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Sample records for australia valitsuse kummuli

  1. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  2. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  3. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  4. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  5. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  6. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  7. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter ... lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the ...

  8. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  9. Australia's Political Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawer, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)

  10. Information Activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeyoshi

    The last few years have seen an explosive growth in database and computer networking activities in Australia. At present there are six major information networks in Australia, which carry more than 400 locally produced databases and many others from overseas. AUSINET databases are exemplified. MIDAS (Multi-mode International Data Aquisition System) provides lower cost access to overseas databases than before. The paper also gives brief outline of various bodies which relate to information and library policy in Australia and regional cooperative activities.

  11. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  12. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  13. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  14. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  15. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  16. Healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  17. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  18. Australia in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  19. Library Automation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  20. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  1. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  2. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  3. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  4. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  5. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  6. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  7. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  8. Planning Australia's hospital workforce.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mary; Gavel, Paul; Conn, Warwick

    2002-01-01

    Growing government support has been evident during the past decade for macro-level workforce planning to ensure that future populations have access to appropriate health care services. Population ageing is impacting on workforce requirements and on workforce supply within Australia and internationally. Changes in financing and the organisation of health services are impacting on the availability of training and on the quality of working life. The age and gender profile and career expectations of young Australians are changing. These factors are all adding to the importance and complexity of workforce planning. This paper draws on data from various sources to describe Australia's hospital workforce, to explore supply-side workforce trends and to discuss some contemporary issues of concern to policy makers and workforce planners. The paper finds that in recent years there has been a 3 per cent decline in the number of full time equivalent staff in public hospitals, while the number in the private hospital workforce has increased by 28 per cent. The paper concludes that, nationally, there are serious limitations in the data available to describe and monitor the hospital workforce and that there is a need to remedy this situation.

  9. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  10. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  11. Migrant women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Misztal, B A

    1991-01-01

    The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...."

  12. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  15. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  16. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  17. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  18. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  19. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef of Queensland, Australia extends for roughly 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and is made up of thousands of individual reefs which define the edge of the Continental shelf. Swan Reef, the southern part of the reef system, is seen in this view. Water depths around the reefs are quite shallow (less than 1 to 36 meters) but only a few kilometers offshore, water depths can reach 1,000 meters.

  20. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them. PMID:25015592

  1. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  2. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  3. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  4. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  5. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

  6. Australia Viewed by NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This multispectral map of Australia and surrounding seas was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer shortly after closest approach on Dec. 8, 1990 from an altitude of about 50,000 miles. The image shows various ocean, land and atmospheric cloud features as they appear in three of the 408 infrared colors or wavelengths sensed by the instrument. The wavelength of 0.873 micron, represented as blue in the photo, shows regions of enhanced liquid water absorption, i.e. the Pacific and Indian oceans. The 0.984- micron band, represented as red, shows areas of enhanced ground reflection as on the Australian continent. This wavelength is also sensitive to the reflectivity of relatively thick clouds. The 0.939- micron wavelength, shown as green, is a strong water-vapor-absorbing band, and is used to accentuate clouds lying above the strongly absorbing lower atmosphere. When mixed with the red indicator of cloud reflection, the green produces a yellowish hue; this indicates thick clouds. The distinctive purplish color off the northeast coast marks the unusually shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. Here the blue denoting water absorption combines with the red denoting reflection from coral and surface marine organisms to produce this unusual color. The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft is a combined mapping (imaging) and spectral instrument. It can sense 408 contiguous wavelengths from 0.7 micron (deep red) to 5.2 microns, and can construct a map or image by mechanical scanning. It can spectroscopically analyze atmospheres and surfaces and construct thermal and chemical maps.

  7. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.

  8. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  9. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-01

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia. PMID:24168089

  10. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  11. Australia: the coming of age.

    PubMed

    Kelley, A C

    1988-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Australia and their implications are assessed. The author concludes that "Australia faces a relatively favourable demographic future: ageing is proceeding at a slower pace here, the pattern of the labour force ageing is conducive to restructuring in the intermediate future, and a well-established immigration policy can be used to accommodate demographics with social and economic goals. The financing of social services for the aged will produce fewer concerns here partly because of less immediate demographic pressures and partly because of the orientation of the age-pension system." PMID:12233479

  12. British atomic tests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Suter, K

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom and Australia have reached agreement on the British payment for cleaning up the Maralinga (South Australia) site at which the UK tested some of its atomic weapons in the 1960s. The tests were conducted amid great secrecy and only in recent years has the truth about the health hazards fully emerged. The peace movement opposed the tests and its stand has been vindicated. Also vindicated have been the claims by Aborigines that more damage was done by the tests than was earlier admitted.

  13. Clavadoce (Annelida: Phyllodocidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin S; Greaves, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The first records of the phyllodocid genus Clavadoce are provided from Australia, where the fifth species in the genus is now known: Clavadoce dorsolobata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1987) comb. nov. which is widely distributed in intertidal habitats in southeastern Australia. Clavadoce dorsolobata was described as Eumida (Sige) dorsolobata Hartmann-Schröder, 1987 and herein transferred to Clavadoce. Five species of Clavadoce are now known world wide, four of which are from different regions on the Pacific Ocean margin, while Clavadoce cristata is from the North Atlantic. The Australian species is the first record of Clavadoce for the southern hemisphere. PMID:27395480

  14. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  15. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  16. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  17. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  18. Improving Reading in Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Hayes, Peter; Coutts, James

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, six teachers established a program of literacy intervention and professional learning in remote northwestern Australia based on the Reading Recovery principles. This group of teachers was determined to learn what had to happen in order for them to make a difference with students and then to make it happen. Their work led to getting…

  19. Demography of Muslims in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origins and size of the Muslim population in Australia, at present about 1% of the total population. Their age distribution is younger and their sociodemographic characteristics are different from those of the rest of the Australian population. PMID:2298763

  20. Early College Entrance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2015-01-01

    Early college entry is an educational intervention that is being increasingly used in Australia. Following a review of the current Australian literature on early college entry, an overview is provided of the characteristics of, and the procedures associated with, one formal Australian early college entry program (the Early Admission for…

  1. Women and Literacy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Helen; Agostinelli, Jacinta

    The experiences, attitudes, and needs of three literacy learners and one paid literacy teacher in Melbourne, Australia, were examined. The analysis was framed by the following principles: (1) literacy is a feminist issue; (2) adult literacy education is best defined as broad, general education that is grounded in language and fosters depth and…

  2. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  4. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  5. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  6. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere. PMID:27553999

  7. Gosses Bluff impact structure, Australia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, D. J.; Barlow, B. C.; Brown, A. R.; Glikson, A. Y.; Manwaring, E. A.; Moss, F. J.; Sedmik, E. C. E.; Van Son, J.; Brett, R.; Young, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out of the Gosses Bluff structure in Central Australia, which is a typical cryptoexplosion structure. The study included detailed geologic mapping, and seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, aeromagnetic, and ground magnetic surveys. It is concluded that the structure is an eroded crater formed by a single nearly instantaneous shock event, and that the event can be explained only by impact.

  8. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  9. Astronomy in Australia - A Brief Historical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffleit, Dorrit

    2000-08-01

    An astronomical event, the transit of Venus at Tahiti in 1769, led to the discovery of Eastern Australia by Captain James Cook and its colonization by the English in 1788. Beginning that very year, an observatory was erected, and ever since, Australia has played significant roles throughout the history of astronomy. Now the modern optical observatories at Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring have become important and friendly centers of international cooperation in research. In modern radio astronomy, Australia has been an outstanding pioneer.

  10. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a German Perspective"…

  11. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  12. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  13. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  14. The MAGSAT project in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first version of the MAGSAT selection and reduction software was completed as well as a major enhancement to support geomagnetic vector data selection and reduction. All MAGSAT data over an area between 90 E and 180 E and between 0 and 50 S were reduced. This area includes the Australasian region and surrounding oceans. Nearly 200 profiles across Australia satisfied the criteria for data. The reduced geomagnetic field inferred to be caused by sources within the lithosphere was interpreted. During reduction, magnetic effects caused by all other causes were eliminated. Some possible correlation with major tectonic structures and known continental scale heat flow anomalies were noted.

  15. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  16. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  17. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    Designed for intermediate grade students, this 4-week unit contains 11 lessons on Australian culture and geography. Topics covered are: the map, history, geography, climate, economy, people, education, religion, recreation, government, cities, transportation, communication, wildlife, and plantlife. Each lesson includes text and questions on the…

  18. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  19. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  20. Focus on: Hendra virus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kristopher

    2014-11-29

    Cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in Australia have been seen regularly since the virus was first isolated in 1994. Kristopher Hughes, associate professor of equine medicine at Charles Sturt University in Australia, gives an overview of how knowledge of the virus has developed in the past 20 years.

  1. National Report on Schooling in Australia, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Education Council, Melbourne.

    This report provides information about the schooling of over three million students in approximately 10,000 schools in Australia's eight states and territories during 1991. Chapter 1 describes the Australian Education Council and offers a national overview of schooling in Australia including the structure of schooling and how to achieve and…

  2. National space program in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, G. M.

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the Australian space activity history and present status is presented in the following aspects: (1) full-scale space activities since the establishment of the Australian Space Board in 1987 and the start of governmental budgetary support to national space program; (2) cooperation with NASA and ESA through satellite ground stations in satellite communication and ground support; (3) Australian private enterprises contract to provide launch support for INTERSAT and other satellites and schedule to start mobile satellite communication all over the country; and (4) supporting the second ground station construction to facilitate acquisition of the southern Pacific Ocean data of the wide area covering from the end of Antarctic continent to the eastern end of New Zealand. The remote sensing equipment development, launch service business plan, present status of supersonic technology in Australia and Australian space policy are outlined.

  3. Radar Meteor Observations in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade extensive meteor studies have been carried out in Australia using radio systems operating at frequencies between 2 and 30 MHz. Part of this program has been a deliberate effort to detect meteors above the "echo ceiling" of about 105 km associated with radars operating above 30 MHz. In fact the echo ceiling has been raised to 140 km with a dramatic increase in meteor flux [1]. The other aspect of these studies has been the use a low frequency (6-30MHz) surveillance radar to detect and record meteors over the horizon, using backscatter via ionospheric F-region. The power of the radar is such that the micrometeoroid limit is being approached [2]. The surveillance radar has confirmed the new estimates of meteor flux and extended to a mass limit of 0.2 microgram.

  4. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded. PMID:19775367

  5. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  6. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  7. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  8. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  9. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  10. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  11. Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Musk, A William; de Klerk, Nicholas H

    2004-08-01

    In Australia, consumption of asbestos peaked in about 1975 at around 70,000t per year--the majority being used for asbestos cement manufacture. Chrysotile, amphibole and crocidolite have all been mined in Australia and employment records from the single company which mined most of the crocidolite deposits at Wittenoom have formed the basis of an ongoing cohort mortality study of the workforce.

  12. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  13. Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Monica; Nguyen, Quoc; Marriott, Deborah; Playford, E. Geoffrey; Ellis, David; Sorrell, Tania

    2006-01-01

    Population-based surveillance for candidemia in Australia from 2001 to 2004 identified 1,095 cases. Annual overall and hospital-specific incidences were 1.81/100,000 and 0.21/1,000 separations (completed admissions), respectively. Predisposing factors included malignancy (32.1%), indwelling vascular catheters (72.6%), use of antimicrobial agents (77%), and surgery (37.1%). Of 919 episodes, 81.5% were inpatient healthcare associated (IHCA), 11.6% were outpatient healthcare associated (OHCA), and 6.9% were community acquired (CA). Concomitant illnesses and risk factors were similar in IHCA and OHCA candidemia. IHCA candidemia was associated with sepsis at diagnosis (p<0.001), death <30 days after infection (p<0.001), and prolonged hospital admission (p<0.001). Non–Candida albicans species (52.7%) caused 60.5% of cases acquired outside hospitals and 49.9% of IHCA candidemia (p = 0.02). The 30-day death rate was 27.7% in those >65 years of age. Adult critical care stay, sepsis syndrome, and corticosteroid therapy were associated with the greatest risk for death. Systematic epidemiologic studies that use standardized definitions for IHCA, OHCA, and CA candidemia are indicated. PMID:17176564

  14. Telemedicine in Australia. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Crowe, B L; McDonald, I G

    1997-01-01

    There have been a number of important developments in Australia in the area of telemedicine. At the national level, the House of Representatives' Standing Committee on Family and Community Affairs has been conducting the Inquiry into Health Information Management and Telemedicine. The Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council has supported the establishment of a working party convened by the South Australian Health Commission to prepare a detailed report on issues relating to telemedicine. State governments have begun a number of telemedicine projects, including major initiatives in New South Wales and Victoria and the extensive development of telepsychiatry services in Queensland. Research activities in high-speed image transmission have been undertaken by the Australian Computing and Communications Institute and Telstra, and by the Australian Navy. The matter of the funding of both capital and recurrent costs of telemedicine services has not been resolved, and issues of security and privacy of medical information are subjects to discussion. The use of the Internet as a universal communications medium may provide opportunities for the expansion of telemedicine services, particularly in the area of continuing medical education. A need has been recognized for the coordinated evaluation of telemedicine services as cost-benefit considerations are seen to be very important.

  15. Return migration from Australia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P

    1986-09-01

    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  16. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  17. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  18. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  19. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  20. Emergence of neural angiostrongyliasis in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Jones, Malcolm K; Aland, Kieran V; Reid, Simon A; Traub, Rebecca J; McCarthy, James S; Lee, Rogan

    2015-03-01

    Despite an apparent increase in cases of angiostrongyliasis in humans and animals in Australia, the epidemiology of infection with the two species of Angiostrongylus that co-exist in this country, namely A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae, is poorly understood. This knowledge gap is particularly important with respect to A. mackerrasae, a species evidently native to Australia, as its ability to cause disease in humans is unknown. Likewise, there is little information on the roles of native and introduced species of rodents and molluscs as hosts of Angiostrongylus species in Australia. This review focuses on the gaps in the knowledge about the two species, highlighting the need for epidemiological and pathogenesis studies on the native lungworm A. mackerrasae.

  1. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mackey, D A; Buttery, R G

    1992-08-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presents with sudden onset of visual loss mainly in young adult males. LHON is not uncommon in Australia, accounting for 2% of invalid blind pensions. We have identified 20 unrelated families carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with LHON and 135 of 291 individuals with documented LHON are currently alive in Australia. The mean age of onset of visual loss for males was 26 years and for females 27 years, with a range from six to 65 years. The mean risk of visual loss was 20% for males and 4% for females. There are over 1750 male and female carriers living in Australia who have not yet lost vision; 600 carriers are under 24 years of age. The expected number of new cases of blindness from LHON is three to four per year. PMID:1449769

  2. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  3. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration." PMID:12289778

  4. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration."

  5. Dengue fever with encephalopathy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Row, D; Weinstein, P; Murray-Smith, S

    1996-03-01

    During an epidemic of dengue type 2 virus in the rural community of Charters Towers, North Queensland, Australia, in 1993, 210 cases presented to the local hospital with signs and symptoms of classic dengue fever. Two cases were noteworthy because of neurologic complications, which included drowsiness, short term memory loss, agitation, and seizure. The cases are presented in detail because they are the first cases of dengue-associated encephalopathy to be documented in Australia. An increasing number of cases of encephalopathy associated with classic dengue fever is being reported world wide, but the etiology of this clinical syndrome remains unknown.

  6. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  7. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  8. Novel measles virus genotype, East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chibo, Doris; Riddell, Michaela; Catton, Michael; Birch, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in 1999 in Queensland and Victoria, Australia, were caused by a novel strain of clade G virus (proposed name g3). Epidemiologic and molecular evidence supports independent circulation of this virus in Queensland, northern Australia, in addition to importation of the virus by East Timor refugees seeking safe haven in Australia. PMID:12095446

  9. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  10. Biodiversity in Australia: What, Where, and for How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panizzon, Debra; Boulton, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Australia's most serious environmental problem is the loss of biological diversity, or biodiversity. Australia harbors much of the world's species diversity and has remarkably high numbers of endemic species. Reviews current threats to biodiversity and efforts to protect and enhance it in Australia. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/ASK)

  11. Library Development: Australia. IATUL Proceedings Vol. 15, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the IATUL (International Association of Technological University Libraries) Proceedings focuses on developments in Australian libraries. The first article, "University Librarianship in Australia" (D. H. Borchardt), reviews the growth of librarianship in Australia and examines some current issues. "Information Retrieval in Australia"…

  12. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  13. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  14. Improving the Quality of Teaching in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Australia needs to more effectively attract, train, support, retain, recognize, and reward quality teachers throughout their careers. After a slow start and decades of debate, the pieces of the quality teaching puzzle are now coming together. Increased federal government intervention and financial support, along with state and territorial support…

  15. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  16. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  17. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  18. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  19. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities. PMID:11929136

  20. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  1. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  2. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  3. Teaching Educational Leadership and Administration in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard; Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of programmes in educational administration and leadership little is known about the resources used to teach them. This article reviews the sources currently employed in such programmes in Australia by examining the textbooks, book chapters and journal articles specified for 53 separate units (papers) offered at 15 of the key…

  4. Enterprise Training in Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Geoff; McIntyre, John; Sweet, Richard; McDonald, Rod; Noble, Charles; Smith, Andrew; Roberts, Paul

    In the second phase of a two-phase study, enterprise training in Australia was examined through case studies of training at 12 Australian enterprises in 2 sectors. The six finance and insurance enterprises and six retail enterprises studied were selected to obtain a sample that was representative from the standpoints of enterprise size and…

  5. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  6. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  7. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  8. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  9. Australia: An Instructional Unit for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duea, Joan; And Others

    Designed to provide elementary teachers with materials for the study of Australia, this unit contains 19 lessons that include objectives, materials, procedures, suggested extension activities, and answer keys where needed. Following the 19 lessons are blackline masters for teacher transparencies, student worksheets, and extension activities. A…

  10. New Focus for Space Research in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver

    Australia was the fourth nation to launch a spacecraft into orbit from its own territory, in 1967. Its second satellite followed 35 years later, when FedSat was launched in December 2002. Australia had and continues to have world experts in many areas of space science and technology. Several of these have participated in international missions, even sometimes with government support and funding to collaborate on designing and building an instrument for an international mission (e.g., AATSR on ESA's Envisat). Despite this Australia has no coordinated national space effort or dedicated funding for space research. Few linkages existed between Universities, Government units, and industry or across the field. This talk describes efforts to change this situation by developing the first Decadal Plan for Australian Space Science. The Plan's vision is "World-leading innovative space science and technology, strong domestic capability, and international collaborations that build Australia a long term, productive presence in Space". The talk describes the process and summarises the recommendations of the Australian space science community. These include creation of a national coordination committee (ACCSS), scientific themes and goals, and the science, education, and outreach projects necessary to accomplish them. The science projects involve ground-based assets, spacecraft missions, theory/modelling programs, and technology development and testing.

  11. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  12. Remote Access Laboratories in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments…

  13. GNSS Antenna Calibration Facility at Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. R.; Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    A GNSS antenna calibration facility has recently been established at Geoscience Australia. The facility includes a GEO++ robotic antenna calibration system, and an industrial robot (';KUKA'). Previous studies have highlighted the importance of accounting for the variation in antenna calibration due to the electromagnetic coupling between the antenna and monument. The reactive near-field effect has been reported to have the potential to produce a combination of a mean bias and change in periodic noise characteristics which then result in a velocity bias as well as a decrease in precision of coordinate estimates. Initially the priority of the calibration system will be to perform individual antenna calibrations for over 100 antennas purchased for high accuracy deformation surveys carried out in Western Australia, South Australia and south-east Australia. The principal aim of these deformation surveys is to detect intra-plate crustal deformation, where the magnitude of the signal is expected to be less than 1 mm/yr. The main role of the industrial robot is for research and development into GNSS algorithms and to further developments into antenna calibration. The industrial robot has a much higher payload capability of up to 60 kg. This makes it feasible to perform calibrations with a section of the monument still attached to the antenna, potentially providing a calibration which will better reflect the environment the signals are observed in. We will detail various experiments to be carried out on the industrial robot, and provide an update on the status and performance of the calibration facility.

  14. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  15. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  16. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  17. The Outlook for Training in Australia's Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This book, which is intended primarily for Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector, industry decision makers, and policymakers, provides an overview of occupational trends and the current training effort relating to occupations in Australian industry. Chapter 1 traces economic and labor market changes and the changing…

  18. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  19. Latest statistics on cardiovascular disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Waters, Anne-Marie; Trinh, Lany; Chau, Theresa; Bourchier, Michael; Moon, Lynelle

    2013-06-01

    The results presented herein summarize the most up-to-date cardiovascular statistics available at this time in Australia. The analysis presented here is based on and extends results published in two Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) reports, namely Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011 and the cardiovascular disease (CVD) section of Australia's Health 2012. Despite significant improvements in the cardiovascular health of Australians in recent decades, CVD continues to impose a heavy burden on Australians in terms of illness, disability and premature death. Direct health care expenditure for CVD exceeds that for any other disease group. The most recent national data have been analysed to describe patterns and trends in CVD hospitalization and death rates, with additional analysis by Indigenous status, remoteness and socioeconomic group. The incidence of and case-fatality from major coronary events has also been examined. Although CVD death rates have declined steadily in Australia since the late 1960s, CVD still accounts for a larger proportion of deaths (33% in 2009) than any other disease group. Worryingly, the rate at which the coronary heart disease death rate has been falling in recent years has slowed in younger (35-54 years) age groups. Between 1998-99 and 2009-10, the overall rate of hospitalizations for CVD fell by 13%, with declines observed for most major CVDs. In conclusion, CVD disease remains a significant health problem in Australia despite decreasing death and hospitalization rates. PMID:23517328

  20. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  1. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  2. An Environmentally Sustainable Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The future Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Queensland, Australia, is an example of how principles of environmentally sustainable design have translated into practice. Those responsible for the new project recognise the importance of building design that respects the environment by using resources efficiently and minimising pollution. The site's…

  3. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  4. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Toms, Cindy; Stapledon, Richard; Waring, Justin; Douglas, Paul

    2015-06-30

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,317 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2012 and 1,263 notifications in 2013. This represents a rate of 5.8 per 100,000 population in 2012 and 5.5 per 100,000 population in 2013 and a reversal of the upward trend in TB incidence reported since 2007. In 2012 and 2013, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications with an incidence rate of 19.5 per 100,000 and 18.4 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade; however, it remained reasonably steady in 2012 and 2013 with an incidence rate of 4.5 per 100,000 and 4.6 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.7 per 100,000 in 2012 and 0.8 per 100,000 in 2013. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug resistant TB cases nationally (2012: n=20; 2013: n=22) of which nearly all were identified in the overseas-born population. This report demonstrates excellent and sustained control of TB in Australia and reflects Australia's commitment to reducing the global burden of TB.

  5. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  6. A School Level Environment Study in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, John; Fisher, Darrell

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the reliability and validity of a school-environment measuring instrument: the School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ). Results were compared to teachers' and principals' perceptions of actual and ideal school environments. The questionnaire was sent to 60 schools throughout Australia where it…

  7. Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-06-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments carried out through RALs in Australia are heavily biased towards electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines. However, the experiments carried out through RALs in Europe had more variety, in addition to the traditional electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines, there were experiments in mechanical and mechatronic disciplines. It was found that RALs are now being developed aggressively in Australia and Europe and it can be argued that RALs will develop further and faster in the future with improving Internet technology. The rising costs of real experimental equipment will also speed up their development because by making the equipment remotely accessible, the cost can be shared by more universities or institutions and this will improve their cost-effectiveness. Their development would be particularly rapid in large countries with small populations such as Australia, Canada and Russia, because of the scale of economy. Reusability of software, interoperability in software implementation, computer supported collaborative learning and convergence with learning management systems are the required development of future RALs.

  8. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  9. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Lynne; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearman, John W.; Christiansen, Keryn; Grubb, Warren B.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals. PMID:16318700

  12. Malaria transmission and climate change in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J H; Foley, D H; Sutherst, R W

    1996-03-18

    Although endemic malaria was eradicated from Australia by 1981, the vectors remain and transmission from imported cases still occurs. Climate modelling shows that global warming will enlarge the potential range of the main vector, Anopheles farauti sensu stricto; by the year 2030 it could extend along the Queensland coast to Gladstone, 800 km south of its present limit. Vigilance and a dispassionate assessment of risk are needed to meet this challenge.

  13. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Downard, Kevin M; de Laeter, John R

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. Peter Jeffery's establishment of geochronological dating techniques in Western Australia in the early 1950s led to the establishment of geochronology research both at the Australian National University and at what is now the Curtin Institute of Technology in the 1960s. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. An article such as this can never be complete. It instead focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important

  14. Status of women in physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Up to 2006 there was some improvement for women in physics in Australia; since then there has been a decline. Women are underrepresented in all aspects of physics education and work, including school, university, and research laboratories. In addition, women physicists usually have lower seniority and earn less. This scenario is compounded by recent inactivity of the Australian Institute of Physics women's group since December 2010.

  15. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  16. Adolescent school-based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Bachelor, Michael; Bryant, Vicki; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue; Newbound, Angela; Scully, Megan; Webby, Rosalind; McIntyre, Peter B

    2013-06-30

    Adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination in Australia and other developed countries. Over the past decade, voluntary school-based vaccination programs have evolved to become the primary method of delivering adolescent vaccines funded under Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP). These programs operate at a state and territory level and offer NIP vaccines to adolescents in specific school grades using local teams of trained vaccine providers. This paper summarises the current operation of voluntary school-based vaccination programs in Australia. Information was obtained through a literature review, semi-structured interviews with those managing and implementing school-based vaccination programs in each jurisdiction and a review of program resources. Available coverage data was obtained from each state or territory. Vaccines are delivered at the school, during school hours, and typically target late primary or early secondary school grades. Written parental consent is required for any vaccine to be administered. Operation of the programs is influenced by various factors at the school and provider level. Despite variability in program implementation, collection and analysis of coverage data, comparable coverage has been achieved across all states and territories. Coverage is higher than that reported by other countries where adolescent vaccines are mandated for school entry or available only through community vaccination providers. Voluntary school-based vaccination programs are an established mechanism for the delivery of adolescent vaccines in Australia and vaccines offered will continue to evolve in light of national recommendations. Current gaps in evidence include a detailed understanding of the influence of procedural factors on uptake, the best ways to maximise consent form return and, standardisation of coverage data reporting.

  17. General practice education in Australia. Current issues.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim; Heard, Sam

    2004-05-01

    General practice education is rapidly changing. Medical students now have exposure to general practice at most year levels, vocational training has been opened to competition, and continuing professional development is a mandatory requirement for maintenance of Health Insurance Commission recognition, and increasingly for state registration. This article outlines the foundations for, and challenge to, building a framework for quality general practice education in Australia. PMID:15227866

  18. Promoting private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Willcox, S

    2001-01-01

    Health insurance policy in Australia has been distinguished by considerable instability over the past five years. This paper reviews the rationale and emerging evidence on three major policy initiatives--a move to allow selective contracting, the introduction of a 30 percent government subsidy for private health insurance, and the abolition of pure community rating. Policy making on private health insurance has been characterized by insufficient attention to research that might provide a stronger evidence basis for policy reforms.

  19. Gulf War illness: a view from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel. PMID:16687266

  20. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control.

  1. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  2. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control. PMID:22921953

  3. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  4. Managed entry agreements for pharmaceuticals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Agnes; Roughead, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, a number of managed entry agreements have been developed to enable national coverage of new medicines. Non-outcome based agreements are usually pricing arrangements that involve price or volume rebate agreements. In February 2013, there were at least 71 special pricing arrangements in place, including 26 for medicines restricted to use in hospitals. Health outcome based agreements can be made at the individual or population level. At the individual level, there were 28 medicines funded subject to continuation rules involving documentation of adequate benefit within the individual; some of these medicines also had price agreements in place. At the population level, only one outcome-based agreement has been implemented so far, for bosentan, a medicine marketed for pulmonary hypertension. In May 2010, a memorandum of understanding signed between the Australian Government and Medicines Australia, the peak pharmaceutical industry organisation, included the possibility for industry to request consideration of a 'Managed Entry Scheme' as part of the funding submission process for medicines with high clinical needs. It includes the possibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT)-based entry scheme. Although this form of managed entry has yet not been trialed in Australia, several 2012/2013 funding recommendations included requests by the decision making committee for further evidence development.

  5. Cannabis policy in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Abel, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes and compares current developments in policies to deal with cannabis in Australia and New Zealand. Both countries are bound by international conventions to control cannabis and in each case cannabis use, possession, cultivation and supply is illegal. In both countries almost all the supply is grown locally and patterns of use and health concerns appear to be similar. Strategies used to deal with cannabis include: demand reduction through enforcement of legislation, drug education and treatment; supply reduction through enforcement of legislation and crop recovery operations; and harm reduction through diversion of some offenders from the courts system, lenient enforcement policies for users and, in Australia, the formal decriminalization of cannabis use in two states/territories and de facto decriminalization in another. Australia has had a co-ordinated national drugs policy with a stated harm reduction focus for over a decade, while in New Zealand efforts to co-ordinate policy have been delayed by ongoing debates about cannabis's harm potential and what constitutes an appropriate approach. However, a national drugs policy with a professed harm reduction focus is currently being finalized. Despite these developments, government cut-backs and international and local prohibitionist influences on policy in both countries suggest that a harm reduction model may not necessarily be secure. PMID:16203457

  6. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Perspectives from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Macdonald, L.; Baldock, J.

    2011-12-01

    Australia is currently embarking upon an unparalleled program to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by engaging farmers and landholders to reduce emissions and store carbon in the soil. Currently, the magnitude of a potential soil carbon sink in Australian agricultural soils is largely unknown. The oft repeated rubric that adoption of recommended management practices (RMP) can raise soil carbon levels to 50-66% of pre-clearing levels has lead many to conclude that soil carbon sequestration can offset a large portion of Australia's current greenhouse gas emissions. Is there evidence in Australia (and abroad) to support these sequestration rates? In this presentation, we will present findings from both a retrospective analysis of existing field trial data and preliminary results from a national scale assessment of current soil carbon stocks under different agricultural management practices. A comprehensive review of field-trial data in Australia suggests that most management shifts within a given agricultural system (i.e. tillage, stubble management, fertilizer application, etc...) result in modest relative gains of 0.1 to 0.3 tC ha-1 yr-1. Importantly, whenever time series data was available, we found that the relative improvement in soil carbon stocks under RMPs was due to a reduction in the rate of loss of soil carbon and not in an actual increase in soil carbon. This finding has important repercussions for both how we think about soil carbon sequestration and how we can account for it in an accounting framework. Current research within the National Soil Carbon Research Program looks to assess the potential for agricultural management to influence soil carbon content and its distribution within various measurable carbon pools (particulate, humus, charcoal-like). For example, 200 randomly selected farms have been sampled in two major agricultural regions in South Australia based on a soil-type by rainfall stratification. In addition to measuring carbon content and

  7. Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Australia announces plans for expanded marine reserve network The Australian government has announced plans to increase the nation's network of marine reserves from 27 to 60, bringing the total size of the network to 3.1 million square kilometers, Australia's environment minister Tony Burke said on 14 June. The expansion, which would place more than one third of Australia's waters under protection, requires a 60-day consultation before it can become law.

  8. Catastrophic Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M.; Magee, J. W.; Gagan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Extinction of the Australian megafauna (50ñ5ka) occurred shortly after human colonization (55ñ5ka). A link between the two has been suggested, including the possibility that landscape modification was influential, but pinpointing the role of humans remains elusive. To evaluate changes at the ecosystem level across the extinction event we utilize dietary information recorded by d13C preserved in eggshells of the extant emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a large flightless bird. Emus are opportunistic feeders; their diet reflects the range of food sources available in the weeks before nesting (June). d13C quantifies the proportion of C3 vs C4 vegetation that constitutes the emu's diet. A 150,000-year record of emu dietary intact has been reconstructed using more than 300 individuals from Lake Eyre (south-central Australia) dated by 14C, luminescence and/or racemization. Prior to 50 ka emu diet was highly variable, ranging from 100% C3 to 100% C4. However, immediately after 50 ka, emu diet shifted dramatically: the C4 contribution never exceeded 50% (n=200) after 50 ka, whereas more than half the samples older than 50 ka old contain >50% C4 dietary sources. We attribute the observed changes in emu diet to a fundamental rearrangement of the plant ecosystems in semi-arid central Australia. Such a change in plant communities may have contributed to the extinction of many dependent herbivores. The coincidence in time of megafauna extinction and ecosystem collapse shortly after human colonization suggests there may be a causal link. Development of similar records of vegetation change for other regions of Australia are currently underway to evaluate whether the Lake Eyre record reflects a continental scale reorganization of the Australian biota.

  9. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  10. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  11. Skilling Australia for the Future? A Study of Quality Assurance in Australia's Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbola, Frank Wogbe; Lambert, Daniel Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From the end of World War II until the early 1970s, vocational education and training (VET) in Australia was surprisingly static and resilient to government-led reform, due to the dominance of industry and union power. Following the oil shocks of 1973 and associated unemployment and declining union power, there have been calls on the federal and…

  12. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  13. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 5: Indonesian/Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Peter

    The report on the status of the Indonesian and Malay languages in Australia documents the history of those languages in Australian education, within selected communities, in international trade, and among high school students. The first chapter gives a brief history of the Indonesian and Malay languages and comments on their place in the life of…

  14. Causation of insanity in nineteenth century Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G A

    1982-03-01

    In this article an endeavour has been made to explore the writings of Frederick Norton Manning as they pertain to understanding nineteenth century medical viewpoints in Australia as to the causation of mental disease. Of particular note are the concept of hereditary weakness and issues related to the harsh Australian environment and the developing colonial society. These writings reveal, in large part, the use of a scientific approach and some concepts of causality which, for the times, were highly sophisticated. Nevertheless, some highly speculative theorizing does occur.

  15. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    PubMed

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear.

  16. Infections in travellers arriving from Australia.

    PubMed

    McBride, William John Hannan

    2008-04-01

    An unwell traveller whose itinerary has included Australia may be infected with agents that are uniquely found in that country or by more cosmopolitan agents that exist there. This brief review will discuss some of the more common or important infectious disease diagnoses and discuss some features that can be elicited on examination or from the history that would be useful in directing investigation and treatment. Diseases discussed include epidemic polyarthritis, dengue fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, Buruli ulcer, scrub typhus and spotted fever.

  17. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ergas, Henry; Paolucci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop. PMID:22312229

  18. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  19. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  20. The defence of therapeutic privilege in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mulheron, Rachael

    2003-11-01

    Therapeutic privilege is a defence that excuses a medical practitioner or other health professional from complying with the requirements of full disclosure to a patient in circumstances where it is reasonably considered that such disclosure would be harmful to that patient's health or welfare. Although the concept originated in the United States, the defence has been applied in Australia, and was specifically endorsed as part of Australian law by the High Court in Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. However, there has been negligible application of the defence since that endorsement. This article examines the doctrine of therapeutic privilege in the present Australian medico-legal environment. After an examination of the concept and its three constituetent elements, the article canvasses the limited instances of judicial approval of the defence prior to Rogers v Whitaker. The author then analyses, by reference to reported and unreported case law, why the defence has been so narrowly interpreted since, such that it has come to occupy an almost untenable position in Australia's medical jurisprudence.

  1. Neutron capture therapy research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Allen, B J

    1989-01-01

    Neutron capture therapy research in Australia has continued to grow since the first Australia-Japan workshop in April, 1986. The support base has broadened and the wide range of contributing laboratories includes universities, research institutes, and hospitals. Considerable progress has been made in boron chemistry--an accurate boron assay technique has been developed, boron analogues of chlorpromazine and thiouracil have been synthesised or nearly so, and decaborane conjugation with monoclonal antibodies has been achieved to the required loadings. In vitro cell survival experiments are proceeding in the Moata reactor using human melanoma and mouse cell lines incubated with enriched boronophenylalanine and boron tetraphenyl porphyrins. Electron microscopy examination of radiation damaged morphology shows considerable differences between cell lines. Progress with the nude mouse human melanoma model has been slow because of the lack of a reliable in vivo melanotic melanoma line, and the B16 mouse line is found to be more efficacious. Tailored beam calculations for the 10 MW HIFAR reactor indicate the difficulty of obtaining a suitable therapeutic beam because of the generated gamma dose in the beam filters. A new approach to NCT utilises the enormous cross section of 157Gd and the induced-Auger effect which has been shown to cause double strand breaks in circular DNA.

  2. Characteristics of aeolian dust across northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, L. R.; Greene, R. S. B.; Scott, K. M.; Stelcer, E.; O'Loingsigh, T.

    2014-03-01

    South easterly trade winds have long been thought to transport aeolian dust across northwest Australia, but very little is known about the chemical and particle size characteristics of this material. From July 2008 to May 2009, 36 aeolian dust samples were collected monthly at four sites across Australia's northwest. The results of ion beam analysis indicate that the samples consisted of four major elemental groups, one of which appeared to be transported across the sites during months in winter and summer. This group (characterised by higher ratios of Fe, Ti and Mn/Si than the Earth's Crustal Average) also showed a decrease in particle sizes towards the west. This suggests that the dust may have had a central Australian source, while other groups richer in Si appear to have been locally derived. These results support previous models of seasonal dust transport, and may have relevance in regional climate modelling, the transport of nutrients into the Indian Ocean, mineral exploration and studies of respiratory health.

  3. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  4. The accreditation of nursing education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and discuss the role that ANMAC and the accreditation standards play in pre-registration nursing education nationally. The context of the discussion is situated in the continuum of events that mark the accreditation of nursing education in Australia. The National Registration and Accreditation Scheme has given rise to significant challenges related to the accreditation of nursing programs of education in Australia. Given the importance of accreditation to the quality of nursing education, ANMAC in its appointed role as accrediting authority, must fill the position rather than occupy it. Enhancing transparency and effectiveness is central to ensuring accreditation facilitates quality in nursing education. Given ANMAC's key position, further work is needed in developing a broad base of expertise by fostering scholarly output in the substantive area of nursing accreditation. There is a concerning lack of research centred on the accreditation of programs of nursing education along with the processes associated with it. This problem is not restricted to the Australian context but also extends internationally. In this context, the expertise of accreditors ought to be questioned along with the processes ANMAC use to identify individual capability. As such, the selection of experts needs to be articulated clearly by ANMAC along with the ownership of introducing a research culture into accreditation. PMID:26285403

  5. Earth observation (Australia) taken by Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Earth observation of Australia was taken by Galileo Spacecraft after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. Color image of the Simpson Desert in Australia was obtained by Galileo at about 2:30 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST), 12-08-90, at a range of more than 35,000 miles. The color composite was made from images taken through the red, green, and violet filters. The area shown, about 280 miles wide by about 340 miles north-to-south, is southeast of Alice Springs. At lower left is Lake Eyre, a salt lake below sea level, subject to seasonal water-level fluctuations; when this image was acquired the lake was nearly dry. At lower right is the greenish Lake Blanche. Fields of linear sand dunes stretch north and east of Lake Eyre, shaped by prevailing winds from the south and showing, in different colors, the various sources and/or ages of their sands. Photo provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37331, 12-19-90.

  6. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  7. Rediscovering university teaching hospitals for Australia.

    PubMed

    Penington, David G

    2008-09-15

    Partnership between research and health services has a long history in other countries, but has been relatively recent in Australia, with several models arising in the 1960s and 1970s as research-based specialties developed. Since the implementation of Medibank, which became Medicare, Australian Health Care Agreements have been primarily crafted on the basis of transactional numbers, ignoring the need for links with teaching and research and the need to implement new developments. Education and research have been seen as the responsibility of the federal government, and hospitals are progressively less recognised or funded for these functions by the states. Australia's teaching hospitals are in danger of falling seriously behind those in other countries and losing their capacity to monitor quality, to innovate and to branch into new strategies in partnership with primary care services. We should look at initiatives in other countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada, which are making big strides in tackling similar issues. University hospitals hold the key, if appropriately linked with other services. The current Australian Health Care Agreements are on hold. A new agency is needed to support clinical and service-related research, with a new structure and track for federal government funding, and providing oversight of research and development, of clinical governance and quality of outcomes in health care, linked with new strategies for prevention and treatment. A component of the foreshadowed additional federal government funding for health should be sequestered to set up such an agency. PMID:18803539

  8. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  9. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  10. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians.

  11. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  12. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  13. PictureAustralia--Participating in a Collaborative Digital Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Deborah

    The PictureAustralia service is a collaboration between cultural agencies to bring their digital pictorial collections together at the one web site, hosted by the National Library of Australia. It was developed through the identification of a need for a national image discovery service. The key to the service is its cross-sectoral nature,…

  14. Pioneering Culture: Mechanics' Institutes and Schools of Arts in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Philip C., Ed.; Laurent, John, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about the history and role of Australia's mechanics' institutes and schools of arts: "'The Light of Heaven Itself': The Contribution of the Institutes to Australia's Cultural History" (Candy); "Dispelling 'the Stagnant Waters of Ignorance': The Early Institutes in Context" (Webby); "The Melbourne Mechanics'…

  15. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  16. Learning from Successful Skills Development Systems: Lessons from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main institutional features of Australia's TVET sector, focussing particularly on the qualifications framework, how it relates to the labour market, and the role of industry. It also looks briefly at two current policy challenges for Australia. Seeking lessons for other countries in the Asia Pacific region, it…

  17. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  18. The Flow of American Television Materials to Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    A review of the current situation regarding the media flow between the United States and Australia shows that the traditional pattern--American content dominating the Australian media--still holds, but that there is evidence of movement by the Australians to establish their own media identity. An analysis of the television ratings for Australia's…

  19. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  20. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  1. Lessons from the Past: Education and Racism in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Myra

    2001-01-01

    The history of racism in Australia is inextricably linked with prevailing ideologies of rural Australia, supported strongly by educational discourses of deficit and disadvantage. A challenge for the Reconciliation Movement will be to make an effective contribution to the development of anti-racist and non-racist practices in rural schooling.…

  2. The Many Turnings of Agricultural Extension in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Coutts, Jeff; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the development of extension as a discipline in Australia, its organization, and the ideological changes that have occurred from the second half of the nineteenth century through to the present. Design/Methodology/Approach: It considers the evolution of extension across the different states of Australia from a…

  3. Diversity and Progress in School Accountability Systems in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David

    2007-01-01

    School education in Australia is a complex interplay between federal and state governments, and between government and non-government schools. This article explores the supervision of schools in Australia through school accountability systems. Utilising publicly available documents a systematic analysis of the state and territory systems for…

  4. Australian Vocational Education & Training. South Australia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A study examined the publicly-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in South Australia (SA) in 1997. Background information indicated SA is a geographically large state with a relatively small population that is older compared to the rest of Australia, with 14 percent aged over 65 compared with 12 percent nationally. Findings were…

  5. Labor Relations and Education in Two Contexts: America and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Harry E.

    1980-01-01

    Sheds light on labor relations in Australia through an examination of its governance of education, Australian teachers and unions, the history of compulsory arbitration, some contrasts between compulsory arbitration and collective bargaining, some contemplated changes in the governance of education in Australia, and some speculation about the…

  6. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia do not…

  7. Linking Schools and Workplaces: Lessons from Australia and Overseas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    Efforts to link schools and workplaces in Australia, Sweden, and elsewhere were examined to identify preconditions and effective strategies for linking school to work in Australia. An Australian program that combines applied, contextualized learning structured according to industry standards with students' general education was shown to produce…

  8. Inclusive Education in Australia Ten Years after Salamanca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    While many states and territories in Australia were initially a little slow to develop a strong momentum towards inclusive educational practices, this has been addressed quite dramatically in the past ten years. Acknowledging that each jurisdiction in Australia has its own department of education and determines its own educational directions this…

  9. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  10. Predicting the course of AIDS in Australia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P J; Wilson, S R; Swanson, C E; Cooper, D A

    1990-10-01

    There have been urgent demands for knowledge about the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Australia. Accurate predictions are important for efficient allocation and planning of limited health-care resources. Ideal data for this purpose would be reliable knowledge of the past and present incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, since the incidence of the infection is unknown predictions can only be based on historical data of the incidence of AIDS. In this article, we show the limitations of such predictions by examining a broad range of mathematical models that successfully track the observed data (1187 cases diagnosed to December 31, 1988). In addition, we describe a simple method for prediction in subgroups where the numbers of cases observed so far are small. Four models representing different forms of departure from the simple exponential model provide the best fits to the Australian AIDS data. Regional variability and a possible effect resulting from the introduction of zidovudine were incorporated into the models. Significant regional variability in the course of the epidemic was observed between New South Wales, Victoria and the rest of the country. For Australia as a whole, the doubling time changed from less than one year before mid 1987 to more than two years after this time. Model fits were improved by fitting the models to just the four years of data from 1985. The models give comparable predictions for the first year (1989) of around 600 new cases. However, by 1993 the predictions vary considerably, ranging from 500 to 2300 new cases. It is predicted that between 3100 and 6700 cases are likely to be diagnosed in Australia between 1989 and 1993. The results from the subgroup prediction demonstrate that when the observed number of cases is small, then the range of predictions for a future time interval is very wide. For reliable long-term predictions that are necessary for public health planning, basic

  11. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  12. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  13. Potential seen on Australia's Bonaparte exploration acreage

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Miyazaki, S. )

    1994-09-12

    Two of the offshore areas recently released for exploration bids by the Australian government are NT94-1 and NT94-2 covering 23,000 sq km in the oil producing Bonaparte basin off northwestern Australia 300 km northwest of Darwin. Three wells have been drilled in the two areas, including Evans Shoal-1 which made a gas discovery currently considered to be non-commercial. The results of a study by the Australian Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS) have been synthesized into the Evans Shoal Area Bulletin and Data Base. BRS interprets the available geochemical and maturation data to indicate that potential source rocks are present in the Jurassic Plover formation and Flamingo group and the Cretaceous Bathurst Island group. The paper describes the area geology, play types, and gas and oil potential.

  14. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  15. Euthanasia in the Commonwealth of Australia.

    PubMed

    Quirk, P

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the debate over the euthanasia law of the Northern Territory of Australia in its constitutional context. After considering the juridical status of the Northern Territory and related topics, this article outlines the judicial and legislative challenges to the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act (RTI Act) of the Northern Territory and concludes by offering some justifications for the passing of the Euthanasia Laws Act 1997 (Commonwealth), which effectively repeals the RTI Act. In dealing with these issues special emphasis will be given to the problem of Commonwealth law overriding Territory law and the concept of fundamental common law rights. The appropriateness of a Parliamentary solution--as opposed to a resolution through the courts--is defended.

  16. Pestivirus infection of ruminants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D

    1992-09-01

    Pestivirus infections are commonly diagnosed in cattle but are relatively uncommon in other ruminant species in Australia. Virus isolation is a very reliable technique for detecting pestivirus in specimens, especially when group reactive monoclonal antibodies are used with immunoperoxidase staining to detect non-cytopathogenic virus. Care must be taken to prevent adventitious pestivirus contamination of serum or cells used for cell culture. A recently developed antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been extensively evaluated and found to be extremely accurate. This test is also much quicker and less expensive than virus isolation. Procedures are outlined to reliably certify animals to be free of pestivirus infection for export or as donors of semen or embryos. PMID:1335309

  17. Benefit sharing and biobanking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Dianne; Critchley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    Biobanks are essential tools for facilitating biomedical research, because they provide collections of human tissue linked with personal information. There is still little understanding of the underlying reasons why people participate in biobanking in the increasingly commercialised and internationalised biomedical research environment. This paper reports the results of an Australia-wide telephone survey. The paper analyses the types of obligations that members of the public may wish to see incorporated in biobank benefit sharing arrangements and the extent to which their views might be influenced by underlying norms of sharing behaviour. Latent class analysis of the dataset reveals three distinct classes of respondents. We link one of these with the norm of reciprocity, one with the norm of social responsibility. The third is not clearly linked with any one norm of sharing behaviour. The implications of these findings on biobank benefit sharing arrangements are discussed. PMID:23823164

  18. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  19. Legislation for smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Woodward, S

    1985-01-01

    This historical analysis of public issues relating to smoking control in Western Australia examines relevant Western Australian state and Australian federal laws, their introduction, and their consequences. Public and political support and opinion led by the health professions resulted in two attempts to legislate against all forms of cigarette advertising in 1982 and 1983. Both attempts failed, and public support for such measures has been seen to be affected by the campaigns mounted in opposition by the tobacco and advertising industries. Other smoking control measures which have been successfully introduced in 1983 and 1984 are higher tobacco taxes and a comprehensive coordinated public education and information programme. The activities associated with the legislative initiatives resulted in a greatly increased level of community awareness of the dangers of smoking and acceptance of the need for some action on this major health problem. PMID:3924165

  20. Developing national health information in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moss, E A

    1995-01-01

    Two significant developments in the past two years have given impetus to development of health information in Australia. In March 1993, the former National Minimum Data Set was revised and published as the National Health Data Dictionary. Second, establishment of an agreement in June 1993, between the Commonwealth and State/Territory government health authorities, the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare initiated a process of working cooperatively to develop national health information. Australia, like many other countries, suffers from inconsistent health data definitions, lack of timely data, poor data quality, gaps in data coverage, and barriers to accessing the data. The National Health Information Agreement [1] came into effect on June 1, 1993 and seeks to provide a national framework and processes to improve national health information, that is, information on health of the population; determinants of the population's health; provision and utilization of health promotion and disease prevention programs and health services including: outcomes and outputs, resource use and costs, access by and distribution to population groups; relationships between these elements; and the language necessary to facilitate provision of services and collection of national health information. The major implementation mechanism of the Agreement is a rolling three-year National Health Information Work Program of national health information activities. The activities range from development work on standard hospital charts of accounts, on health outcome measures, and on new collections such as outpatients to improved definitions and the enhancement of existing collections such as mental health and vital statistics. The Work Program is published annually. A first priority is to improve the data collections available. This is being achieved through the setting of national data definitions and standards. The Agreement recognizes the

  1. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  2. Continental Shelf Currents off Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, G. R.

    2007-05-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, ADCP, was moored a few meters above the bottom at the 70 m isobath out from the Perth, Western Australia for a little over a year in 2000/2001. It recorded currents in 4 m depth bins every hour as well as the temperature at the instrument. The ADCP was put at the 70 m isobath so that it would come under the influence of both the wind-driven Capes Current in summer and perhaps incursions by the Leeuwin Current in all seasons. The record shows both these currents and is rich with the effects of other phenomena including upwelling, downwelling, sea/land breezes, summer and winter storms, and the passing of submesoscale eddies on the continental shelf. We discuss the ADCP data and complement them with satellite images, wind and sea level data.

  3. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier.

    The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.)

    Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea.

    The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image

  4. Growth Dynamics of Australia's Polar Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Holly N.; Rich, Thomas H.; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions. PMID:21826250

  5. Carbonate platform development in northeast Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    In northeast Australia, the Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland and Marion plateaus comprise carbonate platforms separated by major rift basins. Cenozoic platform evolution has been dependent upon (1) northward drift of Australia from temperate into tropical latitudes; (2) subsidence pulses in the Eocene/Oligocene and the Pliocene/Pleistocene; (3) sea level oscillations; (4) continental and oceanic influences; and (5) paleophysiography and paleo-ocean chemistry. The evolution of each platform reflects the interaction of these factors on its development. Further, the evolution of the Queensland Plateau has markedly affected that of the Great Barrier Reef through its influence on circulation patterns. In the Eocene/Oligocene, and shelf on which the Great Barrier Reef grew protected the Marion Plateau from terrigenous influences, while in the late Miocene to early Pliocene the Marion Plateau formed the springboard from which the central and southern Great Barrier Reef developed. Models of platform development must take account of 1)early Eocene reef initiation on the Queensland Plateau concomitant with marine transgression into the adjacent rift troughs; 2)Eocene/Oligocene subsidence resulting in stepback of the reefs from the flank of the Queensland Plateau and reestablishment at higher bathymetric levels, concomitant clastic sedimentation along the tropical northern continental margin and temperate(.) carbonate progradation along the margin of the Marion Plateau; 3)extensive growth of Miocene reef complexes on the Queensland Plateau and the initiation of reef complexes on the Marion Plateau and on the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef; and 4)Pliocene subsidence leading to contraction of the area of reef growth on the Queensland Plateau, with almost total drowning of the Marion Plateau and stepback of the Miocene barrier and platform reefs to their present position on the central Great Barrier Reef.

  6. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement.

  8. Prospective Frontier basins off eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Falvey, D.A.; Hinz, K.; Willcox, J.B.; Exon, N.F.; Symonds, P.A.; Williamson, P.E.

    1986-07-01

    Eleven thousand kilometers of high-quality multichannel seismic reflection data have been gathered in four poorly known, but prospective areas off eastern Australia. The Otway basin has an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, more than half of which is in depths exceeding 500 m. Its Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary sequence is up to 10,000 m thick and is cut by large coast-parallel normal faults. The oldest marine strata are Cenomanian. The basinal area off west Tasmania covers 40,000 km/sup 2/, two-thirds of it in offshelf depths. It contains up to 6000 m of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences similar to those of the Otway basin. The Lord Howe Rise is a ribbon of continent off eastern Australia, about 2000 km long and 400 km wide. Much of its crest lies in water depths of 750-1200 m. Up to 4500 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences has been identified, and extensive faulting, related to the formation of the Tasman Sea, has formed rift basins and horst and graben areas. Simple extension was apparently dominant in the south, and oblique extension in the north. The Queensland Plateau covers 200,000 km/sup 2/, half of which is in water shallower than 1000 m. The plateau behaved as a stable block during and after the Paleogene spreading episode, which formed the Coral Sea to the northeast. About 1000 m of latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences are present above a planated surface on the plateau, and up to 5000 m in the flanking Queensland and Townsville Troughs to the southwest. The sequence beneath the planated surface is believed to contain Cretaceous rift-fill sediments in places.

  9. Control of road trauma epidemic in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, F.

    1978-01-01

    This lecture discusses initiatives taken by the Road Trauma Committee of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons to reduce fatality and injury on Australian roads. In 1970 the Road Trauma Committee and the communications media initiated a national campaign in support of legislation for the compulsory wearing of seat belts. Public ignorance and Parliamentary inertia were countered. Victoria became the first State in the Western world to introduce this legislation. All other Australian States followed. Significant and marked reductions in fatality and injury were achieved and have been maintained. Recognising alcohol as the single most important cause of serious road crashes and injuries in Australia, the committee advocated legislation for compulsory blood alcohol tests on all adult road crash casualties. In 1973-74 legislation was enacted in South Australia and Victoria and in 1976 in Queensland. Results show that more than one-quarter of driver casualties have alcohol concentrations above the legal limit of 0.05 g%. Half of these exceed 0.15 g%. On the other hand less than 3% of the general driving population exceed the legal limit. Further advocacy led in 1976 to the enactment of random roadside breath-test legislation in Victoria. The majority of Australian convicted drinking drivers have alcohol-related social problems. A quarter incur reconvictions. The conventional penal approach has failed. At present the Road Trauma Committee is campaigning for compulsory medical assessment of convicted drinking drivers. Reissue of a driving licence would be dependent upon evidence of re-education and/or rehabilitation. Pilot re-education programmes have been shown to lessen recidivism markedly. Prevention of drink-driving behaviour is the major strategy. The tactics entail deterence, improved secondary-school and driver education, and the implementation of a national policy for control of alcohol abuse. PMID:718071

  10. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

  11. Co-evolution of Plant Biodiversity and Pedogeochemistry in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, E. N.; Gonzalez-Orozco, C.; Miller, J.

    2013-12-01

    With the geostatistical package geoR (Ribeiro and Diggle 2001), we used the National Geochemical Survey of Australia's 1315 reported total elemental concentrations for aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), all in mg kg-1, for the fine earth (<2 mm) fraction as determined by X-ray fluorescence, and pH1:5 (soil:water) and EC1:5 (soil:water) (de Caritat and Cooper 2011) to predict pedogeochemistry at 127,259 sites, representing presence data for 1020 Acacia species across Australia. Species in the genus Acacia are widely distributed across Australia. Here we show that strong associations exist between plant communities, individual species, and pedogeochemistry. Acacia communities in southern Australia are associated with high pH and high electrical conductivity, high total Mg on greenstone-derived soils, and high total Ca and Mg concentrations on calcareous and saline soils. Many species that tolerate extreme pedogeochemical conditions are range restricted. Both Acacia distribution and pedogeochemistry reflect climatic conditions. Species with strong correlation to local edaphic conditions present a higher potential for loss resulting from climate change, due to abiotic constraints. References de Caritat, P. & Cooper, M. (2011). National Geochemical Survey of Australia: The Geochemical Atlas of Australia. Geoscience Australia, Record 2011/20 (2 Volumes), 557 pp. Ribeiro, P.J. & Diggle, P.J. (2001). geoR: A package for geostatistical analysis. R-News Vol 1, No 2. Available at: http://cran.r-project.org/.

  12. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  13. Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus (Colletidae: Hylaeinae).

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space.

  14. 22 CFR 120.33 - Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... United States and Australia. Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia means the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia... United States and Australia. 120.33 Section 120.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE......

  15. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  16. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  17. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  18. The Ethics of Isolation for Patients With Tuberculosis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This case study examines the ethical dimensions of isolation for patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Australia. It seeks to explore the issues of resource allocation, liberty, and public safety for wider consideration and discussion. PMID:26715045

  19. Unexpected result of Hendra virus outbreaks for veterinarians, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana H; Judd, Jenni; Speare, Rick

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study of equine veterinarians and allied staff from Queensland, Australia, showed that veterinarians are ceasing equine practice because of fears related to Hendra virus. Their decisions were motivated by personal safety and legal liability concerns.

  20. Science and the governance of Australia's climate regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Rodney J.; Caripis, Lisa; Foerster, Anita; Godden, Lee; Peel, Jacqueline

    2012-07-01

    The promise of a scientifically sound policy approach to tackle greenhouse-gas emissions in Australia gives hope that the country's efforts to mitigate climate change can make an effective contribution to international objectives.

  1. The Special Broadcasting Service and Australia's Ethnic Broadcasting Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklovsky, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Broadcasting services for non-English speaking peoples in Australia are reviewed both for radio and television. Broadcasting criteria for ethnic groups, funding levels, and current facilities are discussed. (RAO)

  2. New Zealand and Australia--A Different Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Stressing the importance of comparing the experiences of indigeneous people throughout the world, this article reviews history of British aboriginal relations in New Zealand and Australia, thus shedding a new perspective on Indian affairs in North America. (Author/ DS)

  3. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  4. Australia/Pacific: Industry watchers expect the worst

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article presents the outlook for the Australia/Pacific area with respect to petroleum. The main observations are: ATEA forsees Australia drilling declining by nearly 50% this year compared to last; With no tax relief in sight for crude, major Aussie oil projects are delayed; New Zealand's leasing moratorium has ended, and licensing policies have improved; Australia's self-sufficiency dream vanishes as Bass Strait exports dwindle; Gulf has more finds onshore Papua/New Guinea, but well economics still questionable; Australian gas projects enjoy some insulation from poor crude markets; Jabiru find in Timor Sea due onstream, and Northwest Shelf LNG export plans continue; Australia's largest operators each announce budget cuts; rig count continues to plunge.

  5. Population policies in developed countries: how do Australia's policies compare?

    PubMed

    Young, C

    1989-05-01

    Between 1980-1985, Australia experienced the highest population growth of any developed nation basically due to high levels of immigration. West Germany was the only nation to have negative growth rate. Yet Australia, like most developed nations, had a below replacement fertility rate. Nevertheless Australia's population is expected to increase by 3 million people by 2026, even if there is no immigration. Australia does not have a fertility directed population policy, yet the government does provide a family allowance (although it is lower than that of other developed nations), guarantees maternity and patenity leave (albeit mostly unpaid), and some child care facilities. Unlike other developed nations, however, Australia's government assistance to families has declined recently. In the early 1980s, the level of child poverty in Australia ranked higher than of Canada, West Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, but in ranked lower than that of the United States (US). The population policy in Australia is an immigraiton based policy. Even though almost all the developed nations have reached or will soon reach below replacement fertility and are faced with an aging population, only Austrlia, Canada, and the US do not have a clear policy to influence fertility and continue to not restrict immigration. Further, Australia's level of immigration is 3 times the rate/head of population than the US or Canada. A possible nondemographic solution to the aging population in developed nations is to increase pension coverage to full time and part time workers and to secure greater continuity of pension coverage to those workers who change jobs and to women who took time out from working to bear and/or care for children. PMID:12342441

  6. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  7. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  8. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.

    2016-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  9. Clinical aspects of malignant mesothelioma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, T R; Baker, G J; Daniels, S; Lee, J; Thompson, R; Ferguson, D A; Leigh, J

    1993-02-01

    Australia is currently experiencing an epidemic of malignant mesothelioma. The clinical aspects of malignant mesothelioma were investigated in 295 Australian patients as part of a national study of the disease. Most patients were male (91%), with the mean age at diagnosis being 64 years. The predominant cell type was epithelial (38%) and the majority of primary tumours arose from the pleura (94%). Mean survival was poor (17.6 months from first symptom; 11.8 months from diagnosis). Patients with a pleural primary tumour were more likely to present with dyspnoea, chest pain and cough; to have a pleural effusion diagnosed radiologically; and to have metastatic spread. Patients with a peritoneal primary tumour were more likely to present with weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and ascites; to have radiologic evidence of asbestos exposure; and to have spread along a needle track created during a diagnostic tap. A minority of patients had past thoracic conditions, or radiologic findings, specifically related to previous asbestos exposure. About one fifth of patients had no known asbestos exposure. Forty-one per cent of subjects received some form of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery, but no formal disease staging had been documented for any patient. Proper controlled trials of secondary and tertiary treatments in malignant mesothelioma are now needed.

  10. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  11. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources.

  12. Humans, water, and the colonization of Australia

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Damien

    2016-01-01

    The Pleistocene global dispersal of modern humans required the transit of arid and semiarid regions where the distribution of potable water provided a primary constraint on dispersal pathways. Here, we provide a spatially explicit continental-scale assessment of the opportunities for Pleistocene human occupation of Australia, the driest inhabited continent on Earth. We establish the location and connectedness of persistent water in the landscape using the Australian Water Observations from Space dataset combined with the distribution of small permanent water bodies (springs, gnammas, native wells, waterholes, and rockholes). Results demonstrate a high degree of directed landscape connectivity during wet periods and a high density of permanent water points widely but unevenly distributed across the continental interior. A connected network representing the least-cost distance between water bodies and graded according to terrain cost shows that 84% of archaeological sites >30,000 y old are within 20 km of modern permanent water. We further show that multiple, well-watered routes into the semiarid and arid continental interior were available throughout the period of early human occupation. Depletion of high-ranked resources over time in these paleohydrological corridors potentially drove a wave of dispersal farther along well-watered routes to patches with higher foraging returns. PMID:27671630

  13. Training in addiction medicine in Australia.

    PubMed

    Haber, Paul S; Murnion, Bridin P

    2011-04-01

    Barriers to entering addiction medicine (AM) have led to a persisting workforce shortage. To address this problem, the Chapter of Addiction Medicine (AChAM) was formed in 2001 as a subdivision of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP). Through consultation, AChAM has identified the scope of practice and offered fellowship to suitable established practitioners. The Chapter successfully applied to the Australian Government for recognition of AM as a medical specialty, which was finalized in November 2009. Specialist reimbursement item numbers were incorporated into that decision process and commence operating in November 2010. AChAM has designed and implemented a training scheme using a model similar to that of the RACP internal medicine training program. This comprises 3 years of basic general medical training post internship followed by 3 years of discipline-specific supervised training. The training is broadly based, with experience in both ambulatory care and inpatient care, and including physical health as well as mental health. Assessment is continuous and competency based. There is no exit examination. The overriding clinical approach rests upon the harm minimization framework consistent with long-established national drug policy in Australia and favors evidence-based treatment.

  14. Serving rural Australia with reproductive health expertise.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Kovacs, G T; Kinfu, Y

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to review the use of reproductive health services in Family Planning clinics by women from rural (non-metropolitan) Australia through a retrospective analysis of data collected at clinics of seven state/territory Family Planning Organisations (FPO). From a total of 146 157 client visits to FPO clinics between July 1998 and June 1999, 42 497 (29.1%) were by clients who lived outside metropolitan areas. Some 97% of clients were women. Our results show the use of reproductive health services by women from rural areas was different from the services used by women from metropolitan areas. There were fewer male clients, more women over 40 years of age, and fewer clients from a non-English speaking background. More of the attendees had pension cards and fewer were privately insured. We concluded there is considerable demand for reproductive health services among the rural population and reproductive health care needs to be expanded to reach rural women. PMID:11736848

  15. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  16. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  17. Newspaper coverage of water issues in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hurlimann, Anna; Dolnicar, Sara

    2012-12-01

    The media has been found to have an impact on public debate, public opinion, and public policy agendas. Public debate, and public opinion about water conservation and water supply management projects matter because they can influence specific outcomes. For example, public opinion can potentially lead to positive behaviour, like increased water conservation, or potentially negative behaviours such as public opposition to developments such as dams or water recycling plants, which may be necessary under changing climatic conditions. It is therefore critical to understand how the media reports on water-related topics. Results from a content analysis of 1253 newspaper articles published in Australia in 2008 indicate that water-related reports are characterised by lack of inclusion of views held by various stakeholders, a low level of support of statements with scientific evidence, a low level of impartiality in the sense of reporting on opposing views and a relatively high level of hedging, meaning that the author signals that there is some uncertainly about the reported information. In sum these tendencies could theoretically culminate to work against public engagement in water issues and undermine the public's understanding of and confidence in water management measures. Proactive measures of media management are recommended. PMID:23079126

  18. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring ‘giant penguins’ after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  19. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary J; Faunce, Thomas A; Johnston, Kellie

    2006-09-18

    Australia is largely self-sufficient in its supply of safe, fresh blood products because of the goodwill of non-remunerated, volunteer donors, plus rigorous testing and processing standards. CSL Limited is the sole provider of plasma fractionation services in Australia, enjoying exclusive rights under the Plasma Fractionation Agreement with the Australian Government. In the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), Australia agreed to review its current contract with CSL Limited, and to recommend to the states and territories that the process be opened up to overseas tender. Overseas tenders for off-shore fractionation services are likely to be highly competitive due to their low manufacturing costs and accumulated expertise. Off-shore fractionation could compromise the safety of Australia's blood supply through delays in processing and transportation, issues related to quality control, and even the siphoning of stock to overseas markets. This could compromise the long-term care of Australian patients and create a serious national security risk in the event of a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Australia's AUSFTA obligation to recommend changes does not equate to an obligation to actually proceed. The states and territories should carefully consider whether such changes would be in our national interest. The long-term security of the Australian people in the current security environment is dependent on continuance of an on-shore fractionation plant and appropriate back-up facilities. PMID:16999673

  20. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  1. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  2. Overview of substance use and treatment from Australia.

    PubMed

    Haber, Paul S; Day, Carolyn A

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of drug and alcohol issues and their management in Australia. Overall, Australia has good health relative to the United States and other similar nations and generally similar rates of substance use disorders. A whole-of-government strategic approach has been developed for managing drug and alcohol problems, with a National Drug Strategy that has adopted a pragmatic approach to substance use problems through 3 "pillars"--demand, supply, and harm reduction. This approach has been attributed to Australia's remarkably low human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among people who inject drugs (<2%). Most community primary health care is provided through Australia's universal health care scheme, which provides a rebate for nearly all medical services according to a scheduled fee. Inpatient and outpatient care, including drug and alcohol services, delivered at public hospitals are currently provided with no patient co-payments. The health of Australia's first peoples, Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, remains challenging primarily due to the transgenerational impacts of dispossession, social and economic disadvantage, and some cultural differences. Although substance use is a key issue for Australian Aboriginals, there are currently insufficient dedicated drug and alcohol services for this group. Notwithstanding this important exception, Australia's health and substance use is favorable relative to other developed nations, offering universal health care and a pragmatic drug and alcohol strategy.

  3. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  4. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010.

    PubMed

    Turner, Aj

    2011-09-01

    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. PMID:21864310

  5. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  6. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  7. Obesity and health expenditures: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Johar, Meliyanni

    2015-04-01

    Rising rates of obesity are a public health concern in every industrialized country. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and health care expenditure in Australia, where the rate of obesity has tripled in the last three decades. Now one in four Australians is considered obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of 30 or over. The analysis is based on a random sample survey of over 240,000 adults aged 45 and over that is linked at the individual-level to comprehensive administrative health care claims for the period 2006-2009. This sub-population group has an obesity rate that is nearly 30% and is a major consumer of health services. Relative to the average annual health expenditures of those with normal weight, we find that the health expenditures of those with a BMI between 30 and 35 (obese type I) are 19% higher and expenditures of those with BMI greater than 35 (obese type II/III) are 51% higher. We find large and significant differences in all types of care: inpatient, emergency department, outpatient and prescription drugs. The obesity-related health expenditures are higher for obese type I women than men, but in the obese type II/III state, obesity-related expenditures are higher for men. When we stratify further by age groups, we find that obesity has the largest impact among men over age 75 and women aged 60-74 years old. In addition, we find that obesity impacts health expenditures not only through its link to chronic diseases, but also because it increases the cost of recovery from acute health shocks.

  8. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  9. Equity of health care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lairson, D R; Hindson, P; Hauquitz, A

    1995-08-01

    This paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing and delivery in Australia and compares its performance with recent findings on systems in Europe and the United States. Vertical equity of finance is evaluated with income and payment concentration indices derived from published survey data on taxes and expenditure by income decile. Horizontal equity of health care delivery is assessed with standardized expenditure concentration coefficients for three measures of health status and four types of health services, derived from household survey data on health care utilization, health status, income and demographics. Health cover is available to the entire population. Results show the financing system is slightly progressive despite the fact that 30% of payment comes from private sources, which are regressive. The equity index compares favorably to many European countries and is much better than the U.S. which has a regressive financing system. The Australian system fares less well in terms of equity of health care delivery. Several features favor privately insured higher income persons in use of health care and this is reflected, for some health status measures and types of service, in inequity favoring the better off. This contrasts with inequity favoring the less well off in many European countries and the U.S. This analysis provides a benchmark for monitoring the equity of the Australian system and provides information on the equity of a mixed private and public financing system that covers the entire population. This is relevant to the U.S. which is moving in this direction by extending private cover to the uninsured and to European countries that are increasing private sector involvement in health care financing. PMID:7481941

  10. Dialysis treatment in Australia, 1982 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Disney, A P

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of new dialysis-dependent patients in Australia increased rapidly from 1982, due mainly to acceptance for treatment of more elderly patients. In 1988, 21% of patients beginning dialysis were 65 to 74 years old, and a further 26% were 55 to 64 years. Consequently, the prevalence of dialysis-dependent patients increased considerably during the same period, particularly in the age range 55 to 74 years. Diabetes-induced renal failure accounted for a constant low proportion of new patients, approximately 10%, which contrasted with the experience in some other countries. Hemodialysis (HD) was the more common method of treatment compared with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in 1988 (70% v 30%, respectively). Home dialysis treatment, HD or CAPD, supported 50% of all dialysis-dependent patients. Patient survival at 1, 2, and 5 years after initiating treatment was 89%, 78%, and 48%, respectively. Age and method of dialysis significantly influenced survival; the elderly and diabetic had a lower expectation of survival. The difference in survival of HD compared with CAPD increased with the duration of treatment, reaching 20% at 5 years (5-year survival, 59% HD; 39% CAPD). There was no evidence of increasing mortality among patients beginning treatment recently. Withdrawal from treatment represented 16% of deaths during 1988; 19% of the deaths were in the age group 65 to 74 years. The influence of the morbidity and mortality of dialysis on provision of such treatment for end-stage renal failure in the elderly population warrants an objective review of both the benefits to the individual and the availability of health care to the whole society.

  11. A new population curve for prehistoric Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alan N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new reconstruction of prehistoric population of Australia for the last 50 ka, using the most comprehensive radiocarbon database currently available for the continent. The application of new techniques to manipulate radiocarbon data (including correction for taphonomic bias), gives greater reliability to the reconstructed population curve. This shows low populations through the Late Pleistocene, before a slow stepwise increase in population beginning during the Holocene transition (approx. 12 ka) and continuing in pulses (approx. 8.3–6.6, 4.4–3.7 and 1.6–0.4 ka) through the Holocene. These data give no support for an early saturation of the continent, although the estimated population following initial landfall was probably greater than previously allowed (comparable with the Early Holocene). The greatest increase in population occurred in the Late Holocene, but in contrast to existing intensification models, changes in demography and diversification of economic activities began much earlier. Some demographic changes appear to be in response to major climatic events, most notably during the last glacial maximum, where the curve suggests that population fell by about 60 per cent between 21 and 18 ka. An application of statistical demographic methods to Australian ethnographic and genetic data suggests that a founding group of 1000–2000 at 50 ka would result in a population high of approximately 1.2 million at approximately 0.5 ka. Data suggests an 8 per cent decline to approximately 770 000–1.1 million at the time of European contact, giving a figure consistent with ethnographic estimates and with historical observations of the impact of smallpox, and other diseases introduced by Macassans and Europeans during and after AD 1788. PMID:23615287

  12. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  13. Evolution of vocational rehabilitation competencies in Australia.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynda R; Buys, Nicholas; Randall, Christine; Biggs, Herbert; Hazelwood, Zoe

    2010-06-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growth in the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services globally, as countries seek to control disability-related expenditure, yet there has been minimal research outside the United States on competencies required to work in this area. This study reports on research conducted in Australia to determine current job function and knowledge areas in terms of their importance and frequency of use in the provision of vocational rehabilitation. A survey comprising items from the Rehabilitation Skills Inventory-Amended and International Survey of Disability Management was completed by 149 rehabilitation counselors and items submitted to factor analysis. T-tests and analyses of variance were used to determine differences between scores of importance and frequency and differences in scores based on work setting and professional training. Six factors were identified as important and frequently used: (i) vocational counseling, (ii) professional practice, (iii) personal counseling, (iv) rehabilitation case management, (v) workplace disability case management, and (vi) workplace intervention and program management. Vocational counseling, professional practice and personal counseling were significantly more important and performed more frequently by respondents in vocational rehabilitation settings than those in compensation settings. These same three factors were rated significantly higher in importance and frequency by those with rehabilitation counselor training when compared with those with other training. In conclusion, although 'traditional' knowledge and skill areas such as vocational counseling, professional practice, and personal counseling were identified as central to vocational rehabilitation practice in Australian rehabilitation agencies, mean ratings suggest a growing emphasis on knowledge and skills associated with disability management practice.

  14. Assessment of the Risk of Ebola Importation to Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Robert C.; Cassey, Phillip; Hugo, Graeme J.; Ross, Joshua V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the risk of Ebola importation to Australia during the first six months of 2015, based upon the current outbreak in West Africa. Methodology: We assessed the risk under two distinct scenarios: (i) assuming that significant numbers of cases of Ebola remain confined to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and using historic passenger arrival data into Australia; and, (ii) assuming potential secondary spread based upon international flight data. A model appropriate to each scenario is developed, and parameterised using passenger arrival card or international flight data, and World Health Organisation case data from West Africa. These models were constructed based on WHO Ebola outbreak data as at 17 October 2014 and 3 December 2014. An assessment of the risk under each scenario is reported. On 27 October 2014 the Australian Government announced a policy change, that visas from affected countries would be refused/cancelled, and the predicted effect of this policy change is reported. Results: The current probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015, having travelled directly from West Africa with historic passenger arrival rates into Australia, is 0.34. Under the new Australian Government policy of restricting visas from affected countries (as of 27 October 2014), the probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015 is reduced to 0.16. The probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015 via an outbreak from a secondary source country is approximately 0.12. Conclusions: Our models suggest that if the transmission of Ebola remains unchanged, it is possible that a case will enter Australia within the first six months of 2015, either directly from West Africa (even when current visa restrictions are considered), or via secondary outbreaks elsewhere. Government and medical authorities should be prepared to respond to this eventuality. Control measures within West Africa over recent months have

  15. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  16. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  17. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  18. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  19. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  20. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  1. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  2. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  3. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  4. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options. PMID:23431857

  5. The viruses of Australia and the risk to tourists.

    PubMed

    Smith, David W; Speers, David J; Mackenzie, John S

    2011-05-01

    Australia is a climatically diverse country varying from a tropical climate in the north to arid central desert and grassland regions, and to temperate climates in the south. There are many viral infections found in Australia that are common to developed countries worldwide, but this article will focus on those that pose a special risk for travellers to Australia, especially the mosquito-borne viruses. The commonest are the members of the alphavirus genus, particularly Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, which cause predominantly arthralgia with or without fever or rash. Less frequent but more serious illness is seen with the encephalitic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, and the Kunjin strain of West Nile virus. In addition dengue occurs intermittently on the northern part of Queensland, and in recent years Japanese encephalitis virus has been found in the Torres Strait Islands and the tip of far north Queensland. Also of interest, but with a much lower risk, are the bat-borne viruses, Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus, that have caused a small number of human infections. However, it is important to remember that most tourists pass through other countries in the Asia/Pacific region on their way to and from Australia and may therefore have acquired infections prior to or after leaving Australia.

  6. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia. PMID:26126071

  7. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  8. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  9. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  10. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  11. FPA of Western Australia project 'Network.'.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R; Allan, R; Mills, M

    1980-01-01

    Australia's volunteer project, Network, operates under the following assumptions: many young people are sexually active as is indicated by the unwanted pregnancies in these age groups; adolescents are in need of information relevant to both their sexual activity and their sexuality and the opportunity to share their views on the reasons for their sexual activity, their needs, fears and conflicts arising form this in an open manner; young people with minimal training can be more effective in talking about sexuality with their own peers in contrast to other formal and conventional methods of sex education; and young adolescents need a more nondemanding atmosphere so that they could decide their level of participation. Toward this end, Network's objectives were aimed at providing a group of trained young volunteers who were prepared to work with groups of young people and an opportunity for these young people to have free access to information concerning contraception and a place and people with whom they could discuss openly matters relevant to them as developing individuals. A group of 10 volunteers was selected in November 1976. They were primarily tertiary eduation students from the field of medicine, social workers, and a YWCA trainee counselor. The 1st stage was to train the group to acquire knowledge in contraceptive technology, their own sexuality and to become comfortable in discussing sexuality and relationships, and group dynamics and group manangement. The Association's staff were to provide the information and to train the volunteers in contraceptive technology. The areas concerned with group work and understanding of one's own sexuality were primarily conducted by 1 of the social workers. In January 1977 the Network began to function on the Family planning Association's (FPA) premises. For the November 1976 to November 1977 period, support from the FPA Council was minimal but the staff was very helpful and assisted in a variety of ways. In June 1978

  12. Current issues on ageing in Japan: a comparison with Australia.

    PubMed

    Someya, Yoshiko; Wells, Yvonne

    2008-03-01

    Japan's demography has changed dramatically, and with it, Japanese society and the circumstances of older people. These changes include shifts in family roles and functions, employment and social relations. Traditionally, families provided financial, physical and psychological support to their parents in the same household. While the proportion of older Japanese who live with adult children is still high in comparison to the rate in Western developed countries, patterns of care in Japan are gradually shifting towards the Western model. Public pensions supply financial support and the Long-Term Care Insurance System (LCIS) provides substantial physical care for frail older people. This paper focuses on current issues for older people in Japan, and provides a brief comparison with the situation in Australia. Japan's LCIS provides a simpler and more consistent basis for funding long-term care than Australia's system. On the other hand, Australia's pension system is comparatively robust. PMID:18713209

  13. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  14. How Australia came to have a National Women's Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Gray, G

    1998-01-01

    A National Women's Health Policy was launched in Australia in 1989, and Australia became the only country to have a comprehensive policy on women's health. The policy is intended to provide a framework for decision-making in both mainstream and separate women's health services. The author examines the forces and factors that led to the formulation and adoption of the policy, then addresses the question of why Australia is alone in choosing a national policy as a focus for women's health action. A number of key influences, either absent or weaker in comparable countries, worked together to facilitate policy development. The activities of women working in a number of arenas coincided with the election of relatively supportive governments, creation of women's policy machinery in bureaucracies, employment of feminists in key positions, and opportunities for policy expansion afforded by federalism. These influences, within the Australian ideological context of strong support for social liberalism, account for the country's distinctive policy position.

  15. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  16. New unidentate jumping spider genera (Araneae: Salticidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    The Australian fauna includes large numbers of undescribed, tiny, litter-living, jumping spiders. In this paper four monotypic new genera (Ananeon howardensis n. g. n. sp., Barraina anfracta n. g. n.sp., Frewena maculata n.g. n.s., and Pungalina weiri n.g, n.sp.) are described. Two species (Neon taylori n.sp. and Neon australis n. sp.) representing the two distinctive morphological patterns found in Australian species of this genus are also described. The former, similar in the morphology of the palp and genitalia to that found in many species from eastern Australia, is most similar in morphology to N. sumatranus Logunov 1998 from Indonesia and N. kovblyuki Logunov 2004 from the Crimea. The latter, and other similar species from South Australia and Western Australia, has palp morphology and fringing on L1 very similar to that seen in N. nojimai Ikeda 1995 from Japan. PMID:26106785

  17. Heat flow measurements on the southeast coast of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, R.D.; Jaeger, J.C.; Sass, J.H.

    1969-01-01

    Three boreholes have been drilled for the Australian National University near the southeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. The heat flows found are 1.1, 1.0, and 1.3 ??cal/cm2sec. The errors resulting from the proximity of the sea and a lake, surface temperature change, conductivity structure and water flow have been examined. The radioactive heat production in some of the intrusive rocks of the area have also been measured. The heat flows are much lower than the values of about 2.0 found elsewhere in south eastern Australia. The lower values appear to be part of a distinct heat flow province in eastern Australia. ?? 1969.

  18. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century. PMID:23118313

  19. Cancer incidence in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Grulich, A. E.; McCredie, M.; Coates, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer incidence during 1972-90 in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, is described. Overall cancer incidence was lower than in the Australia born in most migrant groups, and this reached significance in migrants born in China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and India/Sri Lanka, and in male migrants born in Indonesia. For the majority of cancers, rates were more similar to those in the Australia born than to those in the countries of birth. For cancers of the breast, colorectum and prostate, rates were relatively low in the countries of birth, but migrants generally exhibited rates nearer those of the Australia born. For cancers of the liver and cervix and, in India/Sri Lanka-born migrants, of the oral cavity, incidence was relatively high in the countries of birth but tended to be lower, nearer Australia-born rates, in the migrants. For these cancers, environmental factors related to the migrant's adopted country, and migrant selection, appeared to have a major effect on the risk of cancer. For certain other cancers, incidence was more similar to that in the countries of birth. Nasopharyngeal cancer, and lung cancer in females, had high rates in both the countries of birth and in migrants to Australia. Nasopharyngeal cancer rates were highest in China/Taiwan and Hong Kong-born migrants, and were also significantly high in migrants from Malaysia/Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Rates of lung cancer were significantly high in women born in China/Taiwan, and the excess was greater for adenocarcinoma than for squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma had low rates in both the migrants and in the countries of birth. For these cancers, it was probable that genetic factors, or environmental factors acting prior to migration, were important in causation. PMID:7841061

  20. Australia's southern margin: a product of oblique extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcox, J. B.; Stagg, H. M. J.

    1990-02-01

    Recently developed detachment models of continental margin formation interpret the southern margin of Australia to have formed when the lower-plate Australian margin was pulled out from beneath the upper-plate Antarctic margin. Data now available and summarised in this paper, point very strongly to a generally NW-SE direction of initial continental extension for the southern margin, in contrast to the widely held picture of simple N-S rifting. The evidence for this extension direction comes from the analysis of deep Seismic data acquired by the Bureau of Mineral Resources in 1986 in the central Great Australian Bight (GAB), the gravity field of the GAB, Seismic and magnetic basement structures in the Eyre Sub-basin, Polda Trough, Ceduna Depocentre and Duntroon Basin and from the analysis of the magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies produced during the slow first phase of drifting between Australia and Antarctica. Further, it is now believed that the formation of the southern margin of Australia can be described in terms of three phases of continental extension (El to E3) and two phases of drifting (D1 and D2). In summary, these phases were as follows. E1: approximately 300 km of Late Jurassic (?or older) to Early Cretaceous NW-SE-oriented extension in the GAB, with strike-slip motion in the nascent Otway Basin and along the Tasmanian margin. E2: 120 km of Early Cretaceous NNE-SSW-oriented extension which formed the basins of southeastern Australia (Otway, Bass, Gippsland) and which probably produced a structural overprinting in the GAB Basin. E3/D1: minor continental extension and the first 500 km of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica on an azimuth of 165°; wrenching on the Tasmanian margin. D2: 2600 km of fast drifting between Australia and Antarctica on a N-S azimuth.

  1. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Australia, 1947-1980.

    PubMed

    Musk, A W; Dolin, P J; Armstrong, B K; Ford, J M; de Klerk, N H; Hobbs, M S

    1989-03-01

    Details of patients with malignant mesothelioma that was diagnosed in Australia before 1981 were obtained by searching all possible sources throughout Australia as far into the past as possible and up to and including 1980. The earliest patient with mesothelioma who was identified was diagnosed in Victoria in 1947. By 1980, 535 (81%) men and 123 (19%) women had been diagnosed with the disease; only 14 persons were aged less than 35 years at the time of diagnosis (the youngest person was 15 years of age). The incidence rate in subjects who were 35 years or older at diagnosis was less than 1.0 cases per million person-years until 1964-1968, and then it rose progressively to 15.5 cases per million person-years in 1979-1980. The highest rate (69.7 cases per million person-years) was observed in 65- to 74-year-old men in 1979-1980. The incidence rate in Western Australia was greater than were the rates in other states of Australia after the mid 1960s. Pleural mesotheliomas accounted for 88% of cases in which the site of the tumour was known; peritoneal mesotheliomas accounted for 10% of such cases and "other" sites for 2% of such cases. In 6% of cases the site was not specified. The exposure to asbestos was stated as "definite" in 59% of the cases with a recorded history of exposure: 8% of all the cases in the study had been exposed to crocidolite (blue asbestos) from Wittenoom Gorge in Western Australia. The age at diagnosis of patients with known exposure to asbestos was similar to that in those without known exposure. The increases in the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Australia follow the published trends in the production and use of the amphibole varieties of asbestos in this country after a lag period of between 20 and 30 years.

  2. Trafficking in persons and victim health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schloenhardt, Andreas; Klug, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    This article explores the health problems experienced by victims of trafficking in persons in Australia and analyses the domestic support schemes established to assist these victims. It focuses specifically on the health of adult, female victims who constitute the majority of identified victims, and who are the principal recipients of government support services. Domestic experiences and support schemes are reviewed in the light of international law and best practice guidelines. Recommendations are made to improve the health services available to victims of trafficking in persons in Australia. PMID:22320010

  3. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.

  4. Project Skippy explores lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, Rob; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John

    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband seismic data from over 60 sites across the continent (Figure 1).The main goal of the Skippy Project, which is run by Australian National University's Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES), is to delineate the three-dimensional seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath the continent.

  5. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.

  6. The Virginia Pipeline: Australia's largest water recycling project.

    PubMed

    Kracman, B; Martin, R; Sztajnbok, P

    2001-01-01

    The need to conserve, reuse and recycle water is becoming increasingly important for both environmental and economic reasons. The Virginia Pipeline is Australia's largest water recycling project. More than half the output from (the capital of South Australia) Adelaide's largest wastewater treatment plant is further treated to achieve a product water quality fit for irrigation of vegetable crops with minimal public health restrictions. The project partners have a vision to achieve total reuse. To achieve this vision, recycled water will need to be stored during cool weather periods when the demand for water is low. Temporary storage of this water in poor quality aquifers is the subject of a major research project.

  7. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  8. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  9. Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Alvalez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and represents an outstanding example of hydrothermal Nickel sulphide mineralization type. Avebury Ni deposit is a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. It is hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of the mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. The mineralization is spatially and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar Continental Flood basalt Province in the East and presents early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is related to the Karoo Province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was involved in the break up of Gondwana. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province, as well as several prospective reduced or reactive sedimentary packages within and around the Ferrar indicate that this LIP could represent a novel promising ground for Ni hydrothermal exploration. Based on this prospective geological background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni deposits was carried out on regional scale for the entire state of Tasmania. A conceptual model of hydrothermal nickel mineral system was used to

  10. Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.; Maier, W.

    2009-04-01

    Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and consists of a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. They are hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. This is based on the low sulphur, low Cu and Platinum element content of the mineralization. The mineralization is spatially (at the edge) and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar continental flood basalt province in the East and constrains a number of early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is temporally and genetically related to the Karoo igneous province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo igneous provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was responsible for the break up of eastern Gondwana at ca 180 Ma. Despite of timeframe differences between the Avebury Ni deposits and the Ferrar LIP emplacement, similar geological settings to the Avebury could be duplicated along the Ferrar LIP. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province indicate that this LIP could represent a possible exploration target for Ni hydrothermal deposits. Based on this background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni

  11. Senate Inquiry into the Role of Libraries in the Online Environment: Submission from Public Libraries Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Library Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This submission represents the views of a newly formed organisation known as Public Libraries Australia. Formed to aggregate the political, service and infrastructure capacity of Australia's 1510 (ABS June 2000) public libraries, Public Libraries Australia will support and represent public libraries on a national basis. Networked across Australia…

  12. 20 CFR 25.201 - How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employees in Australia? 25.201 Section 25.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (a) The special schedule of compensation established by subpart B of this part shall apply in Australia with the modifications or...

  13. The Crisis Discourse of a Wicked Policy Problem: Vocational Skills Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Rudd Labor government in Australia introduced significant changes to education policy for the nation. The "Skilling Australia's Future" (Rudd et al. "Skilling Australia for the future. Election 2007 policy document," 2007) policy was meant to redress a perceived failure by the previous Howard federal Liberal-National Coalition…

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. Special Issue: Career Development "Down Under" in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Deborah P., Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Postgraduate Training for Adult Career Development (CD)" (Hedberg); "Organizational CD in Australia" (Rylatt); "How Some Australian Women Are Using CD Techniques to Break through the Glass Ceiling" (Wareing); "Career Assessment Instruments in Use in Australia" (McCrossin); "Development and Use of Computer-Assisted CD Tools in Australia"…

  20. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  1. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  2. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  3. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  4. The Hidden Topography of Australia's Arts Nation: The Contribution of Universities to the Artistic Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In "Arts Nation" 2015, the Australia Council documented the current landscape of artistic endeavour in Australia, acknowledging that there are still gaps that need to be filled to build a greater public understanding of the arts in Australia. The contribution of Australian universities to the arts is one such lacuna. This paper seeks to…

  5. Beyond the Conventional Wisdom: Rural Development As If Australia's Rural People Really Mattered. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan; Sher, Katrina Rowe

    This paper proposes a framework for developing a national rural development policy in Australia. Some common relevant misconceptions are that rural Australia and rural Australians are peripheral to the national economy and the nation's future, that farmers and farming communities are the alpha and omega of rural Australia, and that whatever is…

  6. Deaf Culture's Impact on Educational Programs for the Deaf in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, John

    This paper discusses recent trends in provision of educational programs and services reflecting the Deaf community's recognition in Australia as a linguistic and cultural minority, focusing on the Bilingual/Bicultural program of the Thomas Pattison School in Sydney (Australia). The history of Deaf culture, language, and education in Australia and…

  7. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of…

  8. Managing Language Diversity and Second Language Programmes in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the status of community languages and school language programs in Australia, amid changing public policy, makes suggestions for managing linguistic diversity, and considers what happens when a community language becomes a desired commodity for the whole population. Considers historical context for development of pluralistic policies in…

  9. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  10. Sharing Music and Culture through Singing in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the notion of sharing music and culture as an effective platform to celebrate diversity in Melbourne, Australia. My research project "Celebrating Music Making and Finding Meaning" investigates and illustrates a context of diversity, one that promotes respect in a multicultural society sharing music and culture of a minority…

  11. Novel Phlebovirus with Zoonotic Potential Isolated from Ticks, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianning; Selleck, Paul; Yu, Meng; Ha, Wendy; Rootes, Chrissy; Gales, Rosemary; Wise, Terry; Crameri, Sandra; Chen, Honglei; Broz, Ivano; Hyatt, Alex; Woods, Rupert; Meehan, Brian; McCullough, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Recently discovered tick-borne phleboviruses have been associated with severe disease and death among persons in Asia and the United States. We report the discovery of a novel tick phlebovirus in Tasmania State, Australia, that is closely related to those zoonotic viruses found in Asia and North America. PMID:24856477

  12. Research Update 2010: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records 17 incidents not previously recorded in papers in this series (Brookes, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2007), in which 15 participants, two supervisors or teachers, and one member of the public died. Eleven of the incidents occurred since…

  13. Senior Secondary Workplace Learning and Transition Success in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemici, Sinan; Curtis, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of participation in workplace learning among senior secondary students in Australia. Work placements are deemed to be effective if they meet policy objectives of improving student transitions by (a) enhancing Year 12 completion rates and (b) increasing the engagement of…

  14. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  15. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  16. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Australia: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Australia's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. The review team met with policymakers and guidance practitioners in four states and at the national level, conducted site visits to various career guidance providers in the public and private sectors, analyzed data from a national questionnaire, and reviewed pertinent documentation.…

  17. Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

  18. The Art of Being an English Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyden, Grace

    2015-01-01

    The role of the English teacher in Australia is constantly being negotiated and with every ideological development teachers are positioned to question their professional values and practices. Much attention has been afforded to this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an analysis of the evolution of the art of being an English…

  19. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  20. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  1. Inclusive Education in Australia: Rhetoric, Reality and the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joanna; Boyle, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is a term that has been part of the educational discourse in Australia for almost two decades. While there is no overarching definition under which IE operates in that country, it is accepted that the meaning behind the term has shifted from being exclusively about students with a disability to now encompassing the…

  2. Leaning Too Far? PISA, Policy and Australia's "Top Five" Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika; Wu, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Australia has declared its ambition to be within the "top five" in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by 2025. So serious is it about this ambition, that the Australian Government has incorporated it into the "Australian Education Act, 2013". Given this focus on PISA results and rankings, we go beyond…

  3. Pathways: Developing the Skills of Australia's Workforce. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Hugh; Stanwick, John; Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper was originally developed to help the Training and Skills Commission in South Australia consider the pathways between elements of the vocational education and training (VET) system, how they are working and what improvements can be made. It has been revised to make it national in scope. The authors reveal that quite substantial numbers…

  4. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  5. The Economics of a Multicultural Australia: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, P. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The growth of a multicultural Australia is generating debate on the economic effects of multiculturalism. This paper examines the extent to which competing claims can draw support from the literature and the extent to which economic issues arising from the growth of a multicultural Australian society have been identified and assessed.(30…

  6. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  7. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  8. The Bradley Review and Access to Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birrell, Bob; Edwards, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The "Review of Higher Education in Australia" (the Bradley Review) has recommended a massive expansion in the level of domestic training in Australian universities. This article examines the Report's rationale for rejecting the previous orthodoxy that there is no need for such expansion and, to the extent that there is, it would be better focussed…

  9. Adult Retraining and Reskilling in Australia and South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Katrina; Lee, Young-Hyun; Phan, Oanh; Ra, Young-Sun

    A study explored the mechanisms used by adults in Australia and Korea to keep their skills current or to enhance their range of skills. Data were gathered through recent research reports and unpublished unemployment and training data. The study identified areas of the vocational education and training systems in the two countries that are…

  10. Australia's First Prime Ministerial Library: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman-Brown, Lesley; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Wallace, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    In creating Australia's first prime ministerial library, a new cultural institution was developed which blends professional practice from the fields of librarianship, education, archives, journalism and museums. The John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library honours the contribution of wartime prime minister John Curtin, works towards the advancement…

  11. A new species of Austrothaumalea Tonnoir from Australia (Diptera: Thaumaleidae).

    PubMed

    Pivar, Robert J; Moulton, John K; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Austrothaumalea spiculata sp. nov. is described from Grampians National Park, in southwest Victoria (Australia). It is known only from the type series and is the second species of Thaumaleidae recorded from the Park. Illustrations of the male terminalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided. Phylogenetic affinities are hypothesized and an updated species identification key is offered. PMID:27395698

  12. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barry; And Others

    This document contains 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: (1) N.S.W. (New South Wales) Department of Agriculture Home Study Program (O'Neill); (2) Increasing Citizen Participation in Local Government (Holderness-Roddam); (3) School for Seniors (Benham and Vickers); (4) Community Living Project (Bleechmore); (5) Learning for the Less…

  13. Constitutional and Legislative Framework for Inclusive Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter; Forlin, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Argues that in Australia, despite complex educational laws/policies, no legal mandate that ensures inclusive education exists. The legislative structure for education is outlined from a constitutional perspective; duties, rights, and responsibilities of teachers, specifically concerning inclusion of children with disabilities in the regular…

  14. Marriage Counselling in Australia: A Review. Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Ilene

    In Australia, the institutions of marriage and family are changing as reflected by the statistics on separation, divorce, and remarriage. Recent figures reveal an increase in divorce in the earlier years of marriage as well as a dramatic increase in the number of remarriages occuring across all age groups. Under the Family Law Act the government…

  15. "Educare" in Australia: Analysing Policy Mobility and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood education and care has been an area of significant policy attention, public investment and private market activity in Australia over the past three decades. Australian educationists and policy-makers have looked to international examples for evidence, policy design and institutional models. However, this area is…

  16. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  17. Mycobacterium chelonae abscesses associated with biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Mihaela; Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of skin abscesses occurred in Adelaide, Australia, in association with biomesotherapy, an alternative therapy practice. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 8 patient and 3 environmental samples. Our findings show M. chelonae infection can be associated with alternative therapies when infection-control breaches occur. Tighter regulations of alternative therapy practices are needed. PMID:23968779

  18. Doing Diversity Work in Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Sara

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how diversity is used as a key term to describe the social and educational mission of universities in Australia. The paper suggests that we need to explore what diversity "does" in specific contexts. Drawing on interviews with diversity and equal opportunities practitioners, the paper suggests that "diversity" is used in the…

  19. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  20. Leading for Quality: Questions about Quality and Leadership in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article is situated in the context of recent policies for teacher quality in Australia. Discourses on quality have crossed many domains of public policy, including education. A feature of these discourses has been an emphasis on improving teacher quality and raising professional standards. The article uses critical discourse analysis to…

  1. The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

  2. In Britain and Australia, new in vitro guidelines.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carol

    1983-02-01

    The official medical research councils of Great Britain and Australia have issued guidelines for in vitro fertilization research. The guidelines, summarized here, deal with such issues as informed consent by ovum and sperm donors; duration of embryo culture; storage of embryos; interspecies fertilization and cloning; scientific and ethical review committees; and conscientious objection by researchers.

  3. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to make music…

  4. Dustman, Milliner and Watchcase Maker: Skilling Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This paper was presented at the Professional Historians Association (NSW) Islands of History conference held on Norfolk Island in July 2010. It argues that the reliance on overseas workers to address skills shortages has been present ever since the first white settlement of Australia, which has, in turn, shaped attitudes to the governance of…

  5. Online Learning on Location: Perspectives from Regional Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Roslin; Horton, Chris; McNickle, Cathy; Osborne, Janet; Scholten, Katie

    Perspectives on online learning on location in regional Australia were examined through structured interviews with 46 learners, 23 teachers, 6 managers of flexible delivery activities, 4 organization chief executive officers, and focus groups with 20 online learners. The manager interviews established that although mangers viewed online delivery…

  6. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  7. Some Developments in Distance Education in Australia. Ziff Papiere 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdos, Renee F.

    Distance education began in Australia in the 20th century at all levels of education and has now developed into an integral part of all state systems of government funded education. Since 1909, technical training and a variety of other courses have been sponsored by government education authorities and private enterprise, although it was not until…

  8. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  9. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  10. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  11. E-Learning in Australia and Korea: Learning from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie; Choi, Jihee; Hong, Sun Yee; Lee, In Sook

    2004-01-01

    This project investigates the uptake of e-learning in two countries (Australia and Korea) which have experienced a rapid expansion of the use of information technology in education and training. A key finding is that although e-learning can increase flexibility and cost efficiencies in the delivery of training, it cannot on its own guarantee…

  12. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  13. 22 CFR 120.35 - Australia Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Implementing Arrangement Pursuant to the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington, March 14, 2008, as it may... Section 120.35 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE...

  14. Technology Education In Australia: National Policy and State Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L.

    This paper reviews a decade of development of technology education at the secondary school level in Australia. It traces the influences, both national and international, which have pressed the nation's education systems to introduce technology studies into the school curriculum. The increasing globalization, the movement of capital and labor, the…

  15. Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia in 1831-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the knowledge-diffusion activities of colonial agricultural societies in western Australia from their foundation in 1831-1870. States that from 1829 to 1850 British settlers belonged to a society of free citizens, while from 1851-1867 the settlement changed to a convict colony. (CMK)

  16. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  17. User Testing of Consumer Medicine Information in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Eleanor; Aslani, Parisa; Raynor, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) forms an important basis for the dissemination of medicines information worldwide. Methods: This article presents an overview of the design and development of Australian CMI, and discusses "user-testing" as an iterative, formative process for CMI design. Findings: In Australia, legislation and…

  18. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  19. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  20. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on Current and Future Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a critical overview of Australian research in the area of immigrant languages, arguing that this field of study is a significant component of the wider applied linguistics scene in Australia and has also contributed to enhancing the broad appreciation of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country. It shows that research…

  1. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  2. Final year engineering projects in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.

    2010-05-01

    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons. However, it can be argued that all European universities run individual projects. In most cases, whether it is in Australia or Europe, the total load for final year engineering projects is about 6.25% of the load of engineering programmes. Assessment methods were also described. They were all different whether in Australia or Europe but not very significant. It was discovered that literature reviews, oral presentations and written reports or dissertations were important elements in the assessment schemes. Many university staff, in both continents, encouraged students to publish their work in international conferences and journals if the originality of the projects was high. It can be argued that the individual project is most effective in learning outcome; however, the cost involved is also very high and its sustainability in smaller universities in Australia is in doubt.

  3. ANTA Training Update Seminar Proceedings (Brisbane, Australia, July 10, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This document contains the papers and questions submitted at the Australian National Training Authority's 1997 training update seminar, which focused on vocational education and training in schools and in technical and further education (TAFE) institutions across Australia. The following papers are included: "Welcome and Comments" (Stuart…

  4. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal

    1993-01-01

    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  5. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  6. Public and Private Schooling in Australia: Some Historical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    With the 1996 funding concessions, financing of private schools in Australia has come full circle. Australians seem prepared to accept educational democracy and pluralism as a way to pass on distinctive forms of cultural capital. However, the 1996 legislation may encourage an exodus from the state school system. (Contains 16 references.) (MLH)

  7. Comparing and Contrasting Primary School Playgrounds in Turkey and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancellor, Barbara; Cevher-Kalburan, Nilgün

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative study aims to investigate aspects of school playgrounds in the city of Denizli, Turkey and in the state of Victoria, Australia. Using a survey designed for a recent study in Victoria, data was collected from a large number of schools in both settings and analysed in light of international research findings. The most significant…

  8. Quantifying Access to Services in Remote and Rural Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis

    Each year commonwealth, state, and territory governments allocate millions of dollars to alleviate differing kinds of disadvantages among local communities in Australia. This paper is concerned with the allocation of resources to remote and rural areas by the Commonwealth Government on a national basis. Current formulas and resource allocation…

  9. Framing the Framework: Discourses in Australia's National Values Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany Mary

    2009-01-01

    In the past, many Australian state schools avoided teaching about values explicitly. However, the Australian government released Australia's first official values education policy in 2005: the "National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools" (NFVEAS). This framework represents a local manifestation of the recent international values…

  10. Socio-Economic Position and Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Tim N.

    2011-01-01

    The proportion of students enrolled at university from the lowest quartile of socio-economic position has remained static at around 15% for at least the past 15 years (DEEWR, "Transforming Australia's higher education system," 2009). This paper argues that the apparent lack of progress towards equity of access has been exacerbated due to how…

  11. Assessment for Learning in the Accountability Era: Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Val

    2011-01-01

    Developments in school education in Australia over the past decade have witnessed the rise of national efforts to reform curriculum, assessment and reporting. Constitutionally the power to decide on curriculum matters still resides with the States. Higher stakes in assessment, brought about by national testing and international comparative…

  12. Monitoring International Interest in Transnational Academic Mobility to Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff looking at potential moves to higher education institutions in Australia. By establishing a web-based portal, attracting interested parties from around the world with information about Australian universities and subsequent career opportunities, web analytics are…

  13. An Industrial Building Converted into a Girls School in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Eamon

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how an industrial building in Perth, Western Australia, has been converted into a secondary school to suit the particular needs of girls with educational and social difficulties. The aim of the building project was to provide a small school for approximately 30 students that caters to the needs of adolescent girls who are…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  15. Educational Policy for Citizenship in the Early Years in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailwood, Jo; Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Walker, Sue; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Understandings of young children as active and capable citizens, while evident in discourses of early childhood education and research, are not widely reflected in the policy for the early years of schooling in Australia. This paper makes an analysis of the gaps and tensions between discourses of young children as active citizens and policy for…

  16. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  17. Women and Leadership in Higher Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Explores the barriers that senior academic women experience in Australia. Examines whether diversity management programs might provide a useful management tool to increase the participation of senior women in higher education. Asserts that if diversity management can affect the management culture, more senior women may remain in universities and…

  18. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  19. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, S M; Jansen, C C

    2010-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin viruses) cause occasional outbreaks of encephalitis. Dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency in northern Queensland, with the largest outbreak in 50 years occurring during the 2008-2009 wet season. Of great concern are the threats posed by the importation of exotic arboviruses, such as West Nile, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses, the introduction of exotic vectors, and the potential range expansion of key Australian vectors. Environmental and anthropogenic influences provide additional uncertainty regarding the future impact of mosquito-borne pathogens in Australia. This review discusses the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response capability in Australia is provided.

  20. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Antonsson, Annika; Wilson, Louise F; Kendall, Bradley J; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Neale, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to infectious agents. Methods The population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of cancers caused by hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), Helicobacter pylori and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were calculated using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of infection in the Australian population, the relative risks associated with that infection and cancer incidence. For cancers with very strong associations to the infectious agent (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human papillomavirus [HPV] and HIV/Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus [KSHV]), calculations were based on viral prevalence in the tumour. Results An estimated 3,421 cancers (2.9% of all cancers) in Australia in 2010 were attributable to infections. Infectious agents causing the largest numbers of cancers were HPV (n=1,706), H. pylori (n=793) and HBV/HCV (n=518). Cancer sites with the greatest number of cancers caused by infections were cervix (n=818), stomach (n=694) and liver (n=483). Cancers with highest proportions attributable to infectious agents were Kaposi's sarcoma (100%), cervix (100%), nasopharynx (87%), anus (84%) and vagina (70%). Conclusions Infectious agents cause more than 3,000 cancers annually in Australia. Implications Opportunities for cancer prevention through infection control are considerable, even in a ‘first world’ nation like Australia. PMID:26437730

  1. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  2. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  3. Touching the Void: Arts Education Research in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robyn; Anderson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is an overview of arts education research in Australia. The authors argue that there is an urgent need for key arts organisations to form strategic partnerships with arts educators to provide stronger research in the area of arts education. This research base would enhance the ability of policymakers, arts administrators and arts…

  4. Refugee Settlers: Some Aspects of Australia's Changed Institutional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claydon, Leslie F.

    Reporting on Australia's attempts to aid in the resettlement of European and Asian refugees and other immigrants, this paper focused on the progress of governmental institutions in dealing with migrant problems such as education, employment, and cultural integration. The language barrier, caused by a lack of knowledge of English by the majority of…

  5. Language Teacher Research in Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne, Ed.; Burton, Jill, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, inquiry-based teaching has become a highly valued component of professional development and practitioner research in Australia and New Zealand. This volume of the Language Teacher Research Series focuses on teaching and learning experiences in those two countries, which encompass a large geographical area with diverse…

  6. A Short History of Sedition Laws in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nette, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Government's "Anti-Terrorism Act 2005" updates the sedition offenses previously found in the Crimes Act 1914. The Act is the latest and most comprehensive--and controversial--of a long list of legislation to respond to what the Federal Government has claimed is the changed security situation facing Australia. This article provides a…

  7. Initial Preparation of Secondary Teachers: Implications for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Observation of secondary art teacher education in the United Kingdom and Australia has revealed a range of differences, including a greater role for schools in initial teacher education (ITE) in UK. The literature reporting on research into preparation of teachers in UK indicates a general satisfaction among students regarding their experiences in…

  8. Financing and Regulating Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Australia has made significant changes in the ways it regulates and funds vocational education and training (VET), with increased emphasis on competition to promote efficient delivery of the type of programs that students and employers want. National, state and territory governments have increased the role of employers by basing nationally…

  9. MAGSAT anomaly field data of the crustal properties of Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.

  10. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  11. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  12. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Land cover information is critical for national reporting and decision making in Australia. A review of information requirements for reporting on national environmental indicators identified the need for consistent land cover information to be compared against a baseline. A Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) for Australia has been developed by Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) recently, to provide a comprehensive and consistent land cover information baseline to enable monitoring and reporting for sustainable farming practices, water resource management, soil erosion, and forests at national and regional scales. The DLCD was produced from the analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data at 250-metre resolution derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period from 2000 to 2008. The EVI time series data for each pixel was modelled as 12 coefficients based on the statistical, phenological and seasonal characteristics. The time series were then clustered in coefficients spaces and labelled using ancillary information on vegetation and land use at the catchment scale. The accuracy of the DLCD was assessed using field survey data over 25,000 locations provided by vegetation and land management agencies in State and Territory jurisdictions, and by ABARES. The DLCD is seen as the first in a series of steps to build a framework for national land cover monitoring in Australia. A robust methodology to provide annual updates to the DLCD is currently being developed at Geoscience Australia. There is also a growing demand from the user community for land cover information at better spatial resolution than currently available through the DLCD. Global land cover mapping initiatives that rely on Earth observation data offer many opportunities for national and international programs to work in concert and deliver better outcomes by streamlining efforts on development and

  13. Injecting nation: achieving control of hepatitis C in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wodak, A

    1997-09-01

    Since Australia banned heroin in 1953 consumption of illicit drugs, deaths, crime and corruption related to drugs have steadily increased. Injecting drug use (IDU) in Australia is now a significant public health problem linked each year to approximately 500 overdose deaths and more than 6000 hepatitis C infections. At least 85% of prevalent and incident hepatitis C cases in Australia are injecting drug users (IDUs) with annual incidence estimated at 15%. Although poorly documented, increasing numbers of patients with end-stage liver disease from hepatitis C now appear to present in Australia. This reflects a heroin-injecting epidemic commencing a quarter of a century ago, the close association between drug injecting and hepatitis C and the long delay between hepatitis C infection and complications. The overall health and economic burden of hepatitis C may soon exceed HIV. Control is far more difficult to achieve for hepatitis C than HIV because of much higher baseline prevalence levels and far greater infectiousness by blood to blood spread. Transmission appears to follow minimal breaches of infection control guidelines. Hepatitis C has not yet become a priority public health issue in Australia. No national prevention strategy has been proposed. Prevention strategies (such as needle exchange or methadone) which controlled HIV among IDUs should be expanded, with the expectation of some useful reduction of spread but without achieving control of hepatitis C. Other options for control must be considered. Eradicating illicit drug use in Australia is unachievable. Virtually eradicating injecting drug use by facilitating a switch to non-injecting routes of administration (NIROA) is achievable (although difficult) and this could control hepatitis C. NIROA will have the probable additional benefit of reducing drug overdose deaths. NIROA has begun recently to replace injecting in several countries without government intervention. Powerful cultural, pharmacological and

  14. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.

  15. AusMoho: the variation of Moho depth in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.; Salmon, M.; Saygin, E.; Group, Ausmoho Working

    2011-11-01

    Since 2004 more than 7000 km of full-crustal reflection profiles have been collected across Australia to give a total of more than 11 000 km, providing valuable new constraints on crustal structure. A further set of hitherto unexploited results comes from 150 receiver functions distributed across the continent, mostly from portable receiver sites. These new data sets provide a dramatic increase in data coverage compared with previous studies, and reveal the complex structure of the Australian continent in considerable detail. A new comprehensive model for Moho depth across Australia and its immediate environment is developed by utilizing multiple sources of information. On-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations, and Moho picks from the full suite of reflection transects. The composite data set provides a much denser sampler of most of the continent than before, though coverage remains low in the remote areas of the Simpson and Great Sandy deserts. The various data sets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions and the consistency between the different techniques is high. In a number of instances, differences in estimates of Moho depth can be associated with the aspects of the structure highlighted by the particular methods. The new results allow considerable refinement of the patterns of Moho depth across the continent. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean cratons in the Pilbara and the southern part of the Yilgarn. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Palaeozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. The refined data indicate a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia.

  16. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  17. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale. PMID:24988222

  18. Unpacking Time: Minutes from Reggio Emilia, Australia and America. Conference Proceedings (5th, Sydney, Australia, July 8-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2000, the fifth in a series examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on time and play in preschool education. Paper topics related to the history of…

  19. Understanding extreme rainfall events in Australia through historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Linden; Karoly, David John

    2016-04-01

    Historical climate data recovery is still an emerging field in the Australian region. The majority of Australia's instrumental climate analyses begin in 1900 for rainfall and 1910 for temperature, particularly those focussed on extreme event analysis. This data sparsity for the past in turn limits our understanding of long-term climate variability, constraining efforts to predict the impact of future climate change. To address this need for improved historical data in Australia, a new network of recovered climate observations has recently been developed, centred on the highly populated southeastern Australian region (Ashcroft et al., 2014a, 2014b). The dataset includes observations from more than 39 published and unpublished sources and extends from British settlement in 1788 to the formation of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in 1908. Many of these historical sources provide daily temperature and rainfall information, providing an opportunity to improve understanding of the multidecadal variability of Australia's extreme events. In this study we combine the historical data for three major Australian cities - Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide - with modern observations to examine extreme rainfall variability over the past 174 years (1839-2013). We first explore two case studies, combining instrumental and documentary evidence to support the occurrence of severe storms in Sydney in 1841 and 1844. These events appear to be at least as extreme as Sydney's modern 24-hour rainfall record. Next we use a suite of rainfall indices to assess the long-term variability of rainfall in southeastern Australia. In particular, we focus on the stationarity of the teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and extreme rainfall events. Using ENSO reconstructions derived from both palaeoclimatic and documentary sources, we determine the historical relationship between extreme rainfall in southeastern Australia and ENSO, and examine whether or not this

  20. Socioeconomic marriage differentials in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heard, Genevieve

    2011-01-01

    While marriage rates are relatively stable among better-educated men and women, they are rapidly declining among those with low educational attainment. This development has been recognized in the US as a new socioeconomic pattern of marriage. This article uses census data to show that socioeconomic marriage differentials are also increasing in Australia and New Zealand. These differentials have previously been noted independently of each other and of the international picture. In synthesizing the antipodean data, the article documents the new socioeconomic marriage pattern as an international phenomenon. This article further considers the extent to which the available explanations for the new marriage pattern fit the antipodean setting. In general, the factors identified as important in the North American setting are applicable to both Australia and New Zealand. In particular, the poor marriage prospects of men with low educational attainment appear to be common to these post-industrial economies with minimalist welfare states.

  1. Immigration and Status Exchange in Australia and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta; Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Sinning, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admission regimes place different emphases on skills. Using log-linear methods, we demonstrate that foreign-born spouses trade educational credentials via marriage with natives in both Australian and U.S. marriage markets and, moreover, that nativity is a more salient marriage barrier for men than for women. With some exceptions, immigrant spouses in mixed nativity couples are better educated than native spouses in same nativity couples, but status exchange is more prevalent among the less-educated spouses in both countries. Support for the status exchange hypothesis is somewhat weaker in Australia partly because of lower average levels of education compared with the United States and partly because of less sharply defined educational hierarchy at the postsecondary level. PMID:23226914

  2. Migration of nurses in Australia: where and why?

    PubMed

    Ohr, Se Ok; Parker, Vicki; Jeong, Sarah; Joyce, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The Australian health care workforce has benefited from an increasing migration of nurses over the past decades. The nursing profession is the largest single health profession, making up over half of the Australian health care workforce. Migration ofnurses into the Australian nursing workforce impacts significantly on the size ofthe workforce and the capacity to provide health care to the Australian multicultural community. Migration of nurses plays an important role in providing a solution to the ongoing challenges of workforce attraction and retention, hence an understanding of the factors contributing to nurse migration is important. This paper will critically analyse factors reported to impact on migration of nurses to Australia, in particular in relation to: (1) globalisation; (2) Australian society and nursing workforce; and (3) personal reasons. The current and potential implications of nurse migration are not limited to the Australian health care workforce, but also extend to political, socioeconomic and other aspects in Australia. PMID:21133293

  3. Income inequality and mental health--empirical evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Lucy; Lordan, Grace; Rao, D S Prasada

    2012-06-01

    The causal association between absolute income and health is well-established; however, the relationship between income inequality and health is not. The conclusions from the received studies vary across the region or country studied and/or the methodology employed. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey, this paper investigates the relationship between mental health and inequality in Australia. A variety of income inequality indices are calculated to test both the income inequality and relative deprivation hypotheses. We find that mental health is only adversely affected by the presence of relative deprivation to a very small degree. In addition, we do not find support for the income inequality hypothesis. Importantly, our results are robust to a number of sensitivity analyses.

  4. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-04-01

    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  5. Echinococcus granulosus in Australia, widespread and doing well!

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J

    2006-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the only member of the Genus Echinococcus to occur in Australia. The major biomass of E. granulosus occurs in wildlife. The wildlife transmission cycle is predominantly perpetuated via a predator/prey interaction between wild dogs (dingoes and dingo/domestic dog hybrids) and macropodid marsupials (wallabies and kangaroos). Other wildlife hosts include foxes, wombats and feral pigs. This wildlife reservoir for E. granulosus "spills over" to help maintain a domestic cycle through E. granulosus-infected wild dogs defecating on pasture, transmitting infection to livestock and some farmers and hunters feeding hydatid-infected offal of macropodids or feral pigs to domestic dogs. The potential transmission risk to humans using public picnic and camping areas in parks and forests, especially in the southeastern Australia, could be substantially reduced through regular distribution of baits containing praziquantel. Encroachment of wild dogs and foxes into urban centers presents a new potential path of transmission from wildlife to humans. PMID:16352462

  6. How the formation of Indonesia destroyed Australia's rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    A little more than 3 million years ago, a climatic upheaval forever changed Australia's western coast. Over the span of 200,000 years the southward flowing waters of the Leeuwin Current cooled by 2°-3°C, decreasing coastal precipitation and converting northwestern Australia's rain forests to semiarid grasslands. By measuring the isotope ratios and chemical composition of preserved shells left by ancient single-celled organisms, Karas et al. reconstructed the hydrologic signature of the geologic upheaval that triggered the sudden cooling. During the Pliocene (approximately 4-3 million years ago), tectonic activity led to the formation of a number of small islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. This protruding land restricted the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), a current that carries warm, fresh, tropical Pacific water through the island chain and feeds the Leeuwin Current. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2010PA001949, 2011)

  7. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  8. Two novel mastreviruses from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Parry, J N; Schwinghamer, M W; Dann, E K

    2010-11-01

    Two novel mastreviruses (genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae), with proposed names chickpea chlorosis virus (CpCV) and chickpea redleaf virus, are described from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from eastern Australia. The viruses have genomes of 2,582 and 2,605 nucleotides, respectively, and share similar features and organisation with typical dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Two distinct strains of CpCV were suggested by phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, a partial mastrevirus Rep sequence from turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum) indicated the presence of a distinct strain of Tobacco yellow dwarf virus (TYDV). In phylogenetic analyses, isolates of Bean yellow dwarf virus, Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Sudan virus from southern and northern Africa and south-central and western Asia clustered separately from these three viruses from Australia. An Australian, eastern Asian, or south-eastern Asian origin for the novel mastreviruses and TYDV is discussed.

  9. Coming in from the interprofessional cold in Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nick

    2007-08-01

    In Australia, implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) has been slow compared with peer countries. One cause is an apparent uncertainty about where and how to situate IPE at policy levels. Without a clear articulation of related needs, vision and purpose, IPE has largely remained isolated from the strategic planning and funding cycles necessary for implementation as "core business" across various sectors, systems and levels. This paper draws on international developments and research to emphasise the need to complement innovative IPE practice with supporting policy, specifically to optimise the quality of future health care delivery. Major forces for change are identified, as well as some residual barriers and possible strategies to bring IPE "in from the policy cold" in Australia. PMID:17669054

  10. Correlates of welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article investigates some of the factors that are associated with welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia. It examines the role of factors such as gender, age, migration category, birthplace, period of arrival and educational background in explaining immigrants' dependence on government pensions and benefits as their main source of income." The author finds that there are "significant differences in welfare dependency...by birthplace and migration category even after controlling for age, education and employment status. Immigrants from Vietnam, Lebanon and Turkey were more likely than others to be dependent on welfare. Refugees were also more likely than other immigrants to be dependent on welfare; however the effect of refugee status on welfare dependency diminished with duration of residence in Australia." PMID:12287279

  11. Echinococcus granulosus in Australia, widespread and doing well!

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J

    2006-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the only member of the Genus Echinococcus to occur in Australia. The major biomass of E. granulosus occurs in wildlife. The wildlife transmission cycle is predominantly perpetuated via a predator/prey interaction between wild dogs (dingoes and dingo/domestic dog hybrids) and macropodid marsupials (wallabies and kangaroos). Other wildlife hosts include foxes, wombats and feral pigs. This wildlife reservoir for E. granulosus "spills over" to help maintain a domestic cycle through E. granulosus-infected wild dogs defecating on pasture, transmitting infection to livestock and some farmers and hunters feeding hydatid-infected offal of macropodids or feral pigs to domestic dogs. The potential transmission risk to humans using public picnic and camping areas in parks and forests, especially in the southeastern Australia, could be substantially reduced through regular distribution of baits containing praziquantel. Encroachment of wild dogs and foxes into urban centers presents a new potential path of transmission from wildlife to humans.

  12. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Ward, Linda; Godoy, Daniel; Norton, Robert; Mayo, Mark; Gal, Daniel; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2008-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by the gram-negative saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is endemic to southeast Asia and northern Australia. We have previously found evidence of geographic localization of strains based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In this study, we examined the diversity of 277 isolates from northern Australia, which were resolved into 159 different sequence types. No sequence types were common to both Queensland and the Northern Territory, and there was significant differentiation between the alleles present in the two regions. The considerable diversity in sequence types contrasts with the limited diversity of alleles at MLST loci, supporting previous work suggesting a high rate of recombination relative to mutation in B. pseudomallei, where new sequence types are primarily generated by reassortment of existing alleles.

  13. Childhood infections in the tropical north of Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, B J; Brewster, D R

    2001-08-01

    In the tropical north of Australia there are high rates of infections in Aboriginal children living in remote communities. In addition to the burden of respiratory infections, diarrhoeal disease and skin sepsis, there are high rates of acute rheumatic fever, outbreaks of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and gonococcal conjunctivitis, endemic trachoma and various intestinal parasites. A number of infections generally restricted to the tropics are also present and can cause disease in both indigenous and non-indigenous children. These include melioidosis, Murray Valley encephalitis and dengue on the east coast. With global warming, these infections may become more common and more widespread within Australia and the potential for establishment of introduced infections such as Japanese encephalitis and malaria may increase.

  14. Migration of nurses in Australia: where and why?

    PubMed

    Ohr, Se Ok; Parker, Vicki; Jeong, Sarah; Joyce, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The Australian health care workforce has benefited from an increasing migration of nurses over the past decades. The nursing profession is the largest single health profession, making up over half of the Australian health care workforce. Migration ofnurses into the Australian nursing workforce impacts significantly on the size ofthe workforce and the capacity to provide health care to the Australian multicultural community. Migration of nurses plays an important role in providing a solution to the ongoing challenges of workforce attraction and retention, hence an understanding of the factors contributing to nurse migration is important. This paper will critically analyse factors reported to impact on migration of nurses to Australia, in particular in relation to: (1) globalisation; (2) Australian society and nursing workforce; and (3) personal reasons. The current and potential implications of nurse migration are not limited to the Australian health care workforce, but also extend to political, socioeconomic and other aspects in Australia.

  15. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  16. Fuel cells, hydrogen and energy supply in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, A. L.; Diniz da Costa, J. C.; Simpson, A.; McLellan, B.

    Australia is unique in terms of its geography, population distribution, and energy sources. It has an abundance of fossil fuel in the form of coal, natural gas, coal seam methane (CSM), oil, and a variety renewable energy sources that are under development. Unfortunately, most of the natural gas is located so far away from the main centres of population that it is more economic to ship the energy as LNG to neighboring countries. Electricity generation is the largest consumer of energy in Australia and accounts for around 50% of greenhouse gas emissions as 84% of electricity is produced from coal. Unless these emissions are curbed, there is a risk of increasing temperatures throughout the country and associated climatic instability. To address this, research is underway to develop coal gasification and processes for the capture and sequestration of CO 2. Alternative transport fuels such as biodiesel are being introduced to help reduce emissions from vehicles. The future role of hydrogen is being addressed in a national study commissioned this year by the federal government. Work at the University of Queensland is also addressing full-cycle analysis of hydrogen production, transport, storage, and utilization for both stationary and transport applications. There is a modest but growing amount of university research in fuel cells in Australia, and an increasing interest from industry. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. (CFCL) has a leading position in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) technology, which is being developed for a variety of applications, and next year Perth in Western Australia is hosting a trial of buses powered by proton-exchange fuel cells.

  17. Heterotrophic euglenids from marine sediments of cape tribulation, tropical australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je Lee, Won

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents new data on free-living heterotrophic euglenids (Euglenozoa, Protista) that occurred in the marine sediments at Cape Tribulation, Queensland, Australia. Twenty-nine species from 9 genera are described with uninterpreted records based on light microscopy, including one new taxon: Notosolenus capetribulationi n. sp. There was little evidence for endemism because the majority of heterotrophic euglenid species encountered here have been reported or were found from other habitats.

  18. A need for more psychophysiological research in australia.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-05-01

    Western communities are becoming increasingly more interested in altered states of consciousness such as hypnosis, meditation and other states associated with certain "brain wave" patterns. In the United States of America especially, psychophysiological research is beginning to lead to an understanding of some of the basic mechanisms underlying certain mental phenomena and their therapeutic uses. In Australia, on the other hand, experimental investigations in this area are negligible. It is important to begin intensive psychophysiological research now.

  19. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Mirtschin, Peter; Pearn, John

    2006-12-01

    It was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by Bancroft in Queensland and Martin in Sydney and Melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of Australian toxinology. This Australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from Europe and the Americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. The subsequent systematic study of Australian venoms and toxins through to the 1930s and beyond, by Tidswell, Fairley, Ross, Kellaway and Cleland, set the foundation for Australia's leading reputation in venom research. As elsewhere, this development was to revolutionise the medical management of those victims who in the past had died in Australia from our venomous and toxic fauna. Morgan, Graydon, Weiner, Lane and Baxter at the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories emphasised the importance of cooperation between those expert at catching and milking the venomous creatures and those developing the antivenoms. Commercial antivenom manufacture began in Australia in 1930 with the tiger snake antivenom. This was followed by other antivenoms for the other important species (1955: taipan; 1956: brown snake; 1958: death adder; 1959: Papuan black snake; 1961: sea snake; 1962: polyvalent) including the first marine antivenoms in the world (1956: stonefish antivenom; 1970: box jellyfish) culminating, in 1980, with the release of the funnel web spider antivenom. More recent activity has focused on veterinary antivenoms and production of new generation human antivenoms for export (CroFab and ViperaTAB). This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century.

  20. Bicycle helmet promotion programs--Canada, Australia, and United States.

    PubMed

    1993-03-26

    The use of bicycle helmets substantially reduces the risk for serious head injuries during bicycle-related crashes. Despite this benefit, epidemiologic data indicate a worldwide low prevalence of helmet use. Strategies to increase the use of bicycle helmets in the United States and other countries include subsidies, legislation, and education. This report summarizes information regarding three strategies to increase bicycle helmet use and the impact of implementing these approaches in Canada (helmet subsidies), Australia (legislation), and the United States (education). PMID:8446097

  1. Reclaiming Indigenous Youth in Australia: Families and Schools Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechielsen,Jack; Galbraith, Mal; White, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Australia's Northern Territory is twice the size of Texas, with only 230,000 people living in its enormous space. About half reside in the capital Darwin in the tropical far north; the next biggest town with a population of 25,000 people is Alice Springs, 1600 kilometers south in the central desert. Some 70,000 Indigenous people form 30% of…

  2. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-03-01

    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  3. Veterinary parasitology in Australia--a short history.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, I; Besier, R B

    2013-08-01

    As an important producer and exporter of livestock products, animal health has always been of major significance to the Australian economy, and research into efficient parasite control has continued since the 1800s. With substantial research achievements also involving parasites of companion animals and wildlife, Australian parasitologists have made numerous contributions of global significance. This summary outlines the development of investigations into parasite biology and parasitic disease in Australia.

  4. Disease control during the colonial period in Australia.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J

    2011-07-01

    The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian.

  5. Coal exports may make Australia's energy sector among least sustainable

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-15

    Plentiful coal and cheap energy prices have resulted in an unusually heavy carbon footprint. Clearly, Australia has to rethink how much coal it will use to feed its own growing economy while becoming more conscious of its significant carbon export problem. For a country long used to digging the coal out of the ground and shipping it overseas, climate change will be a game changer.

  6. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  7. Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; McMahon, Jamie L.; Harrower, Bruce J; Constantino, Tanya R; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine. Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage. Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region. PMID:27679739

  8. Medicare Australia and the professional services review scheme.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2008-09-01

    Medicare Australia's Practitioner Review Program and the Professional Services Review (PSR) Scheme aim to protect the integrity of Medicare and pharmaceutical benefits programs by protecting patients and the community from the risks associated with 'inappropriate practice' and also protecting the Commonwealth Government from having to meet the cost of services provided as a result of inappropriate practice. This article outlines the operation of the Practitioner Review Program and PSR.

  9. The hidden cost of private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Seah, Davinia S E; Cheong, Timothy Z; Anstey, Matthew H R

    2013-02-01

    The provision of health services in Australia currently is primarily financed by a unique interaction of public and private insurers. This commentary looks at a loophole in this framework, namely that private insurers have to date been able to avoid funding healthcare for some of their policy holders, as it is not a requirement to use private insurance when treatment occurs in Australian public hospitals.

  10. Survey on testing for gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Flack, Jeff R; Ross, Glynis P

    2016-08-01

    We surveyed members of National Association of Diabetes Centres (NADC) assessing use of new Australasian Diabetes In Pregnancy Society (ADIPS) and Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) diagnostic guidelines in Australia. We found piecemeal adoption of recommended changes, with cessation of the 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) universal, early screening implementation common, but by varied methodologies, and new diagnostic criteria acceptance far from complete with significant workload increases almost universal.

  11. Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; McMahon, Jamie L.; Harrower, Bruce J; Constantino, Tanya R; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine. Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage. Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region.

  12. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E; Houssami, Nehmat; Turner, Robin M; Boyages, John

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.

  13. Petroleum prospectivity in Precambrian and Early Paleozoic basins, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Proterozoic to Devonian age strata with some potential for petroleum accumulations are known from sedimentary basins covering {approximately}1,870,000 km{sup 2} onshore Australia. Portions of these very old basins have not sustained the deleterious effects of deep burial. Explorers with vision continue to target these very old rocks in the MacArthur/South Nicholson, Amadeus, Canning, Adavale, and Bonaparte basins. Approximately 429,000 km{sup 2} of these basins remain under license for petroleum exploration. The oldest known oil in Australia is reservoired within and sourced from the mid-Proterozoic in the McArthur basin. The Early Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone of the Amadeus basin is the oldest formation commercially exploited for oil and gas in Australia. Significant discoveries awaiting development include Dingo, Pictor, and Gilmore. The Tern gas field trap in the Bonaparte basin is related to a salt diapir; the salt probably being Silurian-Devonian in age. Salt probably of the same age has formed diapirs in the Canning basin, too. Cambrian and Proterozoic salt-bearing strata are likewise the cause and core of some anticlinal and diapiric structures in the Amadeus basin. Minor oil shows have been reported from the Cambrian of the Officer basin. The Warburton, Pedirka, Arrowie, Ord, Wiso, Georgina, and Ngalia basins contain Proterozoic and early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks but are ascribed only limited petroleum prospectivity at this time.

  14. Pharmaceuticals in Australia: developments in regulation and governance.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Hans; Boer, Rebecca de

    2004-06-01

    The pharmaceutical domain represents a type of internationalised policy network theorised in recent writings on neo-liberalism, neo-corporatism and governance. This article presents an analysis of developments in prescription drug regulation in Australia. A relatively stable, state-managed pattern of interaction has been superseded by less closed exchange, and the government itself has fragmented into agencies pursuing different objectives. Developments in the three core regulatory areas are described: safety and efficacy controls, social policy (access and equity), and state support for industry (economic) development. Consensus-building occurs within the context of the National Medicines Policy. The pharmaceutical industry, represented by Medicines Australia, has a stake in all aspects of pharmaceutical policy and regulation, and draws upon unique resources (expertise and lobbying capacity). The context for the developments described is Australia's abandonment of a protectionist version of the Keynesian welfare national state in favour of the model of the competition state, which is oriented towards support for the growth of high technology industries such as pharmaceuticals, premised on partnerships with business. PMID:15081192

  15. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  16. A brief history of medical education and training in Australia.

    PubMed

    Geffen, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    Medical education and training in Australia comprises four phases: basic education, prevocational training, vocational training and continuing professional development. Between the 1860s and 1960s, eight medical schools were established in Australia, admitting school leavers to courses comprised of preclinical, paraclinical and clinical phases. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, two innovative new schools were established and all schools made major reforms to student selection, curricula and teaching, learning and assessment methods. Since 2000, student numbers expanded rapidly, both in existing medical schools and in eight new schools established to meet workforce demands, particularly in the rural sector. Prevocational training, first introduced as a compulsory internship year in the 1930s, has undergone reform and extension to subsequent years of junior doctor training through the agency of health departments and postgraduate medical education councils. Vocational training and continuing professional development, delivered by 15 specialist medical colleges, has evolved since the 1930s from a focus on specialist care of individual patients to include broader professional attributes required to manage complex health care systems. The Australian Medical Council began accreditation of basic medical education in 1985 and its remit now extends to all phases of medical education and training. With national governance of the entire system of medical education and training now achieved, mechanisms exist for flexible integration of all phases of medical education to meet the local and global challenges facing Australia's medical workforce.

  17. Determinants of general practitioner use among women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Young, A F; Dobson, A J; Byles, J E

    2001-12-01

    This study investigates the use of general practitioner services by women in Australia. Although there is a universal health insurance system (Medicare) in Australia, there are variations in access to services and out of pocket costs for services. Survey data from 2350 mid-age (45-50 years) and 2102 older (70-75 years) women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were linked with Medicare data to provide a range of individual and contextual variables hypothesised to explain general practitioner use. Structural equation modelling showed that physical health was the most powerful explanatory factor of general practitioner use. However, after adjusting for self-reported health, out of pocket cost per consultation was inversely associated with use of services. The out of pocket cost was generally lower for women with low socioeconomic status but cost was also directly related to geographical remoteness. Women living in more remote areas had higher out of pocket costs and poorer access to services. Women who reported better access to care were more likely to be satisfied with their most recent general practice consultation and less likely to be sceptical of the value of medical care. These results show the need for health policies that improve the equitable use of general practitioner services in Australia. PMID:11762890

  18. The remittances of migrant Tongan and Samoan nurses from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Connell, John; Brown, Richard PC

    2004-01-01

    Background Migration and remittances are of considerable importance in the small Pacific island states. There has been a significant migration of skilled health workers in recent decades to metropolitan fringe states, including Australia and New Zealand. This paper reports the findings of a re-analysis of survey of Samoan and Tongan migrants in Australia where the sample is split between nurse households and others. Methods The study analyzes the survey data with a view to comparing the remittance behaviour and determinants of remittances for nurses and other migrant households, using both descriptive, cross-tabulations and appropriate econometric methods. Results It is found that a significantly higher proportion of nurse households sent remittances home, and, on average remitted more. Remittances of nurse households did not decline significantly over time contrary to what has generally been predicted. This was in contrast to other migrant households in the sample, for whom remittances showed a sharp decline after 15 years absence. Remittances contribute much more to the income of migrant sending countries, than the cost of the additional human capital in nurse training. Conclusions Given the shortage of nurses in Australia and New Zealand, and therefore the high demand for immigrant nurses, investment by Pacific island governments and families in nurse training constitutes a rational use of economic resources. Policies encouraging investment in home countries may be more effective than policies directly discouraging brain drain in contributing to national development. PMID:15078577

  19. The Continuing Evolution of Water Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1990s Australia has pursued a broad national agenda of water reform which includes full cost pricing, sufficient water for the environment, water conservation, irrigation infrastructure improvements, and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities of different water institutions among other reforms. A series of substantial changes to commonwealth and state law has resulted from these major initiatives. This reform effort was capped by groundbreaking commonwealth legislation in 2007 and 2008 that to large extent federalized the operation of the nation's largest river system, the Murray-Darling. A new basin wide authority, the MDBA, was created to manage the river via the concept of sustainable diversion limits (SDLs) to be promulgated through additional federal legislation. The October 2010 initial plan for these SDLs suggested cuts in use of up to 40% in the basin and was met with widespread opposition by irrigators. Subsequently, top leadership in the MDBA resigned, a number of parliamentary inquiries were begun, and the entire process has been delayed. How did Australia get to its current position with respect to water reform, and what is the likely outcome of the current delay? How has water management evolved in Australia over the last 20 years? What lessons exist for the Western United States?

  20. Epidemiology of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz infections in Australia.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andrew T; Symonds, Meegan L; Dohnt, Michael F; Corney, Bruce G; Smythe, Lee D

    2007-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Leptospira weilii serovar (sv.) Topaz is a newly described serovar first isolated in the far north of Queensland, Australia. The epidemiology of L. weilii sv. Topaz infections in Australia was characterised through the use of surveillance questionnaires and molecular studies. There have been 24 human and 2 animal (bovine and bandicoot) L. weilii sv. Topaz infections diagnosed since 1991. The majority of these infections have occurred in Far North Queensland, with the remaining infections occurring in South East Queensland and in Western Australia. The majority of patients with L. weilii sv. Topaz infections presented with classical leptospirosis symptoms including; fever, headaches, sweats, chills and myalgia. The occupations of human cases of L. weilii sv. Topaz infection included banana farming, dairy and beef cattle production and tourist related activities. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) was performed on 15 L. weilii sv. Topaz isolates including 2 animal isolates. Clustering analysis grouped the 15 isolates into 5 main clades with 13 unique FAFLP profiles. A high level of relatedness was demonstrated between 2 animal and 2 human isolates. PMID:17724998

  1. Recovery in Australia: marshalling strengths and living values.

    PubMed

    Oades, Lindsay G; Anderson, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Clear national policy now exists in Australia regarding recovery. Personal accounts of recovery often include reference to meaning, purpose and issues regarding identity. Personal strengths and expression of personal values are closely related to the development of meaning, purpose and a stable sense of self, resulting in a sense of wellbeing. These constructs fall under the research umbrella of positive psychology. By combining aspects of the recovery policy with evidence from the science of positive psychology there are increasing attempts to include strengths and values work with mental health staff and consumers. This paper describes how the collaborative recovery model (CRM) with its emphasis on strengths and values, draws on the emerging evidence based on positive psychology. CRM has now been implemented in non-government community services in each mainland state of Australia. Implementation issues of the CRM as one example of recovery-orientated service provision are then described. Potential barriers and facilitators of growth-based approaches such as CRM moving to government clinical services is then discussed. Recent national reviews of recovery measurement instruments are also summarized. Specific recommendations are then provided to further national implementation of recovery-orientated service provision in Australia.

  2. Artificial ultraviolet radiation and ocular melanoma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vajdic, Claire M; Kricker, Anne; Giblin, Michael; McKenzie, John; Aitken, Joanne F; Giles, Graham G; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2004-12-10

    We examined risk of ocular melanoma with exposure to artificial sources of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in a population-based epidemiologic study of 290 cases of ocular melanoma and 893 controls aged 18-79 years in Australia in 1996-1998. Cases were identified through a prospective survey of all ophthalmologists and cancer registries in Australia; 91.8% participated. Controls were sourced from electoral rolls; 67.4% of those who were eligible and contactable participated, while 27.3% could not be contacted. Exposure to welding and use of sunlamps, including sunbeds and tanning booths, was measured by telephone interview. Analyses used unconditional logistic regression and included age, sex, region of birth, eye color, ocular and cutaneous sun sensitivity and personal sun exposure as covariates. Risk of choroid and ciliary body melanoma in 246 cases increased significantly with longer duration of use of sunlamps, first use before 21 years of age and first use after 1980. These effects were independent of personal sun exposure. Risk of these melanomas also increased with increasing duration of welding exposure, although the trend was not significant overall. There was no evidence that these exposures increased the risk of iris (n = 25) or conjunctival (n = 19) melanomas. Personal exposure to sunlamps and welding predicts risk of choroid and ciliary body melanoma in Australia.

  3. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 3. Australian bat lyssavirus.

    PubMed

    Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Graham, G C; Smith, I L; Craig, S B

    2010-12-01

    Since its discovery in a juvenile black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in 1996, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has become the cause of a potentially important emerging disease for health authorities in Australia, with two human deaths (one in 1996 and one in 1998) attributed to the virus in the north-eastern state of Queensland. In Australia, the virus has been isolated from all four species of flying fox found on the mainland (i.e. P. alecto, P. scapulatus, P. poliocephalus and P. conspicillatus) as well as a single species of insectivorous bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris). Australian bat lyssavirus belongs to the Lyssavirus genus and is closely related, genetically, to the type strain of Rabies virus (RABV). Clinically, patients infected with ABLV have displayed the 'classical' symptoms of rabies and a similar disease course. This similarity has led to the belief that the infection and dissemination of ABLV in the body follows the same pathways as those followed by RABV. Following the two ABLV-related deaths in Queensland, protocols based on the World Health Organization's guidelines for RABV prophylaxis were implemented and, presumably in consequence, no human infection with ABLV has been recorded since 1998. ABLV will, however, probably always have an important part to play in the health of Australians as the density of the human population in Australia and, consequently, the level of interaction between humans and flying foxes increase. PMID:21144181

  4. Epidemiology of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz infections in Australia.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andrew T; Symonds, Meegan L; Dohnt, Michael F; Corney, Bruce G; Smythe, Lee D

    2007-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Leptospira weilii serovar (sv.) Topaz is a newly described serovar first isolated in the far north of Queensland, Australia. The epidemiology of L. weilii sv. Topaz infections in Australia was characterised through the use of surveillance questionnaires and molecular studies. There have been 24 human and 2 animal (bovine and bandicoot) L. weilii sv. Topaz infections diagnosed since 1991. The majority of these infections have occurred in Far North Queensland, with the remaining infections occurring in South East Queensland and in Western Australia. The majority of patients with L. weilii sv. Topaz infections presented with classical leptospirosis symptoms including; fever, headaches, sweats, chills and myalgia. The occupations of human cases of L. weilii sv. Topaz infection included banana farming, dairy and beef cattle production and tourist related activities. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) was performed on 15 L. weilii sv. Topaz isolates including 2 animal isolates. Clustering analysis grouped the 15 isolates into 5 main clades with 13 unique FAFLP profiles. A high level of relatedness was demonstrated between 2 animal and 2 human isolates.

  5. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  6. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  7. The rise of new psychoactive substance use in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Matthews, Allison; Bruno, Raimondo; Lenton, Simon; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    New Psychoactive Substances are now a feature of Australia's recreational drug market. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of use, the characteristics of people who use them and the relationship between the NPS and ecstasy markets. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of NPS use amongst a group of regular ecstasy users in Australia. Participants were recruited if they had used ecstasy at least six times in the previous six months, lived in a capital city and were over 16 years of age. Purposive sampling was used, recruiting through universities and colleges, word of mouth and street press. 654 participants were recruited in 2013. Respondents who had used an NPS in the past six months were compared to those who had not. NPS were used by 44% of the total sample. In 2013 2C-I (14%) and 2C-B (8%) were the most prevalent NPS. Respondents in the NPS group were younger and reported more frequent use of more types of drugs. They were also more likely to rate the purity of ecstasy as low relative to those in the no NPS group. NPS are now an established part of Australia's recreational drug scene and NPS with hallucinogenic effects are now used most commonly. Monitoring systems need to develop capacity to monitor this highly dynamic market.

  8. AIRSAR deployment in Australia, September 1993: Management and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milne, A. K.; Tapley, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    Past co-operation between the NASA Earth Science and Applications Division and the CSIRO and Australian university researchers has led to a number of mutually beneficial activities. These include the deployment of the C-130 aircraft with TIMS, AIS, and NS001 sensors in Australia in 1985; collaboration between scientists from the USA and Australia in soils research which has extended for the past decade; and in the development of imaging spectroscopy where DSIRO and NASA have worked closely together and regularly exchanged visiting scientists. In May this year TIMS was flown in eastern Australia on board a CSIRO-owned aircraft together with a CSIRO-designed CO2 laser spectrometer. The Science Investigation Team for the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIRC-C) Program includes one Australian Principal Investigator and ten Australian co-investigators who will work on nine projects related to studying land and near-shore surfaces after the Shuttle flight scheduled for April 1994. This long-term continued joint collaboration was progressed further with the deployment of AIRSAR downunder in September 1993. During a five week period, the DC-8 aircraft flew in all Australian states and collected data from some 65 individual test sites.

  9. Alcohol taxation policy in Australia: public health imperatives for action.

    PubMed

    Skov, Steven J

    2009-04-20

    The Australian Government's "alcopops" tax legislation will soon be voted on by the Senate. This is the first time in memory that an alcohol taxation measure has been informed principally by public health concerns. Much debate surrounds the utility of alcohol taxation as a measure to reduce alcohol-related harm. However, the harms resulting from alcohol misuse in Australia are at unacceptable levels and action to reduce them is overdue. There is good evidence from Australia and internationally that taxation and price measures are among the most effective and cost-effective in reducing alcohol consumption and related harms. Recent alcohol sales data give an early indication that the alcopops tax is being effective in reducing consumption. Current alcohol tax policy is unwieldy and not well directed towards improving public health. A proportion of tax revenues dedicated to alcohol programs would assist public acceptance of the measures. A broad review of alcohol taxation policy is needed as part of a comprehensive approach to alcohol problems in Australia. PMID:19374617

  10. Research collaboration in parasitology between Indonesia and Australia.

    PubMed

    Copland, J

    1997-10-01

    Indonesia and Australia are close neighbours sharing agro-ecological zones and common parasitological interests. Australia is an industrialised country and Indonesia is both industrialising and a developing country. The types of collaboration, contractual, collegiate, research collaboration and partnerships are briefly described. All forms of collaboration have and continue to exist between Australia and Indonesia. A survey of mammalian parasitology publications over the last 23 years indicates that the bulk of papers have been by Indonesian and non-Australian authors. Australian and Indonesian authors provided 4% of the total number of publications. The rational for collaboration is suggested to be the high degree of common multiple interests and the synergy of effort that can be derived from research partnerships. The most difficult issues in research collaboration are establishing the research priorities and, to a lesser extent, funding. The globalisation of the international research centre, International Livestock Research Institute, to include Asia will expand the opportunities for research collaboration. Details of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research mandate in supporting parasitology research collaboration is briefly described. The past and current research collaborative activities are reviewed and opportunities for future collaboration are listed.

  11. Sick leave and workers' compensation for police officers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In Australia it has been necessary to enact specific provisions into industrial and employment laws to ensure workplace protection and coverage of police officers because at common law police officers have not been regarded as employees. Police unions in Australia have emerged as strong industrial players and have secured a range of terms and conditions of employment which do not apply to the broader workforce. However, the battle in relation to workers' compensation coverage and extended sick leave seems to be ongoing, particularly in Western Australia. The area of interaction between workers' compensation laws and sick leave entitlements is often neglected against the background of other industrial matters concerning police. This article investigates the entitlements of Australian police officers to these benefits against the historical background of industrial laws. It concludes that there is no uniformity in coverage for workers' compensation and sick leave and that the publicly available data in relation to absence from work of police officers due to sickness are generally incomplete and present challenges for cross-jurisdictional comparisons. The article points to future areas of research into police sick leave. PMID:20552944

  12. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  13. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the UNICEF Committee of Australia (8th, Melbourne, Australia, August 10, 1980). Topic: Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Sydney (Australia).

    The UNICEF Committee of Australia met in Melbourne (Australia) in August of 1980 to discuss development education. The first part of the proceedings contains the welcoming address, the opening address, and a list of papers delivered. The process, content, critique, and needs of development education are discussed in the first paper. The second…

  15. Future Training Issues in Australia's Industries. A Collection of the Papers Presented at the NCVER 1998 Conference: Industry Training Outlook '98 (Sydney, Australia, October 12-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This book contains 31 papers from a conference on future training issues in Australia's industries. The following papers are included: "Training Development in Australia" (Chris Ellison); "Meeting National and Employer Training Requirements" (Mark Paterson); "Meeting Employee Training Requirements" (Bill Mansfield); "Training Challenges in…

  16. Hydrocarbon-related diagenesis: The key to understanding trap integrity and hydrocarbon charge history in Australia`s Timor Sea?

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.W.; Woods, E.P.; Lisk, M.; Fellows, M.

    1996-12-31

    In the Late Miocene, the effects of continental collision partially to completely breached many charged, Mesozoic traps in Australia`s Timor Sea. An integrated geophysical and geochemical study has shown that the biodegradation of hydrocarbons leaking from these Mesozoic traps produced hydrocarbon-related diagenetic zones or HRDZs within overlying, Eocene aquifer sands. These HRDZs, which are principally defined by zones of intense carbonate cementation, are seismically-resolvable, with both their size and velocity being directly related to the amount of hydrocarbons that have passed through the aquifer sands. Consequently, the integration of observations on the seismic, velocity and isotopic characteristics of the HRDZs, the nature of present-day hydrocarbon seepage (as defined by sniffer and ALF data), and geometric relationships between the reactivation (Miocene) and trap (Jurassic) fault geometries, can provide a powerful predictive tool for evaluating and ranking undrilled structures and prospects within the Timor Sea.

  17. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  18. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  19. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  20. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Country summary report, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's major growers and exporters of wheat and as such is one of the countries of interest in the AgRISTARS program which endeavors to develop technology to estimate crop production using aerospace remote sensing. A compilation of geographic, political, and agricultural information on Australia is presented. Also included is a summary of the aerospace remote sensing, meteorological, and ground-observed data which were collected with respect to Australia, as well as a summary of contacts between AgRISTARS and Australia personnel.

  1. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  2. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk. PMID:22518918

  3. Hearing and hearing conservation practices among Australia's professional orchestral musicians.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ian; Ackermann, Bronwen J; Driscoll, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Orchestral musicians are an at-risk population for noise-induced hearing loss. Following strategic approaches to mitigate exposure, many must use earplugs to safeguard their hearing, although reported usage rates are poor. Australia has progressive hearing conservation programs within many of its orchestras, yet little is known of earplug usage rates, abilities with earplugs or self-perceived hearing loss in this population. To help direct and inform future approaches to hearing conservation in Australia's orchestras a questionnaire assessing hearing conservation behaviors and the prevalence of self-perceived hearing loss was distributed. A total of 580 musicians across eight professional orchestras were surveyed, with 367 completed surveys (63%) returned. Eighty percent of respondents reported a risk of hearing damage in the orchestra, 64% used earplugs of some type at least some of the time and 83% found this use difficult/impossible. Forty-three percent reported a hearing loss, including 54% in pit orchestras and 46% of those ≤50 years of age. Brass players were least likely to use earplugs, most likely to report usage difficulties and most likely of those ≤50 years of age to report a hearing loss. While earplug usage rates in Australia are encouraging and may be linked to hearing conservation measures in the orchestras, the widespread difficulty reported with the use of these earplugs, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and the continued vulnerability of those most at-risk indicate improvements in both earplug design and further education for musicians are required to progress hearing conservation options for this population.

  4. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  5. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna. PMID:27574986

  6. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease.

  7. Imported malaria in the Northern Territory, Australia--428 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Gray, Timothy J; Trauer, James M; Fairley, Merv; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in Australia with an average of 600 notifications per year in returned travellers or newly arrived refugees, migrants and visitors. Although endemic disease has been eliminated from the tropical north of Australia, the region remains malaria receptive due to the presence of efficient mosquito vectors. This study analyses enhanced surveillance data collected by the Centre for Disease Control on all cases of malaria notified in the Northern Territory from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. There were 428 malaria episodes notified that occurred in 391 individuals with a median age of 26 years. Of these, 71.4% were male, 40.5% were Australian nationals and 38.0% were prescribed chemoprophylaxis. Primary infection consisted of 196 (51.3%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 165 (43.2%) P. vivax, 2 (0.5%) P. ovale, 1 (0.3%) P. malariae and 18 were mixed infections. There were 46 episodes of relapsed infection. Residents of non-malarious countries were most likely to have acquired primary infection in East Timor (40.6%), Papua New Guinea (27.8%), Indonesia (18.7%) and Africa (6.4%). Primary infection was diagnosed after a median 19 days (interquartile range (IQR) 7-69) after arrival in Australia for cases of P. vivax compared with 4 days for P. falciparum (IQR 2-11). Screening protocols led to the diagnosis of 27.2% of cases. Eighty-seven per cent of patients were admitted to hospital at the time of their malaria diagnosis with median duration of 3 days (IQR 2-4) and one patient died. Resettlement of people from endemic countries, as well as military and civilian activities, influences the prevailing notification rates and Plasmodium species type. PMID:23153087

  8. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  9. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  10. Interannual variability of solar energy generation in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, R.; Troccoli, A.

    2012-04-01

    Australia has an abundant solar energy resource that is likely to be used for energy generation on a large scale. Variable sources of electricity generation require knowledge of the nature of their variability at all time scales. This study examines the effect that El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) have on solar radiation in Australia, in order to establish the role for seasonal forecasting of solar power. Calendar years are classified into their ENSO state using a sea surface temperature index. The ERA-Interim and NCEP reanalysis products are then used to estimate the effect of ENSO on global horizontal solar irradiance over the continent. A bootstrap technique is used to obtain confidence regions for the effect in both winter and summer. The main impact of ENSO occurs during winter over a large part of eastern Australia. Little impact was observed over the continent during summer. A similar analysis is conducted for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) to ensure that the observed ENSO effect is not a manifestation of the IOD. This study indicates that the ENSO phenomenon may account for solar energy changes of more than 10% in some locations on a seasonal basis. We show that the solar radiation analysis is directly applicable to solar energy yield. Knowledge of this variability may influence the location of large solar generation plants. Also, there is a potential to predict solar energy a few months ahead by means of seasonal forecasting systems, which would help to assist with planning for electricity grid.

  11. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, S M; Graham, G C; Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Van Den Hurk, A F; Moore, F A J; Simmons, R J; Craig, S B

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have all been characterised by acute respiratory and neurological manifestations, with high levels of morbidity and mortality in the affected horses and humans. The modes of transmission of HeV remain largely unknown. Although fruit bats have been identified as natural hosts of the virus, direct bat-horse, bat-human or human-human transmission has not been reported. Human infection can occur via exposure to infectious urine, saliva or nasopharyngeal fluid from horses. The treatment options and efficacy are very limited and no vaccine exists. Reports on the outbreaks of HeV in Australia are collated in this review and the available data on the biology, transmission and detection of the pathogen are summarized and discussed.

  12. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

  13. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    PubMed

    Cope, Robert C; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy. PMID:26881782

  14. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  15. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  16. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  17. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk.

  18. The complex isostatic equilibration of Australia's deep crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, Alan; Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan

    2016-04-01

    A recent study, using a new finite-element based gravity inversion method has modelled in high-resolution the density and pressure fields for the Australian continent. Here we analyse the pressure results to consider how Australia's lower-crust and Moho contribute to the isostatic equilibration of topography and crustal masses. We find that the situation is more complex than the commonly applied model of isostatic compensation through crustal thickness variations. Key differences include low pressure-variability at ca. 30-35 km, suggesting that the thickness of the felsic-intermediate crust equilibrates most of the upper-crustal loads; increasing pressure-variability between 30-50 km, suggesting that positively buoyant deep-crustal roots generate disequilibrium. These large roots have previously been inferred to represent mafic underplates. Pressure-variability in the uppermost lithospheric mantle reduces to a minimum at ~125 km depth, suggesting that these loads are compensated by dense mantle at ~100 km depth, rather than by crustal loads or topography. This raises the notion that Australia's lithosphere is isostatically compensated at two levels: Crustal compensation involving topography and the felsic to intermediate crust; and deep-lithosphere compensation involving the mafic lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Rather than its traditional role of compensating for crustal masses, the Moho in this case appears to be a source of isostatic disequilibrium, acting in a separate cell with lithospheric mantle density sources. These results imply that, for cratonised continents like Australia, the notion of crustal isostasy is a poor descriptor of the system.

  19. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Robert C.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wittmann, Talia A.; Prowse, Thomas A. A.; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999–2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a “weighted cumulative impact” score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy. PMID:26881782

  20. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    PubMed

    Cope, Robert C; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.