in a Collaborative Digital Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Deborah

    The PictureAustralia service is a collaboration between cultural agencies to bring their digital pictorial collections together at the one web site, hosted by the National Library of Australia. It was developed through the identification of a need for a national image discovery service. The key to the service is its cross-sectoral nature,…

  14. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  16. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  17. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  18. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  19. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  20. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  1. Australia: An Instructional Unit for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duea, Joan; And Others

    Designed to provide elementary teachers with materials for the study of Australia, this unit contains 19 lessons that include objectives, materials, procedures, suggested extension activities, and answer keys where needed. Following the 19 lessons are blackline masters for teacher transparencies, student worksheets, and extension activities. A…

  2. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  3. America after 3PM: Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each day in America, millions of kids go home to an empty house after school. In recent years, the growth of quality, affordable afterschool programs--programs that keep kids safe, inspire learning and help working families--has begun to offer parents of these children positive alternatives. Over the past five years, afterschool programs have…

  4. Return migration from Australia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P

    1986-09-01

    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  5. Australian Vocational Education & Training. South Australia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A study examined the publicly-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in South Australia (SA) in 1997. Background information indicated SA is a geographically large state with a relatively small population that is older compared to the rest of Australia, with 14 percent aged over 65 compared with 12 percent nationally. Findings were…

  6. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  7. What are the factors associated with good mental health among Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales, Australia? Phase I findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH)

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Clapham, Kathleen; Redman, Sally; Manton, Toni; Eades, Sandra; Schuster, Leanne; Raphael, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with ‘good’ mental health among Aboriginal children living in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey (phase I of a longitudinal study). Setting 4 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services that deliver primary care. All services were located in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 1005 Aboriginal children aged 4–17 years who participated in phase I of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Primary outcome measure Carer report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scores <17 were considered to indicate ‘good’ mental health for the purposes of this article. Results The majority (72%) of SEARCH participants were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. After adjusting for the relative contributions of significant demographic, child and carer health factors, the factors associated with good mental health among SEARCH children were having a carer who was not highly psychologically distressed (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.1); not suffering from frequent chest, gastrointestinal or skin infections (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.3); and eating two or more servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.8). Being raised by a foster carer (OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.71) and having lived in 4 or more homes since birth (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.0) were associated with significantly lower odds of good mental health. Slightly different patterns of results were noted for adolescents than younger children. Conclusions Most children who participated in SEARCH were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. Promising targets for efforts to promote mental health among urban Aboriginal children may include the timely provision of medical care for children and provision of additional support for parents and carers experiencing mental or physical health problems, for adolescent boys

  8. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  9. Beyond asylum: implications for nursing and health care delivery for Afghan refugees in Australia.

    PubMed

    Omeri, Akram; Lennings, Christopher; Raymond, Lynnette

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the refugee experience, together with an analysis of access, use, and appropriateness of mental and physical health services as perceived by members of the Afghan immigrant or refugee community living in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, are reported in this article. Using focus groups and semistructured interviews in a variety of settings, the study included 13 key informants and 25 general informants, together with health care agencies providing services to the Afghans and organizations providing resources. Analysis of interviews with Afghan people revealed a number of themes. These include emotional responses to trauma, migration, and resettlement experiences; culture-specific health maintenance strategies; barriers impeding access to and appropriateness of Australian health care services; and informant-suggested strategies to enhance accessibility and the appropriateness of health care and community services. These findings are significant and have relevance for improving the quality of culture-specific health care for the Afghan community in NSW Australia.

  10. Improving Population-Level Maternal Health: A Hard Nut to Crack? Long Term Findings and Reflections on a 16-Community Randomised Trial in Australia to Improve Maternal Emotional and Physical Health after Birth [ISRCTN03464021

    PubMed Central

    Small, Rhonda; Watson, Lyndsey; Gunn, Jane; Mitchell, Creina; Brown, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Community level interventions to improve maternal and child health have been supported and well evaluated in resource poor settings, but less so in developed countries. PRISM - Program of Resources, Information and Support for Mothers - was a primary care and community-based cluster-randomised trial in sixteen municipalities in Victoria, Australia, which aimed to reduce depression in mothers and improve their physical health. The aim of this paper is to report the longer term outcomes of PRISM and to reflect on lessons learned from this universal community intervention to improve maternal health. Methods Maternal health outcome data in PRISM were collected by postal questionnaire at six months and two years. At two years, the main outcome measures included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the SF-36. Secondary outcome measures included the Experience of Motherhood Scale (EOM) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). A primary intention to treat analysis was conducted, adjusting for the randomisation by cluster. Results 7,169/18,424 (39%) women responded to the postal questionnaire at two years −3,894 (40%) in the intervention arm and 3,275 (38%) in the comparison arm. Respondents were mostly representative on available population data comparisons. There were no differences in depression prevalence (EPDS≥13) between the intervention and comparison arms (13.4% vs 13.1%; ORadj = 1.06, 95%CI 0.91–1.24). Nor did women's mental health (MCS: 48.6 vs 49.1) or physical health scores (PCS: 49.1 vs 49.0) on the SF-36 differ between the trial arms. Conclusion Improvement in maternal mental and physical health outcomes at the population level in the early years after childbirth remains a largely unmet challenge. Despite the lack of effectiveness of PRISM intervention strategies, important lessons about systems change, sustained investment and contextual understanding of the workability of intervention strategies can be drawn from the

  11. Healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  12. The complex isostatic equilibration of Australia's deep crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, Alan; Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan

    2016-04-01

    A recent study, using a new finite-element based gravity inversion method has modelled in high-resolution the density and pressure fields for the Australian continent. Here we analyse the pressure results to consider how Australia's lower-crust and Moho contribute to the isostatic equilibration of topography and crustal masses. We find that the situation is more complex than the commonly applied model of isostatic compensation through crustal thickness variations. Key differences include low pressure-variability at ca. 30-35 km, suggesting that the thickness of the felsic-intermediate crust equilibrates most of the upper-crustal loads; increasing pressure-variability between 30-50 km, suggesting that positively buoyant deep-crustal roots generate disequilibrium. These large roots have previously been inferred to represent mafic underplates. Pressure-variability in the uppermost lithospheric mantle reduces to a minimum at ~125 km depth, suggesting that these loads are compensated by dense mantle at ~100 km depth, rather than by crustal loads or topography. This raises the notion that Australia's lithosphere is isostatically compensated at two levels: Crustal compensation involving topography and the felsic to intermediate crust; and deep-lithosphere compensation involving the mafic lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Rather than its traditional role of compensating for crustal masses, the Moho in this case appears to be a source of isostatic disequilibrium, acting in a separate cell with lithospheric mantle density sources. These results imply that, for cratonised continents like Australia, the notion of crustal isostasy is a poor descriptor of the system.

  13. A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

  14. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  15. Australia in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  16. Library Automation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  17. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  18. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  19. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  20. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  1. Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Paul A; Hopke, Philip K; Froines, John; Scheffe, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multiyear, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects located throughout the United States, each with differing atmospheric pollution conditions resulting from variations in source emissions and meteorology. The overall goal of the program was to elucidate source-receptor relationships and atmospheric processes leading to PM accumulation on urban and regional scales; thus providing the scientific underpinning for modeling and data analysis efforts to support State Implementation Plans and more effective risk management approaches for PM. The program had three main objectives: (1) conduct methods development and evaluation, (2) characterize ambient PM, and (3) support health effects and exposure research. This paper provides a synthesis of key scientific findings from the Supersites Program and related studies. EPA developed 16 science/policy-relevant questions in conjunction with state and other federal agencies, Regional Planning Organizations, and the private sector. These questions were addressed to the extent possible, even given the vast amount of new information available from the Supersites Program, in a series of papers published as a special issue of the Journal of Air & Waste Management Association (February 2008). This synthesis also includes discussions of: (1) initial Supersites Program support for air quality management efforts in specific locations throughout the United States; (2) selected policy-relevant insights, based on atmospheric sciences findings, useful to air quality managers and decision makers planning emissions management strategies to address current and future PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and network planning and implementation; (3) selected health-relevant insights interpreted from

  2. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  3. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  4. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  5. Australia/Pacific: Industry watchers expect the worst

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article presents the outlook for the Australia/Pacific area with respect to petroleum. The main observations are: ATEA forsees Australia drilling declining by nearly 50% this year compared to last; With no tax relief in sight for crude, major Aussie oil projects are delayed; New Zealand's leasing moratorium has ended, and licensing policies have improved; Australia's self-sufficiency dream vanishes as Bass Strait exports dwindle; Gulf has more finds onshore Papua/New Guinea, but well economics still questionable; Australian gas projects enjoy some insulation from poor crude markets; Jabiru find in Timor Sea due onstream, and Northwest Shelf LNG export plans continue; Australia's largest operators each announce budget cuts; rig count continues to plunge.

  6. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  7. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  8. What's Different Away from the Rat Race?: Issues for VET in Non-Metropolitan Australia. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena

    A review of research literature relating to vocational education and training (VET) in non-metropolitan Australia identified issues which differentially impact metropolitan and non-metropolitan Australia and research needs. Findings indicated non-metropolitan Australia is diverse in terms of population density, educational experiences of the…

  9. Upper Secondary Education in Australia: Differing Responses to a Common Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cherry

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to update chronology of events in noncompulsory upper secondary education in Australia since 1987. Identifies key differences among trajectories for Australia's conservative, progressive, and "common culture" states and territories as they deal with increased demand for higher level of schooling. Highlights some underlying issues…

  10. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  11. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  12. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential: Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 2, Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Doug; And Others

    This work is one in a series that focuses on nine languages representing the bulk of the second language learning effort in Australian education (Arabic, Modern Standard Chinese, French, German, Modern Greek, Indonesian/Malay, Italian, Japanese, and Spanish). These languages were categorized as the Languages of Wider Teaching. This particular…

  13. How Australia came to have a National Women's Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Gray, G

    1998-01-01

    A National Women's Health Policy was launched in Australia in 1989, and Australia became the only country to have a comprehensive policy on women's health. The policy is intended to provide a framework for decision-making in both mainstream and separate women's health services. The author examines the forces and factors that led to the formulation and adoption of the policy, then addresses the question of why Australia is alone in choosing a national policy as a focus for women's health action. A number of key influences, either absent or weaker in comparable countries, worked together to facilitate policy development. The activities of women working in a number of arenas coincided with the election of relatively supportive governments, creation of women's policy machinery in bureaucracies, employment of feminists in key positions, and opportunities for policy expansion afforded by federalism. These influences, within the Australian ideological context of strong support for social liberalism, account for the country's distinctive policy position.

  14. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  15. Overview of substance use and treatment from Australia.

    PubMed

    Haber, Paul S; Day, Carolyn A

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of drug and alcohol issues and their management in Australia. Overall, Australia has good health relative to the United States and other similar nations and generally similar rates of substance use disorders. A whole-of-government strategic approach has been developed for managing drug and alcohol problems, with a National Drug Strategy that has adopted a pragmatic approach to substance use problems through 3 "pillars"--demand, supply, and harm reduction. This approach has been attributed to Australia's remarkably low human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among people who inject drugs (<2%). Most community primary health care is provided through Australia's universal health care scheme, which provides a rebate for nearly all medical services according to a scheduled fee. Inpatient and outpatient care, including drug and alcohol services, delivered at public hospitals are currently provided with no patient co-payments. The health of Australia's first peoples, Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, remains challenging primarily due to the transgenerational impacts of dispossession, social and economic disadvantage, and some cultural differences. Although substance use is a key issue for Australian Aboriginals, there are currently insufficient dedicated drug and alcohol services for this group. Notwithstanding this important exception, Australia's health and substance use is favorable relative to other developed nations, offering universal health care and a pragmatic drug and alcohol strategy.

  16. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  18. A new species of Austrothaumalea Tonnoir from Australia (Diptera: Thaumaleidae).

    PubMed

    Pivar, Robert J; Moulton, John K; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Austrothaumalea spiculata sp. nov. is described from Grampians National Park, in southwest Victoria (Australia). It is known only from the type series and is the second species of Thaumaleidae recorded from the Park. Illustrations of the male terminalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided. Phylogenetic affinities are hypothesized and an updated species identification key is offered. PMID:27395698

  19. Doing Diversity Work in Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Sara

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how diversity is used as a key term to describe the social and educational mission of universities in Australia. The paper suggests that we need to explore what diversity "does" in specific contexts. Drawing on interviews with diversity and equal opportunities practitioners, the paper suggests that "diversity" is used in the…

  20. Touching the Void: Arts Education Research in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robyn; Anderson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is an overview of arts education research in Australia. The authors argue that there is an urgent need for key arts organisations to form strategic partnerships with arts educators to provide stronger research in the area of arts education. This research base would enhance the ability of policymakers, arts administrators and arts…

  1. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  2. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  3. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  4. Migrant women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Misztal, B A

    1991-01-01

    The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...."

  5. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Paul M; Jolley, Damien J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Clemens, Susan; Catalano, Paul; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA) level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking) and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking) alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable) at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death. Conclusion We found a

  8. Gulf War illness: a view from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel. PMID:16687266

  9. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  10. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  11. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Perspectives from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Macdonald, L.; Baldock, J.

    2011-12-01

    Australia is currently embarking upon an unparalleled program to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by engaging farmers and landholders to reduce emissions and store carbon in the soil. Currently, the magnitude of a potential soil carbon sink in Australian agricultural soils is largely unknown. The oft repeated rubric that adoption of recommended management practices (RMP) can raise soil carbon levels to 50-66% of pre-clearing levels has lead many to conclude that soil carbon sequestration can offset a large portion of Australia's current greenhouse gas emissions. Is there evidence in Australia (and abroad) to support these sequestration rates? In this presentation, we will present findings from both a retrospective analysis of existing field trial data and preliminary results from a national scale assessment of current soil carbon stocks under different agricultural management practices. A comprehensive review of field-trial data in Australia suggests that most management shifts within a given agricultural system (i.e. tillage, stubble management, fertilizer application, etc...) result in modest relative gains of 0.1 to 0.3 tC ha-1 yr-1. Importantly, whenever time series data was available, we found that the relative improvement in soil carbon stocks under RMPs was due to a reduction in the rate of loss of soil carbon and not in an actual increase in soil carbon. This finding has important repercussions for both how we think about soil carbon sequestration and how we can account for it in an accounting framework. Current research within the National Soil Carbon Research Program looks to assess the potential for agricultural management to influence soil carbon content and its distribution within various measurable carbon pools (particulate, humus, charcoal-like). For example, 200 randomly selected farms have been sampled in two major agricultural regions in South Australia based on a soil-type by rainfall stratification. In addition to measuring carbon content and

  12. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  13. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  14. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  15. Playing the Role of "Cultural Expert": Teachers of Ethnic Difference in Britain and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.; Santoro, Ninetta

    2011-01-01

    This article brings together the findings of two separate studies in Britain and Australia that sought to examine the experiences of teachers of ethnic difference. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine how early-career and mid-career minority ethnic teachers in Britain and Australia, respectively, understand and take up the role of "cultural…

  16. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef of Queensland, Australia extends for roughly 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and is made up of thousands of individual reefs which define the edge of the Continental shelf. Swan Reef, the southern part of the reef system, is seen in this view. Water depths around the reefs are quite shallow (less than 1 to 36 meters) but only a few kilometers offshore, water depths can reach 1,000 meters.

  17. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them. PMID:25015592

  18. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  19. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  20. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  1. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

  2. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  3. Australia is ‘free to choose’ economic growth and falling environmental pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D.; Baynes, Timothy M.; Brinsmead, Thomas S.; Bryan, Brett A.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Graham, Paul W.; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E.; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth’s ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  4. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so. PMID:26536956

  5. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  6. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  7. Australia Viewed by NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This multispectral map of Australia and surrounding seas was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer shortly after closest approach on Dec. 8, 1990 from an altitude of about 50,000 miles. The image shows various ocean, land and atmospheric cloud features as they appear in three of the 408 infrared colors or wavelengths sensed by the instrument. The wavelength of 0.873 micron, represented as blue in the photo, shows regions of enhanced liquid water absorption, i.e. the Pacific and Indian oceans. The 0.984- micron band, represented as red, shows areas of enhanced ground reflection as on the Australian continent. This wavelength is also sensitive to the reflectivity of relatively thick clouds. The 0.939- micron wavelength, shown as green, is a strong water-vapor-absorbing band, and is used to accentuate clouds lying above the strongly absorbing lower atmosphere. When mixed with the red indicator of cloud reflection, the green produces a yellowish hue; this indicates thick clouds. The distinctive purplish color off the northeast coast marks the unusually shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. Here the blue denoting water absorption combines with the red denoting reflection from coral and surface marine organisms to produce this unusual color. The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft is a combined mapping (imaging) and spectral instrument. It can sense 408 contiguous wavelengths from 0.7 micron (deep red) to 5.2 microns, and can construct a map or image by mechanical scanning. It can spectroscopically analyze atmospheres and surfaces and construct thermal and chemical maps.

  8. Mid to late Holocene Leeuwin Current variability offshore southern Australia linked to ENSO state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial

  9. Sharing Music and Culture through Singing in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the notion of sharing music and culture as an effective platform to celebrate diversity in Melbourne, Australia. My research project "Celebrating Music Making and Finding Meaning" investigates and illustrates a context of diversity, one that promotes respect in a multicultural society sharing music and culture of a minority…

  10. Mycobacterium chelonae abscesses associated with biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Mihaela; Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of skin abscesses occurred in Adelaide, Australia, in association with biomesotherapy, an alternative therapy practice. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 8 patient and 3 environmental samples. Our findings show M. chelonae infection can be associated with alternative therapies when infection-control breaches occur. Tighter regulations of alternative therapy practices are needed. PMID:23968779

  11. User Testing of Consumer Medicine Information in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Eleanor; Aslani, Parisa; Raynor, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) forms an important basis for the dissemination of medicines information worldwide. Methods: This article presents an overview of the design and development of Australian CMI, and discusses "user-testing" as an iterative, formative process for CMI design. Findings: In Australia, legislation and…

  12. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  13. Comparing and Contrasting Primary School Playgrounds in Turkey and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancellor, Barbara; Cevher-Kalburan, Nilgün

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative study aims to investigate aspects of school playgrounds in the city of Denizli, Turkey and in the state of Victoria, Australia. Using a survey designed for a recent study in Victoria, data was collected from a large number of schools in both settings and analysed in light of international research findings. The most significant…

  14. Working-Class Students Need More Friends at University: A Cautionary Note for Australia's Higher Education Equity Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, Denise Bradley and colleagues published their "Review of Australian Higher Education." A key point of the Bradley Review was to highlight the long-standing under-representation of working-class people at Australia's universities. Working-class people represent 25% of Australia's general population; however, they represent only 15% of…

  15. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  16. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.

  17. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  18. The accreditation of nursing education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and discuss the role that ANMAC and the accreditation standards play in pre-registration nursing education nationally. The context of the discussion is situated in the continuum of events that mark the accreditation of nursing education in Australia. The National Registration and Accreditation Scheme has given rise to significant challenges related to the accreditation of nursing programs of education in Australia. Given the importance of accreditation to the quality of nursing education, ANMAC in its appointed role as accrediting authority, must fill the position rather than occupy it. Enhancing transparency and effectiveness is central to ensuring accreditation facilitates quality in nursing education. Given ANMAC's key position, further work is needed in developing a broad base of expertise by fostering scholarly output in the substantive area of nursing accreditation. There is a concerning lack of research centred on the accreditation of programs of nursing education along with the processes associated with it. This problem is not restricted to the Australian context but also extends internationally. In this context, the expertise of accreditors ought to be questioned along with the processes ANMAC use to identify individual capability. As such, the selection of experts needs to be articulated clearly by ANMAC along with the ownership of introducing a research culture into accreditation. PMID:26285403

  19. Rediscovering university teaching hospitals for Australia.

    PubMed

    Penington, David G

    2008-09-15

    Partnership between research and health services has a long history in other countries, but has been relatively recent in Australia, with several models arising in the 1960s and 1970s as research-based specialties developed. Since the implementation of Medibank, which became Medicare, Australian Health Care Agreements have been primarily crafted on the basis of transactional numbers, ignoring the need for links with teaching and research and the need to implement new developments. Education and research have been seen as the responsibility of the federal government, and hospitals are progressively less recognised or funded for these functions by the states. Australia's teaching hospitals are in danger of falling seriously behind those in other countries and losing their capacity to monitor quality, to innovate and to branch into new strategies in partnership with primary care services. We should look at initiatives in other countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada, which are making big strides in tackling similar issues. University hospitals hold the key, if appropriately linked with other services. The current Australian Health Care Agreements are on hold. A new agency is needed to support clinical and service-related research, with a new structure and track for federal government funding, and providing oversight of research and development, of clinical governance and quality of outcomes in health care, linked with new strategies for prevention and treatment. A component of the foreshadowed additional federal government funding for health should be sequestered to set up such an agency. PMID:18803539

  20. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  1. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  2. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  3. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  4. Australia: the coming of age.

    PubMed

    Kelley, A C

    1988-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Australia and their implications are assessed. The author concludes that "Australia faces a relatively favourable demographic future: ageing is proceeding at a slower pace here, the pattern of the labour force ageing is conducive to restructuring in the intermediate future, and a well-established immigration policy can be used to accommodate demographics with social and economic goals. The financing of social services for the aged will produce fewer concerns here partly because of less immediate demographic pressures and partly because of the orientation of the age-pension system." PMID:12233479

  5. British atomic tests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Suter, K

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom and Australia have reached agreement on the British payment for cleaning up the Maralinga (South Australia) site at which the UK tested some of its atomic weapons in the 1960s. The tests were conducted amid great secrecy and only in recent years has the truth about the health hazards fully emerged. The peace movement opposed the tests and its stand has been vindicated. Also vindicated have been the claims by Aborigines that more damage was done by the tests than was earlier admitted.

  6. Clavadoce (Annelida: Phyllodocidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin S; Greaves, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The first records of the phyllodocid genus Clavadoce are provided from Australia, where the fifth species in the genus is now known: Clavadoce dorsolobata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1987) comb. nov. which is widely distributed in intertidal habitats in southeastern Australia. Clavadoce dorsolobata was described as Eumida (Sige) dorsolobata Hartmann-Schröder, 1987 and herein transferred to Clavadoce. Five species of Clavadoce are now known world wide, four of which are from different regions on the Pacific Ocean margin, while Clavadoce cristata is from the North Atlantic. The Australian species is the first record of Clavadoce for the southern hemisphere. PMID:27395480

  7. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  8. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  9. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  10. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  11. Improving Reading in Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Hayes, Peter; Coutts, James

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, six teachers established a program of literacy intervention and professional learning in remote northwestern Australia based on the Reading Recovery principles. This group of teachers was determined to learn what had to happen in order for them to make a difference with students and then to make it happen. Their work led to getting…

  12. Demography of Muslims in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origins and size of the Muslim population in Australia, at present about 1% of the total population. Their age distribution is younger and their sociodemographic characteristics are different from those of the rest of the Australian population. PMID:2298763

  13. Early College Entrance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2015-01-01

    Early college entry is an educational intervention that is being increasingly used in Australia. Following a review of the current Australian literature on early college entry, an overview is provided of the characteristics of, and the procedures associated with, one formal Australian early college entry program (the Early Admission for…

  14. Women and Literacy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Helen; Agostinelli, Jacinta

    The experiences, attitudes, and needs of three literacy learners and one paid literacy teacher in Melbourne, Australia, were examined. The analysis was framed by the following principles: (1) literacy is a feminist issue; (2) adult literacy education is best defined as broad, general education that is grounded in language and fosters depth and…

  15. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  16. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  17. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, S M; Jansen, C C

    2010-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin viruses) cause occasional outbreaks of encephalitis. Dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency in northern Queensland, with the largest outbreak in 50 years occurring during the 2008-2009 wet season. Of great concern are the threats posed by the importation of exotic arboviruses, such as West Nile, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses, the introduction of exotic vectors, and the potential range expansion of key Australian vectors. Environmental and anthropogenic influences provide additional uncertainty regarding the future impact of mosquito-borne pathogens in Australia. This review discusses the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response capability in Australia is provided.

  18. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  19. Promoting physical activity in women: evaluation of a 2-year community-based intervention in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li Ming; Thomas, Margaret; Jones, Helen; Orr, Neil; Moreton, Renee; King, Lesley; Hawe, Penny; Bindon, Jeni; Humphries, Jenni; Schicht, Karin; Corne, Shauna; Bauman, Adrian

    2002-06-01

    Women are less likely than men to reach recommended levels of physical activity and have unequal access to active leisure time. Studies in Australia have consistently found that women are only half as likely as men to be adequately active. A community-based multi-strategic health promotion intervention, 'Concord, A Great Place to be Active', was implemented from 1997 to 1999. It aimed to increase the physical activity levels of women aged 20-50 years living in the Concord Local Government Area (LGA), an inner-western region of Sydney, Australia. A key feature of this intervention was a partnership between Concord Council (the local government) and the Central Sydney Health Promotion Unit (CSHPU). The project was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. Key informant interviews and focus groups were conducted to inform the development of the intervention and to assess the impact of the project on Concord Council. Pre- and post-intervention telephone surveys of the target group were also conducted. Following the intervention, there was a statistically significant (6.4%) reduction in the proportion of sedentary women. Further, there were a number of positive enhancements in the Council's capacity to promote physical activity in the community. These findings demonstrate that a community-based intervention targeting a specific population can achieve positive changes in physical activity and that a local government has the capacity to be involved in and sustain physical activity interventions.

  20. Benefit sharing and biobanking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Dianne; Critchley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    Biobanks are essential tools for facilitating biomedical research, because they provide collections of human tissue linked with personal information. There is still little understanding of the underlying reasons why people participate in biobanking in the increasingly commercialised and internationalised biomedical research environment. This paper reports the results of an Australia-wide telephone survey. The paper analyses the types of obligations that members of the public may wish to see incorporated in biobank benefit sharing arrangements and the extent to which their views might be influenced by underlying norms of sharing behaviour. Latent class analysis of the dataset reveals three distinct classes of respondents. We link one of these with the norm of reciprocity, one with the norm of social responsibility. The third is not clearly linked with any one norm of sharing behaviour. The implications of these findings on biobank benefit sharing arrangements are discussed. PMID:23823164

  1. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  2. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  3. Assimilation via Prices or Quantities?: Sources of Immigrant Earnings Growth in Australia, Canada, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antecol, Heather; Kuhn, Peter; Trejo, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Using 1980/81 and 1990/91 census data from Australia, Canada, and the United States, we estimate the effects of time in the destination country on male immigrants' wages, employment, and earnings. We find that total earnings assimilation is greatest in the United States and least in Australia. Employment assimilation explains all of the earnings…

  4. Policy Fuzz and Fuzzy Logic: Researching Contemporary Indigenous Education and Parent-School Engagement in North Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Tess; Thompson, Helen; McRae-Williams, Eva; Wegner, Aggie

    2011-01-01

    "Engagement" is the second of six top priorities in Australia's most recent Indigenous education strategy to "close the gap" in schooling outcomes. Drawing on findings from a three-year ethnographic analysis of school engagement issues in the north of Australia, this article situates engagement within the history of Indigenous education policy,…

  5. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.

  6. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  7. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  8. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere. PMID:27553999

  9. Gosses Bluff impact structure, Australia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, D. J.; Barlow, B. C.; Brown, A. R.; Glikson, A. Y.; Manwaring, E. A.; Moss, F. J.; Sedmik, E. C. E.; Van Son, J.; Brett, R.; Young, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out of the Gosses Bluff structure in Central Australia, which is a typical cryptoexplosion structure. The study included detailed geologic mapping, and seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, aeromagnetic, and ground magnetic surveys. It is concluded that the structure is an eroded crater formed by a single nearly instantaneous shock event, and that the event can be explained only by impact.

  10. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  11. Chirostylidae of Australia's western continental margin (Crustacea : Decapoda: Anomura), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccallum, Anna W; Poore, Gary C B

    2013-01-01

    Five new species from the squat lobster family Chirostylidae are described from the continental margin of western Australia: Uroptychus albus sp. nov., Uroptychus bardi sp. nov., Uroptychus jawi sp. nov., Uroptychus taylorae sp. nov., and Uroptychus worrorra sp. nov. New records of Indo-West Pacific species for Australia are: Gastroptychus brachyterus Baba, 2005, Gastroptychus investigatoris Alcock, 1899, Uroptychodes grandirostris (Yokoya, 1933), Uroptychodes inortenseni (Van Dam, 1939), Uroptychus scandens Benedict, 1902, Uroptychus ciliatus (Van Dam, 1933) and Uroptychus vandamae Baba, 1988. New distributional records are given for species previously recorded from Australia: Uroptychus flindersi Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychus hesperius Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychusjoloensis Van Dam, 1939, Uroptychus nigricapillis Alcock, 1901, and Uroptychus spinirostris (Ahyong & Poore, 2004). These new records expand the number of chirostylid species in Australia from 34 to 46. Keys to Australian species of the genera Gastroptychus, Uroptychodes and Uroptychus are provided. PMID:26266295

  12. Chirostylidae of Australia's western continental margin (Crustacea : Decapoda: Anomura), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccallum, Anna W; Poore, Gary C B

    2013-01-01

    Five new species from the squat lobster family Chirostylidae are described from the continental margin of western Australia: Uroptychus albus sp. nov., Uroptychus bardi sp. nov., Uroptychus jawi sp. nov., Uroptychus taylorae sp. nov., and Uroptychus worrorra sp. nov. New records of Indo-West Pacific species for Australia are: Gastroptychus brachyterus Baba, 2005, Gastroptychus investigatoris Alcock, 1899, Uroptychodes grandirostris (Yokoya, 1933), Uroptychodes inortenseni (Van Dam, 1939), Uroptychus scandens Benedict, 1902, Uroptychus ciliatus (Van Dam, 1933) and Uroptychus vandamae Baba, 1988. New distributional records are given for species previously recorded from Australia: Uroptychus flindersi Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychus hesperius Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychusjoloensis Van Dam, 1939, Uroptychus nigricapillis Alcock, 1901, and Uroptychus spinirostris (Ahyong & Poore, 2004). These new records expand the number of chirostylid species in Australia from 34 to 46. Keys to Australian species of the genera Gastroptychus, Uroptychodes and Uroptychus are provided.

  13. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    validation of land cover products. Among the upcoming missions, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-2 satellites are seen as an important source of optical data for updating land cover information in Australia. This paper outlines the DLCD development, key applications that inform nationally significant issues, further work on updating the DLCD that would enable transition to a national land cover monitoring framework, challenges and approaches to delivering land cover information at higher spatial resolutions on a continental scale, and the potential value of data from the Sentinel-2 mission in supporting land cover monitoring in Australia and globally.

  14. Finding the key - cell biology and science education.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth R

    2010-12-01

    No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons.

  15. Key Findings. 5th Grade. Fall 2004. Sample Report Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestED (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is a sample framework for elementary school reports. The framework is for an elementary school district that administered the Elementary School California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) in Fall 2004 to fifth-grade students. The CHKS is a comprehensive youth health-risk and resilience data collection service, sponsored by the California…

  16. Key Findings for the Fiscal Year 2006 Core Data Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Rudy, Julia A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, EDUCAUSE launched a program called the EDUCAUSE Core Data Service (CDS), which consist of: (1) an annual survey that collects data about IT environments and practices on (primarily) member campuses; (2) a Web-based, interactive database service available to all who complete the survey through which they can access data contributed by…

  17. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  18. Income inequality and mental health--empirical evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Lucy; Lordan, Grace; Rao, D S Prasada

    2012-06-01

    The causal association between absolute income and health is well-established; however, the relationship between income inequality and health is not. The conclusions from the received studies vary across the region or country studied and/or the methodology employed. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey, this paper investigates the relationship between mental health and inequality in Australia. A variety of income inequality indices are calculated to test both the income inequality and relative deprivation hypotheses. We find that mental health is only adversely affected by the presence of relative deprivation to a very small degree. In addition, we do not find support for the income inequality hypothesis. Importantly, our results are robust to a number of sensitivity analyses.

  19. Potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Sampling a range of tropical vegetation types across Africa, Australia and South America we find - other things being equal - lower soil and plant potassium concentrations in savanna as opposed to forest species. There is also a trend- similarly observed in cross-continental comparisons, for foliar [K] to increase with declining precipitation. Moreover, when considered in a multivariate context with mean annual precipitation and soil plant available water storage capacity as covariates, soil exchangeable K turns to be an excellent predictor of stand-level canopy areas across vegetation types, providing drastically improved predictions as compared to models considering just precipitation or soil water storage potential alone This underlying basis of an important role for potassium as a modulator of tropical vegetation structure and function will be considered in terms of its role in plant water relations as well as in relation to recent key findings implicating potassium to have an important role in many root-shoot signalling pathways.

  20. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  1. Astronomy in Australia - A Brief Historical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffleit, Dorrit

    2000-08-01

    An astronomical event, the transit of Venus at Tahiti in 1769, led to the discovery of Eastern Australia by Captain James Cook and its colonization by the English in 1788. Beginning that very year, an observatory was erected, and ever since, Australia has played significant roles throughout the history of astronomy. Now the modern optical observatories at Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring have become important and friendly centers of international cooperation in research. In modern radio astronomy, Australia has been an outstanding pioneer.

  2. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a German Perspective"…

  3. Shining the light on the dark side of medical leadership - a qualitative study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loh, Erwin; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Bismark, Marie Magdaleen; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The paper aims to explore the beliefs of doctors in leadership roles of the concept of "the dark side", using data collected from interviews carried out with 45 doctors in medical leadership roles across Australia. The paper looks at the beliefs from the perspectives of doctors who are already in leadership roles themselves; to identify potential barriers they might have encountered and to arrive at better-informed strategies to engage more doctors in the leadership of the Australian health system. The research question is: "What are the beliefs of medical leaders that form the key themes or dimensions of the negative perception of the 'dark side'?". Design/methodology/approach The paper analysed data from two similar qualitative studies examining medical leadership and engagement in Australia by the same author, in collaboration with other researchers, which used in-depth semi-structured interviews with 45 purposively sampled senior medical leaders in leadership roles across Australia in health services, private and public hospitals, professional associations and health departments. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive approaches through a coding framework based on the interview data and literature review, with all sections of coded data grouped into themes. Findings Medical leaders had four key beliefs about the "dark side" as perceived through the eyes of their own past clinical experience and/or their clinical colleagues. These four beliefs or dimensions of the negative perception colloquially known as "the dark side" are the belief that they lack both managerial and clinical credibility, they have confused identities, they may be in conflict with clinicians, their clinical colleagues lack insight into the complexities of medical leadership and, as a result, doctors are actively discouraged from making the transition from clinical practice to medical leadership roles in the first place. Research limitations/implications This research was

  4. Shining the light on the dark side of medical leadership - a qualitative study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loh, Erwin; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Bismark, Marie Magdaleen; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The paper aims to explore the beliefs of doctors in leadership roles of the concept of "the dark side", using data collected from interviews carried out with 45 doctors in medical leadership roles across Australia. The paper looks at the beliefs from the perspectives of doctors who are already in leadership roles themselves; to identify potential barriers they might have encountered and to arrive at better-informed strategies to engage more doctors in the leadership of the Australian health system. The research question is: "What are the beliefs of medical leaders that form the key themes or dimensions of the negative perception of the 'dark side'?". Design/methodology/approach The paper analysed data from two similar qualitative studies examining medical leadership and engagement in Australia by the same author, in collaboration with other researchers, which used in-depth semi-structured interviews with 45 purposively sampled senior medical leaders in leadership roles across Australia in health services, private and public hospitals, professional associations and health departments. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive approaches through a coding framework based on the interview data and literature review, with all sections of coded data grouped into themes. Findings Medical leaders had four key beliefs about the "dark side" as perceived through the eyes of their own past clinical experience and/or their clinical colleagues. These four beliefs or dimensions of the negative perception colloquially known as "the dark side" are the belief that they lack both managerial and clinical credibility, they have confused identities, they may be in conflict with clinicians, their clinical colleagues lack insight into the complexities of medical leadership and, as a result, doctors are actively discouraged from making the transition from clinical practice to medical leadership roles in the first place. Research limitations/implications This research was

  5. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  6. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  7. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  8. The MAGSAT project in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first version of the MAGSAT selection and reduction software was completed as well as a major enhancement to support geomagnetic vector data selection and reduction. All MAGSAT data over an area between 90 E and 180 E and between 0 and 50 S were reduced. This area includes the Australasian region and surrounding oceans. Nearly 200 profiles across Australia satisfied the criteria for data. The reduced geomagnetic field inferred to be caused by sources within the lithosphere was interpreted. During reduction, magnetic effects caused by all other causes were eliminated. Some possible correlation with major tectonic structures and known continental scale heat flow anomalies were noted.

  9. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  10. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  11. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    Designed for intermediate grade students, this 4-week unit contains 11 lessons on Australian culture and geography. Topics covered are: the map, history, geography, climate, economy, people, education, religion, recreation, government, cities, transportation, communication, wildlife, and plantlife. Each lesson includes text and questions on the…

  12. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design.

  13. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design. PMID:24699904

  14. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  15. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.

  16. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act and...: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted for the Key...

  17. "Fathers' rights" and the defense of paternal authority in Australia.

    PubMed

    Flood, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Feminism's achievements regarding violence against women are a key target for the fathers' rights movement. This article provides an overview of the impact of the fathers' rights movement on men's violence against women. It documents the ways in which fathers' rights groups in Australia have influenced changes in family law, which privilege parental contact over safety, particularly through moves toward a presumption of children's joint residence. They have attempted to discredit female victims of violence, to wind back the legal protections available to victims and the sanctions imposed on perpetrators, and to undermine services for the victims of men's violence.

  18. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided. PMID:26624076

  19. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-09-18

    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided.

  20. Control of fluoroquinolone resistance through successful regulation, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Turnidge, John; Collignon, Peter; Looke, David; Barton, Mary; Gottlieb, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are highly bioavailable, broad-spectrum agents with activity against gram-negative pathogens, especially those resistant to other classes of antimicrobial drugs. Australia has restricted the use of quinolones in humans through its national pharmaceutical subsidy scheme; and, through regulation, has not permitted the use of quinolones in food-producing animals. As a consequence, resistance to fluoroquinolones in the community has been slow to emerge and has remained at low levels in key pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. In contrast to policies in most other countries, this policy has successfully preserved the utility of this class of antimicrobial drugs for treatment of most infections. PMID:22932272

  1. "Fathers' rights" and the defense of paternal authority in Australia.

    PubMed

    Flood, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Feminism's achievements regarding violence against women are a key target for the fathers' rights movement. This article provides an overview of the impact of the fathers' rights movement on men's violence against women. It documents the ways in which fathers' rights groups in Australia have influenced changes in family law, which privilege parental contact over safety, particularly through moves toward a presumption of children's joint residence. They have attempted to discredit female victims of violence, to wind back the legal protections available to victims and the sanctions imposed on perpetrators, and to undermine services for the victims of men's violence. PMID:20133921

  2. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-04-01

    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  3. Correlates of welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article investigates some of the factors that are associated with welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia. It examines the role of factors such as gender, age, migration category, birthplace, period of arrival and educational background in explaining immigrants' dependence on government pensions and benefits as their main source of income." The author finds that there are "significant differences in welfare dependency...by birthplace and migration category even after controlling for age, education and employment status. Immigrants from Vietnam, Lebanon and Turkey were more likely than others to be dependent on welfare. Refugees were also more likely than other immigrants to be dependent on welfare; however the effect of refugee status on welfare dependency diminished with duration of residence in Australia." PMID:12287279

  4. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  5. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  6. Focus on: Hendra virus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kristopher

    2014-11-29

    Cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in Australia have been seen regularly since the virus was first isolated in 1994. Kristopher Hughes, associate professor of equine medicine at Charles Sturt University in Australia, gives an overview of how knowledge of the virus has developed in the past 20 years.

  7. National Report on Schooling in Australia, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Education Council, Melbourne.

    This report provides information about the schooling of over three million students in approximately 10,000 schools in Australia's eight states and territories during 1991. Chapter 1 describes the Australian Education Council and offers a national overview of schooling in Australia including the structure of schooling and how to achieve and…

  8. The Development of Australia's National Training System: A Dynamic Tension between Consistency and Flexibility. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Kaye; McKenna, Suzy

    2016-01-01

    This occasional paper provides an overview of the development of Australia's national training system and is a key knowledge document of a wider research project "Consistency with flexibility in the Australian national training system." This research project investigates the various approaches undertaken by each of the jurisdictions to…

  9. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In addition, we analyse the…

  10. Robbing Public to Pay Private? Two Cases of Refinancing Education Infrastructure in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen; Slee, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper will explore private sector participation in public sector education in the Australian context, focusing on case studies of Queensland and New South Wales, with reference to developments in other states and territories and internationally. In Australia, most states and territories have PPP policies and key projects include the Southbank…

  11. National Gender Equity and Schooling Policy in Australia: Struggles for a Non-Identitarian Feminist Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This paper tracks the development of gender equity and schooling policy in Australia from the "National Policy on the Education of Girls in 1987", to current policy concerns with boys' educational underperformance. The paper's key focus is on the ways in which feminist informed equity policy has been undermined by broader imperatives of economic…

  12. Social Networks, Social Media and Absorptive Capacity in Regional Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosua, Rachelle; Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are major sources of prosperity and employment and are viewed as critical to regional development in Australia. A key factor to foster productivity and growth in SMEs is their ability to identify, acquire, transform and exploit external knowledge. This ability, referred to as the "absorptive capacity…

  13. Supply Issues for Science Academics in Australia: Now and in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daniel; Smith, T. Fred

    2010-01-01

    Australia, like the rest of the developed world, is in the midst of dealing with notable issues related to the age structure of its academic workforce. These issues are widespread and have been articulated in the Australian context most comprehensively by Hugo (2008). This paper investigates issues with demographic change and other key factors…

  14. Australia's Vocational Education & Training System. Annual National Report. Volume 3: Vocational Education & Training Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    The state of vocational education and training (VET) in Australia in 1997 was evaluated by collecting data on the following key performance measures: participation and achievement in VET; employer views on VET; student outcomes from VET; VET's benefits for particular client groups (females, people from rural and remote areas, indigenous…

  15. Obesity and health expenditures: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Johar, Meliyanni

    2015-04-01

    Rising rates of obesity are a public health concern in every industrialized country. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and health care expenditure in Australia, where the rate of obesity has tripled in the last three decades. Now one in four Australians is considered obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of 30 or over. The analysis is based on a random sample survey of over 240,000 adults aged 45 and over that is linked at the individual-level to comprehensive administrative health care claims for the period 2006-2009. This sub-population group has an obesity rate that is nearly 30% and is a major consumer of health services. Relative to the average annual health expenditures of those with normal weight, we find that the health expenditures of those with a BMI between 30 and 35 (obese type I) are 19% higher and expenditures of those with BMI greater than 35 (obese type II/III) are 51% higher. We find large and significant differences in all types of care: inpatient, emergency department, outpatient and prescription drugs. The obesity-related health expenditures are higher for obese type I women than men, but in the obese type II/III state, obesity-related expenditures are higher for men. When we stratify further by age groups, we find that obesity has the largest impact among men over age 75 and women aged 60-74 years old. In addition, we find that obesity impacts health expenditures not only through its link to chronic diseases, but also because it increases the cost of recovery from acute health shocks.

  16. Comparative Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Southern Brown Bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus, in Fragmented Landscapes of Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Cooper, Steven J. B.; Lancaster, Melanie L.; Packer, Jasmin G.; Carthew, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic connectivity is a key factor for maintaining the persistence of populations in fragmented landscapes. In highly modified landscapes such us peri-urban areas, organisms’ dispersal among fragmented habitat patches can be reduced due to the surrounding matrix, leading to subsequent decreased gene flow and increased potential extinction risk in isolated sub-populations. However, few studies have compared within species how dispersal/gene flow varies between regions and among different forms of matrix that might be encountered. In the current study, we investigated gene flow and dispersal in an endangered marsupial, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in a heavily modified peri-urban landscape in South Australia, Australia. We used 14 microsatellite markers to genotype 254 individuals which were sampled from 15 sites. Analyses revealed significant genetic structure. Our analyses also indicated that dispersal was mostly limited to neighbouring sites. Comparisons of these results with analyses of a different population of the same species revealed that gene flow/dispersal was more limited in this peri-urban landscape than in a pine plantation landscape approximately 400 km to the south-east. These findings increase our understanding of how the nature of fragmentation can lead to profound differences in levels of genetic connectivity among populations of the same species. PMID:27096952

  17. Remote Sensing Derived Fire Frequency, Soil Moisture and Ecosystem Productivity Explain Regional Movements in Emu over Australia.

    PubMed

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S; Nazeri, Mona; Kumar, Lalit; Affleck, David L R

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution modeling has been widely used in studying habitat relationships and for conservation purposes. However, neglecting ecological knowledge about species, e.g. their seasonal movements, and ignoring the proper environmental factors that can explain key elements for species survival (shelter, food and water) increase model uncertainty. This study exemplifies how these ecological gaps in species distribution modeling can be addressed by modeling the distribution of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Australia. Emus cover a large area during the austral winter. However, their habitat shrinks during the summer months. We show evidence of emu summer habitat shrinkage due to higher fire frequency, and low water and food availability in northern regions. Our findings indicate that emus prefer areas with higher vegetation productivity and low fire recurrence, while their distribution is linked to an optimal intermediate (~0.12 m3 m(-3)) soil moisture range. We propose that the application of three geospatial data products derived from satellite remote sensing, namely fire frequency, ecosystem productivity, and soil water content, provides an effective representation of emu general habitat requirements, and substantially improves species distribution modeling and representation of the species' ecological habitat niche across Australia.

  18. Comparative Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Southern Brown Bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus, in Fragmented Landscapes of Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Cooper, Steven J B; Lancaster, Melanie L; Packer, Jasmin G; Carthew, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic connectivity is a key factor for maintaining the persistence of populations in fragmented landscapes. In highly modified landscapes such us peri-urban areas, organisms' dispersal among fragmented habitat patches can be reduced due to the surrounding matrix, leading to subsequent decreased gene flow and increased potential extinction risk in isolated sub-populations. However, few studies have compared within species how dispersal/gene flow varies between regions and among different forms of matrix that might be encountered. In the current study, we investigated gene flow and dispersal in an endangered marsupial, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in a heavily modified peri-urban landscape in South Australia, Australia. We used 14 microsatellite markers to genotype 254 individuals which were sampled from 15 sites. Analyses revealed significant genetic structure. Our analyses also indicated that dispersal was mostly limited to neighbouring sites. Comparisons of these results with analyses of a different population of the same species revealed that gene flow/dispersal was more limited in this peri-urban landscape than in a pine plantation landscape approximately 400 km to the south-east. These findings increase our understanding of how the nature of fragmentation can lead to profound differences in levels of genetic connectivity among populations of the same species. PMID:27096952

  19. Climate, not Aboriginal landscape burning, controlled the historical demography and distribution of fire-sensitive conifer populations across Australia.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Shota; Bowman, David M J S; Prior, Lynda D; Crisp, Michael D; Linde, Celeste C; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-12-22

    Climate and fire are the key environmental factors that shape the distribution and demography of plant populations in Australia. Because of limited palaeoecological records in this arid continent, however, it is unclear as to which factor impacted vegetation more strongly, and what were the roles of fire regime changes owing to human activity and megafaunal extinction (since ca 50 kya). To address these questions, we analysed historical genetic, demographic and distributional changes in a widespread conifer species complex that paradoxically grows in fire-prone regions, yet is very sensitive to fire. Genetic demographic analysis showed that the arid populations experienced strong bottlenecks, consistent with range contractions during the Last Glacial Maximum (ca 20 kya) predicted by species distribution models. In southern temperate regions, the population sizes were estimated to have been mostly stable, followed by some expansion coinciding with climate amelioration at the end of the last glacial period. By contrast, in the flammable tropical savannahs, where fire risk is the highest, demographic analysis failed to detect significant population bottlenecks. Collectively, these results suggest that the impact of climate change overwhelmed any modifications to fire regimes by Aboriginal landscape burning and megafaunal extinction, a finding that probably also applies to other fire-prone vegetation across Australia.

  20. Remote Sensing Derived Fire Frequency, Soil Moisture and Ecosystem Productivity Explain Regional Movements in Emu over Australia.

    PubMed

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S; Nazeri, Mona; Kumar, Lalit; Affleck, David L R

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution modeling has been widely used in studying habitat relationships and for conservation purposes. However, neglecting ecological knowledge about species, e.g. their seasonal movements, and ignoring the proper environmental factors that can explain key elements for species survival (shelter, food and water) increase model uncertainty. This study exemplifies how these ecological gaps in species distribution modeling can be addressed by modeling the distribution of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Australia. Emus cover a large area during the austral winter. However, their habitat shrinks during the summer months. We show evidence of emu summer habitat shrinkage due to higher fire frequency, and low water and food availability in northern regions. Our findings indicate that emus prefer areas with higher vegetation productivity and low fire recurrence, while their distribution is linked to an optimal intermediate (~0.12 m3 m(-3)) soil moisture range. We propose that the application of three geospatial data products derived from satellite remote sensing, namely fire frequency, ecosystem productivity, and soil water content, provides an effective representation of emu general habitat requirements, and substantially improves species distribution modeling and representation of the species' ecological habitat niche across Australia. PMID:26799732

  1. Comparative Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Southern Brown Bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus, in Fragmented Landscapes of Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Cooper, Steven J B; Lancaster, Melanie L; Packer, Jasmin G; Carthew, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic connectivity is a key factor for maintaining the persistence of populations in fragmented landscapes. In highly modified landscapes such us peri-urban areas, organisms' dispersal among fragmented habitat patches can be reduced due to the surrounding matrix, leading to subsequent decreased gene flow and increased potential extinction risk in isolated sub-populations. However, few studies have compared within species how dispersal/gene flow varies between regions and among different forms of matrix that might be encountered. In the current study, we investigated gene flow and dispersal in an endangered marsupial, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in a heavily modified peri-urban landscape in South Australia, Australia. We used 14 microsatellite markers to genotype 254 individuals which were sampled from 15 sites. Analyses revealed significant genetic structure. Our analyses also indicated that dispersal was mostly limited to neighbouring sites. Comparisons of these results with analyses of a different population of the same species revealed that gene flow/dispersal was more limited in this peri-urban landscape than in a pine plantation landscape approximately 400 km to the south-east. These findings increase our understanding of how the nature of fragmentation can lead to profound differences in levels of genetic connectivity among populations of the same species.

  2. Climate, not Aboriginal landscape burning, controlled the historical demography and distribution of fire-sensitive conifer populations across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Shota; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Prior, Lynda D.; Crisp, Michael D.; Linde, Celeste C.; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Climate and fire are the key environmental factors that shape the distribution and demography of plant populations in Australia. Because of limited palaeoecological records in this arid continent, however, it is unclear as to which factor impacted vegetation more strongly, and what were the roles of fire regime changes owing to human activity and megafaunal extinction (since ca 50 kya). To address these questions, we analysed historical genetic, demographic and distributional changes in a widespread conifer species complex that paradoxically grows in fire-prone regions, yet is very sensitive to fire. Genetic demographic analysis showed that the arid populations experienced strong bottlenecks, consistent with range contractions during the Last Glacial Maximum (ca 20 kya) predicted by species distribution models. In southern temperate regions, the population sizes were estimated to have been mostly stable, followed by some expansion coinciding with climate amelioration at the end of the last glacial period. By contrast, in the flammable tropical savannahs, where fire risk is the highest, demographic analysis failed to detect significant population bottlenecks. Collectively, these results suggest that the impact of climate change overwhelmed any modifications to fire regimes by Aboriginal landscape burning and megafaunal extinction, a finding that probably also applies to other fire-prone vegetation across Australia. PMID:24174110

  3. Remote Sensing Derived Fire Frequency, Soil Moisture and Ecosystem Productivity Explain Regional Movements in Emu over Australia

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Nazeri, Mona; Kumar, Lalit; Affleck, David L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution modeling has been widely used in studying habitat relationships and for conservation purposes. However, neglecting ecological knowledge about species, e.g. their seasonal movements, and ignoring the proper environmental factors that can explain key elements for species survival (shelter, food and water) increase model uncertainty. This study exemplifies how these ecological gaps in species distribution modeling can be addressed by modeling the distribution of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Australia. Emus cover a large area during the austral winter. However, their habitat shrinks during the summer months. We show evidence of emu summer habitat shrinkage due to higher fire frequency, and low water and food availability in northern regions. Our findings indicate that emus prefer areas with higher vegetation productivity and low fire recurrence, while their distribution is linked to an optimal intermediate (~0.12 m3 m-3) soil moisture range. We propose that the application of three geospatial data products derived from satellite remote sensing, namely fire frequency, ecosystem productivity, and soil water content, provides an effective representation of emu general habitat requirements, and substantially improves species distribution modeling and representation of the species’ ecological habitat niche across Australia. PMID:26799732

  4. Key Skills and Competencies. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on key skills and competencies and human resource development (HRD). "Career Related Competencies" (Marinka A.C.T. Kuijpers) reports findings from surveys completed by Dutch employees who identified these issues: self-reflection is more important than career control; age and gender influence attitude toward…

  5. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S.; Bowen, Asha C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide. A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection. Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10–31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6–24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients. We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  6. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S; Bowen, Asha C

    2016-02-01

    Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide.A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection.Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10-31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6-24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients.We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission.

  7. Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed. PMID:17242834

  8. National space program in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, G. M.

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the Australian space activity history and present status is presented in the following aspects: (1) full-scale space activities since the establishment of the Australian Space Board in 1987 and the start of governmental budgetary support to national space program; (2) cooperation with NASA and ESA through satellite ground stations in satellite communication and ground support; (3) Australian private enterprises contract to provide launch support for INTERSAT and other satellites and schedule to start mobile satellite communication all over the country; and (4) supporting the second ground station construction to facilitate acquisition of the southern Pacific Ocean data of the wide area covering from the end of Antarctic continent to the eastern end of New Zealand. The remote sensing equipment development, launch service business plan, present status of supersonic technology in Australia and Australian space policy are outlined.

  9. Radar Meteor Observations in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade extensive meteor studies have been carried out in Australia using radio systems operating at frequencies between 2 and 30 MHz. Part of this program has been a deliberate effort to detect meteors above the "echo ceiling" of about 105 km associated with radars operating above 30 MHz. In fact the echo ceiling has been raised to 140 km with a dramatic increase in meteor flux [1]. The other aspect of these studies has been the use a low frequency (6-30MHz) surveillance radar to detect and record meteors over the horizon, using backscatter via ionospheric F-region. The power of the radar is such that the micrometeoroid limit is being approached [2]. The surveillance radar has confirmed the new estimates of meteor flux and extended to a mass limit of 0.2 microgram.

  10. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded. PMID:19775367

  11. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  12. The boundaries of care work: a comparative study of professionals and volunteers in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers.

  13. The boundaries of care work: a comparative study of professionals and volunteers in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers. PMID:25442013

  14. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  15. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided.

  16. The history of the Endocrine Society of Australia. The first fifty years.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David J; Harding, Philip E; Bach, Leon A

    2011-01-01

    The Endocrine Society of Australia was formed in 1958 with the aims of advancing knowledge and practice in endocrinology (the study of hormones) and to bring together physicians and scientists in this area of study. It was one of the first medical specialist societies in Australia. From humble beginnings with ninety-nine foundation members, it has flourished to a society with almost 950 members which annually runs three successful clinical and scientific meetings, and provides scholarships, research grants, and travel grants for its young members. Members have received international and national recognition within the field and more generally. Collaboration between scientists and physicians has been a key strength of the Society.

  17. "Key to Freshwater Algae": A Web-Based Tool to Enhance Understanding of Microscopic Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayler, Hannah A.; Siver, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    The Freshwater Ecology Laboratory at Connecticut College has developed an interactive, Web-based identification key to freshwater algal genera using the Lucid Professional and Lucid 3 software developed by the Centre for Biological Information Technology at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. The "Key to Freshwater Algae" was funded…

  18. The remittances of migrant Tongan and Samoan nurses from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Connell, John; Brown, Richard PC

    2004-01-01

    Background Migration and remittances are of considerable importance in the small Pacific island states. There has been a significant migration of skilled health workers in recent decades to metropolitan fringe states, including Australia and New Zealand. This paper reports the findings of a re-analysis of survey of Samoan and Tongan migrants in Australia where the sample is split between nurse households and others. Methods The study analyzes the survey data with a view to comparing the remittance behaviour and determinants of remittances for nurses and other migrant households, using both descriptive, cross-tabulations and appropriate econometric methods. Results It is found that a significantly higher proportion of nurse households sent remittances home, and, on average remitted more. Remittances of nurse households did not decline significantly over time contrary to what has generally been predicted. This was in contrast to other migrant households in the sample, for whom remittances showed a sharp decline after 15 years absence. Remittances contribute much more to the income of migrant sending countries, than the cost of the additional human capital in nurse training. Conclusions Given the shortage of nurses in Australia and New Zealand, and therefore the high demand for immigrant nurses, investment by Pacific island governments and families in nurse training constitutes a rational use of economic resources. Policies encouraging investment in home countries may be more effective than policies directly discouraging brain drain in contributing to national development. PMID:15078577

  19. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere.

  20. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:26536914

  1. Effects of newspaper stories on the incidence of suicide in Australia: a research note.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1995-09-01

    This study investigates the impact of newspaper stories on the incidence of suicide in Australia. The effects of suicide stories appearing in two major metropolitan newspapers between 1.1.1981 and 31.12.1990 were examined. The findings show that the daily average suicide rate in Australia increases significantly after the publication and publicity of suicide stories in the Australian media; the rise tends to be primarily due to the increase in male suicide and not female suicide. Some plausible explanations of this finding are advanced.

  2. Public Key Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  3. Clinical aspects of malignant mesothelioma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, T R; Baker, G J; Daniels, S; Lee, J; Thompson, R; Ferguson, D A; Leigh, J

    1993-02-01

    Australia is currently experiencing an epidemic of malignant mesothelioma. The clinical aspects of malignant mesothelioma were investigated in 295 Australian patients as part of a national study of the disease. Most patients were male (91%), with the mean age at diagnosis being 64 years. The predominant cell type was epithelial (38%) and the majority of primary tumours arose from the pleura (94%). Mean survival was poor (17.6 months from first symptom; 11.8 months from diagnosis). Patients with a pleural primary tumour were more likely to present with dyspnoea, chest pain and cough; to have a pleural effusion diagnosed radiologically; and to have metastatic spread. Patients with a peritoneal primary tumour were more likely to present with weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and ascites; to have radiologic evidence of asbestos exposure; and to have spread along a needle track created during a diagnostic tap. A minority of patients had past thoracic conditions, or radiologic findings, specifically related to previous asbestos exposure. About one fifth of patients had no known asbestos exposure. Forty-one per cent of subjects received some form of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery, but no formal disease staging had been documented for any patient. Proper controlled trials of secondary and tertiary treatments in malignant mesothelioma are now needed.

  4. Increasing Incidence of Salmonella in Australia, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Veitch, Mark; Wardell, Rebecca; Polkinghorne, Ben; Dobbins, Timothy; Lal, Aparna; Kirk, Martyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia and case numbers are increasing. We used negative binomial regression to analyze national surveillance data for 2000–2013, for Salmonella Typhimurium and non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars. We estimated incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age to show trends over time. Almost all states and territories had significantly increasing trends of reported infection for S. Typhimurium, with states and territories reporting annual increases as high as 12% (95% confidence interval 10–14%) for S. Typhimurium in the Australian Capital Territory and 6% (95% CI 5–7%) for non-Typhimurium Salmonella in Victoria. S. Typhimurium notification rates were higher than non-Typhimurium Salmonella rates in most age groups in the south eastern states of Australia, while non-Typhimurium rates were higher in most age groups elsewhere. The S. Typhimurium notification rate peaked at 12–23 months of age and the non-Typhimurium Salmonella notification rate peaked at 0–11 months of age. The age-specific pattern of S. Typhimurium cases suggests a foodborne origin, while the age and geographic pattern for non-Typhimurium may indicate that other transmission routes play a key role for these serovars. PMID:27732615

  5. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  6. Work Keys USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work Keys USA, 1998

    1998-01-01

    "Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force. The reports are as…

  7. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  8. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  9. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  10. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  11. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  12. Rural Empowerment through the Arts: The Role of the Arts in Civic and Social Participation in the Mid West Region of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Julia Anwar

    2011-01-01

    To combat social and economic inequity in rural Australia, governments, communities, and policy makers are seeking ways to empower local residents to find local solutions to local problems. Through an exploratory review of the literature and semi-structured interviews conducted in the Mid West of Western Australia, this research examined the role…

  13. Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Musk, A William; de Klerk, Nicholas H

    2004-08-01

    In Australia, consumption of asbestos peaked in about 1975 at around 70,000t per year--the majority being used for asbestos cement manufacture. Chrysotile, amphibole and crocidolite have all been mined in Australia and employment records from the single company which mined most of the crocidolite deposits at Wittenoom have formed the basis of an ongoing cohort mortality study of the workforce.

  14. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  15. Dispensing death, desiring death: an exploration of medical roles and patient motivation during the period of legalized euthanasia in Australia.

    PubMed

    Street, A; Kissane, D W

    A qualitative case study was conducted to explore the clinical decision making processes that underpinned the practice of euthanasia under the Rights of the Terminally Ill (ROTI) Act. The key informant for this research was Philip Nitschke, the general practitioner responsible for the legal cases of euthanasia. His information was supported by extensive document analysis based on the public texts created by patients in the form of letters and documentaries. Further collaborating sources were those texts generated by the media, rights groups, politicians, the coroner's cort, and the literature on euthanasia and assisted suicide. A key study finding was that the ROTI legislation did not adequately provide for the specific medical situation in the Northern Territory, Australia. The medical roles, as proscribed by the legislation, carried many inherent assumptions about the health care context and the availability of appropriately qualified medical staff committed to providing euthanasia. These assumptions translated into difficulties in establishing clinical practices for the provision of euthanasia. A further finding concerned the motivations of those who requested euthanasia. This article addresses the medical roles and the motivations of those seeking euthanasia. PMID:12578011

  16. Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Monica; Nguyen, Quoc; Marriott, Deborah; Playford, E. Geoffrey; Ellis, David; Sorrell, Tania

    2006-01-01

    Population-based surveillance for candidemia in Australia from 2001 to 2004 identified 1,095 cases. Annual overall and hospital-specific incidences were 1.81/100,000 and 0.21/1,000 separations (completed admissions), respectively. Predisposing factors included malignancy (32.1%), indwelling vascular catheters (72.6%), use of antimicrobial agents (77%), and surgery (37.1%). Of 919 episodes, 81.5% were inpatient healthcare associated (IHCA), 11.6% were outpatient healthcare associated (OHCA), and 6.9% were community acquired (CA). Concomitant illnesses and risk factors were similar in IHCA and OHCA candidemia. IHCA candidemia was associated with sepsis at diagnosis (p<0.001), death <30 days after infection (p<0.001), and prolonged hospital admission (p<0.001). Non–Candida albicans species (52.7%) caused 60.5% of cases acquired outside hospitals and 49.9% of IHCA candidemia (p = 0.02). The 30-day death rate was 27.7% in those >65 years of age. Adult critical care stay, sepsis syndrome, and corticosteroid therapy were associated with the greatest risk for death. Systematic epidemiologic studies that use standardized definitions for IHCA, OHCA, and CA candidemia are indicated. PMID:17176564

  17. Telemedicine in Australia. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Crowe, B L; McDonald, I G

    1997-01-01

    There have been a number of important developments in Australia in the area of telemedicine. At the national level, the House of Representatives' Standing Committee on Family and Community Affairs has been conducting the Inquiry into Health Information Management and Telemedicine. The Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council has supported the establishment of a working party convened by the South Australian Health Commission to prepare a detailed report on issues relating to telemedicine. State governments have begun a number of telemedicine projects, including major initiatives in New South Wales and Victoria and the extensive development of telepsychiatry services in Queensland. Research activities in high-speed image transmission have been undertaken by the Australian Computing and Communications Institute and Telstra, and by the Australian Navy. The matter of the funding of both capital and recurrent costs of telemedicine services has not been resolved, and issues of security and privacy of medical information are subjects to discussion. The use of the Internet as a universal communications medium may provide opportunities for the expansion of telemedicine services, particularly in the area of continuing medical education. A need has been recognized for the coordinated evaluation of telemedicine services as cost-benefit considerations are seen to be very important.

  18. Medical student radiology teaching in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, R M; Kim, C; Scally, P

    2007-08-01

    This study, involving 19 centres, establishes the status of medical student radiology teaching in Australia and New Zealand. It aims to document the academic and clinical staff profile involved in teaching, to indicate the methods of instructions used, to outline the available radiology library resources for medical students, to list the textbooks used in teaching and to uncover how many radiology departments are involving medical students in research. The findings can be used to plan and execute further actions that will enhance radiology teaching of medical students.

  19. Australian Assassins, Part II: A review of the new assassin spider genus Zephyrarchaea (Araneae, Archaeidae) from southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae from southern Australia are revised, with a new genus (Zephyrarchaeagen. n.) and nine new species described from temperate, mesic habitats in southern Victoria, South Australia and south-western Western Australia: Zephyrarchaea austinisp. n., Zephyrarchaea barrettaesp. n., Zephyrarchaea grayisp. n., Zephyrarchaea janineaesp. n., Zephyrarchaea maraesp. n., Zephyrarchaea markisp. n., Zephyrarchaea melindaesp. n., Zephyrarchaea porchisp. n. and Zephyrarchaea vichickmanisp. n. Specimens of the type species, Zephyrarchaea mainae (Platnick, 1991), comb. n., are redescribed from the Albany region of Western Australia, along with the holotype female of Zephyrarchaea robinsi (Harvey, 2002) comb. n. from the Stirling Range National Park. The previously described species Archaea hickmani Butler, 1929 from Victoria is here recognised as a nomen dubium. A key to species and multi-locus molecular phylogeny complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22639534

  20. Protocol for ACCESS: a qualitative study exploring barriers and facilitators to accessing the emergency contraceptive pill from community pharmacies in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Ghosh, Ayesha; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Black, Kirsten Isla; Clifford, Rhonda; Mc Namara, Kevin Peter; Ryan, Kath; Jackson, John Keith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unplanned pregnancy in Australia remains high, which has contributed to Australia having one of the highest abortion rates of developed countries with an estimated 1 in 5 women having an abortion. The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) offers a safe way of preventing unintended pregnancy after unprotected sex has occurred. While the ECP has been available over-the-counter in Australian pharmacies for over a decade, its use has not significantly increased. This paper presents a protocol for a qualitative study that aims to identify the barriers and facilitators to accessing the ECP from community pharmacies in Australia. Methods and analysis Data will be collected through one-on-one interviews that are semistructured and in-depth. Partnerships have been established with 2 pharmacy groups and 2 women's health organisations to aid with the recruitment of women and pharmacists for data collection purposes. Interview questions explore domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework in order to assess the factors aiding and/or hindering access to ECP from community pharmacies. Data collected will be analysed using deductive content analysis. The expected benefits of this study are that it will help develop evidence-based workforce interventions to strengthen the capacity and performance of community pharmacists as key ECP providers. Ethics and dissemination The findings will be disseminated to the research team and study partners, who will brainstorm ideas for interventions that would address barriers and facilitators to access identified from the interviews. Dissemination will also occur through presentations and peer-reviewed publications and the study participants will receive an executive summary of the findings. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Monash Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:26656987

  1. Electric power industry restructuring in Australia: Lessons from down-under. Occasional paper No. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.

    1997-01-01

    Australia`s electric power industry (EPI) is undergoing major restructuring. This restructuring includes commercialization of state-owned electric organization through privatization and through corporatization into separate governmental business units; structural unbundling of generation, transmission, retailing, and distribution; and creation of a National Electricity Market (NEM) organized as a centralized, market-based trading pool for buying and selling electricity. The principal rationales for change in the EPI were the related needs of enhancing international competitiveness, improving productivity, and lowering electric rates. Reducing public debt through privatization also played an important role. Reforms in the EPI are part of the overall economic reform package that is being implemented in Australia. Enhancing efficiency in the economy through competition is a key objective of the reforms. As the need for reform was being discussed in the early 1990s, Australia`s previous prime minister, Paul Keating, observed that {open_quotes}the engine which drives efficiency is free and open competition.{close_quotes} The optimism about the economic benefits of the full package of reforms across the different sectors of the economy, including the electricity industry, is reflected in estimated benefits of a 5.5 percent annual increase in real gross domestic product and the creation of 30,000 more jobs. The largest source of the benefits (estimated at 25 percent of total benefits) was projected to come from reform of the electricity and gas sectors.

  2. Frontiers of cancer care in Asia-Pacific region: cancer care in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Koh, ES; Do, VT; Barton, MB

    2008-01-01

    Cancer has a significant impact on the Australian community. One in three men and one in four women will develop cancer by the age of 75. The estimated annual health expenditure due to cancer in 2000-1 in Australia was $2.7 billion, representing 5.5% of the country’s total healthcare expenditure. An historical overview of the national cancer control strategies in Australia is provided. In males, the five most common cancers in order of decreasing incidence are: prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and lymphoma, while for Australian women, breast cancer is the most common cancer. Key epidemiologic information about these common cancers, current management issues and comprehensive national clinical practice guidelines (where available) are highlighted. Aspects of skin cancer, a particularly common cancer in the Australian environment – with a focus on melanoma – are also included. Cancer outcomes in Australia, measured by selected outcomes, are among the best in the world. However, there is still evidence of health inequalities, especially among patients residing in regional and remote areas, the indigenous population and people from lower socio-economic classes. Limitations of current cancer care practices in Australia, including provision of oncology services, resources and other access issues, as well as suggested improvements for future cancer care, are summarised. Ongoing implementation of national and state cancer control plans and evaluation of their effectiveness will be needed to pursue the goal of optimal cancer care in Australia. PMID:21611000

  3. The case of national health promotion policy in Australia: where to now?

    PubMed

    Smith, James A; Crawford, Gemma; Signal, Louise

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Over the last three decades there has been an incremental investment in health promotion and prevention across Australia; yet, the Commonwealth Government and some state/territory governments have more recently instigated funding cuts in health promotion and prevention. This paper argues that the role of health promotion is critical in contemporary Australia and discusses strategies needed to move forward within the context of recent disinvestments. Discussion Key areas of concern relating to recent health promotion and prevention disinvestment in Australia include the abolishment of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency, the cessation of the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health and significant cuts to Indigenous programs. These changes pose a significant threat to the health, economic and social well being of Australians and the region, particularly those that are most vulnerable. Conclusions Future health promotion and prevention efforts will require strategic leadership and action to enhance the promotion of health equity in Australia over the coming decades. We call on governments to (re)invest in health promotion and prevention both in and outside the health sector so that health promotion professionals can continue their advocacy efforts aimed at articulating their professional place in improving population health. So what? Recent changes to national health promotion and prevention policy are detrimental to the health and well being of the Australian population, particularly those most vulnerable. Sound planning to revitalise and refocus health promotion action in Australia is urgently required.

  4. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  5. Physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Button, Brenda M; Wilson, Christine; Dentice, Ruth; Cox, Narelle S; Middleton, Anna; Tannenbaum, Esta; Bishop, Jennifer; Cobb, Robyn; Burton, Kate; Wood, Michelle; Moran, Fiona; Black, Ryan; Bowen, Summar; Day, Rosemary; Depiazzi, Julie; Doiron, Katherine; Doumit, Michael; Dwyer, Tiffany; Elliot, Alison; Fuller, Louise; Hall, Kathleen; Hutchins, Matthew; Kerr, Melinda; Lee, Annemarie L; Mans, Christina; O'Connor, Lauren; Steward, Ranjana; Potter, Angela; Rasekaba, Tshepo; Scoones, Rebecca; Tarrant, Ben; Ward, Nathan; West, Samantha; White, Dianne; Wilson, Lisa; Wood, Jamie; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy management is a key element of care for people with cystic fibrosis (CF) throughout the lifespan. Although considerable evidence exists to support physiotherapy management of CF, there is documented variation in practice. The aim of this guideline is to optimize the physiotherapy management of people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic review of the literature in key areas of physiotherapy practice for CF was undertaken. Recommendations were formulated based on National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) guidelines and considered the quality, quantity and level of the evidence; the consistency of the body of evidence; the likely clinical impact; and applicability to physiotherapy practice in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 30 recommendations were made for airway clearance therapy, inhalation therapy, exercise assessment and training, musculoskeletal management, management of urinary incontinence, managing the newly diagnosed patient with CF, delivery of non-invasive ventilation, and physiotherapy management before and after lung transplantation. These recommendations can be used to underpin the provision of evidence-based physiotherapy care to people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:27086904

  6. Physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A clinical practice guideline*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christine; Dentice, Ruth; Cox, Narelle S.; Middleton, Anna; Tannenbaum, Esta; Bishop, Jennifer; Cobb, Robyn; Burton, Kate; Wood, Michelle; Moran, Fiona; Black, Ryan; Bowen, Summar; Day, Rosemary; Depiazzi, Julie; Doiron, Katherine; Doumit, Michael; Dwyer, Tiffany; Elliot, Alison; Fuller, Louise; Hall, Kathleen; Hutchins, Matthew; Kerr, Melinda; Lee, Annemarie L.; Mans, Christina; O'Connor, Lauren; Steward, Ranjana; Potter, Angela; Rasekaba, Tshepo; Scoones, Rebecca; Tarrant, Ben; Ward, Nathan; West, Samantha; White, Dianne; Wilson, Lisa; Wood, Jamie; Holland, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiotherapy management is a key element of care for people with cystic fibrosis (CF) throughout the lifespan. Although considerable evidence exists to support physiotherapy management of CF, there is documented variation in practice. The aim of this guideline is to optimize the physiotherapy management of people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic review of the literature in key areas of physiotherapy practice for CF was undertaken. Recommendations were formulated based on National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) guidelines and considered the quality, quantity and level of the evidence; the consistency of the body of evidence; the likely clinical impact; and applicability to physiotherapy practice in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 30 recommendations were made for airway clearance therapy, inhalation therapy, exercise assessment and training, musculoskeletal management, management of urinary incontinence, managing the newly diagnosed patient with CF, delivery of non‐invasive ventilation, and physiotherapy management before and after lung transplantation. These recommendations can be used to underpin the provision of evidence‐based physiotherapy care to people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:27086904

  7. What Makes "Good" Literacy and Numeracy Provision? Case Study Research of Regional Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John

    The question of what makes 'good' literacy and numeracy provision was examined by reviewing interview data from a project on the role of vocational education and training that was conducted by the University of Tasmania's Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia. The study dataset included the findings from 541 structured interviews…

  8. Diseases diagnosed in broiler chicken flocks in Victoria, Australia, 1977 to 1984.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L; Beddome, V D; Barr, D A

    1985-03-23

    During the period July 1977 to June 1984, specimens from 1402 broiler chicken flocks were submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Victoria, Australia for investigation of morbidity, mortality and, or, poor performance. A total of 19,450 post mortem examinations, as well as numerous ancillary tests, were performed. The findings on these flocks are presented and the consequences of some particular diseases noted.

  9. Creating a Place to "Be": Unpacking the Facilitation Role in Three Supported Playgroups in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Supported playgroups are a service model used widely in Australia with the dual focus of providing stimulating early childhood environments for children and supportive environments for parents. This article describes research findings from a recent doctoral study that explored three supported playgroups in western Sydney. In particular it focuses…

  10. Youth Studies Australia (1998-2007): A Review and Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Brian Hemmings analysed 252 articles published in Youth Studies Australia during the period 1998-2007. He classified them into 15 categories, and considered characteristics of the contributors and the type of submission and the approach/framework used. Hemmings concludes by discussing the implications of the findings of the various analyses for…

  11. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  12. A Snapshot of the Use of ICT in Primary Mathematics Classrooms in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Lorraine Day reports on some of the findings of the Teaching Teachers for the Future Project. The Australian Curriculum constantly makes reference to digital technologies so we believe our readers will be interested to see how teachers are making use of technology in classrooms across Western Australia. The results may be used to…

  13. Young People and the Environment in Australia: Beliefs, Knowledge, Commitment and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Sharon; Fien, John; Sykes, Helen; Yencken, David

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in Australia on the nature of young people's attitudes, knowledge and actions. This paper reports on the findings from one such study of Australian high school students. The research was based on a survey of 5,688 students form Melbourne and Brisbane. These young people identified protection of the environment…

  14. From Radio, to Satellite, to M-Learning: Interactive Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides reflections on M-learning as a form of "distance education," based on a summary of the findings of the Interactive Distance e-Learning (IDL) research project in rural and remote Australia under an Australian Research Council Linkage grant. This project was a joint undertaking between 3 government agencies and an…

  15. Strategies for Employee Learning in Professional Service Firms: A Study of Community Pharmacies in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotey, Bernice; Saini, Bandana; While, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated employee learning strategies in community pharmacies in Australia and the factors that explain differences among pharmacies in the strategies employed. A qualitative methodology was applied, involving semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, or senior employees of 12 pharmacies. The findings revealed learning…

  16. Private Schools and National Policy: A Comparative Study of Australia and the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a questionnaire study comparing government aid to private schools in Australia and the United States. The study drew questions from those raised in a hearing of the Senate Committee on finance about tax credits for private schools. The paper covers the answers of ten Australian respondents, given in the form…

  17. When Worlds Collide: Excellent and Equitable Learning Communities? Australia's "Social Capitalist" Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, a distinct political-educational imagination drives contemporary policy and praxis. This imagination finds root in the social governance models of British Third Way policy and can be considered "social capitalist". Central to such politics is a view that social governance is capable of pursuing and achieving the social democratic…

  18. Vocational Education and Training in Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2006-01-01

    This report compares the provision of vocational education and training (VET) in Australia, Germany and the United Kingdom. It finds that training policies are increasingly based on similar general principles which promote the improvement and reform of vocational education and training, although the implementation of these principles tends to…

  19. Trends in Child Poverty in Australia: 1982 to 1995-96. Discussion Paper No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ann; Szukalska, Aggie

    This study used Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) survey data to assess changes in child poverty in Australia between 1982 and 1995-96. The findings suggest a dramatic one-third drop in before-housing child poverty during this period, largely as a result of the very substantial increases in government cash payments to low-income families with…

  20. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  1. Understanding Parent Perceptions of a 1:1 Laptop Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some initial findings from a current longitudinal study that examines the implementation of a student-owned 1:1 laptop program in a school for boys in Perth, Western Australia. This research tracks 196 students, their families and associated teachers for a 3-year period (2010-2012). Underpinning this research is a mixed methods…

  2. Effect of latitude on seasonality of tuberculosis, Australia, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, Jennifer H; Lavender, Caroline J; Cowie, Benjamin C

    2012-11-01

    Seasonal variation in tuberculosis diagnoses recently has been reported in various populations. In Australia, seasonality of tuberculosis diagnoses was more pronounced in areas where UV exposure is reduced and vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent. Our findings suggest vitamin D deficiency as a factor in disease activation.

  3. Social Capital and Economic Development in Regional Australia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study of social capital and economic development conducted in two towns in regional Australia between 2001 and 2002. The hypothesis driving the research states that a town displaying a high level of social capital will also display a high level of economic development, while a town with a low level of…

  4. Video in the Outback: An Evaluation of the Loan Video Programme in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosie, Peter

    This study was conducted to examine the reactions of children, parents, and teachers to the Loan Video Programme in Western Australia, which supplies videocassette recordings of the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Commission) school broadcasts to primary Distance Education Centre and School of the Air students in remote locations. Findings reported…

  5. Equity of health care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lairson, D R; Hindson, P; Hauquitz, A

    1995-08-01

    This paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing and delivery in Australia and compares its performance with recent findings on systems in Europe and the United States. Vertical equity of finance is evaluated with income and payment concentration indices derived from published survey data on taxes and expenditure by income decile. Horizontal equity of health care delivery is assessed with standardized expenditure concentration coefficients for three measures of health status and four types of health services, derived from household survey data on health care utilization, health status, income and demographics. Health cover is available to the entire population. Results show the financing system is slightly progressive despite the fact that 30% of payment comes from private sources, which are regressive. The equity index compares favorably to many European countries and is much better than the U.S. which has a regressive financing system. The Australian system fares less well in terms of equity of health care delivery. Several features favor privately insured higher income persons in use of health care and this is reflected, for some health status measures and types of service, in inequity favoring the better off. This contrasts with inequity favoring the less well off in many European countries and the U.S. This analysis provides a benchmark for monitoring the equity of the Australian system and provides information on the equity of a mixed private and public financing system that covers the entire population. This is relevant to the U.S. which is moving in this direction by extending private cover to the uninsured and to European countries that are increasing private sector involvement in health care financing. PMID:7481941

  6. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  7. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

  8. A mixed-method study of expert psychological evidence submitted for a cohort of asylum seekers undergoing refugee status determination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kuowei; Frommer, Naomi; Hunter, Jill; Silove, Derrick; Pearson, Linda; San Roque, Mehera; Redman, Ronnit; Bryant, Richard A; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Steel, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    The levels of exposure to conflict-related trauma and the high rates of mental health impairment amongst asylum seekers pose specific challenges for refugee decision makers who lack mental health training. We examined the use of psychological evidence amongst asylum decision makers in New South Wales, Australia, drawing on the archives of a representative cohort of 52 asylum seekers. A mixed-method approach was used to examine key mental health issues presented in psychological reports accompanying each asylum application, including key documents submitted for consideration of asylum at the primary and review levels. The findings indicated that the majority of decision makers at both levels did not refer to psychological evidence in their decision records. Those who did, particularly in the context of negative decisions, challenged the expert findings and rejected the value of such evidence. Asylum seekers exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance, as well as memory impairment, experienced a lower acceptance rate than those who did not across the primary and review levels. The findings raise concern that trauma-affected asylum seekers may be consistently disadvantaged in the refugee decision-making process and underscore the need to improve the understanding and use of mental health evidence in the refugee decision-making setting. The study findings have been used to develop a set of guidelines to assist refugee decision makers, mental health professionals and legal advisers in improving the quality and use of psychological evidence within the refugee decision-making context.

  9. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M.; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia. PMID:27764175

  10. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide integrated support to humanitarian refugees in settlement, physical health, mental health and employment. The Pilot Project was based in two primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. The evaluation utilized a flexible qualitative 'engaged' methodology and included interviews, focus groups and telephone interviews with the key stakeholders, project staff and a small number of refugee families. The strength of the qualitative methodology (including data that is narrative rich) is that it highlights issues as perceived by each stakeholder and provides insights into the daily work by ISC staff that helped to uncover unintended outcomes. Despite the fact that the ISC evaluation was supposed to be a 'before and after' design, the researchers acknowledge a common weakness in many evaluations (including the ISC) that when baseline data is required, evaluators are recruited after the project has begun. This issue is discussed in the paper. It is critical that independent evaluators are able to begin collecting baseline data as soon as programs are launched, if not before. PMID:19167072

  11. Coarse particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots in Australia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Flesch, T K; Chen, D; Crenna, B; Denmead, O T; Naylor, T; Rowell, D

    2010-01-01

    Open cattle feedlots are a source of air pollutants that include particular matter (PM). Over 24 h, exposure to ambient concentrations of 50 microg m(-3) of the coarse-sized fraction PM (aerodynamic diameter <10 microm [PM(10)]) is recognized as a health concern for humans. The objective of our study was to document PM(10) concentration and emissions at two cattle feedlots in Australia over several days in summer. Two automated samplers were used to monitor the background and in-feedlot PM(10) concentrations. At the in-feedlot location, the PM(10) emission was calculated using a dispersion model. Our measurements revealed that the 24-h PM(10) concentrations on some of the days approached or exceeded the health criteria threshold of 50 microg m(-3) used in Australia. A key factor responsible for the generation of PM(10) was the increased activity of cattle in the evening that coincided with peak concentrations of PM(10) (maximum, 792 microg m(-3)) between 1930 and 2000 h. Rain coincided with a severe decline in PM(10) concentration and emission. A dispersion model used in our study estimated the emission of PM(10) between 31 and 60 g animal(-1) d(-1). These data contribute to needed information on PM(10) associated with livestock to develop results-based environmental policy.

  12. Sediment dynamics in flat landscapes - insights from central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Fink, David; Kotevski, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Erosion and sediment routing are key to understanding landscape evolution. In this regard, steep mountain regions have been the focus of most research efforts, leaving flat landscapes effectively unstudied in spite of their vast global extent. However, the timescales of material transfer and storage in regions of low relief are considered much longer than in their steep counterparts. Here we apply in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) to examine the sediment transport and storage history of a low-gradient catchment, Peake River, in arid central Australia. Previous work in central Australia has been restricted to mainly local measurements of landscape lowering and bedrock erosion; however, to better understand the processes shaping these landscapes, we adopt a source-to-sink approach coupling bedrock and hillslope colluvium measurements of CNs with basin-wide measurements in fluvial sediment. Variation in concentrations and ratios of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in sediment provide insights to rates of sediment residence times and burial history as grains are transmitted through the bedrock-hillslope-stream sediment conveyor. We present our preliminary CN results from sediments and bedrock, and discuss basin-wide sediment dynamics in flat landscapes, emphasizing the contrast with well-studied mountainous regions.

  13. Getting Australia more active: challenges and opportunities for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Hills, A P; Street, S J; Harris, N

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes health and assists in the prevention of non-communicable diseases but this is presently curtailed by low and unhealthy participation rates in Australia and comparable industrialised countries. Compounding the problem is knowledge that physical inactivity is independently associated with poor health outcomes. Despite physical activity being described as public health's 'best bet' or 'best buy', motivating individuals and groups to adopt and maintain physical activity continues to be a major challenge for health professionals. Global advocacy for prevention efforts must be operationalised through national to local strategies to promote and support physical activity in multiple settings including the home, schools and workplace. The Australian health promotion community has and continues to play a leadership role in physical activity promotion. However, there is an urgent need to continue to promote the importance of physical activity, along with its pivotal role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, alongside related agendas including healthy diets, tobacco control and environmental sustainability. This commentary overviews the contemporary status of physical activity promotion in Australia and identifies key challenges and opportunities moving forward.

  14. Depression in multicultural Australia: Policies, research and services

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Kokanovic, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in Australia. The cultural and linguistic diversity of the Australian population poses a significant challenge to health policy development, service provision, professional education, and research. The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which the fact of cultural and linguistic diversity has influenced the formulation of mental health policy, the conduct of mental health research and the development of mental health services for people with depression from ethnic minority communities. Methods The methods used for the different components of the study included surveys and document-based content and thematic analyses. Results Policy is comprehensive but its translation into programs is inadequate. Across Australia, there were few specific programs on depression in ethnic minority communities and they are confronted with a variety of implementation difficulties. The scope and scale of research on depression in Ethnic minority communities is extremely limited. Conclusion A key problem is that the research that is necessary to provide evidence for policy and service delivery is lacking. If depression in Ethnic minority communities is to be addressed effectively the gaps between policy intentions and policy implementation, and between information needs for policies and practice and the actual research that is being done, have to be narrowed. PMID:17645786

  15. Estimating antiretroviral treatment coverage rates and viral suppression rates for homosexual men in Australia

    PubMed Central

    De La Mata, Nicole L.; Mao, Limin; De Wit, John; Smith, Don; Holt, Martin; Prestage, Garrett; Wilson, David P.; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) are disproportionally affected by the HIV epidemic in Australia. The study objective is to combine a clinical-based cohort with a community-based surveillance system to present a broader representation of the GMSM community to determine estimates of proportions receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and/or with an undetectable viral load. Between 2010 and 2012, small increases were shown in ART uptake (to 70.2%) and proportions with undetectable viral load (to 62.4%). The study findings highlight the potential for significantly increasing ART uptake among HIV-positive GMSM to reduce the HIV epidemic in Australia. PMID:26166247

  16. Realities of mental health nursing practice in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    John Crowther, Andrew; Theresa Ragusa, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Mental health nursing as a distinct speciality has been in decline in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for two decades. Arguably, this decline has worsened both consumer outcomes and the workplace experiences of mental health nurses. This article reports on a study designed to ascertain the nature of contemporary mental health nursing practice in New South Wales. The study utilised focus group research methodology, with participants recounting the realities of their day-to-day professional practice and perceptions of their professional identity. The findings indicate a contracting, if not moribund, profession; a decrease in the value attached to mental health nursing; and a pattern of persistent underfunding by successive governments of mental health services. An analysis of present and historical trends reveals there is a pressing need for a restructure and re-formation of mental health nursing in rural areas. This article links the shortage of mental health nurses in NSW to the closure of the mental health nursing register, a shift to comprehensive/generalist nurse education models, a perceived lack of nurses' professional standing, and natural attrition without suitably qualified replacements. Mental health nurses in this study perceived that they were not valued by other health professionals or by their own managers. Participants in this study reported mental health nursing in rural areas was an unattractive career choice. These findings are important to the understanding of recruitment and retention issues in rural mental health nursing in Australia.

  17. Realities of mental health nursing practice in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    John Crowther, Andrew; Theresa Ragusa, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Mental health nursing as a distinct speciality has been in decline in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for two decades. Arguably, this decline has worsened both consumer outcomes and the workplace experiences of mental health nurses. This article reports on a study designed to ascertain the nature of contemporary mental health nursing practice in New South Wales. The study utilised focus group research methodology, with participants recounting the realities of their day-to-day professional practice and perceptions of their professional identity. The findings indicate a contracting, if not moribund, profession; a decrease in the value attached to mental health nursing; and a pattern of persistent underfunding by successive governments of mental health services. An analysis of present and historical trends reveals there is a pressing need for a restructure and re-formation of mental health nursing in rural areas. This article links the shortage of mental health nurses in NSW to the closure of the mental health nursing register, a shift to comprehensive/generalist nurse education models, a perceived lack of nurses' professional standing, and natural attrition without suitably qualified replacements. Mental health nurses in this study perceived that they were not valued by other health professionals or by their own managers. Participants in this study reported mental health nursing in rural areas was an unattractive career choice. These findings are important to the understanding of recruitment and retention issues in rural mental health nursing in Australia. PMID:21767253

  18. Retirement and its consequences for women's health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the health consequences of retirement is important, as many developed countries have already started raising state pension eligibility age, with the intention to induce postponed retirement. This paper estimates the causal effect of retirement on the health outcomes of older women in Australia, utilising the exogenous variation in retirement induced by the change in age eligibility for the Australian Age Pension. Using a sample of 19,185 observations for 3771 women from waves 2001-2011 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, we show that retirement status has positive and significant effects on women's self-reported health, physical and mental health outcomes. We also find that longer time spent in retirement confers clear additional health benefits. We show that retirement affects physical and mental health in diverse ways and that the estimated positive health effects of retirement are coincidental with increased post-retirement physical activity and reduced smoking. Our finding that retirement can improve health suggests that the welfare losses from working life prolongation policies will be larger than currently though when we include the cost of the foregone health improvements. PMID:27423068

  19. Optical key system

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  20. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  1. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. Methods A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. Results A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government’s Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however

  2. Roles of Transpiration, Forest Bioproductivity and Fire on a Long-Term Dripwater Hydrochemistry Dataset from Golgotha Cave, SW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, P. C.; Baker, A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Bradley, C.; Mahmud, K.; Andersen, M. S.; Meredith, K.; Mariethoz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Golgotha Cave is located in a forested catchment in SW Australia where evapotranspiration losses from the vadose-zone are high and forest biomass has been disturbed by fire. The cave has been continuously monitored since 2005 and this extensive dataset has been used to quantify key processes determining dripwater hydrology and chemistry (Mahmud et al., 2015; Treble et al., 2013; 2015). In this paper we present a synthesis of these findings and derive a conceptual model to illustrate the main hydrochemical processes that will impact cave dripwater in similar environments. We applied mass-balance techniques to quantify sources (water/rock interactions and aerosol) and sinks (prior calcite precipitation and biomass uptake). Mass-balance results suggest that transpiration and elemental sequestration into biomass modifies dripwater ion concentrations. The vegetation uptake impacts dripwater Mg, K and SO4, with the largest impact on SO4, estimated to be up to 60% at some drip sites. Overall, our findings suggest that varying amounts of transpiration by deeply-rooted trees contribute significantly to spatial and temporal variability in dripwater solute concentrations. This is in addition to the partitioning of infiltrating water between characteristic flow pathways. Applying principal components analysis, we identify a common long-term rising trend in dripwater Cl, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Si. We assess whether the long-term trends in dripwater solutes are driven by post-fire biomass recovery and/or the impacts of a drying climate in SW Australia.ReferencesMahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to Identify Infiltration Properties in the Tamala Limestone, Western Australia, doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2451088. Treble et al. (2013), An isotopic and modelling study of flow paths and storage in Quaternary calcarenite, doi:10.1016/J.Quascirev.2012.12.015. Treble et al. (2015), Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on

  3. Emergence of neural angiostrongyliasis in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Jones, Malcolm K; Aland, Kieran V; Reid, Simon A; Traub, Rebecca J; McCarthy, James S; Lee, Rogan

    2015-03-01

    Despite an apparent increase in cases of angiostrongyliasis in humans and animals in Australia, the epidemiology of infection with the two species of Angiostrongylus that co-exist in this country, namely A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae, is poorly understood. This knowledge gap is particularly important with respect to A. mackerrasae, a species evidently native to Australia, as its ability to cause disease in humans is unknown. Likewise, there is little information on the roles of native and introduced species of rodents and molluscs as hosts of Angiostrongylus species in Australia. This review focuses on the gaps in the knowledge about the two species, highlighting the need for epidemiological and pathogenesis studies on the native lungworm A. mackerrasae.

  4. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mackey, D A; Buttery, R G

    1992-08-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presents with sudden onset of visual loss mainly in young adult males. LHON is not uncommon in Australia, accounting for 2% of invalid blind pensions. We have identified 20 unrelated families carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with LHON and 135 of 291 individuals with documented LHON are currently alive in Australia. The mean age of onset of visual loss for males was 26 years and for females 27 years, with a range from six to 65 years. The mean risk of visual loss was 20% for males and 4% for females. There are over 1750 male and female carriers living in Australia who have not yet lost vision; 600 carriers are under 24 years of age. The expected number of new cases of blindness from LHON is three to four per year. PMID:1449769

  5. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  6. New Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) Dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hocknull, Scott A.; White, Matt A.; Tischler, Travis R.; Cook, Alex G.; Calleja, Naomi D.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian) Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. Conclusion/Significance The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator) and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus). PMID:19584929

  7. An Alternative to Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, James

    1977-01-01

    For the secondary school, the author discourages the use of dichotomous keys in favor of a punch-card system. The system is readily constructed by students for use in plant and animal classification. (CP)

  8. Public Key FPGA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Hymel, Ross

    2013-07-25

    The Public Key (PK) FPGA software performs asymmetric authentication using the 163-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) on an embedded FPGA platform. A digital signature is created on user-supplied data, and communication with a host system is performed via a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. Software includes all components necessary for signing, including custom random number generator for key creation and SHA-256 for data hashing.

  9. Temporal overlap of humans and giant lizards (Varanidae; Squamata) in Pleistocene Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Cramb, Jonathan; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Hocknull, Scott A.; Webb, Gregory E.; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    An obvious but key prerequisite to testing hypotheses concerning the role of humans in the extinction of late Quaternary 'megafauna' is demonstrating that humans and the extinct taxa overlapped, both temporally and spatially. In many regions, a paucity of reliably dated fossil occurrences of megafauna makes it challenging, if not impossible, to test many of the leading extinction hypotheses. The giant monitor lizards of Australia are a case in point. Despite commonly being argued to have suffered extinction at the hands of the first human colonisers (who arrived by 50 ka), it has never been reliably demonstrated that giant monitors and humans temporally overlapped in Australia. Here we present the results of an integrated U-Th and 14C dating study of a late Pleistocene fossil deposit that has yielded the youngest dated remains of giant monitor lizards in Australia. The site, Colosseum Chamber, is a cave deposit in the Mt Etna region, central eastern Australia. Sixteen new dates were generated and demonstrate that the bulk of the material in the deposit accumulated since ca. 50 ka. The new monitor fossil is, minimally, 30 ky younger than the previous youngest reliably dated record for giant lizards in Australia and for the first time, demonstrates that on a continental scale, humans and giant lizards overlapped in time. The new record brings the existing geochronological dataset for Australian giant monitor lizards to seven dated occurrences. With such sparse data, we are hesitant to argue that our new date represents the time of their extinction from the continent. Rather, we suspect that future fossil collecting will yield new samples both older and younger than 50 ka. Nevertheless, we unequivocally demonstrate that humans and giant monitor lizards overlapped temporally in Australia, and thus, humans can only now be considered potential drivers for their extinction.

  10. Analysis of social attitude to the new end use of recycled water for household laundry in Australia by the regression models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Miechel, Clayton; Corby, Nigel; Listowski, Andrzej; O'Halloran, Kelly

    2013-09-15

    Recycled water for household laundry can be regarded as a promising strategy to alleviate the current demand on scarce water supplies. Public acceptability becomes fairly important to ensure the successful establishment and development of this new end use. To address the issue, this study conducted social surveys in two locations of Australia, Port Macquarie and Melbourne, where respondents were asked 17 questions. The regression models provide conclusions about which characteristics are more likely to lead to the acceptance of recycled water from society. Three attitudinal variables (RWAlterDW, Attitude and Cost) and three psychological variables (Odour, Reading and SmallUnit) were found to be the key driving forces behind domestic water reuse behaviour. These findings could drive the future research direction to achieve better public perception of this new end use of recycled water.

  11. Major study commencing into genetic discrimination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Otlowski, Margaret F; Taylor, Sandra D; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine K

    2002-08-01

    This article describes a nationwide empirical study that will be undertaken during the next three years into the newly emerging phenomenon of genetic discrimination. In particular, the study aims to investigate the nature and extent of genetic discrimination in Australia across three key perspectives: consumers, third parties and the legal system. Further, the study aims to examine the social and legal implications of genetic discrimination, with a view to making recommendations for use in the Australian legal and policy context. It is anticipated that the data produced from this multifaceted investigation will assist in identifying areas where legal or other reforms are required. It will contribute significant baseline data for facilitating ongoing assessment of the nature and extent of the problem, as well as for longitudinal evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of any reforms which may be introduced in the future to address the issue. PMID:12242882

  12. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kupriyanova, Elena K; Sun, Yanan; Hove, Harry A Ten; Wong, Eunice; Rouse, Greg W

    2015-01-01

    Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions. Some species described herein are commonly found in the waters around Lizard Island, but had not previously been formally reported. A new species of Hydroides (H. lirs) and two new species of Semivermilia (S. annehoggettae and S. lylevaili) are described. A taxonomic key to all taxa found at Lizard Island is provided. PMID:26624073

  13. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kupriyanova, Elena K; Sun, Yanan; Hove, Harry A Ten; Wong, Eunice; Rouse, Greg W

    2015-09-18

    Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions. Some species described herein are commonly found in the waters around Lizard Island, but had not previously been formally reported. A new species of Hydroides (H. lirs) and two new species of Semivermilia (S. annehoggettae and S. lylevaili) are described. A taxonomic key to all taxa found at Lizard Island is provided.

  14. Modelling the peopling of Australia: 1900-1930.

    PubMed

    Pope, D

    1981-12-01

    An analysis of migration from the United Kingdom to Australia during the period 1900 to 1930 is presented. The author attempts "first to explicitly develop and estimate a model of the behavioural relations of the two blades of the Marshallian scissors, rather than mixing supply and demand (under the polyglot terms of 'push-pull') in a single equation without regard to the problem of identification. And second, [he attempts] to incorporate in these structural equations key elements of government intervention in the migration process." The relationship between economic factors and Australian government support for immigration is considered. The author also identifies three factors influencing annual variations in the flow of migration from the United Kingdom: expected income gains, transport costs, and the costs of job search. PMID:12312610

  15. A right to die? Euthanasia and the law in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Lorana; Otlowski, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This article examines the legal regulation of active voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide in Australia. The Dying with Dignity Bill 2009 (Tas), which was recently defeated by the Tasmanian Parliament, is discussed, as well as other jurisdictions' past and present legislative developments in this context. The recent case law is also considered to ascertain how "mercy killing" or assisted suicide cases are dealt with by the criminal justice system, with particular reference to the case of R v Justins [2008] NSWSC 1194. This is followed by a critical evaluation of the key arguments for and against euthanasia. The article concludes by examining the significance of the Tasmanian Bill and the implications of such legislation. PMID:20329456

  16. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration." PMID:12289778

  17. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration."

  18. Dengue fever with encephalopathy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Row, D; Weinstein, P; Murray-Smith, S

    1996-03-01

    During an epidemic of dengue type 2 virus in the rural community of Charters Towers, North Queensland, Australia, in 1993, 210 cases presented to the local hospital with signs and symptoms of classic dengue fever. Two cases were noteworthy because of neurologic complications, which included drowsiness, short term memory loss, agitation, and seizure. The cases are presented in detail because they are the first cases of dengue-associated encephalopathy to be documented in Australia. An increasing number of cases of encephalopathy associated with classic dengue fever is being reported world wide, but the etiology of this clinical syndrome remains unknown.

  19. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  20. Impact of land cover change on the climate of southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, A. J.; Narisma, G. T.; Pielke, R. A.; Holbrook, N. J.

    2004-09-01

    A sudden reduction in rainfall occurred in the southwest of Western Australia in the mid-20th century. This reduced inflows to the Perth water supply by about 120 GL (42%) and led to an acceleration of projects to develop new water sources at a cost of about $300 million. The reduction in rainfall was coincident with warmer temperatures. A major analysis of these changes indicated that the changes in temperature were likely caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect and that the changes in rainfall were likely caused by a large-scale reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. We explore an alternative hypothesis that large-scale land cover change explains the observed changes in rainfall and temperature. We use three high-resolution mesoscale model configurations forced at the boundaries to simulate (for each model) five July climates for each of natural and current land cover. We find that land cover change explains up to 50% of the observed warming. Following land cover change, we also find, in every simulation, a reduction in rainfall over southwest Western Australia and an increase in rainfall inland that matches the observations well. We show that the reduced surface roughness following land cover change largely explains the simulated changes in rainfall by increasing moisture divergence over southwest Western Australia and increasing moisture convergence inland. Increased horizontal wind magnitudes and suppressed vertical velocities over southwest Western Australia reduce the likelihood of precipitation. Inland, moisture convergence and increased vertical velocities lead to an increase in rainfall. Our results indicate that rainfall over southwest Western Australia may be returned to the long-term average through large-scale reforestation, a policy option within the control of local government. Such a program would also provide a century-scale carbon sink to ameliorate Australia's very high per capita greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  2. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  3. A new species of Metacoelura (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Australia, and redescription of Metacoelura articulata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yitong; Zhao, Chun; Greenslade, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    The genus Metacoelura Salmon, 1951 is unusual as it possesses some characters typical of the family Entomobryidae and others of the Paronellidae. Three species and subspecies have been described, all from Australasian tropical regions. Metacoelura articulata is redescribed and a new species, Metacoelura majeri sp. nov., is described based on material collected in Australia. A key to species of the genus is provided. PMID:27394786

  4. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Böggemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species. PMID:26624067

  5. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Böggemann, Markus

    2015-09-18

    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species.

  6. New Prototrochus species of sea cucumber from Australia (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Synaptida: Myriotrochidae).

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, P Mark; MacIntosh, Hugh

    2015-08-05

    The case put by Alexey Smirnov in 2012 is accepted and the order name Synaptida Cuénot is adopted in place of Apodida Brandt. Two new Myriotrochidae Théel species from the continental slope of Australia are described: Prototrochus robbinsae sp. nov. and Prototrochus roniae sp. nov.  A key to the six Australasian species of Prototrochus Beljaev & Mironov and a distribution and depth map are provided.

  7. Maintaining the Integrity of Public Education: A Comparative Analysis of School Autonomy in the United States and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a critical comparative approach to examining autonomous schooling in the United States and Australia. Amid the market imperatives currently driving education priorities, its focus is on how autonomy can be mobilized in ways that preserve the integrity of public education. Through reference to key debates and research about…

  8. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  9. Promoting Rural Education: The Role of the Society of the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the role of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and the challenges it has faced as the primary voice for Australian rural educators. The paper charts the origins of SPERA, and the contributions of key people involved in its foundation. The paper then examines the advocacy and impact of SPERA…

  10. Policy Silos and Red Ochre Men: An Examination of a Decade of Adult Literacy Policy and Program Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on some of the data gathered for an Australian research project which investigated "What does the past tell us about adult literacy and numeracy policy, provision and practice?" First, the key national and some state policies which have informed program development in Australia will be outlined in order to highlight some…

  11. "Pupils Differently Circumstanced and with Other Aims": Governing the Post-Primary Child in Early Twentieth-Century Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Writing in 1927, five leading scholars and administrators of the Australian schooling systems published a book entitled "Education in Australia: a comparative study of the educational systems of the six Australian states". These authors wrote of Australian education in a time of great optimism, and one of the key areas of reform they addressed was…

  12. New records of Pectinariidae (Polychaeta) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia and the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-09-18

    Five species of Pectinariidae have previously been reported from Australia. This study documents the first records of this family from the Lizard Island region: Pectinaria antipoda is recorded, in addition to its already currently wide Australian distribution; two new species, Amphictene lizardensis n. sp. and Pectinaria carnosus n. sp. were also discovered and described. A key to all Australian species of Pectinariidae is provided.

  13. Reflections on Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes to Support Inclusion: Perspectives from New Zealand and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Sutherland, Dean; Lyons, Gordon; Macfarlane, Sonja; Foreman, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Positive changes to pre-service teacher education programmes (PSTEPs), driven in part by changing worldwide policy frameworks around inclusion, are occurring, albeit slowly. After briefly reviewing international trends and key policy and legislation platforms in New Zealand and Australia, this paper explores some of the challenges in enhancing…

  14. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  15. Widening Consumer Access to Medicines: A Comparison of Prescription to Non-Prescription Medicine Switch in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Natalie J.; Kelly, Fiona S.; Emmerton, Lynne M.; Buetow, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in ‘switching’ (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. Objectives To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. Methods We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000–2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher’s knowledge and experience. Results The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ (‘third-party switch’), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Conclusion Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch. PMID:25785589

  16. Successful VET Partnerships in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports findings of the first phase of a study conducted to investigate the factors that contribute to the success of partnerships between vocational education and training (VET) providers and community/industry, and the processes partnerships employ to produce quality learning outcomes for individuals and other stakeholders, including…

  17. English Examination Questions in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the analysis of subject English in a report written for the Commonwealth government entitled "Year 12 Curriculum Content and Achievement Standards" (CCAS). This report could not find "a core of common content (either topics or skills) in senior English (including Literature)". In the light of the diversity of English courses…

  18. Key Understandings in School Mathematics: 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of three articles that draw on findings from Nunes, Watson and Bryant (2009): "Key understandings in school mathematics: a report to the Nuffield Foundation". The report was soundly based on research about how children learn mathematics, much of it done in the UK in the '80s. Most of the findings about algebra are very…

  19. The LCOGT Supernova Key Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Dale Andrew; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano; LCOGT Supernova Key Project

    2016-06-01

    We highlight results from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Supernova Key Project -- a 3 year program to obtain lightcurves and spectra of approximately 500 low-redshift SNe. LCOGT is a robotic network of elevent one and two meter telescopes spaced around the globe. We are involved in a variety of surveys, including the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, LaSilla Quest, PESSTO, and KMTNet. Recent results include analysis of large samples of core-collaspe SNe, the largest sample of SNe Ibn, evidence of the progenitors of SNe Ia from companion shocking, and new findings about superluminious SNe.

  20. Mediated semiquantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawec, Walter O.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we design a quantum key distribution protocol, allowing two limited semiquantum or "classical" users to establish a shared secret key with the help of a fully quantum server. A semiquantum user can prepare and measure qubits only in the computational basis and so must rely on this quantum server to produce qubits in alternative bases and also to perform alternative measurements. However, we assume that the server is untrusted and we prove the unconditional security of our protocol even in the worst case: when this quantum server is an all-powerful adversary. We also compute a lower bound of the key rate of our protocol, in the asymptotic scenario, as a function of the observed error rate in the channel, allowing us to compute the maximally tolerated error of our protocol. Our results show that a semiquantum protocol may hold similar security to a fully quantum one.

  1. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  2. Novel measles virus genotype, East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chibo, Doris; Riddell, Michaela; Catton, Michael; Birch, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in 1999 in Queensland and Victoria, Australia, were caused by a novel strain of clade G virus (proposed name g3). Epidemiologic and molecular evidence supports independent circulation of this virus in Queensland, northern Australia, in addition to importation of the virus by East Timor refugees seeking safe haven in Australia. PMID:12095446

  3. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  4. Biodiversity in Australia: What, Where, and for How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panizzon, Debra; Boulton, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Australia's most serious environmental problem is the loss of biological diversity, or biodiversity. Australia harbors much of the world's species diversity and has remarkably high numbers of endemic species. Reviews current threats to biodiversity and efforts to protect and enhance it in Australia. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/ASK)

  5. Library Development: Australia. IATUL Proceedings Vol. 15, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the IATUL (International Association of Technological University Libraries) Proceedings focuses on developments in Australian libraries. The first article, "University Librarianship in Australia" (D. H. Borchardt), reviews the growth of librarianship in Australia and examines some current issues. "Information Retrieval in Australia"…

  6. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  7. Improving the Quality of Teaching in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Australia needs to more effectively attract, train, support, retain, recognize, and reward quality teachers throughout their careers. After a slow start and decades of debate, the pieces of the quality teaching puzzle are now coming together. Increased federal government intervention and financial support, along with state and territorial support…

  8. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  9. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  10. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  11. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  12. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities. PMID:11929136

  13. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  14. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  15. Teaching Educational Leadership and Administration in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard; Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of programmes in educational administration and leadership little is known about the resources used to teach them. This article reviews the sources currently employed in such programmes in Australia by examining the textbooks, book chapters and journal articles specified for 53 separate units (papers) offered at 15 of the key…

  16. Enterprise Training in Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Geoff; McIntyre, John; Sweet, Richard; McDonald, Rod; Noble, Charles; Smith, Andrew; Roberts, Paul

    In the second phase of a two-phase study, enterprise training in Australia was examined through case studies of training at 12 Australian enterprises in 2 sectors. The six finance and insurance enterprises and six retail enterprises studied were selected to obtain a sample that was representative from the standpoints of enterprise size and…

  17. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  18. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  19. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  20. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  1. New Focus for Space Research in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver

    Australia was the fourth nation to launch a spacecraft into orbit from its own territory, in 1967. Its second satellite followed 35 years later, when FedSat was launched in December 2002. Australia had and continues to have world experts in many areas of space science and technology. Several of these have participated in international missions, even sometimes with government support and funding to collaborate on designing and building an instrument for an international mission (e.g., AATSR on ESA's Envisat). Despite this Australia has no coordinated national space effort or dedicated funding for space research. Few linkages existed between Universities, Government units, and industry or across the field. This talk describes efforts to change this situation by developing the first Decadal Plan for Australian Space Science. The Plan's vision is "World-leading innovative space science and technology, strong domestic capability, and international collaborations that build Australia a long term, productive presence in Space". The talk describes the process and summarises the recommendations of the Australian space science community. These include creation of a national coordination committee (ACCSS), scientific themes and goals, and the science, education, and outreach projects necessary to accomplish them. The science projects involve ground-based assets, spacecraft missions, theory/modelling programs, and technology development and testing.

  2. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  3. Remote Access Laboratories in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments…

  4. GNSS Antenna Calibration Facility at Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. R.; Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    A GNSS antenna calibration facility has recently been established at Geoscience Australia. The facility includes a GEO++ robotic antenna calibration system, and an industrial robot (';KUKA'). Previous studies have highlighted the importance of accounting for the variation in antenna calibration due to the electromagnetic coupling between the antenna and monument. The reactive near-field effect has been reported to have the potential to produce a combination of a mean bias and change in periodic noise characteristics which then result in a velocity bias as well as a decrease in precision of coordinate estimates. Initially the priority of the calibration system will be to perform individual antenna calibrations for over 100 antennas purchased for high accuracy deformation surveys carried out in Western Australia, South Australia and south-east Australia. The principal aim of these deformation surveys is to detect intra-plate crustal deformation, where the magnitude of the signal is expected to be less than 1 mm/yr. The main role of the industrial robot is for research and development into GNSS algorithms and to further developments into antenna calibration. The industrial robot has a much higher payload capability of up to 60 kg. This makes it feasible to perform calibrations with a section of the monument still attached to the antenna, potentially providing a calibration which will better reflect the environment the signals are observed in. We will detail various experiments to be carried out on the industrial robot, and provide an update on the status and performance of the calibration facility.

  5. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  6. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  7. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  8. The Outlook for Training in Australia's Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This book, which is intended primarily for Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector, industry decision makers, and policymakers, provides an overview of occupational trends and the current training effort relating to occupations in Australian industry. Chapter 1 traces economic and labor market changes and the changing…

  9. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  10. Latest statistics on cardiovascular disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Waters, Anne-Marie; Trinh, Lany; Chau, Theresa; Bourchier, Michael; Moon, Lynelle

    2013-06-01

    The results presented herein summarize the most up-to-date cardiovascular statistics available at this time in Australia. The analysis presented here is based on and extends results published in two Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) reports, namely Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011 and the cardiovascular disease (CVD) section of Australia's Health 2012. Despite significant improvements in the cardiovascular health of Australians in recent decades, CVD continues to impose a heavy burden on Australians in terms of illness, disability and premature death. Direct health care expenditure for CVD exceeds that for any other disease group. The most recent national data have been analysed to describe patterns and trends in CVD hospitalization and death rates, with additional analysis by Indigenous status, remoteness and socioeconomic group. The incidence of and case-fatality from major coronary events has also been examined. Although CVD death rates have declined steadily in Australia since the late 1960s, CVD still accounts for a larger proportion of deaths (33% in 2009) than any other disease group. Worryingly, the rate at which the coronary heart disease death rate has been falling in recent years has slowed in younger (35-54 years) age groups. Between 1998-99 and 2009-10, the overall rate of hospitalizations for CVD fell by 13%, with declines observed for most major CVDs. In conclusion, CVD disease remains a significant health problem in Australia despite decreasing death and hospitalization rates. PMID:23517328

  11. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  12. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  13. An Environmentally Sustainable Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The future Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Queensland, Australia, is an example of how principles of environmentally sustainable design have translated into practice. Those responsible for the new project recognise the importance of building design that respects the environment by using resources efficiently and minimising pollution. The site's…

  14. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  15. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Toms, Cindy; Stapledon, Richard; Waring, Justin; Douglas, Paul

    2015-06-30

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,317 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2012 and 1,263 notifications in 2013. This represents a rate of 5.8 per 100,000 population in 2012 and 5.5 per 100,000 population in 2013 and a reversal of the upward trend in TB incidence reported since 2007. In 2012 and 2013, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications with an incidence rate of 19.5 per 100,000 and 18.4 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade; however, it remained reasonably steady in 2012 and 2013 with an incidence rate of 4.5 per 100,000 and 4.6 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.7 per 100,000 in 2012 and 0.8 per 100,000 in 2013. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug resistant TB cases nationally (2012: n=20; 2013: n=22) of which nearly all were identified in the overseas-born population. This report demonstrates excellent and sustained control of TB in Australia and reflects Australia's commitment to reducing the global burden of TB.

  16. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  17. A School Level Environment Study in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, John; Fisher, Darrell

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the reliability and validity of a school-environment measuring instrument: the School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ). Results were compared to teachers' and principals' perceptions of actual and ideal school environments. The questionnaire was sent to 60 schools throughout Australia where it…

  18. Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-06-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments carried out through RALs in Australia are heavily biased towards electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines. However, the experiments carried out through RALs in Europe had more variety, in addition to the traditional electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines, there were experiments in mechanical and mechatronic disciplines. It was found that RALs are now being developed aggressively in Australia and Europe and it can be argued that RALs will develop further and faster in the future with improving Internet technology. The rising costs of real experimental equipment will also speed up their development because by making the equipment remotely accessible, the cost can be shared by more universities or institutions and this will improve their cost-effectiveness. Their development would be particularly rapid in large countries with small populations such as Australia, Canada and Russia, because of the scale of economy. Reusability of software, interoperability in software implementation, computer supported collaborative learning and convergence with learning management systems are the required development of future RALs.

  19. The Development of Key Training Policies in England and Australia: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Public policies on training are firmly rooted in the historical, political, economic and social context of their countries. This paper explores the acceptability of such policies to stakeholder groups including learners and employers, and its impact on policy take-up, viability and longevity. The paper uses a comparative analysis of developments…

  20. Rapid Increase in Pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D.; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008–2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (prn). Multiple mechanisms of prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure. PMID:24655754

  1. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource. PMID:26255373

  2. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource.

  3. Cryptographic Key Management System

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  4. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia.

  5. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia. PMID:25935206

  6. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25 years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30 years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25 years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25 years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25 years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in

  7. Diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder: a survey of health professionals in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren J; Eapen, Valsamma; Maybery, Murray T; Midford, Sue; Paynter, Jessica; Quarmby, Lyndsay; Smith, Timothy; Williams, Katrina; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is currently no agreed Australian standard for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) even though there are specific diagnostic services available. We suspected inconsistency in the diagnostic practices of health professionals in Australia and aimed to assess these practices across the nation by surveying all relevant professional groups. Design In this study, we completed a survey of 173 health professionals whose clinical practice includes participating in the diagnostic process for ASD in Australia. Participants completed an online questionnaire which included questions about their diagnostic setting, diagnostic practice and diagnostic outcomes in 2014–2015. Participants Participants covered a range of disciplines including paediatrics, psychiatry, psychology, speech pathology and occupational therapy. All states and territories of Australia were represented. Setting Participants came from a range of service settings which included hospitals, non-governmental organisations, publicly funded diagnostic services and private practice. Results There was variability in diagnostic practices for ASD in Australia. While some clinicians work within a multidisciplinary assessment team, others practice independently and rarely collaborate with other clinicians to make a diagnostic decision. Only half of the respondents reported that they include a standardised objective assessment tool such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in ASD assessments, and one-third indicated that they do not include measures of development, cognition and language in assessments where ASD is suspected. Conclusions Reported practice of some professionals in Australia may not be consistent with international best practice guidelines for ASD diagnosis. These findings highlight the need for a minimum national standard for ASD diagnosis throughout Australia that ensures best practice regardless of the type of setting in which the service is provided. PMID:27601502

  8. Holothuria (Selenkothuria) parvispinea n. sp. (Echinodermata, Hololthuroidea, Holothuriidae) with key to the sub-genus Selenkothuria.

    PubMed

    Massin, Claude

    2013-01-30

    Description of a new species from Australia, belonging to the subgenus Selenkothuria (Holothuria, Aspidochirotida). A dichotomous key of the thirteen valid species included in the subgenus is also given. The species H. perrieri Thandar, 1977 and H. spinea Cherbonnier, 1988 are considered as non valid.

  9. What Makes Community Engagement Effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED) Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE) was a key component of the ED Program’s initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team’s senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program’s approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program’s CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program’s approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1) enabling conditions; 2) leadership; 3) core commitments and guiding values; and 4) formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1) building the CE team; 2) integrating CE into management practices; 3) discerning the community of stakeholders; 4) establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5) socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders’ willingness to support the trials. Conclusions/Significance Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the

  10. The unexpected survival of an ancient lineage of anseriform birds into the Neogene of Australia: the youngest record of Presbyornithidae.

    PubMed

    De Pietri, Vanesa L; Scofield, R Paul; Zelenkov, Nikita; Boles, Walter E; Worthy, Trevor H

    2016-02-01

    Presbyornithids were the dominant birds in Palaeogene lacustrine assemblages, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, but are thought to have disappeared worldwide by the mid-Eocene. Now classified within Anseriformes (screamers, ducks, swans and geese), their relationships have long been obscured by their strange wader-like skeletal morphology. Reassessment of the late Oligocene South Australian material attributed to Wilaru tedfordi, long considered to be of a stone-curlew (Burhinidae, Charadriiformes), reveals that this taxon represents the first record of a presbyornithid in Australia. We also describe the larger Wilaru prideauxi sp. nov. from the early Miocene of South Australia, showing that presbyornithids survived in Australia at least until ca 22 Ma. Unlike on other continents, where presbyornithids were replaced by aquatic crown-group anatids (ducks, swans and geese), species of Wilaru lived alongside these waterfowl in Australia. The morphology of the tarsometatarsus of these species indicates that, contrary to other presbyornithids, they were predominantly terrestrial birds, which probably contributed to their long-term survival in Australia. The morphological similarity between species of Wilaru and the Eocene South American presbyornithid Telmabates antiquus supports our hypothesis of a Gondwanan radiation during the evolutionary history of the Presbyornithidae. Teviornis gobiensis from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia is here also reassessed and confirmed as a presbyornithid. These findings underscore the temporal continuance of Australia's vertebrates and provide a new context in which the phylogeny and evolutionary history of presbyornithids can be examined. PMID:26998335

  11. Corneal fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Flint, M; Limpus, C J; Patterson-Kane, J C; Murray, P J; Mills, P C

    2010-05-01

    Chelonid corneal fibropapillomatosis has not previously been recorded in Australian waters. During 2008, 724 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were examined in Queensland, Australia at two sites, Moreton Bay (n=155) and Shoalwater Bay (n=569), during annual monitoring. In the same calendar year, 63 turtles were submitted from various sites in southern Queensland for post-mortem examination at the University of Queensland. Four of the 787 animals (0.5%) were found to have corneal fibropapillomas of varying size, with similar gross and microscopical features to those reported in other parts of the world. Two animals with corneal fibropapillomas also had cutaneous fibropapillomas. Clinical assessment indicated that these lesions had detrimental effects on the vision of the turtles and therefore their potential ability to source food, avoid predators and interact with conspecifics. Importantly, these findings represent an emergence of this manifestation of fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtle populations in the southern Pacific Ocean.

  12. Clarifying Clinical Nurse Consultant work in Australia: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Cashin, Andrew; Stasa, Helen; Gullick, Janice; Conway, Rae; Cunich, Michelle; Buckley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Nurse Consultant role in Australia is an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Role (APRN). This role has been conceptualized from the discrete pillars of research, education, practice, system support and leadership, articulated in the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. This conceptualization has been manifested in job descriptions, workforce. planning and course design. This paper explored whether there was a more refined way of conceptualizing the unique 'value add' of the role. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was employed to explore the lived experience of the role. It was identified that the pillars of education, practice, leadership and research are interconnected and expressed in the system work of the Clinical Nurse Consultant. The findings have implications for education and workforce planning. PMID:26775527

  13. Does migration equalize regional unemployment rates? Evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Groenewold, N

    1997-01-01

    Whether inter-regional migration equilibrates regional economic performance is a question which has received considerable attention in recent literature. The author examines that question, focusing upon regional unemployment rates and real wages within the context of a 24-hour equation econometric model of the interaction between regional wages, regional unemployment, and inter-regional migration in Australia. Used to solve for steady-state values of wage and unemployment differences, the model determined that the steady state involves non-zero unemployment rate differences and non-zero wage differences. The model is also used to investigate the stability of the equilibrating mechanism and to simulate the effects upon unemployment, migration, and wage rates of a shock to employment growth. The main findings are that inter-regional equilibrating forces are slow and do not help equalize regional unemployment rates or wages. PMID:12295005

  14. Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Manfred; Brauer, Silke; Weiss, Gunter; Schiefenhövel, Wulf; Underhill, Peter A.; Stoneking, Mark

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the origins and relationships of Australian and Melanesian populations, 611 males from 18 populations from Australia, Melanesia, and eastern/southeastern Asia were typed for eight single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and seven short tandem-repeat loci on the Y chromosome. A unique haplotype, DYS390.1del/RPS4Y711T, was found at a frequency of 53%–69% in Australian populations, whereas the major haplotypes found in Melanesian populations (M4G/M5T/M9G and DYS390.3del/RPS4Y711T) are absent from the Australian populations. The Y-chromosome data thus indicate independent histories for Australians and Melanesians, a finding that is in agreement with evidence from mtDNA but that contradicts some analyses of autosomal loci, which show a close relationship between Australian and Melanesian (specifically, highland Papua New Guinean) populations. Since the Australian and New Guinean landmasses were connected when first colonized by humans ⩾50,000 years ago but separated some 8,000 years ago, a possible way to reconcile all the genetic data is to infer that the Y-chromosome and mtDNA results reflect the past 8,000 years of independent history for Australia and New Guinea, whereas the autosomal loci reflect the long preceding period of common origin and shared history. Two Y-chromosome haplotypes (M119C/M9G and M122C/M9G) that originated in eastern/southeastern Asia are present in coastal and island Melanesia but are rare or absent in both Australia and highland Papua New Guinea. This distribution, along with demographic analyses indicating that population expansions for both haplotypes began ∼4,000–6,000 years ago, suggests that these haplotypes were brought to Melanesia by the Austronesian expansion. Most of the populations in this study were previously typed for mtDNA SNPs; population differentiation is greater for the Y chromosome than for mtDNA and is significantly correlated with geographic distance, a finding in agreement with results of

  15. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. Methods The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. Results The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children’s health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children’s health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage. PMID:27152596

  16. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  17. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Lynne; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearman, John W.; Christiansen, Keryn; Grubb, Warren B.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals. PMID:16318700

  19. Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. G.; Hudson, D.; Wheeler, M. C.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H. H.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    We assess the occurrence and probability of extreme heat over Australia in association with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which have previously been shown to be key drivers of intra-seasonal variations of Australian climate. In this study, extreme heat events are defined as occurring when weekly-mean maximum temperature anomalies exceed the 90th percentile. The observed probability of exceedance is reduced during the positive phase of the SAM and enhanced during the negative phase of the SAM over most of Australia. Persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea are described in terms of (1) split-flow blocking at 160°E and (2) high pressure systems located in the vicinity of the subtropical ridge (STRHs), about 10° north of the split-flow blocking region, for which we devise a simple index. Split-flow blocks and STRHs have contrasting impacts on the occurrence of extreme heat over Australia, with STRHs showing enhanced probability of upper decile heat events over southern Australia in all seasons. The observed probability of an upper decile heat event varies according to MJO phase and time of year, with the greatest impact of the MJO on extreme heat occurring over southern Australia (including the Mallee agricultural region) in spring during phases 2-3. We show that this modulation of the probability of extreme heat by the SAM, persistent anticyclones over the Tasman Sea, and the MJO is well simulated in the Bureau of Meteorology dynamical intra-seasonal/seasonal forecast model POAMA-2 at lead times of 2-3 weeks. We further show that predictability of heat extremes increases in association with the negative SAM phase, STRH and MJO, thus providing a basis for skilful intra-seasonal prediction of heat extremes.

  20. Malaria transmission and climate change in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J H; Foley, D H; Sutherst, R W

    1996-03-18

    Although endemic malaria was eradicated from Australia by 1981, the vectors remain and transmission from imported cases still occurs. Climate modelling shows that global warming will enlarge the potential range of the main vector, Anopheles farauti sensu stricto; by the year 2030 it could extend along the Queensland coast to Gladstone, 800 km south of its present limit. Vigilance and a dispassionate assessment of risk are needed to meet this challenge.

  1. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Downard, Kevin M; de Laeter, John R

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. Peter Jeffery's establishment of geochronological dating techniques in Western Australia in the early 1950s led to the establishment of geochronology research both at the Australian National University and at what is now the Curtin Institute of Technology in the 1960s. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. An article such as this can never be complete. It instead focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important

  2. Status of women in physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Up to 2006 there was some improvement for women in physics in Australia; since then there has been a decline. Women are underrepresented in all aspects of physics education and work, including school, university, and research laboratories. In addition, women physicists usually have lower seniority and earn less. This scenario is compounded by recent inactivity of the Australian Institute of Physics women's group since December 2010.

  3. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  4. Adolescent school-based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Bachelor, Michael; Bryant, Vicki; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue; Newbound, Angela; Scully, Megan; Webby, Rosalind; McIntyre, Peter B

    2013-06-30

    Adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination in Australia and other developed countries. Over the past decade, voluntary school-based vaccination programs have evolved to become the primary method of delivering adolescent vaccines funded under Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP). These programs operate at a state and territory level and offer NIP vaccines to adolescents in specific school grades using local teams of trained vaccine providers. This paper summarises the current operation of voluntary school-based vaccination programs in Australia. Information was obtained through a literature review, semi-structured interviews with those managing and implementing school-based vaccination programs in each jurisdiction and a review of program resources. Available coverage data was obtained from each state or territory. Vaccines are delivered at the school, during school hours, and typically target late primary or early secondary school grades. Written parental consent is required for any vaccine to be administered. Operation of the programs is influenced by various factors at the school and provider level. Despite variability in program implementation, collection and analysis of coverage data, comparable coverage has been achieved across all states and territories. Coverage is higher than that reported by other countries where adolescent vaccines are mandated for school entry or available only through community vaccination providers. Voluntary school-based vaccination programs are an established mechanism for the delivery of adolescent vaccines in Australia and vaccines offered will continue to evolve in light of national recommendations. Current gaps in evidence include a detailed understanding of the influence of procedural factors on uptake, the best ways to maximise consent form return and, standardisation of coverage data reporting.

  5. General practice education in Australia. Current issues.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim; Heard, Sam

    2004-05-01

    General practice education is rapidly changing. Medical students now have exposure to general practice at most year levels, vocational training has been opened to competition, and continuing professional development is a mandatory requirement for maintenance of Health Insurance Commission recognition, and increasingly for state registration. This article outlines the foundations for, and challenge to, building a framework for quality general practice education in Australia. PMID:15227866

  6. Promoting private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Willcox, S

    2001-01-01

    Health insurance policy in Australia has been distinguished by considerable instability over the past five years. This paper reviews the rationale and emerging evidence on three major policy initiatives--a move to allow selective contracting, the introduction of a 30 percent government subsidy for private health insurance, and the abolition of pure community rating. Policy making on private health insurance has been characterized by insufficient attention to research that might provide a stronger evidence basis for policy reforms.

  7. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control.

  8. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  9. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control. PMID:22921953

  10. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  11. Managed entry agreements for pharmaceuticals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Agnes; Roughead, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, a number of managed entry agreements have been developed to enable national coverage of new medicines. Non-outcome based agreements are usually pricing arrangements that involve price or volume rebate agreements. In February 2013, there were at least 71 special pricing arrangements in place, including 26 for medicines restricted to use in hospitals. Health outcome based agreements can be made at the individual or population level. At the individual level, there were 28 medicines funded subject to continuation rules involving documentation of adequate benefit within the individual; some of these medicines also had price agreements in place. At the population level, only one outcome-based agreement has been implemented so far, for bosentan, a medicine marketed for pulmonary hypertension. In May 2010, a memorandum of understanding signed between the Australian Government and Medicines Australia, the peak pharmaceutical industry organisation, included the possibility for industry to request consideration of a 'Managed Entry Scheme' as part of the funding submission process for medicines with high clinical needs. It includes the possibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT)-based entry scheme. Although this form of managed entry has yet not been trialed in Australia, several 2012/2013 funding recommendations included requests by the decision making committee for further evidence development.

  12. Cannabis policy in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Abel, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes and compares current developments in policies to deal with cannabis in Australia and New Zealand. Both countries are bound by international conventions to control cannabis and in each case cannabis use, possession, cultivation and supply is illegal. In both countries almost all the supply is grown locally and patterns of use and health concerns appear to be similar. Strategies used to deal with cannabis include: demand reduction through enforcement of legislation, drug education and treatment; supply reduction through enforcement of legislation and crop recovery operations; and harm reduction through diversion of some offenders from the courts system, lenient enforcement policies for users and, in Australia, the formal decriminalization of cannabis use in two states/territories and de facto decriminalization in another. Australia has had a co-ordinated national drugs policy with a stated harm reduction focus for over a decade, while in New Zealand efforts to co-ordinate policy have been delayed by ongoing debates about cannabis's harm potential and what constitutes an appropriate approach. However, a national drugs policy with a professed harm reduction focus is currently being finalized. Despite these developments, government cut-backs and international and local prohibitionist influences on policy in both countries suggest that a harm reduction model may not necessarily be secure. PMID:16203457

  13. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena) from Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Miglio, Laura Tavares; Harms, Danilo; Framenau, Volker Wilhelm; Harvey, Mark Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae) are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n.(from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions), Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon), Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara) and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee) represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology. PMID:24899853

  14. Revolution then evolution: the advance of health economic evaluation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    All governments face immense challenges in providing affordable healthcare for their citizens, and the diffusion of novel health technologies is a key driver of growth in expenditure for many. Although important methodological and process variations exist around the world, health economic evaluation is increasingly seen as an important tool to support decision-making around the introduction of new health technologies, interventions and programmes in countries of varying stages of economic development. In Australia, the assessment of the comparative cost-effectiveness of new medicines proposed for subsidy under the country's national drug subsidy programme, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, was introduced in the late 1980s and became mandatory in 1993, making Australia the first country to introduce such a requirement nationally. Since then the use of health economic evaluation has expanded and been applied to support decision-making across a broader range of health technologies, as well as to programmes in public health.

  15. Two new high altitude genera of Camiarini (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Camiarinae) from Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Seago, Ainsley E; Leschen, Richard A B; Newton, Alfred F

    2015-01-01

    Two new leiodid genera and species, Camisolus ptinoides gen. nov., sp. nov. and Camiarodes nunni gen. nov., sp. nov. are described from southeastern Australia and New Zealand, respectively. Each new species is placed within its own genus on the basis of morphological uniqueness within Camiarini (Camiarinae) based on the presence of an enlarged maxillary palpomere 4 and metanepisternum with a lateral, tongue-like process that overlaps the elytron in repose. A key to the described genera is provided for world Camiarini. The tribe, new to Australia, is otherwise known only from New Zealand (six genera including one new) and southern South America (one genus). Both new genera are found exclusively in high altitude areas. PMID:26249077

  16. New genetic and linguistic analyses show ancient human influence on baobab evolution and distribution in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Haripriya; Bell, Karen L; Baum, David A; Fowler, Rachael; McConvell, Patrick; Saunders, Thomas; Spronck, Stef; Kull, Christian A; Murphy, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of human agency in the gene flow and geographical distribution of the Australian baobab, Adansonia gregorii. The genus Adansonia is a charismatic tree endemic to Africa, Madagascar, and northwest Australia that has long been valued by humans for its multiple uses. The distribution of genetic variation in baobabs in Africa has been partially attributed to human-mediated dispersal over millennia, but this relationship has never been investigated for the Australian species. We combined genetic and linguistic data to analyse geographic patterns of gene flow and movement of word-forms for A. gregorii in the Aboriginal languages of northwest Australia. Comprehensive assessment of genetic diversity showed weak geographic structure and high gene flow. Of potential dispersal vectors, humans were identified as most likely to have enabled gene flow across biogeographic barriers in northwest Australia. Genetic-linguistic analysis demonstrated congruence of gene flow patterns and directional movement of Aboriginal loanwords for A. gregorii. These findings, along with previous archaeobotanical evidence from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, suggest that ancient humans significantly influenced the geographic distribution of Adansonia in northwest Australia.

  17. New genetic and linguistic analyses show ancient human influence on baobab evolution and distribution in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Haripriya; Bell, Karen L; Baum, David A; Fowler, Rachael; McConvell, Patrick; Saunders, Thomas; Spronck, Stef; Kull, Christian A; Murphy, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of human agency in the gene flow and geographical distribution of the Australian baobab, Adansonia gregorii. The genus Adansonia is a charismatic tree endemic to Africa, Madagascar, and northwest Australia that has long been valued by humans for its multiple uses. The distribution of genetic variation in baobabs in Africa has been partially attributed to human-mediated dispersal over millennia, but this relationship has never been investigated for the Australian species. We combined genetic and linguistic data to analyse geographic patterns of gene flow and movement of word-forms for A. gregorii in the Aboriginal languages of northwest Australia. Comprehensive assessment of genetic diversity showed weak geographic structure and high gene flow. Of potential dispersal vectors, humans were identified as most likely to have enabled gene flow across biogeographic barriers in northwest Australia. Genetic-linguistic analysis demonstrated congruence of gene flow patterns and directional movement of Aboriginal loanwords for A. gregorii. These findings, along with previous archaeobotanical evidence from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, suggest that ancient humans significantly influenced the geographic distribution of Adansonia in northwest Australia. PMID:25830225

  18. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  19. Science Engagement and Literacy: A retrospective analysis for students in Canada and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Colette Oliver, Mary; McConney, Andrew; Schibeci, Renato; Maor, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    Given international concerns about students' pursuit (or more correctly, non-pursuit) of courses and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, this study is about achieving a better understanding of factors related to high school students' engagement in science. The study builds on previous secondary analyses of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) datasets for New Zealand and Australia. For the current study, we compared patterns of science engagement and science literacy for male and female students in Canada and Australia. The study's secondary analysis revealed that for all PISA measures included under the conceptual umbrella of engagement in science (i.e. interest, enjoyment, valuing, self-efficacy, self-concept and motivation), 15-year-old students in Australia lagged their Canadian counterparts to varying, albeit modest, degrees. Our retrospective analysis further shows, however, that gender equity in science engagement and science literacy is evident in both Canadian and Australian contexts. Additionally, and consistent with our previous findings for indigenous and non-indigenous students in New Zealand and Australia, we found that for male and female students in both countries, the factor most strongly associated with variations in engagement in science was the extent to which students participate in science activities outside of school. In contrast, and again for both Canadian and Australian students, the factors most strongly associated with science literacy were students' socioeconomic backgrounds, and the amount of formal time spent doing science. The implications of these results for science educators and researchers are discussed.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    PubMed Central

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  1. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  2. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2013-01-29

    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find an ancient association between Australia, New Guinea, and the Mamanwa (a Negrito group from the Philippines), with divergence times for these groups estimated at 36,000 y ago, and supporting the view that these populations represent the descendants of an early "southern route" migration out of Africa, whereas other populations in the region arrived later by a separate dispersal. We also detect a signal indicative of substantial gene flow between the Indian populations and Australia well before European contact, contrary to the prevailing view that there was no contact between Australia and the rest of the world. We estimate this gene flow to have occurred during the Holocene, 4,230 y ago. This is also approximately when changes in tool technology, food processing, and the dingo appear in the Australian archaeological record, suggesting that these may be related to the migration from India. PMID:23319617

  3. New Genetic and Linguistic Analyses Show Ancient Human Influence on Baobab Evolution and Distribution in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Haripriya; Bell, Karen L.; Baum, David A.; Fowler, Rachael; McConvell, Patrick; Saunders, Thomas; Spronck, Stef; Kull, Christian A.; Murphy, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of human agency in the gene flow and geographical distribution of the Australian baobab, Adansonia gregorii. The genus Adansonia is a charismatic tree endemic to Africa, Madagascar, and northwest Australia that has long been valued by humans for its multiple uses. The distribution of genetic variation in baobabs in Africa has been partially attributed to human-mediated dispersal over millennia, but this relationship has never been investigated for the Australian species. We combined genetic and linguistic data to analyse geographic patterns of gene flow and movement of word-forms for A. gregorii in the Aboriginal languages of northwest Australia. Comprehensive assessment of genetic diversity showed weak geographic structure and high gene flow. Of potential dispersal vectors, humans were identified as most likely to have enabled gene flow across biogeographic barriers in northwest Australia. Genetic-linguistic analysis demonstrated congruence of gene flow patterns and directional movement of Aboriginal loanwords for A. gregorii. These findings, along with previous archaeobotanical evidence from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, suggest that ancient humans significantly influenced the geographic distribution of Adansonia in northwest Australia. PMID:25830225

  4. Finding Color in Conformity: A Commentary on Culturally Specific Risk Factors for Violence in Australia.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Stephane M

    2015-11-01

    This article outlines the current utility of Indigenous culturally specific risk factors for violence and the ramifications for cross-cultural risk prediction. The Indigenous culturally specific violence risk factor literature has provided a rich body of contextual information outlining Indigenous patterns of criminal behaviour. This information has the capacity to facilitate offender responsivity and treatment targets in addition to assisting clinicians identify the presence of risk markers among Indigenous clients. However, if intended for inclusion in risk prediction models, culturally specific risk items then require further quantitative analysis to establish robust associations and probability estimates for recidivistic outcome.

  5. Mental health research and evaluation in multicultural Australia: developing a culture of inclusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cultural and linguistic diversity is a core feature of the Australian population and a valued element of national identity. The proportion of the population that will be overseas-born is projected to be 32% by 2050. While a very active process of mental health system reform has been occurring for more than two decades - at national and state and territory levels - the challenges presented by cultural and linguistic diversity have not been effectively met. A key area in which this is particularly an issue is in the collection, analysis and reporting of mental health data that reflect the reality of population diversity. The purpose of this study was to examine: what is known about the mental health of immigrant and refugee communities in Australia; whether Australian mental health research pays adequate attention to the fact of cultural and linguistic diversity in the Australian population; and whether national mental health data collections support evidence-informed mental health policy and practice and mental health reform in multicultural Australia. Methods The study consisted of three components – a brief review of what is known about mental health in, and mental health service use by, immigrant and refugee communities; an examination of national data collections to determine the extent to which relevant cultural variables are included in the collections; and an examination of Australian research to determine the extent to which immigrant and refugee communities are included as participants in such research. Results The review of Australian research on mental health of immigrant and refugee communities and their patterns of mental health service use generated findings that are highly variable. The work is fragmented and usually small-scale. There are multiple studies of some immigrant and refugee communities and there are no studies of others. Although there is a broadly consistent pattern of lower rates of utilisation of specialist public mental

  6. The shifting influence of drought and heat stress for crops in northeast Australia.

    PubMed

    Lobell, David B; Hammer, Graeme L; Chenu, Karine; Zheng, Bangyou; McLean, Greg; Chapman, Scott C

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of drought environment types (ETs) has proven useful for breeding crops for drought-prone regions. Here, we consider how changes in climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations will affect drought ET frequencies in sorghum and wheat systems of northeast Australia. We also modify APSIM (the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) to incorporate extreme heat effects on grain number and weight, and then evaluate changes in the occurrence of heat-induced yield losses of more than 10%, as well as the co-occurrence of drought and heat. More than six million simulations spanning representative locations, soil types, management systems, and 33 climate projections led to three key findings. First, the projected frequency of drought decreased slightly for most climate projections for both sorghum and wheat, but for different reasons. In sorghum, warming exacerbated drought stresses by raising the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit and reducing transpiration efficiency (TE), but an increase in TE due to elevated CO2 more than offset these effects. In wheat, warming reduced drought stress during spring by hastening development through winter and reducing exposure to terminal drought. Elevated CO2 increased TE but also raised radiation-use efficiency and overall growth rates and water use, thereby offsetting much of the drought reduction from warming. Second, adding explicit effects of heat on grain number and grain size often switched projected yield impacts from positive to negative. Finally, although average yield losses associated with drought will remain generally higher than that for heat stress for the next half century, the relative importance of heat is steadily growing. This trend, as well as the likely high degree of genetic variability in heat tolerance, suggests that more emphasis on heat tolerance is warranted in breeding programs. At the same time, work on drought tolerance should continue with an emphasis on drought that co

  7. The shifting influence of drought and heat stress for crops in northeast Australia.

    PubMed

    Lobell, David B; Hammer, Graeme L; Chenu, Karine; Zheng, Bangyou; McLean, Greg; Chapman, Scott C

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of drought environment types (ETs) has proven useful for breeding crops for drought-prone regions. Here, we consider how changes in climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations will affect drought ET frequencies in sorghum and wheat systems of northeast Australia. We also modify APSIM (the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) to incorporate extreme heat effects on grain number and weight, and then evaluate changes in the occurrence of heat-induced yield losses of more than 10%, as well as the co-occurrence of drought and heat. More than six million simulations spanning representative locations, soil types, management systems, and 33 climate projections led to three key findings. First, the projected frequency of drought decreased slightly for most climate projections for both sorghum and wheat, but for different reasons. In sorghum, warming exacerbated drought stresses by raising the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit and reducing transpiration efficiency (TE), but an increase in TE due to elevated CO2 more than offset these effects. In wheat, warming reduced drought stress during spring by hastening development through winter and reducing exposure to terminal drought. Elevated CO2 increased TE but also raised radiation-use efficiency and overall growth rates and water use, thereby offsetting much of the drought reduction from warming. Second, adding explicit effects of heat on grain number and grain size often switched projected yield impacts from positive to negative. Finally, although average yield losses associated with drought will remain generally higher than that for heat stress for the next half century, the relative importance of heat is steadily growing. This trend, as well as the likely high degree of genetic variability in heat tolerance, suggests that more emphasis on heat tolerance is warranted in breeding programs. At the same time, work on drought tolerance should continue with an emphasis on drought that co

  8. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  9. Nutrition labelling: perspectives of a bi-national agency for Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Curran, Margaret A

    2002-01-01

    Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) is a bi-national government agency forming a partnership between all of Australia's States and Territories and the New Zealand government. Australia New Zealand Food Authority employs scientific, legal policy, communication and administrative staff in our Australia and New Zealand offices. Prior to 1991 each of Australia's States and Territories had their own food standards; however, in 1991 Commonwealth legislation was introduced to consolidate responsibility for developing food standards in one specialist agency and to ensure the uniformity of Standards across all States and Territories in Australia. This was extended to New Zealand in 1995 when we became a bi-national agency following the signing of a Treaty between Australia and New Zealand to develop joint food standards for both countries. Australia New Zealand Food Authority's objectives in setting food standards are to: protect public health and safety; provide adequate information to enable consumers to make informed choices; and prevent misleading or deceptive conduct. Health Ministers have recently approved a new Joint Food Standards Code for Australia and New Zealand. This is the result of over 6 year's work and many rounds of public consultation. The new Code has had extensive input from government agencies, industry and consumers. In drafting the new code our emphasis has been on making decisions based on sound science and the most up-to-date information available. We also recognized the need for Standards to be practical in not imposing unnecessary costs on food manufacturers with an inevitable flow on effect to consumer prices. The Joint Code will replace both the existing Australian Food Standards Code and the New Zealand Food Regulations after a 2-year transition period. During the development of the Joint Code a wide range of matters were considered in relation to labelling. Amongst these were consumer needs, costs to industry, voluntary versus

  10. Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing infection rates, Clostridium difficile is not currently routinely tested for in all diarrhoeal faecal specimens in Australia. In July 2014, all diarrhoeal specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Western Australia were surveyed to determine the true prevalence of C. difficile. In total, 1010 diarrhoeal non-duplicate faecal specimens were received during the month. Testing for C. difficile was requested, or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were met, for 678 specimens which were investigated by PCR for the tcdB gene using the BD MAX platform, followed by toxigenic culture on PCR-positive samples. The remaining 332 specimens, with either no C. difficile test request or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were not met, were examined by toxigenic culture. All isolates were PCR ribotyped. C. difficile was the most commonly detected diarrhoeal pathogen among all specimens. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in all 1010 specimens was 6.4%; 7.2% in the routinely tested group, and 4.8% in the non-requested group. The proportion of non-requested positive detections among all cases was 24.6%. Community-onset infection was present in 50.8% of all cases. The median age of all CDI cases was 60.0 years and the age range in CDI patients in the routine group was 0.6-96.6 years (median 72.7 years), compared to 0.2-2.3 years (median 0.8 years) in the non-requested group. The most common ribotype (RT) found was RT 014/020 (34.1% in the routine group, 43.8% in the non-requested group), followed by RTs 002, 056, 005 and 018. While the routine testing group and the non-requested group differed markedly in age and patient classification, C. difficile was the most common cause of diarrhoea in hospitals and the community in Western Australia. The significance of finding C. difficile in the community paediatric population requires further study.

  11. Information issues for providers of services to people with dementia living in the community in Australia: breaking the cycle of frustration.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew; Emden, Carolyn; Lea, Emma; Elder, Jean; Turner, Paul; Vickers, James

    2009-03-01

    The rising prevalence of dementia and concomitant demands upon dementia services are global issues. In Australia, dementia has attained national health priority status and governments at all levels have implemented service strategies to help manage the complex lives of people with dementia. Despite recognition that information is pivotal to effective dementia service delivery, little is known about the information needs of individual providers and the processes used to transfer information between providers. This qualitative study scoped information issues for key service providers for people with dementia living in the community in southern Tasmania, Australia, including information needs, availability, and transfer. Eleven focus groups were held with general practitioners, residential aged care facility staff, home carers, community health nurses, and aged care-assessment team members. Findings revealed that provider groups shared common, albeit unbeknown to them, information needs (e.g. diagnosis, behaviours, and services) and information concerns (e.g. untrustworthy information and poor information transfer) leading to poor service coordination. General practitioners emerged as a stand-out group with markedly fewer needs and concerns than other providers, a finding of special interest given their pivotal role in dementia diagnosis and referral. Participants were adamant in their view that electronic data bases and single points of entry to dementia services would improve service provision and should be developed. The research highlights complexities and associated frustrations of information transferability, accessibility, and trustworthiness for dementia service providers in the community. Increased understanding of providers' diverse yet interdependent roles could, we believe, play an important part in breaking the cycle of frustration experienced by all participants and thus contribute to system reform.

  12. Working towards a national health information system in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bomba, B; Cooper, J; Miller, M

    1995-01-01

    trends and in applying IT to the efficient collection of data for the development of more appropriate performance measures and statistical indicators. A coherent and integrated approach is called for in the design of a national health information system which incorporates the necessary and requisite security features to meet privacy concerns. Protecting information privacy poses complex political, economic, technological, legal and social problems for systems developers and health care providers alike [2]. According to Brannigan [3] there are three components involved in the formulation and implementation of privacy: public policy (What level of privacy does society want?); legal structure (Does the law adequately provide for society's privacy requirements?); and technical (how much privacy can technical tools provide, at what cost, and with what effects on the system?). Examining technical tools alone, it is apparent that the necessary technologies are available in Australia to provide the security of medical records required by public policy. Such tools may include encryption, user and data authentication methods, authorisation schemes and mechanisms for the prevention of data inference. While none of these available measures are infallible, it is suitable for most applications where the encryption mechanism can provide protection for a given length of time. Australia needs to develop a coherent national health information infrastructure policy to ultimately avoid fragmented, duplicated and incompatible systems that rely on different standards and protocols. Such a policy will only work by addressing the key issue of patient privacy within a technological framework. The application of IT to health care systems is a sensitive social experiment affecting many professions including general practitioners, medical administrators, politicians, lawyers, computer specialists, privacy advocates and patients whose records will ultimately reside in the system. (abstract trun

  13. Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network The Australian government has announced plans to increase the nation's network of marine reserves from 27 to 60, bringing the total size of the network to 3.1 million square kilometers, Australia's environment minister Tony Burke said on 14 June. The expansion, which would place more than one third of Australia's waters under protection, requires a 60-day consultation before it can become law.

  14. From Vision to Reality: Views of Primary School Principals on Inclusive Education in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research study that used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of primary school principals on inclusive education in New South Wales, Australia. Content analysis of the transcript data indicates that principals' attitudes towards inclusive education and their success in engineering inclusive…

  15. Inter-Organizational Trust in EDI Adoption: The Case of Ford Motor Company and PBR Limited in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingam, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    This study examines behavioral dimensions of trading partner trust in EDI (electronic data interchange) adoption via a qualitative interpretative case study conducted between an automotive manufacturer (Ford Motor Company) in Australia and their first tier supplier, PBR Limited. Findings suggest that trust is important for cooperative long-term…

  16. The Resource-Infrastructure-Environment Index for Measuring Progress: An Application to Australia, Mexico and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Riccardo; Zuhair, Segu

    2013-01-01

    The resource-infrastructure-environment (RIE) index was proposed as an alternative measure of progress which was then employed to: (1) compare the aggregate (single summary) index findings between Australia (mid-industrialised nation), Mexico (emerging economy), and the US (highly industrialised nation); and (2) compare the RIE index against the…

  17. Effective Delivery Methodologies for Education and Training to Rural Australia. Report to the Tasmanian Rural Industry Training Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    A project examined effective methods of delivering education and training to the residents of rural Australia through a literature review and five interview case studies of formal and nonformal training. Findings with regard to access were as follows: potential participants must be aware that the program exists and is for them; the program must be…

  18. An Analysis of the Environment as a Means of Assessing Training Needs in the Insurance Industry in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Tom; Jackling, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    In the five years leading up to 2002 there were many significant changes in the insurance industry in Australia that brought about a range of training needs. These training needs arose from matters as diverse as mergers, increased competition, corporate failures, and legislative changes. This study includes findings from a survey of the insurance…

  19. Motivation and Engagement in the "Asian Century": A Comparison of Chinese Students in Australia, Hong Kong, and Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, A. J.; Yu, Kai; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated multidimensional motivation and engagement among Chinese middle school students in Australia (N?=?273), Hong Kong (N?=?528), and Mainland China (N?=?2106; randomly selected N?=?528). Findings showed that a multidimensional model of motivation and engagement fit very well for all three groups. Multi-group invariance…

  20. Improving Australia's Schools. Executive Summary of "Making Schools More Effective: Report of the Australian Effective Schools Project".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Barry; And Others

    This booklet summarizes findings of a study, the Effective Schools Project, which sought to promote public discussion about improving educational quality in Australia. Questionnaires that were distributed with 300,000 booklets elicited a total of 7,203 responses from principals, parents, staff, and schools. Respondents were asked to identify the…