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Sample records for australian bread wheat

  1. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G.; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit. PMID:18703496

  2. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit.

  3. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  4. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  5. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  6. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  7. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham buns...”, “graham bread”, “entire wheat bread”, “whole wheat rolls”, “graham rolls”, “entire wheat rolls”,...

  8. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  9. FRIZZY PANICLE Drives Supernumerary Spikelets in Bread Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Dobrovolskaya, Oxana; Pont, Caroline; Sibout, Richard; Martinek, Petr; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Murat, Florent; Chosson, Audrey; Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Prat, Elisa; Gautier, Nadine; Gautier, Véronique; Poncet, Charles; Orlov, Yuriy L.; Krasnikov, Alexander A.; Bergès, Hélène; Salina, Elena; Laikova, Lyudmila; Salse, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) inflorescences, or spikes, are characteristically unbranched and normally bear one spikelet per rachis node. Wheat mutants on which supernumerary spikelets (SSs) develop are particularly useful resources for work towards understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying wheat inflorescence architecture and, ultimately, yield components. Here, we report the characterization of genetically unrelated mutants leading to the identification of the wheat FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP) gene, encoding a member of the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor transcription factor family, which drives the SS trait in bread wheat. Structural and functional characterization of the three wheat FZP homoeologous genes (WFZP) revealed that coding mutations of WFZP-D cause the SS phenotype, with the most severe effect when WFZP-D lesions are combined with a frameshift mutation in WFZP-A. We provide WFZP-based resources that may be useful for genetic manipulations with the aim of improving bread wheat yield by increasing grain number. PMID:25398545

  10. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, ... disease and diabetes. It is also a helpful diet aid, it has no calories and helps keep ...

  11. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB < WB and WWB, WB >25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response.

  12. [Wheat, bread and pasta in Mediterranean diets].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Ruiz Vadillo, Virginia

    2004-06-01

    Cereals in diets have varied along evolution trends in food patterns. Cereals are starchy foods and are the main source of polysacharides in the diet. In Mediterranean countries, cereals have been used in different ways, though they are mainly used as refined cereals. Wheat bread is one of the most commonly used. In the average Spanish diet, considerable changes have taken place since 1961 leading to a significant decrease in percent energy from carbohydrate. At the same time, percent energy from fat has increased as web as protein intake. These changes in the nutritional pattern reflect a continuous decrease in consumption of grains and cereals, pulses and potatoes. In the last decades, consumption of pasta however has increased as web as consumption of processed bakery products and biscuits. Scientific and epidemiological evidence show that cereals should be the main source of energy in the diet, in line with the so-called Mediterranean Diet. Polysacharides should provide 50-55% energy. In order to reach that goal, cereal, legumes and potatoes should be included in the daily diet as 4-6 portions. Whole grain cereales should be preferred or food preparations combining pasta, potatoes or rice with vegetables in order to reduce the glycemic index. Processed bakery products and biscuits should be consumed in moderation.

  13. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome.

  14. Effects of bread making and wheat germ addition on the natural deoxynivalenol content in bread.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-21

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  15. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  16. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of ...

  17. Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Skrabanja, V; Kovac, B; Golob, T; Liljeberg Elmståhl, H G; Björck, I M; Kreft, I

    2001-01-01

    Spelt wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta cv. Ostro) were used to obtain white spelt flour (64.5% yield), wholemeal spelt flour (100% yield), and scalded spelt wheat kernels. From these materials, white spelt wheat bread (WSB), wholemeal spelt wheat bread (WMSB), and spelt wheat bread with scalded spelt wheat kernels (SSKB) were made and were compared to the reference white wheat bread (WWB). The spelt wheat flours and breads contained more proteins in comparison to wheat flour and bread. Among the samples the highest rate of starch hydrolysis was noticed in WSB. During the first 30 min of incubation this particular bread was shown to have significantly more (P < 0.05) rapidly digestible starch than the WMSB and later on also more starch than in WWB and SSKB, respectively. The WMSB had the lowest hydrolysis index (HI = 95.7). However, the result did not differ significantly from that in the reference common wheat bread. On the other hand, the most refined spelt wheat flour resulted in a bread product (WSB) that was statistically withdrawn (P < 0.05) as one with the highest HI (112.6).

  18. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    PubMed Central

    Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrné, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread. PMID:26904595

  19. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were produced from lateral meristems in bread wheat. One is supernumerary shoot that was developed from an axillary bud at the axil of leaves on the elongated internodes of the main stem. The other is supernumerary spike that was generated from a spikelet meristem on a spike. In addition, supernumerary spikelets were generated on the same rachis node of the spike in the plant that had supernumerary shoot and spikes. All of these supernumerary shoots/spikes/spikelets found in the super wheat plants produced normal fertility and seeds, displaying huge yield potential in bread wheat. PMID:26986738

  20. Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.

    PubMed

    Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

    1995-08-01

    The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread.

  1. Wheat bread enriched with organic calcium salts and inulin. A bread quality study.

    PubMed

    Salinas, María V; Zuleta, Angela; Ronayne, Patricia; Puppo, María C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study quality parameters of enriched wheat bread with calcium citrate (Ca3CI2) or lactate (CaLA2) and inulin (In), also to optimize bread formulation. Fermentation time (tf), specific volume (Vs), browning index of crust (BI) and crumb properties (moisture, alveolus, texture) were studied. Generally, tf and Vs decreased with prebiotic increment. Ca3CI2 did not change Vs at equal inulin quantity, whereas with CaLA2 smaller breads were obtained (at 6.5 % In). Moisture of crumbs decreased with an increase in Ca3CI2 (at ≤ 6.5 %); while for CaLA2 was more influenced by the prebiotic. Up to 6.5 % In, the addition of both salts decreased crumb firmness and increased cohesiveness. Using a desirability function, the optimum calcium-prebiotic bread obtained with Ca3CI2 contained 2.40 g/kg Ca and 7.49 % In and with CaLA2 presented 1.33 g/kg Ca and 4.68 % In. Breads of high-quality with higher calcium and prebiotic quantity were able to obtain with Ca3CI2.

  2. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  3. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions. PMID:26244554

  4. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  5. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. PMID:26948582

  6. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  7. Binding of zinc and iron to wheat bread, wheat bran, and their components.

    PubMed

    Ismail-Beigi, F; Faraji, B; Reinhold, J G

    1977-10-01

    Wholemeal wheat bread decreases the availability and intestinal absorption of divalent metals. To define this action further, binding of zinc in vitro to a wheat wholemeal bread (Tanok), dephytinized Tanok, and cellulose was determined at pH 5.0 to 7.5. Zinc binding by each was highly pH-dependent and reached a maximum at pH 6.5 to 7.5. Removal of phytate from Tanok did not reduce its binding capability. Wheat bran at pH 6.5 and 6.8 bound 72% of iron (0.5 microgram/ml of solution) and 82.5% of zinc (1.43 microgram/ml solution), respectively. Lignin and two of the hemicellulose fractions of wheat bran and high binding capabilities for zinc (85.6, 87.1, and 82.1%, respectively) whereas a third had a lower zinc-binding capability (38.7%). Binding of zinc to various celluloses and dextrans is also demonstrated. Formation of complexes of these metals with wheat fiber can explain, at least in part, the decreased availability of dietary iron and zinc in wholemeal wheat bread.

  8. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    PubMed

    Choulet, Frédéric; Alberti, Adriana; Theil, Sébastien; Glover, Natasha; Barbe, Valérie; Daron, Josquin; Pingault, Lise; Sourdille, Pierre; Couloux, Arnaud; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Mangenot, Sophie; Guilhot, Nicolas; Le Gouis, Jacques; Balfourier, Francois; Alaux, Michael; Jamilloux, Véronique; Poulain, Julie; Durand, Céline; Bellec, Arnaud; Gaspin, Christine; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Rogers, Jane; Vandepoele, Klaas; Aury, Jean-Marc; Mayer, Klaus; Berges, Hélène; Quesneville, Hadi; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. Comparative analyses indicated high wheat-specific inter- and intrachromosomal gene duplication activities that are potential sources of variability for adaption. In addition to providing a better understanding of the organization, function, and evolution of a large and polyploid genome, the availability of a high-quality sequence anchored to genetic maps will accelerate the identification of genes underlying important agronomic traits. PMID:25035497

  9. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    PubMed Central

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread. PMID:26019574

  10. Evaluation of dough rheological properties and bread texture of pearl millet-wheat flour mix.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Moulis, Claire; Hajji, Hejer; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making. PMID:27413235

  11. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50-1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79-1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  12. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties. PMID:26784470

  13. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  14. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huixia, Wu; Angela, Doherty; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  15. Effect of a Thermoascus aurantiacus thermostable enzyme cocktail on wheat bread qualitiy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D S; Telis-Romero, J; Da-Silva, R; Franco, C M L

    2014-01-15

    Thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus (CBMAI 756) on solid-state fermentation using corncob as a nutrient source produces an enzyme pool with the potential to be used in bread making. In this paper, the use of this enzyme cocktail as a wheat bread improver was reported. Both products released by flour arabinoxylan degradation and bread quality were investigated. The main product released through enzyme activity after prolonged incubation was xylose indicating the presence of xylanase; however, a small amount of xylobiose and arabinose also confirmed the presence of xylosidase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. Enzyme mixture "in vitro" mainly attacked water-unextractable arabinoxylan contributing to beneficial effect in bread making. The use of an optimal enzyme concentration (35U xylanase/100g of flour) increased specific volume (22%), reduced crumb firmness (25%), and reduced amylopectin retrogradation (17%) during bread storage. In conclusion, the enzyme cocktail produced by T. aurantiacus CBMAI 756 can improve wheat bread quality.

  16. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  17. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  18. Transamidation of gluten proteins during the bread-making process of wheat flour to produce breads with less immunoreactive gluten.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Sandoval, Nina Gisella; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    2014-08-01

    Due to an increasing incidence of celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders, different gluten-free breads have been developed using starches and additives as a substitute for gluten. Thus, patients miss not only the taste and aroma of wheat bread but also risk their sensitive intestines. Therefore, modifying gluten to avoid an immune response in CD and its application to baking is in progress. The aim of the study was to enzymatically modify gluten on wheat flour, during bread-making avoiding the use of additives, to reduce immunoreactivity, preserving its properties. Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) or chymotrypsin (ChT) was used to bind lysine or valine to gluten proteins in a model system. The best conditions were directly applied to wheat flour for bread-making with and without punching at 45 min. Subsequently, the rheological properties of the doughs, specific volume of the loaves, immunoreactive gluten content and modification of the extracted proteins were evaluated. ChT-treated breads presented a better appearance with a more homogeneous crumb, higher specific volume values (3.34-4.25 cm(3) g(-1)) and higher reactive gluten reduction (up to 71%) than the mTG-treated ones (1.23-2.66 cm(3) g(-1)) with only a 42% reactive gluten reduction. Thus, transpeptidation during bread-making is a promising technology, although it is necessary to improve the modification process to obtain the reactive gluten reduction required in breads for the treatment of CD patients and other gluten-related disorders.

  19. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  20. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  1. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the 'Chinese Spring' common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence 'Chinese Spring' genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the 'Chinese Spring' bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  2. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%. PMID:27455607

  3. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V

    2007-05-01

    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P < or = 0.05), but both were greater than 14% protein, indicating excellent grain quality for yeast-leavened bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P < or = 0.05). Visual observation confirmed these findings as conventional flour produced larger bread loaf volume. Fourteen sensory attributes were generated by the descriptive analysis panel. No differences were observed for flavor, aroma, or color attributes (P > 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P < or = 0.05) with smaller air cells in the appearance of the crumb (P < or = 0.05) than conventional bread.

  4. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  5. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, A.; Bundock, P. C.; Banks, P. M.; Fox, G.; Yin, X.; Henry, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5’-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production. PMID:26011437

  6. Impact of Waxy, Partial Waxy, and Wildtype Wheat Starch Fraction Properties on Hearth Bread Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars were selected to represent GBSS mutations: three each of wildtype, axnull, and bxnull, and two each of 2xnull and waxy. Starch and A- and B-granules were purified from wheat flour. Hearth bread loaves were produced from the flours using a smal...

  7. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  8. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  9. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends.

    PubMed

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Auta, Helen Shnada; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 10(5) cfu/g to 1.09 × 10(6) cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 10(1) cfu/g to 1.20 × 10(3) cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  10. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  11. Consumption of wholemeal rye bread increases serum concentrations and urinary excretion of enterolactone compared with consumption of white wheat bread in healthy Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, K S; Mazur, W M; Liukkonen, K H; Uehara, M; Poutanen, K S; Adlercreutz, H C; Mykkänen, H M

    2000-12-01

    Rye is an important source of plant lignans in Finland. In the present crossover trial we wanted to study the effect of rye bread as part of the usual diet on serum and urine enterolactone (ENL) concentrations in healthy volunteers. Eighteen men aged 43 (sem 2.0) years and twenty-one women aged 43 (sem 1.6) years consumed wholemeal rye bread and white wheat bread in random order for 4 weeks. The bread periods were separated by a 4 week wash-out period. The breads provided at least 20% of the daily energy intake. The mean intakes of rye bread were 219 (sem 14.6) and 162 (sem 5.3) g/d and those of wheat bread were 200 (sem 9.6) and 153 (sem 5.8) g/d for men and women respectively. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and three 24 h urine samples were collected from ten men and twelve women at the end of both bread periods for the determination of serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL. The mean serum ENL concentrations in both men and women at the beginning of baseline period and at the end of the rye-bread period remained constant and were significantly higher than those at the end of the wheat-bread period. Correspondingly, daily urinary ENL excretion increased significantly during the rye-bread period compared with the wheat-bread period and was 5- and 10-fold higher in men and women respectively in comparison with the amount of plant lignan precursors measured in the rye bread. These data indicate the presence of other precursors for ENL in rye which are not detected by the current method of measuring plant lignans in food. The possible role of fibre in enhancement of the formation of mammalian lignans from their plant precursors in the gut also remains to be determined.

  12. Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Jenkins, A L; Giordano, C; Giudici, S; Thompson, L U; Kalmusky, J; Josse, R G; Wong, G S

    1986-04-01

    To look at the effect of processing wheat and rye on blood glucose responses with special reference to bulgur and pumpernickel bread, groups of 9-12 Noninsulin-dependent (NIDDM) and 5-6 Insulin-dependent diabetic volunteers (IDDM) were fed test meals containing 50 g carbohydrate portions of four wheat and three rye products. Glycemic indices for IDDM and NIDDM combined, calculated as the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve, where white bread = 100, demonstrated values of 96 +/- 5 for wholemeal wheat bread, 89 +/- 6 for wholemeal rye bread, 78 +/- 3 for pumpernickel bread, 65 +/- 4 for bulgur, 63 +/- 6 for whole wheat kernels and 48 +/- 5 for whole rye kernels. Results for IDDM and NIDDM were similar (r = 0.96, p less than 0.01). It is concluded that traditional processing of cereals, such as parboiling (bulgur) or the use of wholegrains in bread (pumpernickel) may result in the low GI value associated with the unmilled cereal. Cereal foods processed in these ways may form a useful part of the diet where a reduction in postprandial glycemia is required.

  13. Use of sourdough lactobacilli and oat fibre to decrease the glycaemic index of white wheat bread.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Rizzello, Carlo G; Alfonsi, Giuditta; Arnault, Philip; Cappelle, Stefan; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-12-01

    This work was aimed at decreasing the glycaemic index (GI) of white wheat bread. Breads made with wheat flour (WF) or wholemeal flour (WMF) and fermented with baker's yeast had similar values of resistant starch (RS; 1.4-1.7 %, starch basis). Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum P1 and Lactobacillus brevis P2 favoured the highest formation of RS (approximately 5 %) when fermented with WF and WMF. The mixture (1:1) of WF and WMF (WF/WMF) was selected. The effect of dietary fibres, chemical or sourdough acidification on the hydrolysis index (HI) of WF/WMF bread was determined. Among fibres, only the addition of oat fibre (5 %) decreased the HI to 90.84 %. Lactic acid determined the lowest HI, and the effect was related to the decrease of pH. For the same decrease of pH, breads fermented with L. plantarum P1 and L. brevis P2 (sourdough WF/WMF) showed values of HI lower than chemical acidification. The glucose response and GI of WF bread or sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre was determined by using fifteen healthy volunteers. Anhydrous glucose was used as reference. The area under the glucose response curve and the value of GI (72 %) of WF bread were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre (GI = 53.7 %). The decrease of GI of the sourdough WF/WMF bread may be due to both fibre content and decreased pH. Compared to WMF bread, sourdough WF/WMF bread, enriched with oat fibre, had higher specific volume, better cell crumb structure and more appreciated acidulous smell, taste and aroma.

  14. Dynamic evolution of NBS-LRR genes in bread wheat and its progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Longjiang; Si, Weina; Zhao, Lina; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies have focused on the largest class of disease resistance genes (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat, NBS-LRR) in various plants. However, no research on the dynamic evolution of these genes in domesticated species and their progenitors has been reported. Recently published genome sequences of bread wheat and its two ancestors provide a good opportunity for comparing NBS-encoding genes between ancestors and their progeny. Over 2000 NBS-encoding genes have been identified in bread wheat, which is the largest number having been reported so far. Compared with other grass species, its two progenitors also contained more NBS-encoding genes, indicating that there was an expansion of these genes in their common ancestor. Interestingly, the inherited relationships of NBS-LRR genes among the bread wheat and its two progenitors were ambiguous and only 3 % single-copy orthologues retained gene order in three-way genome comparisons of the three genomes. Lots of NBS-encoding genes present in the either ancestor could not be found in the bread wheat. These results indicated that NBS-LRR genes in bread wheat might have evolved rapidly through a rapid loss of ancestor genes.

  15. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence.

  16. Improvement of the quality of whole wheat bread by supplementation of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amita R; Shah, R K; Madamwar, Datta

    2006-11-01

    The possible use of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 4898 as a bread improver was tested in whole wheat bread. The partially purified xylanase was used as an additive at 12 U/g during mixing of wheat flour. The effects of xylanase addition on the fermentation stage and the final bread quality were analyzed. Remarkable decrease (11%) in water absorption and increase in dough rising (28.5%) were noticed. Final moisture content of the bread was higher (40.5%) than control (32.3%). Improvements in volume (53%) and specific volume (56%) were also significant. Sensory evaluation indicated better flavour, taste, softness and overall acceptability. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes. Firmness was decreased by more than four folds. Improvements in cohesiveness and decline in springiness and gumminess were observed.

  17. Sponge and dough bread making: genetic and phenotypic relationships with wheat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Colin R; Taylor, Julian; Larroque, Oscar; Coombes, Neil; Verbyla, Arunas P; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Rampling, Lynette; Butow, Barbara; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Balazs, Gabor; Békés, Ferenc; Mann, Gulay; Quail, Ken J; Southan, Michael; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2010-09-01

    The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar 'Chara' and a Canadian cultivar 'Glenlea'. The genetic correlation across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were relatively low compared with rheological tests. The large difference between sites was most likely due to temperature differences during grain development reflected in a decrease in the percentage of unextractable polymeric protein and mixing time. Predictive tests (mixograph, extensograph, protein content and composition, micro-zeleny and flour viscosity) showed inconsistent and generally poor correlations with end-product performance (baking volume and slice area) at both sites, with no single parameter being effective as a predictor of end-product performance. The difference in the relationships between genetic and phenotypic correlations highlights the requirement to develop alternative methods of selection for breeders and bakers in order to maximise both genetic gain and predictive assessment of grain quality. PMID:20495901

  18. Dosage effect of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye on root morphology and anatomy in bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sundrish; DeMason, Darleen A.; Ehdaie, Bahman; Lukaszewski, Adam J.; Waines, J. Giles

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous translocation of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye (1RS) in bread wheat is associated with higher root biomass and grain yield. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of QTL for different root morphological traits on the 1RS arm in bread wheat. This study was conducted to address two questions in wheat root genetics. First, does the presence of the 1RS arm in bread wheat affect its root anatomy? Second, how does root morphology and anatomy of bread wheat respond to different dosages of 1RS? Near-isogenic plants with a different number (0 to 4 dosages) of 1RS translocations were studied for root morphology and anatomy. The F1 hybrid, with single doses of the 1RS and 1AS arms, showed heterosis for root and shoot biomass. In other genotypes, with 0, 2, or 4 doses of 1RS, root biomass was incremental with the increase in the dosage of 1RS in bread wheat. This study also provided evidence of the presence of gene(s) influencing root xylem vessel number, size, and distribution in bread wheat. It was found that root vasculature follows a specific developmental pattern along the length of the tap root and 1RS dosage tends to affect the transitions differentially in different positions. This study indicated that the inherent differences in root morphology and anatomy of different 1RS lines may be advantageous compared to normal bread wheat to survive under stress conditions. PMID:20444906

  19. Fine mapping and targeted SNP survey using rice-wheat gene colinearity in the region of the Bo1 boron toxicity tolerance locus of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Collins, Nicholas C; Eastwood, Russell F; Sutton, Tim; Jefferies, Steven P; Langridge, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity due to high levels of soil boron (B) represents a significant limitation to cereal production in some regions, and the Bo1 gene provides a major source of B toxicity tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A novel approach was used to develop primers to amplify and sequence gene fragments specifically from the Bo1 region of the hexaploid wheat genome. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified were then used to generate markers close to Bo1 on the distal end of chromosome 7BL. In the 16 gene fragments totaling 19.6 kb, SNPs were observed between the two cultivars Cranbrook and Halberd at a low frequency (one every 613 bp). Furthermore, SNPs were distributed unevenly, being limited to only two genes. In contrast, RFLP provided a much greater number of genetic markers, with every tested gene identifying polymorphism. Bo1 previously known only as a QTL was located as a discrete Mendelian locus. In total, 28 new RFLP, PCR and SSR markers were added to the existing map. The 1.8 cM Bo1 interval of wheat corresponds to a 227 kb section of rice chromosome 6L encoding 21 predicted proteins with no homology to any known B transporters. The co-dominant PCR marker AWW5L7 co-segregated with Bo1 and was highly predictive of B tolerance status within a set of 94 Australian bread wheat cultivars and breeding lines. The markers and rice colinearity described here represent tools that will assist B tolerance breeding and the positional cloning of Bo1. PMID:17571251

  20. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards.

  1. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05) during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%). Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05) decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  2. Fortifying Chapathis, an Asian Whole Wheat Unleavened Bread, using Corn Distillers Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapathi, an unleavened whole wheat flat bread, is widely consumed in Southern Asia. To improve the nutritional qualities of this product, we have investigated fortifying chapathi with different levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Food grade DDGS is an alternative sour...

  3. Improvement of the quality of wheat bread by addition of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Han; Guo, Bing; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Fan, Sou-Jin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Although many xylanases are widely used in the baking industry, only one glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) xylanase has previously been reported to be effective in baking. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two GH 10 xylanases, psychrophilic XynA from Glaciecola mesophila and mesophilic EX1 from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, in bread making. The optimal dosages needed to improve wheat flour dough and bread quality were 270-U/kg flour for EX1 and 0.9-U/kg flour for XynA. At their optimal dosage, both XynA and EX1 had significant dough-softening ability, resulting in a 50% reduction in Brabender units. XynA was more effective than EX1 in reducing the time to reach maximum consistency. XynA and EX1 showed similar effects in improving the bread volume (~30% increase). EX1 was more effective in reducing the initial crumb firmness. Although both enzymes exhibited similar anti-staling effects on the bread, based on a decrease in the bread firmness, XynA had a greater effect on reducing the firming rate, and EX1 showed an enhanced reduction in the initial firmness. These results show that these two GH 10 xylanases have unique advantages in improving dough and bread quality and indicate their potential in bread making.

  4. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  5. [Nutritional evaluation of sweet potato cultivars Ipomea batata (L.) Lam used in bread as partial substitute of wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, H; Kalinowski, J; Huaman, Z; Scott, G

    1993-12-01

    Four hundred and forty entries of sweet potato tubers from the International Potato Center were evaluated for chemical characteristics related to nutritional value. Dry matter range in the group was 15 to 45g/100g. The native entries DLP 2393, DLP 1120, DLP 2312, DLP 1908 and the foreign RCB 361F were selected for use in bread manufacture. Their average dry matter and crude protein was 38.5 and 9.2% respectively. Sweet potato bread was made replacing 30% of wheat flour with grinded sweet potato tubers. This bread had 11.0% crude protein in dry matter basis which were the same for bread made of wheat flour. There were no differences in organoleptic characteristics or protein quality (Apparent biological value: 37 vs 42%; apparent digestibility: 81 vs 80%; net protein utilization: 33 vs 39%) between sweet potato or full wheat flour breads respectively.

  6. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  7. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    PubMed

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control. PMID:25328228

  8. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were < 50 ?g kg-1 which is less than those in Canada (> 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  9. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g). PMID:26396377

  10. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  11. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread.

  12. Effects of waxy wheat flour and water on frozen dough and bread properties.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinhee; Kerr, William L; Johnson, Jerry W

    2009-06-01

    The quality of bread made from frozen dough is diminished by changes that occur during freezing. New cultivars of waxy wheat flour (WWF), containing less than 2% amylose, offer unique properties for the production of baked products. In this study, dough properties and bread quality were investigated at various levels of WWF (0% to 45% flour weight) and water (55% to 65%). Dough stickiness increased with higher levels of WWF and water. During frozen storage, dough with greater WWF and lower water had less change in stickiness. Maximum resistance to extension (MRE) decreased with higher WWF and water. Dough with greater WWF and less water had less change in extensibility after frozen storage. Dough with greater WWF and water was more extensible. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that frozen dough with higher WWF content had lower transverse relaxation (T(2)) time of 9 to 11ms. After frozen storage, dough with higher WWF still showed lower T(2). Dough with 15% WWF had higher yeast activity. Bread made from 15% and 30% WWF had higher volume in bread made from unfrozen and frozen dough. Bread firmness decreased with higher amounts of WWF and water. This research demonstrated that specific combinations of WWF and water produced a better quality of frozen dough and bread. PMID:19646043

  13. Characterization of chromosomal regions containing quantitive trait loci determining specificity towards bread and durum wheat cultivars in the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specificity of the haploid, plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola towards durum (tetraploid, genomes AABB) versus bread (AABBDD) wheat is well documented. To estimate the number of genes involved in host species specificity, we crossed an isolate of M. graminicola collected from bread w...

  14. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Methods Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. Results In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. Conclusions The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in

  15. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution ‘nullisomic-tetrasomic’ lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. Results We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. Conclusions We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution. PMID:24726045

  16. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanpeng; Cheng, Xi; Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been applied to engineer targeted modifications in polyploid genomes, but simultaneous modification of multiple homoeoalleles has not been reported. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (refs. 4,5) technologies in hexaploid bread wheat to introduce targeted mutations in the three homoeoalleles that encode MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) proteins. Genetic redundancy has prevented evaluation of whether mutation of all three MLO alleles in bread wheat might confer resistance to powdery mildew, a trait not found in natural populations. We show that TALEN-induced mutation of all three TaMLO homoeologs in the same plant confers heritable broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We further use CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate transgenic wheat plants that carry mutations in the TaMLO-A1 allele. We also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering targeted DNA insertion in bread wheat through nonhomologous end joining of the double-strand breaks caused by TALENs. Our findings provide a methodological framework to improve polyploid crops. PMID:25038773

  17. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanpeng; Cheng, Xi; Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been applied to engineer targeted modifications in polyploid genomes, but simultaneous modification of multiple homoeoalleles has not been reported. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (refs. 4,5) technologies in hexaploid bread wheat to introduce targeted mutations in the three homoeoalleles that encode MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) proteins. Genetic redundancy has prevented evaluation of whether mutation of all three MLO alleles in bread wheat might confer resistance to powdery mildew, a trait not found in natural populations. We show that TALEN-induced mutation of all three TaMLO homoeologs in the same plant confers heritable broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We further use CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate transgenic wheat plants that carry mutations in the TaMLO-A1 allele. We also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering targeted DNA insertion in bread wheat through nonhomologous end joining of the double-strand breaks caused by TALENs. Our findings provide a methodological framework to improve polyploid crops.

  18. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  19. Effect of baking process on added folic acid and endogenous folates stability in wheat and rye breads.

    PubMed

    Gujska, Elzbieta; Majewska, Katarzyna

    2005-06-01

    In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the formulation containing enriched flour with 0.2 mg folic acid/100 g product, baker's yeast and additionally ascorbic acid for wheat bread and lactic acid for rye bread. Folates were extracted with Hepes/Ches buffer (pH = 7.85) followed by destruction of matrix by amylase and protease and deconjugation with rat serum conjugase. Affinity chromatography (FBP bovine milk) was used to purify and concentrate samples. The folates were separated by HPLC with C18 column and with a combination of fluorescence and UV detection. For both rye and wheat breads there was a decrease of folic acid from flour to bread stage. The total losses depend on baking process and ranged from 12 to 21%. Some changes in the level of different native folate forms during the stage of baking process were also observed.

  20. Fate of ochratoxin A in the processing of whole wheat grains during milling and bread production.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, K A; Banks, J; MacDonald, S J

    2003-12-01

    Batches of whole wheat contaminated with ochratoxin A were produced by inoculation with Penicillium verrucosum under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The fate of ochratoxin was followed through initial cleaning, abrasive scouring of the outer grain coat, milling into wholemeal wheat or into 10 milled fractions. Bread was baked from both wholemeal flour and straight-run white flour. Concentrations of ochratoxin A in the cleanings, scourings, and the bran and offal fractions were increased, but reduced in the white flour. Scouring removed up to 44% of the ochratoxin A present, but only a small further loss occurred in the bread-making process. An overall reduction of about 75% could be achieved in white bread using a combination of cleaning scouring and removal of the bran and offal fractions. Maximum overall reduction in producing wholemeal bread was about 40%. The reduction in ochratoxin A that can be achieved must be considered in relation to economic constraints concerning the disposal of wasted grain. Appropriate strategies for the use or disposal of potentially highly contaminated cleanings, scourings, bran or offal must be established.

  1. RAPD markers associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Pakniyat, H; Tavakol, E

    2007-09-15

    Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to search genetic diversity and markers associated with drought tolerance in 20 bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars are extensively being used by farmers in Iran, 6 of them are known as drought tolerant. Initial screens involved growing 10 cultivars at seedling stage under drought conditions (-5 and -8 bar) exerted by PEG 6000 in a hydroponic experiment. These tests confirmed the tolerance of the 6 above mentioned cultivars. Thirty 10-mer RAPD primers were used for fingerprinting of the cultivars of which primers P6 (TCGGCGGTTC) and P7 (CTGCATCGTG) produced respectively a 920 and a 750 bp band present in drought tolerant (absent in others) cultivars. These bands may be associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat.

  2. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  3. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour. PMID:23733824

  4. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 <9 with an average of 7.29, which exceeded the Egyptian bread wheat cultivar Giza-168 (5.58). Thirty three RILs were included among the acceptable range having RRI value >2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R) against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR), eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  5. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Amer F.; Hassan, Mohamed I.; Amein, Karam A.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 <9 with an average of 7.29, which exceeded the Egyptian bread wheat cultivar Giza-168 (5.58). Thirty three RILs were included among the acceptable range having RRI value >2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R) against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR), eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat. PMID:26674020

  6. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  7. Modification of wheat flour with bromelain and baking hypoallergenic bread with added ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, S; Arai, S; Watanabe, M

    1996-08-01

    Based on the wheat glutenin IgE-binding epitope, Gln-Gln-Gln-Pro-Pro, a practical method is proposed for the production of hypoallergenic wheat flour. Bromelain was found effective for decomposing the epitope structure. In practice, soft flour was mixed with water dissolving bromelain and the mixture was incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 h. The result of IgE-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) suggested negative allergenicity. A mixture of bromelain-modified flour, glucose, citric, acid, a surfactant and sodium hydrogen carbonate was baked to produce hypoallergenic bread, resembling English muffins.

  8. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome.

    PubMed

    2014-07-18

    An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide.

  9. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome.

    PubMed

    2014-07-18

    An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide. PMID:25035500

  10. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Single Nucleotide Variants in Longer-Kernel Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Zibo; Zhou, Xiaobian; Yan, Yan; Dong, Zhongdong; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate derivative Yunong 3114 were obtained by next-sequencing technology. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the wheat strains were explored and compared. A total of 5907 and 6287 non-synonymous SNVs were acquired for Yunong 201 and 3114, respectively. A total of 4021 genes with SNVs were obtained. The genes that underwent non-synonymous SNVs were significantly involved in ATP binding, protein phosphorylation, and cellular protein metabolic process. The heat map analysis also indicated that most of these mutant genes were significantly differentially expressed at different developmental stages. The SNVs in these genes possibly contribute to the longer kernel length of Yunong 3114. Our data provide useful information on wheat transcriptome for future studies on wheat functional genomics. This study could also help in illustrating the gene functions of the non-synonymous SNVs of Yunong 201 and 3114. PMID:27551288

  11. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Single Nucleotide Variants in Longer-Kernel Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Zibo; Zhou, Xiaobian; Yan, Yan; Dong, Zhongdong; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate derivative Yunong 3114 were obtained by next-sequencing technology. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the wheat strains were explored and compared. A total of 5907 and 6287 non-synonymous SNVs were acquired for Yunong 201 and 3114, respectively. A total of 4021 genes with SNVs were obtained. The genes that underwent non-synonymous SNVs were significantly involved in ATP binding, protein phosphorylation, and cellular protein metabolic process. The heat map analysis also indicated that most of these mutant genes were significantly differentially expressed at different developmental stages. The SNVs in these genes possibly contribute to the longer kernel length of Yunong 3114. Our data provide useful information on wheat transcriptome for future studies on wheat functional genomics. This study could also help in illustrating the gene functions of the non-synonymous SNVs of Yunong 201 and 3114. PMID:27551288

  12. Differential rRNA genes expression in bread wheat and its inheritance.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Polanco, Carlos; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-09-01

    The expression of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from rye, located within the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), is repressed by cytosine methylation in wheat x rye hybrids and in triticale, as consequence of nucleolar dominance. Our previous study revealed that bread wheat cultivars with a maximum number of four Ag-NORs presented high level of rDNA cytosine methylation when compared to others with a maximum of six Ag-NORs. In order to evaluate the inheritance of the Ag-NORs number and NOR methylation patterns, we produced F1 hybrids between bread wheat cultivars with four Ag-NORs and bread wheat cultivars with six Ag-NORs (in the direct and reciprocal senses). The F2 progenies of these F1 hybrids were also evaluated for the NOR number and methylation patterns. Parent bread wheat cultivars with a maximum of four Ag-NORs after treated with 5-azacytidine evidenced a maximum of six Ag-NORs per metaphase cell and a maximum of six nucleoli per interphase nucleus, confirming that the expression of the rRNA genes in bread wheat is related to cytosine methylation. Most of the F1 hybrids showed a maximum number of four or six Ag-NORs, similarly to that of the female parent suggesting a non-mendelian inheritance, while other hybrids presented four or six Ag-NORs in both senses of the cross. The F1 NOR methylation patterns showed some fragments common to their parents but also novel fragments suggesting genomic and/or chromosome rearrangements after hybridization. Despite the different NOR patterns among the parents, an invariable NOR pattern was found among the F1 plants suggesting a tendency to stability, which was also transmitted to the F2. The F2 progenies showed plants with a maximum of four, five and/or six Ag-NORs. The ratio of plants with four, five and/or six Ag-NORs per F2 progeny was variable and did not follow any specific mendelian proportion. These results allowed us to suggest that the inheritance of the number of Ag-NORs by the F1 and F2 plants did not

  13. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  14. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread.

  15. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world. PMID:24621595

  16. Evolution of the BBAA Component of Bread Wheat during Its History at the Allohexaploid Level[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  17. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    PubMed

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  18. Influence of wheat milling on low-hydration bread quality developed by sheeting rolls.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Ruiz-París, E; Oliete, B

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that milling influences the characteristics of flour and products made from it. This article analyzed the influence of milling on the quality of low-hydration bread. In general, milling influenced the quality of these products more than the type of wheat selected. Among the various mill streams, the last break and reduction streams produced lower quality bread and must be eliminated in milling. These streams had a higher protein and ash content, showing the presence of components of the outer layers of the grain. The flour was able to absorb more water, but had less extensibility in kneading and the dough generated was weaker due the poorer quality of its proteins and the influence of elements from the outer layers. Thus, bread made from these streams had smaller volume, had a firmer texture and had both darker crumb and crust. These differences, along with the effect of the kind of flour on the flavor and aroma of the bread, made it less acceptable than flour from the rest of the streams studied.

  19. Near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to evaluate wheat flour doughs leavening and bread properties.

    PubMed

    Li Vigni, Mario; Cocchi, Marina

    2013-02-18

    A mixture design of experiment approach was followed to explore formulation effects on the technological properties of wheat flours optimized for industrial bread-making purposes. Ten different flour mixtures were investigated by means of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to obtain information on flour performance in a critical phase such as dough leavening. For each mixture, a laboratory-scale bread making experiment was carried out according to a standardized recipe and the leavening phase of each dough sample was monitored by means of NIRS at different times. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to highlight the existence of differences among the mixtures on the basis of NIR spectrum variability with respect to the leavening time. Additionally, the relationship among the 3-way NIR dataset and some parameters measured on the baked bread loaves (dimensions, volume, weight) was investigated by means of the n-way extension of partial least squares regression (nPLS), in order to evaluate product properties from its leavening step and mixture formulation. The results give better insight on the relationships among wheat flour formulation and its performance in the leavening phase and as far as some properties of the final product are concerned, thus offering a way to monitor the leavening phase and give information on its influence on the final product properties.

  20. Food Processing in an enclosed environment: hydroponically grown wheat to bread.

    PubMed

    Vodovotz, Y; Barta, D

    1998-01-01

    A food system based on raw products obtained from higher plants may be a central feature of a biologically based Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) used on long-duration missions to Moon or Mars. Such a food system is dramatically different from previous systems used on the Shuttle or from what is currently planned for the International Space Station. ALSS requires an integrated approach addressing all aspects of food production, from cultivation through processing to meal preparation. This article characterizes the full process of adding bread to the food system, from production of grain through the baking. Bread, baked using controlled environment-grown wheat, was found to be highly acceptable in sensory analysis tests when compared to bread baked using conventional commercial flour. Chief volatiles released during the rising and baking process included ethanol and acetaldehyde. Flour milled from controlled environment-grown wheat was higher in potassium, sodium, iron, and phosphorus than conventional commercial flour. The impacts of these findings are discussed. PMID:11540468

  1. Food Processing in an enclosed environment: hydroponically grown wheat to bread.

    PubMed

    Vodovotz, Y; Barta, D

    1998-01-01

    A food system based on raw products obtained from higher plants may be a central feature of a biologically based Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) used on long-duration missions to Moon or Mars. Such a food system is dramatically different from previous systems used on the Shuttle or from what is currently planned for the International Space Station. ALSS requires an integrated approach addressing all aspects of food production, from cultivation through processing to meal preparation. This article characterizes the full process of adding bread to the food system, from production of grain through the baking. Bread, baked using controlled environment-grown wheat, was found to be highly acceptable in sensory analysis tests when compared to bread baked using conventional commercial flour. Chief volatiles released during the rising and baking process included ethanol and acetaldehyde. Flour milled from controlled environment-grown wheat was higher in potassium, sodium, iron, and phosphorus than conventional commercial flour. The impacts of these findings are discussed.

  2. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

  3. Differentiation of Bread Made with Whole Grain and Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using LC/MS-based chromatographic Fingerprinting and Chemometric Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to diffrentiate between whole wheat (WW) flours and refined wheat (RW) flour, and the breads made from them. The chemical compositions of the bread samples were profiled using h...

  4. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    PubMed

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  5. Gluten quality of bread wheat is associated with activity of RabD GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Adam M; Bhandari, Dhan G; Poole, Mervin; Napier, Johnathan A; Jones, Huw D; Lu, Chungui; Lycett, Grantley W

    2015-01-01

    In the developing endosperm of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), seed storage proteins are produced on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to protein bodies, specialized vacuoles for the storage of protein. The functionally important gluten proteins of wheat are transported by two distinct routes to the protein bodies where they are stored: vesicles that bud directly off the ER and transport through the Golgi. However, little is known about the processing of glutenin and gliadin proteins during these steps or the possible impact on their properties. In plants, the RabD GTPases mediate ER-to-Golgi vesicle transport. Available sequence information for Rab GTPases in Arabidopsis, rice, Brachypodium and bread wheat was compiled and compared to identify wheat RabD orthologs. Partial genetic sequences were assembled using the first draft of the Chinese Spring wheat genome. A suitable candidate gene from the RabD clade (TaRabD2a) was chosen for down-regulation by RNA interference (RNAi), and an RNAi construct was used to transform wheat plants. All four available RabD genes were shown by qRT-PCR to be down-regulated in the transgenic developing endosperm. The transgenic grain was found to produce flour with significantly altered processing properties when measured by farinograph and extensograph. SE-HPLC found that a smaller proportion of HMW-GS and large proportion of LMW-GS are incorporated into the glutenin macropolymer in the transgenic dough. Lower protein content but a similar protein profile on SDS-PAGE was seen in the transgenic grain. PMID:25047236

  6. New insights into the organization, recombination, expression and functional mechanism of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lingli; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Fan, Huajie; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Qin, Huanju; Li, Bin; Hao, Shanting; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The bread-making quality of wheat is strongly influenced by multiple low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) proteins expressed in the seeds. However, the organization, recombination and expression of LMW-GS genes and their functional mechanism in bread-making are not well understood. Here we report a systematic molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, B3 and D3) of bread wheat using complementary approaches (genome wide characterization of gene members, expression profiling, proteomic analysis). Fourteen unique LMW-GS genes were identified for Xiaoyan 54 (with superior bread-making quality). Molecular mapping and recombination analyses revealed that the three Glu-3 loci of Xiaoyan 54 harbored dissimilar numbers of LMW-GS genes and covered different genetic distances. The number of expressed LMW-GS in the seeds was higher in Xiaoyan 54 than in Jing 411 (with relatively poor bread-making quality). This correlated with the finding of higher numbers of active LMW-GS genes at the A3 and D3 loci in Xiaoyan 54. Association analysis using recombinant inbred lines suggested that positive interactions, conferred by genetic combinations of the Glu-3 locus alleles with more numerous active LMW-GS genes, were generally important for the recombinant progenies to attain high Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV), an important indicator of bread-making quality. A higher number of active LMW-GS genes tended to lead to a more elevated ZSV, although this tendency was influenced by genetic background. This work provides substantial new insights into the genomic organization and expression of LMW-GS genes, and molecular genetic evidence suggesting that these genes contribute quantitatively to bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Our analysis also indicates that selection for high numbers of active LMW-GS genes can be used for improvement of bread-making quality in wheat breeding. PMID:20975830

  7. New Insights into the Organization, Recombination, Expression and Functional Mechanism of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huajie; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Qin, Huanju; Li, Bin; Hao, Shanting; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The bread-making quality of wheat is strongly influenced by multiple low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) proteins expressed in the seeds. However, the organization, recombination and expression of LMW-GS genes and their functional mechanism in bread-making are not well understood. Here we report a systematic molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, B3 and D3) of bread wheat using complementary approaches (genome wide characterization of gene members, expression profiling, proteomic analysis). Fourteen unique LMW-GS genes were identified for Xiaoyan 54 (with superior bread-making quality). Molecular mapping and recombination analyses revealed that the three Glu-3 loci of Xiaoyan 54 harbored dissimilar numbers of LMW-GS genes and covered different genetic distances. The number of expressed LMW-GS in the seeds was higher in Xiaoyan 54 than in Jing 411 (with relatively poor bread-making quality). This correlated with the finding of higher numbers of active LMW-GS genes at the A3 and D3 loci in Xiaoyan 54. Association analysis using recombinant inbred lines suggested that positive interactions, conferred by genetic combinations of the Glu-3 locus alleles with more numerous active LMW-GS genes, were generally important for the recombinant progenies to attain high Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV), an important indicator of bread-making quality. A higher number of active LMW-GS genes tended to lead to a more elevated ZSV, although this tendency was influenced by genetic background. This work provides substantial new insights into the genomic organization and expression of LMW-GS genes, and molecular genetic evidence suggesting that these genes contribute quantitatively to bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Our analysis also indicates that selection for high numbers of active LMW-GS genes can be used for improvement of bread-making quality in wheat breeding. PMID:20975830

  8. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  9. Transformation of the US bread wheat 'Butte 86' and silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Allen, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Complex groups of proteins determine the unique functional properties of wheat flour and are sometimes responsible for food intolerances and allergies in individuals that consume wheat products. Transgenic approaches can be used to explore the functions of different flour proteins, but are limited to the few wheat cultivars that can be transformed and also by the lack of detailed information about genes and proteins expressed in grain from those cultivars. The US bread wheat Butte 86 has been extensively characterized and a comprehensive proteome map was developed in which flour proteins were distinguished by mass spectrometry and associated with specific gene sequences. Here, this information has been used to design an RNA interference construct to silence the expression of genes encoding omega gliadins that trigger the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The construct was introduced into immature embryos from Butte 86 using biolistics and bialaphos-resistant plants were regenerated. Stable transformation and inheritance of the transgene were confirmed by PCR. Analysis of proteins in grain from transgenic plants demonstrated that the omega-5 gliadins were either absent or substantially reduced relative to non-transformed controls. The ability to genetically transform Butte 86 makes it possible to alter flour composition in a targeted manner in a commercial US wheat cultivar and should accelerate future research on flour quality and immunogenic potential. PMID:21844700

  10. Antioxidant, nutritional and functional characteristics of wheat bread enriched with ground flaxseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Anders, Andrzej; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and functional quality of wheat bread supplemented with 1-5% flaxseed hull (FH) were studied. Analyses of the chemically-extractable fraction show that supplementation with 5% of FH increased (compared to control) phenolics content (by 93%), radicals scavenging ability (by 176%) and reducing power (by 220%). Furthermore, phenolic antioxidants were bioaccessible in vitro (samples after simulated digestion). Fortification had no significant influence on rapidly and slowly digestible starch, in vitro starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index; however, a decrease (up to 8%) of relative proteins digestibility was determined. Enrichment decreased loaf volume and increased crumb hardness. The results from sensory evaluation show that the incorporation of FH had a slightly unfavorable effect on bread sensory properties but ensured satisfactory consumer acceptability. In view of these facts, it is concluded that flaxseed hulls may be a beneficial food additive. PMID:27507444

  11. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7-11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads.

  12. Nutritional and technological quality of bread enriched with an intermediated pearled wheat fraction.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Sovrani, Valentina; Marinaccio, Federico; Reyneri, Amedeo; Rolle, Luca; Giacosa, Simone; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-12-01

    A strategy to maximise the health benefits of wheat-based products enriched with refined flour and selected fractions of kernel, obtained by sequential pearling, has been tested. Five mixtures of refined commercial flour with an increasing replacement of a pearled wheat fraction were used to prepare bread and were compared with a control for the dough rheological properties (Mixolab® parameters), the bioactive compound content, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination and the physical properties (volume, crust colour, instrumental crunchiness and crumb texture profile analysis parameters). The antioxidant and dietary fibre contents increased linearly as the flour was enriched with the pearled fraction. The dietary fibre, β-glucan, total phenolic, alkylresorcinol content and the antioxidant activity increased significantly at a replacement level of 10%, while the technological properties were not significantly different from those of the control. It has been shown that refined flour could be enriched through the addition of a selected wheat pearled fraction and the bioactive compound content of composite bread could be improved, while few rheological and technological differences could be obtained and the risk for DON contamination could be limited.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  14. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  15. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  16. Selenium content of wheat for bread making in Scotland and the relationship between glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) levels in whole blood and bread consumption.

    PubMed

    Barclay, M N; MacPherson, A

    1992-07-01

    The selenium content of the 1989 harvest of wheat used for bread making in Scotland ranged from 0.028 microgram/g dry weight for home-grown wheat to 0.518 microgram/g for Canadian wheat. The tonnage values indicate that 13.8% of the wheat used in bread making came from Canada. This reflects in a calculated dietary intake of 31 micrograms/d which is well below the recommended levels of 70 and 55 micrograms for adult males and females respectively (National Research Council, 1989). The average glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) level in 478 samples of human whole blood was 6.08 (SE 0.065) units/ml. This increased to 6.65 (SE 0.321) in sixty-two subjects consuming brown or wholemeal bread but was unaffected by oily fish consumption. Analysis of a small number of samples of whole milk, eggs and meat indicated slightly higher concentrations than previously published values but this trend was insufficient to compensate for the lower cereal provision of Se.

  17. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  18. Fortification of Wheat Bread with 3-7% Defatted Soy Flour Improves Formulation, Organoleptic Characteristics, and Rat Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Mashayekh, Morteza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study designed to test effects of defatted soy-fortified wheat bread on the organoleptic properties as well as influences on rat growth rate. Methods: Defatted soy flour (DSF) was blended with wheat flour with extraction rate of 82-84% at 3, 7, and 7% levels plus 3% sugar. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular Taftoon bread and was tested for chemical and organoleptic characteristics. The organoleptic characteristics of blends consist of taste and flavor, crust texture, fragrance and aroma, appearance, bendability, and overall acceptability were determined through taste panel by 213 judges. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly given codes and allocated to different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on three DSF-fortified bread blends and control bread for 30 days. Results: The blending of wheat flour with DSF altered the organoleptic properties of breads. Addition of DSF increased significantly the protein and ash content of the bread (P < 0.05). Organoleptic test indicates that the best formulation is between 3 and 7% fortifications of DSF blends. In biological evaluation, rats fed the control diet had the lowest body weight gain and their food efficiency ratio was significantly different (P < 0.05) in compare with 7% DSF-fortified blend. Conclusions: It was concluded that overall acceptability score significantly decreased with increasing DSF substitution level. Rats fed 7% DSF-fortified blend showed privileged food efficiency ratio. Then, the best formulation is between 3 and 7% DSF bread. This formulation can nourish all human at risk of malnutrition. PMID:24554990

  19. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  20. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p < 0.05), Regarding dough stability, it appears that 10 % chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  1. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p < 0.05), Regarding dough stability, it appears that 10 % chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  2. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

  3. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  4. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes. PMID:25158883

  5. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  6. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tascioglu, Tulin; Metin, Ozge Karakas; Aydin, Yildiz; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Akan, Kadir; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-08-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene pool was analyzed with 117 microsatellite markers scattered throughout A, B, and D genomes. Ninety microsatellite markers were giving 1620 polymorphic alleles in 55 different bread wheat genotypes. These genotypes were found to be divided into three subgroups based on Bayesian model and Principal component analysis. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers resides on A genome was estimated for wmc262 marker located on 4A chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.960. The highest polymorphism information content value (0.954) among the markers known to be located on B genome was realized for wmc44 marker located on 1B chromosome. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers specific to D genome was found in gwm174 marker located on 5D chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.948. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between 81 pairwise SSR markers reside on the same chromosome was tested and very limited linkage disequilibrium was observed. The results confirmed that the most distant genotype pairs were as follows Ceyhan-99-Behoth 6, Gerek 79-Douma 40989, and Karahan-99-Douma 48114.

  7. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread.

  8. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  9. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  10. Effect of bioprocessing of wheat bran in wholemeal wheat breads on the colonic SCFA production in vitro and postprandial plasma concentrations in men.

    PubMed

    Anson, Nuria Mateo; Havenaar, Robert; Vaes, Wouter; Coulier, Leon; Venema, Koen; Selinheimo, Emilia; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-09-15

    The health benefits of whole grain consumption can be partly attributed to the inclusion of the bran or outer-layers of the grain rich in dietary fibre. Fibre is fermented in the colon, leading to the production of beneficial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The effect of five different types of bread on the SCFA production was studied in an in vitro model of human colon. Additionally, the postprandial effects of two selected breads on the SCFA plasma concentrations were investigated in men. A higher in vitro production of butyrate was induced by wholemeal wheat bread with bioprocessed bran than by native bran. The increase in butyrate seemed to be in exchange for propionate, whilst the total SCFA production remained similar. However, differences between the two breads in the postprandial butyrate concentrations could not be detected in peripheral blood of men, probably due to an effective utilisation by colonocytes.

  11. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Okay, Sezer; Derelli, Ebru; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-01

    The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars.

  12. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  13. The effect of different levels of wheat bran on iron absorption in rats from bread containing similar amounts of phytate.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, S J

    1982-03-01

    1. Iron absorption was studied in weanling rats using balance techniques from semi-synthetic diets containing dried white bread (60.5 g dietary fibre/kg. White & Southgate, unpublished results), brown bread (130.2 g dietary fibre/kg) or wholemeal bread (221.2 g dietary fibre/kg) at a level of 300 g/kg and compared with a control group given a diet containing added FeSO4 at a similar Fe level to that for the bread groups. The dried bread contained 6.2-6.4 g phytate/kg. 2. Absorption of Fe was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the control group (0.45) than in the White (0.28), brown (0.31) or wholemeal (0.24) groups. 3. A second experiment was carried out on 6-week-old rats in which the dried bread was extrinsically labelled with 59Fe and absorption from a single meal measured by both faecal excretion and incorporation of 59Fe into the blood. Control animals were given 59FeSO4 for comparison. 4. The excretion of 59Fe (% of administered dose) was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) in the control group (31) than in the white (48), brown (45) or wholemeal (47) groups. After 10 d the control group had significantly more 59Fe in the blood than the bread groups, but there were no differences between the bread groups. 5. It appears that wheat bran fibre itself has no effect on the retention of Fe from the diet in the rat, when supplied in amounts similar to those found in commercially-available bread.

  14. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  15. Concentrated arabinoxylan in wheat bread has beneficial effects as rye breads on glucose and changes in gene expressions in insulin-sensitive tissues of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.

    PubMed

    Hartvigsen, Merete Lindberg; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Njabe, Elvis Ngande; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-05-29

    The health-promoting effects of dietary fiber may vary with content, structure, and composition in the diet. The aim was to study how low-fiber wheat bread (WB), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), whole meal rye bread (RM), and rye bread with kernels (RK) affected central parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and gene changes of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Blood glucose response areas after an oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower after AX (mean ± SEM; 2117 ± 170 mmol/L·180 min), RM (1978 ± 206 mmol/L·180 min), and RK (2234 ± 262 mmol/L·180 min) breads than after WB (3586 ± 100 mmol/L·180 min; p < 0.0001). AX, RK, and RM changed expressions of adipose GAPDH, AMPK, FAS, SREBP-1c, and hepatic PCG-1α, whereas BG had similar effects as WB. Thus, arabinoxylan added to wheat bread had beneficial effects on glycemic control as whole grain rye bread in this animal model. PMID:23656567

  16. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  17. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  18. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    PubMed

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations.

  19. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making.

    PubMed

    Shchekoldina, Tatiana; Aider, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI) is a promising food additive in different matrices. However, the uses of SMPI are limited because of the presence of antinutritional compounds like polyphenolic substances. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are the dominants polyphenolics in the SMPI. These substances cause significant changes of the colour of the meal, proteins and food matrices during their extraction and use as food additives. Moreover, these substances lower the nutritional value of the end product due to their interaction with some amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Thus, the removal of these substances is important to enable the use of the SMPI and meal in general in a greater extent in food applications and replacing more expensive protein sources such as soy proteins. The aim of this work was to study the production of functional bread by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI). SMPI with low content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid was usefully produced following alkaline extraction and purification with succinic acid. Purified SMPI showed well balanced amino acid profile and was characterized by high water and fat absorption capacities. It was incorporated to dough formula at 8-12 % of the total wheat flour. The results showed that production of bread supplemented with SMPI was technologically feasible. The supplemented bread had high mass volume and nutritional quality compared to the control bread. The optimal SMPI to incorporate into dough formula without significant alteration of the final bread colour was established at 10 %. This study will be helpful to find economic ways to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat bread and to improve the profitability of sunflower meal residue. PMID:25328173

  20. [Composition and potential contribution of iron, calcium and zinc of bread and pasta made with wheat and amaranth flours].

    PubMed

    Dyner, Luis; Drago, Silvina R; Piñeiro, Adriana; Sánchez, Hugo; González, Rolando; Villaamil, Edda; Valencia, Mirta E

    2007-03-01

    Amaranth, a traditional american crop that is nowadays given renewed importance, has good food potential value. The minerals contributed by the grain are quantitatively important. However, as the flour is obtained by total grinding of the grain, this process leads to the presence of anti-nutritional components, such as fitates, and therefore, the evaluation of the actual availability of the minerals of nutritional interest becomes necessary. The process of bread fermentation, plus the addition of fitases and enhancers of mineral availability such as citric and ascorbic acid, might improve mineral bioavailability. The objective of this work was to assess protein, ash, lipids and total dietary fiber content and evaluate the concentration and dialyzability of Fe, Zn and Ca (as mineral bioavailability indicator) in bread and pasta 100% wheat, and bread and pasta obtained by replacing 20% wheat flour (WF) with whole amaranth flour (WAF). Ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and fitase were used as mineral bioavailability enhancers. The potential contribution of each mineral (PC) was calculated as each mineral concentration times its dialyzability. In 80:20 bread an increase of total dietary fiber and minerals, compared to 100% wheat products was observed. A maximum FePC in 80:20 bread was obtained with CA and fitase (0.55mg%). In pasta, the maximum effect was observed with CA (0.07 mg%). The CaPC was maximum in 80:20 pasta with CA (16.72 mg%). The greatest ZnPC was found in 80:20 bread with CA and fitase (0.40 mg%). The introduction of the WAF in fermented baked products with addition of CA and fitase allows to obtain nutritional advantages.

  1. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7-11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  2. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Mariana B.; Judis, María A.; Romero, Ana M.; Avallone, Carmen M.; Bertola, Nora C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile. PMID:25478592

  3. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m(-3) d(-1) organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m(-3) d(-1) and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m(-3) d(-1) OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen. PMID:25843354

  4. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m(-3) d(-1) organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m(-3) d(-1) and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m(-3) d(-1) OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen.

  5. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb.

  6. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. PMID:27041305

  7. Genetic dissection of grain yield and physical grain quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dion; Izanloo, Ali; Reynolds, Matthew; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-07-01

    In the water-limited bread wheat production environment of southern Australia, large advances in grain yield have previously been achieved through the introduction and improved understanding of agronomic traits controlled by major genes, such as the semi-dwarf plant stature and photoperiod insensitivity. However, more recent yield increases have been achieved through incremental genetic advances, of which, breeders and researchers do not fully understand the underlying mechanism(s). A doubled haploid population was utilised, derived from a cross between RAC875, a relatively drought-tolerant breeders' line and Kukri, a locally adapted variety more intolerant of drought. Experiments were performed in 16 environments over four seasons in southern Australia, to physiologically dissect grain yield and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits. Two stage multi-environment trial analysis identified three main clusters of experiments (forming distinctive environments, ENVs), each with a distinctive growing season rainfall patterns. Kernels per square metre were positively correlated with grain yield and influenced by kernels per spikelet, a measure of fertility. QTL analysis detected nine loci for grain yield across these ENVs, individually accounting for between 3 and 18% of genetic variance within their respective ENVs, with the RAC875 allele conferring increased grain yield at seven of these loci. These loci were partially dissected by the detection of co-located QTL for other traits, namely kernels per square metre. While most loci for grain yield have previously been reported, their deployment and effect within local germplasm are now better understood. A number of novel loci can be further exploited to aid breeders' efforts in improving grain yield in the southern Australian environment.

  8. Transferable EST-SSR markers for the study of polymorphism and genetic diversity in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Rustgi, S; Sharma, S; Singh, R; Kumar, N; Balyan, H S

    2003-12-01

    Nearly 900 SSRs (simple sequence repeats) were identified among 15,000 ESTs (expressed sequence tags) belonging to bread wheat ( Triticum aestivumL.). The SSRs were defined by their minimum length, which ranged from 14 to 21 bp. The maximum length ranged from 24 to 87 bp depending upon the length of the repeat unit itself (1-7 bp). The average density of SSRs was one SSR per 9.2 kb of EST sequence screened. The trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. As a representative sample, 78 primer pairs were designed, which were also used to screen the dbEST entries for Hordeum vulgare and Triticum tauschii (donor of the D-genome of cultivated wheat) using a cut-off E (expectation) value of 0.01. On the basis of in silico analysis, up to 55.12% of the primer pairs exhibited transferability from Triticum to Hordeum, indicating that the sequences flanking the SSRs are not only conserved within a single genus but also between related genera in Poaceae. Primer pairs for the 78 SSRs were synthesized and used successfully for the study of (1) their transferability to 18 related wild species and five cereal species (barley, oat, rye, rice and maize); and (2) polymorphism between the parents of four mapping populations available with us. A subset of 20 EST-SSR primers was also used to assess genetic diversity in a collection of 52 elite exotic wheat genotypes. This was done with a view to compare their utility relative to other molecular markers (gSSRs, AFLPs, and SAMPL) previously used by us for the same purpose with the same set of 52 bread wheat genotypes. Although only a low level of polymorphism was detected, relative to that observed with genomic SSRs, the study suggested that EST-SSRs can be successfully used for a variety of purposes, and may actually prove superior to SSR markers extracted from genomic libraries for diversity estimation and transferability. PMID:14508680

  9. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding.

  10. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding. PMID:27610116

  11. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J.

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding.

  12. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J.

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding. PMID:27610116

  13. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  14. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes. PMID:25424506

  15. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes.

  16. Chromosome pairing in durum wheat haploids with and without ph1b of bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum or macaroni wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a disomic tetraploid with two related genomes, AA and BB, each with seven pairs of homoeologous chromosomes. Although the corresponding chromosomes of the two genomes are closely related so much so that they can compensate...

  17. Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Auricchio, Salvatore; Greco, Luigi; Clarke, Charmaine; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Landolfo, Francesca; Parrilli, Giampaolo; Minervini, Fabio; Arendt, Elke; Gobbetti, Marco

    2004-02-01

    This work was aimed at producing a sourdough bread that is tolerated by celiac sprue (CS) patients. Selected sourdough lactobacilli had specialized peptidases capable of hydrolyzing Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, the most potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in CS patients. This epitope, the most important in CS, was hydrolyzed completely after treatment with cells and their cytoplasmic extracts (CE). A sourdough made from a mixture of wheat (30%) and nontoxic oat, millet, and buckwheat flours was started with lactobacilli. After 24 h of fermentation, wheat gliadins and low-molecular-mass, alcohol-soluble polypeptides were hydrolyzed almost totally. Proteins were extracted from sourdough and used to produce a peptic-tryptic digest for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562(S) subclone cells of human origin. The minimal agglutinating activity was ca. 250 times higher than that of doughs chemically acidified or started with baker's yeast. Two types of bread, containing ca. 2 g of gluten, were produced with baker's yeast or lactobacilli and CE and used for an in vivo double-blind acute challenge of CS patients. Thirteen of the 17 patients showed a marked alteration of intestinal permeability after ingestion of baker's yeast bread. When fed the sourdough bread, the same 13 patients had values for excreted rhamnose and lactulose that did not differ significantly from the baseline values. The other 4 of the 17 CS patients did not respond to gluten after ingesting the baker's yeast or sourdough bread. These results showed that a bread biotechnology that uses selected lactobacilli, nontoxic flours, and a long fermentation time is a novel tool for decreasing the level of gluten intolerance in humans.

  18. Effect of Recurrent Selection on Drought Tolerance and Related Morpho-Physiological Traits in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    P, Ramya; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Kavita; Kumar, Arun; Harikrishna; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting wheat yield. A recurrent selection program was conducted to improve the drought tolerance and yield of bread wheat using drought tolerant advanced breeding lines from a drought tolerant x susceptible cross (HI 1500 x HUW 510). The parental lines were evaluated for yield, biomass and harvest index (HI) in addition to the drought adaptive traits like Canopy Temperature (CT), chlorophyll content and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI). After three rounds of recurrent selection, the half sib progenies exhibited a marked reduction in CT, chlorophyll content and biomass; whereas improvement was noted for yield, HI and NDVI. Drought tolerance of the half-sib population appeared enhanced as indicated by drought indices and grain yield. Compared to base population, half-sibs showed better HI, grain filling and a significant (17.1%) increase in grain yield under water stress conditions. Cooler canopies and increased early vigour might have contributed to drought tolerance. A favourable combination of gibberellin sensitive and insensitive Rhtalleles was observed in the recombinant progenies. However, increased yield under water stress had a negative trade off in reduction of biomass. The study also identified potential lines with high yield and drought tolerance for subsequent varietal development for water limited areas. PMID:27300000

  19. A Major Locus for Chloride Accumulation on Chromosome 5A in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Yusuf; Taylor, Julian; Rongala, Jay; Oldach, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl− ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl− toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl− concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl− accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl− concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl− accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl− concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl− concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27–32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl− transport, which is discussed. PMID:24893005

  20. Effects of asparagine, fructose, and baking conditions on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Surdyk, Nicolas; Rosén, Johan; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-01

    A repeatable procedure for studying the effects of internal and external factors on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened wheat bread has been developed. The dough contained wheat endosperm flour with a low content of precursors for acrylamide formation (asparagine and reducing sugars), dry yeast, salt, and water. The effects of asparagine and fructose, added to the dough, were studied in an experiment with a full factorial design. More than 99% of the acrylamide was found in the crust. Added asparagine dramatically increased the content of acrylamide in crusts dry matter (from about 80 microg/kg to between 600 and 6000 microg/kg) while added fructose did not influence the content. The effects of temperature and time of baking were studied in another experiment using a circumscribed central composite design. Mainly temperature (above 200 degrees C) but also time increased the acrylamide content in crust dry matter (from below 10 to 1900 microg/kg), and a significant interaction was found between these two factors. When baked at different conditions with the same ingredients, a highly significant relationship (P < 0.001) between color and acrylamide content in crust was found. Added asparagine, however, did not increase color, showing that mainly other amino compounds are involved in the browning reactions.

  1. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  2. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  3. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties.

  4. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  5. [Chromosomal localization of the speltoidy gene, introgressed into bread wheat from Aegilops speltoides Tausch., and its interaction with the Q gene of Triticum spelta L].

    PubMed

    Simonov, A V; Pshenichnikova, T A

    2012-11-01

    The differences between bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and spelt (Triticum spelta L.) in the shape of the spike and threshing character are determined by the allelic status of one major Q gene, mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5A. This gene is a member of the APETALA2 family of transcription factors and plays an important role in domestication of wheat. In the present study, using monosomic analysis, we determined the chromosomal localization of the Q(S)gene, introgressed into bread wheat from Aegilops speltoides Tausch. and homoallelic to the Q gene. It was demonstrated that the Q(S) gene was located in chromosome 5A of the bread wheat line from the Arsenal collection. This gene conferred spike speltoidy in the line itself, as well as in its hybrids with bread wheat cultivars. The Q(S) gene dominated over the bread wheat Q gene and was equally effective in the homo-, hemi-, and heterozygous states. In hybrids between the introgression line and a number of spring spelt accessions, interaction between the Q and Q(S) genes was observed, manifested as the formation of superspeltoid spike.

  6. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.

  7. Combined meta-genomics analyses unravel candidate genes for the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Murat, Florent; Abrouk, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Confolent, Carole; Oury, François Xavier; Ward, Jane; Boros, Danuta; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Bedo, Zoltan; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Balzergue, Sandrine; Shewry, Peter R; Feuillet, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.

  8. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  9. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  10. The effect of consumption of selenium enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread on the body's selenium status.

    PubMed

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Langford, Nicola J; Baxter, Malcolm J; Colyer, Alison; Lewis, D John

    2007-09-01

    The potential of selenium-enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread as a route for supplementing dietary selenium intakes is reported. In addition to their normal diets, 24 female volunteers (24 to 25 years old) were fed either selenium-enriched bread or non-enriched bread each day (68.02 and 0.84 microg selenium day(-1) respectively) for 4 weeks. The chemical form of the selenium in the bread had been characterised using HPLC-ICP-MS, which showed that 42% of the extractable selenium was present as selenomethionine. Plasma selenium levels and plasma platelet glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity were measured in the volunteers' blood over a 6-week period. A statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was observed in the mean percentage change data, calculated from the plasma selenium level measurements for the enriched and control group, over the duration of the study. A comparable difference was not observed for the platelet GPx1 activity (p = 0.756), over the same period. Two weeks after cessation of the feeding stage, i.e., at t = 6 weeks, the mean percentage change value for the selenium plasma levels in the enriched group was still significantly elevated, suggesting that the absorbed selenium had been incorporated into the body's selenium reserves, and was then being slowly released back into the volunteers' blood.

  11. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs) using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work provided new insights into the

  12. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  13. Making bread with sourdough improves iron bioavailability from reconstituted fortified wheat flour in mice.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Asmaa; Faid, Mohamed; Belahsen, Rekia

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a diet prepared with traditional sourdough (TS) on iron status. Levels of blood hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrite (Ht), serum ferritin and serum iron as well as excreted iron were determined in three groups of mice fed with: TS bread (TS group), baking yeast bread (BY group) or bread with no starters (control group), respectively. The results show that the levels of Hb, Ht, ferritin and iron were significantly higher in the TS compared to the BY and control groups. Also a significant decrease in the excreted iron levels was observed in the mice fed with TS compared to the others dietary groups. In conclusion, the study results indicate an improvement of iron status indicators in mice when they were fed sourdough bread as compared to baking yeast bread and bread with no starters.

  14. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  15. Concentrated arabinoxylan but not concentrated β-glucan in wheat bread has similar effects on postprandial insulin as whole-grain rye in porto-arterial catheterized pigs.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Lærke, Helle N; Jørgensen, Henry; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2013-08-14

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in porto-arterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30 min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P < 0.04). In conclusion, the GR and AX breads were most effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic response. PMID:23919413

  16. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    PubMed

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  17. Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of

  18. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  19. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  20. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  1. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source.

  2. Stability of some quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mut, Zeki; Aydin, Nevzat; Bayramoglu, H Orhan; Ozcan, Hasan

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine some quality traits such as thousand grain weight (TGW), hectoliter weight (HW), grain protein content (GPC), Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV) and stability of quality traits of 25 bread wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted at seven environmental conditions during 2 growing periods (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) using randomized complete block design with four replicates. The ANOVA showed that out of the total sum of squares, 48.4, 28.0 and 23.6% for TGW, 71.4, 14.9 and 13.7% for HW, 54.4, 23.0 and 22.6% for GPC, 44.7, 41.7 and 13.6% for ZSV was attributable to E, G and G x E interaction effects, respectively. Thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight, grain protein content and Zeleny sedimentasyon volume of genotypes changed from 34.5 to 41.4 g, from 76.5 to 80.4 Kg, from 11.49 to 13.37% and from 22.1 to 46.0 ml, respectively. Seven stability parameters, covering a wide range of statistical approaches, were used so as to predict the genotypes. The study of genotypic stability showed that Bezostaya and advanced lines numbered 11 and 24 had high stability for quality traits and proved to be the best within the pool of the studied genotypes. Also, 8 and 17 numbered genotypes demonstrated high stability for TGW, HW, GPC and HW, GPC and ZSV, respectively. PMID:21186725

  3. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs.

  4. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs. PMID:24776887

  5. Extensive pericentric rearrangements in the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype "Chinese Spring" revealed from chromosome shotgun sequence data.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang; Devos, Katrien M; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, Chunji

    2014-10-27

    The bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype "Chinese Spring" ("CS") is the reference base in wheat genetics and genomics. Pericentric rearrangements in this genotype were systematically assessed by analyzing homoeoloci for a set of nonredundant genes from Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii in the CS chromosome shotgun sequence obtained from individual chromosome arms flow-sorted from CS aneuploid lines. Based on patterns of their homoeologous arm locations, 551 genes indicated the presence of pericentric inversions in at least 10 of the 21 chromosomes. Available data from deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags and genetic mapping in wheat indicated that all inversions had breakpoints in the low-recombinant gene-poor pericentromeric regions. The large number of putative intrachromosomal rearrangements suggests the presence of extensive structural differences among the three subgenomes, at least some of which likely occurred during the production of the aneuploid lines of this hexaploid wheat genotype. These differences could have significant implications in wheat genome research where comparative approaches are used such as in ordering and orientating sequence contigs and in gene cloning.

  6. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes.

  7. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. PMID:27505458

  8. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  9. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  11. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  12. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  13. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-09-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. In relation to a standard bread formulation without fish flour, the addition of fish flour to bread formulations resulted in products with not only higher contents of protein, essential fatty acids, and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, but also lower contents of carbohydrates. The breads with fish flour received sensory acceptance better than or as good as that of a bread formulation without fish flour. Hence, the addition of fish processing residue to breads is a way to provide essential nutrients to the population through a well-accepted, accessible, and low-cost product.

  14. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness. PMID:27132856

  15. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness.

  16. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production. PMID:26771740

  17. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  18. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S.; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production. PMID:26771740

  19. Comparative transcriptional and proteomic profiling of bread wheat cultivar and its derived transgenic line over-expressing a low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene in the endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have carried out a parallel transcriptional and proteomic comparison of seeds from a transformed bread wheat line that over-expresses a transgenic low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene relative to the corresponding non-transformed genotype. Proteomic analyses showed that, during seed develop...

  20. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    PubMed

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by milling. The TPC (total phenolic content) of the white wheat flours, which ranged from 3.34 to 3.49 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, was significantly (P < 0.005) lower than those of the whole wheat flours, whose TPC ranged from 7.66 to 8.20 GAE/g). At 50 mg/mL, the DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effect of the wheat extracts decreased in the order of soft whole, hard whole, soft white, and hard white wheat flour, which was 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, and 57.57%, respectively. Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the bran level of the bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

  1. Effects of oat and wheat bread consumption on lipid profile, blood sugar, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Momenizadeh, Amir; Heidari, Ramin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tabesh, Faezeh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Haghighatian, Zahra; Golshahi, Jafar; Baseri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan) or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread). Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention). Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student’s t-test, respectively. RESULTS Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029). A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825). In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively). CONCLUSION Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread. PMID:25477983

  2. Molecular characterization of TaSTOP1 homoeologues and their response to aluminium and proton (H+) toxicity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered to be one of the major constraints affecting crop productivity on acid soils. Being a trait governed by multiple genes, the identification and characterization of novel transcription factors (TFs) regulating the expression of entire response networks is a very promising approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clone, localize, and characterize the TaSTOP1 gene, which belongs to the zinc finger family (Cys2His2 type) transcription factor, at molecular level in bread wheat. Results TaSTOP1 loci were cloned and localized on the long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes [3AL (TaSTOP1-A), 3BL (TaSTOP1-B) and 3DL (TaSTOP1-D)] in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 showed four potential zinc finger domains and the homoeologue TaSTOP1-A exhibited transactivation activity in yeast. Expression profiling of TaSTOP1 transcripts identified the predominance of homoeologue TaSTOP1-A followed by TaSTOP1-D over TaSTOP1-B in root and only predominance of TaSTOP1-A in shoot tissues of two diverse bread wheat genotypes. Al and proton (H+) stress appeared to slightly modulate the transcript of TaSTOP1 homoeologues expression in both genotypes of bread wheat. Conclusions Physical localization of TaSTOP1 results indicated the presence of a single copy of TaSTOP1 on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes in bread wheat. The three homoeologues of TaSTOP1 have similar genomic structures, but showed biased transcript expression and different response to Al and proton (H+) toxicity. These results indicate that TaSTOP1 homoeologues may differentially contribute under Al or proton (H+) toxicity in bread wheat. Moreover, it seems that TaSTOP1-A transactivation potential is constitutive and may not depend on the presence/absence of Al at least in yeast. Finally, the localization of TaSTOP1 on long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes and the previously reported major loci associated with Al resistance at chromosome 3BL, through QTL and genome wide

  3. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana M; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A; Vallés, María P

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25-46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  4. Detection and quantitation of 2,5-diketopiperazines in wheat sourdough and bread.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Liam A M; Dal Bello, Fabio; Arendt, Elke K; Koehler, Peter

    2009-10-28

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to quantify the levels of the 2,5-diketopiperazines cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) in acidified dough and bread. Dough acidification led to a significant increase in the level of cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) over 48 h compared to a nonacidified dough. However, no differences were found between chemically (mix of lactic and acetic acid in the presence of antibiotics) and biologically acidified doughs. On examination of the levels of cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) in bread crumb and crust, it was found that temperature is the main causative agent of 2,5-diketopiperazine formation during the baking process. Bread crumb and crust contained almost 100 and 2000 times respectively the levels found in dough prior to baking. cis-Cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) were also found to be at sensorally active levels in bread crust, however both 2,5-diketopiperazines were found to be below the minimum inhibitory concentration for antifungal activity in bread.

  5. Impact of amylases on biopolymer dynamics during storage of straight-dough wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-07-01

    When Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase (BStA), Pseudomonas saccharophila α-amylase (PSA), or Bacillus subtilis α-amylase (BSuA) was added to a bread recipe to impact bread firming, amylose crystal formation was facilitated, leading to lower initial crumb resilience. Bread loaves that best retained their quality were those obtained when BStA was used. The enzyme hindered formation of an extended starch network, resulting in less water immobilization and smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. BSuA led to extensive degradation of the starch network during bread storage with release of immobilized water, eventually resulting in partial structure collapse and poor crumb resilience. The most important effect of PSA was an increased bread volume, resulting in smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. A negative linear relation was found between NMR proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb and crumb firmness. The slope of that relation gave an indication of the strength of the starch network.

  6. Predictions of heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using QTL-based parameters of an ecophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Matthieu; Ravel, Catherine; Paux, Etienne; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Chapman, Scott C; Le Gouis, Jacques; Allard, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of wheat phenology facilitates the selection of cultivars with specific adaptations to a particular environment. However, while QTL analysis for heading date can identify major genes controlling phenology, the results are limited to the environments and genotypes tested. Moreover, while ecophysiological models allow accurate predictions in new environments, they may require substantial phenotypic data to parameterize each genotype. Also, the model parameters are rarely related to all underlying genes, and all the possible allelic combinations that could be obtained by breeding cannot be tested with models. In this study, a QTL-based model is proposed to predict heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two parameters of an ecophysiological model (V sat and P base , representing genotype vernalization requirements and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively) were optimized for 210 genotypes grown in 10 contrasting location × sowing date combinations. Multiple linear regression models predicting V sat and P base with 11 and 12 associated genetic markers accounted for 71 and 68% of the variance of these parameters, respectively. QTL-based V sat and P base estimates were able to predict heading date of an independent validation data set (88 genotypes in six location × sowing date combinations) with a root mean square error of prediction of 5 to 8.6 days, explaining 48 to 63% of the variation for heading date. The QTL-based model proposed in this study may be used for agronomic purposes and to assist breeders in suggesting locally adapted ideotypes for wheat phenology.

  7. A Proteomic Study of the Response to Salinity and Drought Stress in an Introgression Strain of Bread Wheat*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenying; Wang, Mengcheng; Li, Fei; Lv, Hongjun; Li, Cuiling; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of drought and salinity stress on the seedlings of the somatic hybrid wheat cv. Shanrong No. 3 (SR3) and its parent bread wheat cv. Jinan 177 (JN177) was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of a set of 93 (root) and 65 (leaf) differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), 34 (root) and six (leaf) DEPs were cultivar-specific. The remaining DEPs were salinity/drought stress-responsive but not cultivar-specific. Many of the DEPs were expressed under both drought and salinity stresses. The amounts of stress-responsive DEPs between SR3 and JN177 were almost equivalent, whereas only some of these DEPs were shared by the two cultivars. Overall, the number of salinity-responsive DEPs was greater than the number of drought-responsive DEPs. And most of the drought-responsive DEPs also responded to salinity. There are both similarities and differences in the responses of wheat to salinity and drought. A parallel transcriptomics analysis showed that the correlation between transcriptional and translational patterns of DEPs was poor. The enhanced drought/salinity tolerance of SR3 appears to be governed by a superior capacity for osmotic and ionic homeostasis, a more efficient removal of toxic by-products, and ultimately a better potential for growth recovery. PMID:19734139

  8. Predictions of heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using QTL-based parameters of an ecophysiological model

    PubMed Central

    Bogard, Matthieu; Ravel, Catherine; Paux, Etienne; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Chapman, Scott C.; Le Gouis, Jacques; Allard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of wheat phenology facilitates the selection of cultivars with specific adaptations to a particular environment. However, while QTL analysis for heading date can identify major genes controlling phenology, the results are limited to the environments and genotypes tested. Moreover, while ecophysiological models allow accurate predictions in new environments, they may require substantial phenotypic data to parameterize each genotype. Also, the model parameters are rarely related to all underlying genes, and all the possible allelic combinations that could be obtained by breeding cannot be tested with models. In this study, a QTL-based model is proposed to predict heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two parameters of an ecophysiological model (V sat and P base, representing genotype vernalization requirements and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively) were optimized for 210 genotypes grown in 10 contrasting location × sowing date combinations. Multiple linear regression models predicting V sat and P base with 11 and 12 associated genetic markers accounted for 71 and 68% of the variance of these parameters, respectively. QTL-based V sat and P base estimates were able to predict heading date of an independent validation data set (88 genotypes in six location × sowing date combinations) with a root mean square error of prediction of 5 to 8.6 days, explaining 48 to 63% of the variation for heading date. The QTL-based model proposed in this study may be used for agronomic purposes and to assist breeders in suggesting locally adapted ideotypes for wheat phenology. PMID:25148833

  9. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF QTLs ON CHROMOSOME 1B FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.).

    PubMed

    Shahzad, M; Khan, S H; Khan, A S; Sajjad, M; Rehman, A; Khan, A I

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed considering the importance of grain quality traits, genetic diversity and marker-trait association analysis in wheat. A significant amount of genetic diversity was found for various seed traits though the genotypes included in the study were found structured. The extent of polymorphism was high with a range of 2-13 alleles and average of 6.5 alleles per locus. Population structure was detected with 30 unlinked SSRs that divided the population of 92 genotypes in three sub-populations. Extensive LD extent was found on chromosome 1B with 42 SSRs specific for 1B chromosome. Marker-trait associations were determined using mixed linear model, where, population structure and kinship calculated on the basis of unlinked markers were covariated with 1B specific markers and traits data. Eight QTLs for five traits including protein, gluten contents, test weight bread and chapati making quality. Protein content, test weight, bread quality and Glu-B1 were found significantly associated with primers WMC419 (32 cM); WMC128 (30 cM), WMC419 (32 cM); WMC818 (17 cM) and WMC416 (44 cM), respectively.

  11. Changes in ochratoxin A and type B trichothecenes contained in wheat flour during dough fermentation and bread-baking.

    PubMed

    Valle-Algarra, F M; Mateo, E M; Medina, A; Mateo, F; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Jimenez, M

    2009-06-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and type B trichothecenes are mycotoxins that occur frequently in cereals and thus can be found in cereal by-products such as bread. The aim of this work was to study the variation of the levels of OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) during the bread-making process. This was done by using wheat flour spiked with different levels of toxins. Mycotoxin levels were controlled after fermentation of the dough with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and after further baking at different temperature-time combinations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results showed a significant reduction in OTA level (p < 0.05) during fermentation of the dough. The reduction ranged between 29.8% and 33.5%, depending on the initial concentration of toxin in the flour. During this period, the level of the other mycotoxins studied was not modified. By contrast, in the baking phase there were significant changes in the levels of the four mycotoxins, although the reduction was similar under all the baking conditions. Considering all the temperature-time conditions tested, it can be concluded that during the baking period the average reduction of OTA, NIV, 3-ADON, and DON was 32.9%, 76.9%, 65.6%, and 47.9%, respectively.

  12. Interaction of maize zein with wheat gluten in composite dough and bread as determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bugusu, Betry A; Rajwa, Bartlomiej; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2002-01-01

    Protein body-free maize zein, when mixed at 35 degrees C (above its glass transition temperature range), significantly (p < 0.01) improved the rheological and leavening properties of sorghum-wheat composite flour dough, resulting in improved loaf volume. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to observe the structure of zein fibrils and the interaction between zein and gluten proteins in the composite dough and bread systems. Autofluorescence and immunolocalization techniques were used to locate gluten and zein, respectively. Optical sections were collected every 0.4 microm through the samples and digitally processed to produce reconstructed three-dimensional images. Results showed that zein fibrils form an outer layer that intermittently coats the gluten networks, thereby strengthening them. This type of microstructure is able to withstand the pressure exerted by gas cell expansion during yeast fermentation to increase loaf volume.

  13. Manufacture of gluten-free specialty breads and confectionery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People suffering from celiac disease, wheat allergies or wheat intolerances require breads not containing any wheat or related cereals like rye and barley. The manufacture of these so-called gluten-free breads is not well understood and much less literature is available than on wheat breads. On the ...

  14. [The influence of combinations of alien translocations on in vitro androgenesis in near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat].

    PubMed

    Sibikeeva, Yu E; Sibikeev, S N

    2014-07-01

    The features of in vitro androgenesis were studied in Cultured anthers of spring bread wheats L503 and Dobrynya, having 7DS-7DL-7Ae#1 L translocation with genes Lrl9/Sr25 (Lrl9 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P.B. and their near-isogenic lines carrying combinations of Lrl9 translocation with translocations: 1BL-IR#1S with genes Pm8/Sr31/Lr26/Yr9 (Lr26translocation) from Secale cereal L., 4BS-4BL-2R#1L with genes Lr25/Pm7 (Lr25 translocation) from Secale cereal, 3DS-3DL-3Ae#1L with genes Lr24/Sr24 (Lr24 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum and 6BS-6BL-6U#1L with gene Lr9 (Lr9 translocation) from Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. In comparison with those varieties having received the Lrl9 translocation, the following was established: (1) the combination of translocations Lr19+26 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration; (2) the combination of translocations Lr19+9 decreased embryo frequency but increased green plant regeneration; (3) the combination of translocations Lr19+24 decreased embryo frequency but increased green and albino plant regeneration; (4) the combination of translocations Lr19+25 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration but decreased albino plant regeneration. Thus, on near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat, the influences of genotypes of four alien translocation combinations on in vitro androgenesis were determined. PMID:25720141

  15. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat “Chinese Spring.” Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat. PMID:26483801

  16. Breads of Native cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sight and scent of a freshly baked loaf of bread has the romantic appeal that transcends all other culinary achievements of mankind! Bread, whether made of the flour of wheat, barley, rye, oats, millet, maize, sorghum, or rice, is a food enjoyed by people in all parts of the world. The virtually...

  17. Postulation and mapping of seedling stripe rust resistance genes in Ethiopian bread wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In Ethiopia, grain yield loss in wheat cultivars ranges from 30 to 69%. The use of resistant cultivars is the most economical and environmentally friendly method of controlling ...

  18. Transformation of the US bread wheat Butte 86 and silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex groups of proteins determine the unique functional properties of wheat flour and are sometimes responsible for food intolerances and allergies in individuals that consume wheat products. Transgenic approaches can be used to explore the functions of different flour proteins, but are limited t...

  19. Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 80% of wheat area worldwide is currently grown to varieties that are susceptible to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust fungus. Wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk and Ripper were resistant to Ug99 at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations...

  20. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  1. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions. PMID:25583343

  2. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  3. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters. PMID:25823882

  4. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters.

  5. Management of herbicide resistance in wheat cropping systems: learning from the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael J; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Herbicide resistance continues to escalate in weed populations infesting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops, threatening grain production and thereby food supply. Conservation wheat production systems are reliant on the use of efficient herbicides providing low-cost, selective weed control in intensive cropping systems. The resistance-driven loss of herbicide resources combined with limited potential for new herbicide molecules means greater emphasis must be placed on preserving existing herbicides. For more than two decades, since the initial recognition of the dramatic consequences of herbicide resistance, the challenge of introducing additional weed control strategies into herbicide-based weed management programmes has been formidable. Throughout this period, herbicide resistance has expanded unabated across the world's wheat production regions. However, in Australia, where herbicide resources have become desperately depleted, the adoption of harvest weed seed control is evidence, at last, of a successful approach to sustainable weed management in wheat production systems. Growers routinely including strategies to target weed seeds during crop harvest, as part of herbicide-based weed management programmes, are now realising significant weed control and crop production benefits. When combined with an attitude of zero weed tolerance, there is evidence of a sustainable weed control future for wheat production systems. The hard-learned lessons of Australian growers can now be viewed by global wheat producers as an example of how to stop the continual loss of herbicide resources in productive cropping systems.

  6. An evaluation of the effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue targets on the sodium content of bread, breakfast cereals and processed meats.

    PubMed

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Wu, Jason H Y

    2014-09-19

    The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar's tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001), and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005). The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001) over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001) was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) process.

  7. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  8. Chromosome Specific Substitution Lines of Aegilops geniculata Alter Parameters of Bread Making Quality of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Gupta, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Aman; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Rohit; Chunduri, Venkatesh; Sharma, Nand Kishor; Chawla, Meenakshi; Sharma, Saloni; Mundey, Jaspreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene. To utilize the positive potential of 1Mg chromosome, three disomic substitution lines (DSLs) 1Mg(1A), 1Mg(1B) and 1Mg(1D) were created. These lines were characterized for morphological, cytogenetic properties and biochemical signatures using FISH, 1D-, 2D-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Contribution of wheat 1A, 1B and 1D chromosomes towards dough mixing and baking parameters, chapatti quality, Fe/Zn content and glume color were identified. Observed order of variation in the dough mixing and baking parameters {1Mg(1D) ≤wheat ≤1Mg(1B) ≤1Mg(1A)} indicated that chromosome specific introgression is desirable for best utilization of wild species’ potential. PMID:27755540

  9. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  10. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  11. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt).

  12. The Expression of TaRca2-α Gene Associated with Net Photosynthesis Rate, Biomass and Grain Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Iqbal; Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in activation of Rubisco by Rubisco activase can potentially enhance CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency in plants. The three homoeologous copies of TaRca2-α were identified on chromosomes 4AL, 4BS and 4DS (TaRca2-α-4AL, TaRca2-α-4BS, and TaRca2-α-4DS) in bread wheat. Expression patterns of the three copies at heading (Z55), anthesis (Z67) and grain-filling (Z73) stages were investigated through qRT-PCR analyses in a panel of 59 bread wheat genotypes and their effects on net photosynthesis rate (Pn), biomass plant-1 (BMPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP) were further explored. Different but similar expression patterns were observed for the three copies of TaRca2-α at the three growth stages with highest expression at grain-filling stage. TaRca2-α-4BS expressed higher at the three stages than TaRca2-α-4AL and TaRca2-α-4DS. The 59 genotypes could be clustered into three groups as high (7 genotypes), intermediate (41 genotypes) and low (11 genotypes) expression based on the expression of the three copies of TaRca2-α at three growth stages. Significant variations (P<0.01) were observed among the three groups of bread wheat genotypes for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. Generally, the genotypes with higher TaRca2-α expression also showed higher values for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. The expressions of the three copies of TaRca2-α at heading, anthesis and grain-filling stages were positively correlated with Pn, BMPP and GYPP (P<0.01) with stronger association for TaRca2-α-4BS at grain-filling stage. These results revealed that the expression of TaRca2-α contribute substantially to Pn, BMPP and GYPP, and suggested that manipulating TaRca-α expression may efficiently improve Pn, BMPP and GYPP in bread wheat and detecting TaRca-α expression levels with emphasis on TaRca2-α-4BS may be a positive strategy for selection in improving photosynthetic efficiency and grain yield of bread wheat. PMID:27548477

  13. The Expression of TaRca2-α Gene Associated with Net Photosynthesis Rate, Biomass and Grain Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Iqbal; Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in activation of Rubisco by Rubisco activase can potentially enhance CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency in plants. The three homoeologous copies of TaRca2-α were identified on chromosomes 4AL, 4BS and 4DS (TaRca2-α-4AL, TaRca2-α-4BS, and TaRca2-α-4DS) in bread wheat. Expression patterns of the three copies at heading (Z55), anthesis (Z67) and grain-filling (Z73) stages were investigated through qRT-PCR analyses in a panel of 59 bread wheat genotypes and their effects on net photosynthesis rate (Pn), biomass plant-1 (BMPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP) were further explored. Different but similar expression patterns were observed for the three copies of TaRca2-α at the three growth stages with highest expression at grain-filling stage. TaRca2-α-4BS expressed higher at the three stages than TaRca2-α-4AL and TaRca2-α-4DS. The 59 genotypes could be clustered into three groups as high (7 genotypes), intermediate (41 genotypes) and low (11 genotypes) expression based on the expression of the three copies of TaRca2-α at three growth stages. Significant variations (P<0.01) were observed among the three groups of bread wheat genotypes for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. Generally, the genotypes with higher TaRca2-α expression also showed higher values for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. The expressions of the three copies of TaRca2-α at heading, anthesis and grain-filling stages were positively correlated with Pn, BMPP and GYPP (P<0.01) with stronger association for TaRca2-α-4BS at grain-filling stage. These results revealed that the expression of TaRca2-α contribute substantially to Pn, BMPP and GYPP, and suggested that manipulating TaRca-α expression may efficiently improve Pn, BMPP and GYPP in bread wheat and detecting TaRca-α expression levels with emphasis on TaRca2-α-4BS may be a positive strategy for selection in improving photosynthetic efficiency and grain yield of bread wheat. PMID:27548477

  14. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Riar, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Satinder; Dhaliwal, H S; Singh, Kuldeep; Chhuneja, Parveen

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F(2) population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv. WL711 - Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F(3) confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F(2) population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  15. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome.

  16. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A

    PubMed Central

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus FX; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the ‘decoration’ of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

  17. Effect of water migration between arabinoxylans and gluten on baking quality of whole wheat bread detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Kang, Ji; Wang, Li; Li, Zhen; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zheng Xing; Hou, Gary G

    2012-07-01

    A new method, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique characterized by T(2) relaxation time, was developed to study the water migration mechanism between arabinoxylan (AX) gels and gluten matrix in a whole wheat dough (WWD) system prepared from whole wheat flour (WWF) of different particle sizes. The water sequestration of AX gels in wheat bran was verified by the bran fortification test. The evaluations of baking quality of whole wheat bread (WWB) made from WWF with different particle sizes were performed by using SEM, FT-IR, and RP-HPLC techniques. Results showed that the WWB made from WWF of average particle size of 96.99 μm had better baking quality than those of the breads made from WWF of two other particle sizes, 50.21 and 235.40 μm. T(2) relaxation time testing indicated that the decreased particle size of WWF increased the water absorption of AX gels, which led to water migration from the gluten network to the AX gels and resulted in inferior baking quality of WWB.

  18. Down-Regulating γ-Gliadins in Bread Wheat Leads to Non-Specific Increases in Other Gluten Proteins and Has No Major Effect on Dough Gluten Strength

    PubMed Central

    Pistón, Fernando; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Rodríguez-Quijano, Marta; Barro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background Gliadins are a major component of gluten proteins but their role in the mixing of dough is not well understood because their contribution to wheat flour functional properties are not as clear as for the glutenin fraction. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic lines of bread wheat with γ-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported. The effects on the gluten protein composition and on technological properties of flour were analyzed by RP-HPLC, by sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and by Mixograph analysis. The silencing of γ-gliadins by RNAi in wheat lines results in an increase in content of all other gluten proteins. Despite the gluten proteins compensation, in silico analysis of amino acid content showed no difference in the γ-gliadins silenced lines. The SDSS test and Mixograph parameters were slightly affected by the suppression of γ-gliadins. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, it is concluded that γ-gliadins do not have an essential functional contribution to the bread-making quality of wheat dough, and their role can be replaced by other gluten proteins. PMID:21935456

  19. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  20. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF).

  1. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  2. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Change across Australian Wheat Growing Areas, 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guocheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Enli; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in Australian wheat-growing areas were simulated from 1960 to 2010 using Agro-C, a calibrated and validated biogeophysical model. Previously published data from field measurements were used to parameterize the Agro-C model. Model simulations show a decreasing trend in SOC over the last 50 years, mainly attributable to relatively low organic carbon (C) inputs. The rate of decrease in SOC tended to slow in the last two decades due primarily to an increase in wheat yields, which resulted in an increase in C input. Overall, we estimate that Australian wheat-growing areas, covering an area of 15.09 million hectares (Mha), lost 156 (86–222, 95% confidence interval) Tg C in the topsoil (to 30 cm depth) from 1960 to 2010. Approximately 80% of the SOC loss occurred in the period between the 1960s and the 1980s. Spatially, the SOC loss in areas with relatively high temperature and low precipitation, such as Queensland, the northern part of New South Wales and Western Australia, was more significant than that in other areas. We suggest that the loss of SOC could be halted, or even reversed, with an additional input of organic C into the soil at a minimum rate of 0.4 Mg ha–1 yr–1. PMID:23696813

  3. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  4. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF.

  5. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20th century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920–1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  6. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  7. Identification of genes bordering breakpoints of the pericentric inversions on 2B, 4B, and 5A in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Gao, Shang; Stiller, Jiri; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Ya-Xi; Pu, Zhi-En; Wang, Jirui; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Chromosome translocation is an important driving force in shaping genomes during evolution. Detailed knowledge of chromosome translocations in a given species and its close relatives should increase the efficiency and precision of chromosome engineering in crop improvement. To identify genes flanking the breakpoints of translocations and inversions as a step toward identifying breakpoints in bread wheat, we systematically analysed genes in the Brachypodium genome against wheat survey sequences and bin-mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags) derived from the hexaploid wheat genotype 'Chinese Spring'. In addition to those well-known translocations between group 4, 5, and 7 chromosomes, this analysis identified genes flanking the three pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2B, 4B, and 5A. However, numerous chromosomal rearrangements reported in early studies could not be confirmed. The genes flanking the breakpoints reported in this study are valuable for isolating these breakpoints.

  8. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption.

  9. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. PMID:25704711

  10. Short, natural, and extended photoperiod response in BC2F4 lines of bread wheat with different photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) alleles.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A R; Horsnell, R; Werner, C P; Turner, A S; Rose, G A; Bedard, C; Howell, P; Wilhelm, E P; Mackay, I J; Howells, R M; Greenland, A; Laurie, D A; Gosman, N

    2013-04-01

    Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes. In the current study, an allelic series of BC2F4 lines in the winter wheat cultivars 'Robigus' and 'Alchemy' was developed to elucidate the influence on flowering of eight gene variants from the B- and D-genomes of bread wheat and the A-genome of durum wheat. Allele effects were tested in short, natural, and extended photoperiods in the field and controlled environments. Across genetic background and treatment, the D-genome PI allele, Ppd-D1a, had a more potent effect on reducing flowering time than Ppd-B1a. However, there was significant donor allele effect for both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1a, suggesting the presence of linked modifier genes and/or additional sources of latent sensitivity. Development of Ppd-A1a BC2F4 lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat provided an opportunity to compare directly the flowering time effect of the A-genome allele from durum with the B- and D-genome variants from bread wheat for the first time. Analyses indicated that the reducing effect of Ppd-A1a is comparable with that of Ppd-D1a, confirming it as a useful alternative source of PI. PMID:23420880

  11. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  12. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research. PMID:26134253

  13. Introduction of chromosome segment carrying the seed storage protein genes from chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum showed positive effect on bread-making quality of common wheat.

    PubMed

    Ruiqi, Zhang; Mingyi, Zhang; Xiue, Wang; Peidu, Chen

    2014-03-01

    Development of wheat- D. villosum 1V#4 translocation lines; physically mapping the Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 loci; and assess the effects of the introduced Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 on wheat bread-making quality. Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci, located in the chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum, were proved to have positive effects on grain quality. However, there are very few reports about the transfer of the D. villosum-derived seed storage protein genes into wheat background by chromosome manipulation. In the present study, a total of six CS-1V#4 introgression lines with different alien-fragment sizes were developed through ionizing radiation of the mature female gametes of CS--D. villosum 1V#4 disomic addition line and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), chromosome C-banding, twelve 1V#4-specific EST-STS markers and seed storage protein analysis enabled the cytological physical mapping of Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci to the region of FL 0.50-1.00 of 1V#4S of D. villosum. The Glu-V1 allele of D. villosum was Glu-V1a and its coded protein was V71 subunit. Quality analysis indicated that Glu-V1a together with Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci showed a positive effect on protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value and the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough. In addition, the positive effect could be maintained when specific Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci were transferred to the wheat genetic background as in the case of T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL, T1V#4S · 1BL and T1V#4S · 1DS translocation lines. These results showed that the chromosome segment carrying the Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci in 1V#4S of D. villosum had positive effect on bread-making quality, and the T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL and T1V#4S · 1BL translocation lines could be useful germplasms for bread wheat improvement. The developed 1V#4S-specific molecular markers could be used to rapidly identify and trace the alien chromatin of 1V#4S in wheat background.

  14. Introduction of chromosome segment carrying the seed storage protein genes from chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum showed positive effect on bread-making quality of common wheat.

    PubMed

    Ruiqi, Zhang; Mingyi, Zhang; Xiue, Wang; Peidu, Chen

    2014-03-01

    Development of wheat- D. villosum 1V#4 translocation lines; physically mapping the Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 loci; and assess the effects of the introduced Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 on wheat bread-making quality. Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci, located in the chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum, were proved to have positive effects on grain quality. However, there are very few reports about the transfer of the D. villosum-derived seed storage protein genes into wheat background by chromosome manipulation. In the present study, a total of six CS-1V#4 introgression lines with different alien-fragment sizes were developed through ionizing radiation of the mature female gametes of CS--D. villosum 1V#4 disomic addition line and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), chromosome C-banding, twelve 1V#4-specific EST-STS markers and seed storage protein analysis enabled the cytological physical mapping of Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci to the region of FL 0.50-1.00 of 1V#4S of D. villosum. The Glu-V1 allele of D. villosum was Glu-V1a and its coded protein was V71 subunit. Quality analysis indicated that Glu-V1a together with Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci showed a positive effect on protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value and the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough. In addition, the positive effect could be maintained when specific Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci were transferred to the wheat genetic background as in the case of T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL, T1V#4S · 1BL and T1V#4S · 1DS translocation lines. These results showed that the chromosome segment carrying the Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci in 1V#4S of D. villosum had positive effect on bread-making quality, and the T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL and T1V#4S · 1BL translocation lines could be useful germplasms for bread wheat improvement. The developed 1V#4S-specific molecular markers could be used to rapidly identify and trace the alien chromatin of 1V#4S in wheat background. PMID:24408374

  15. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  16. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.

  17. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jarrod A; Mascher, Martin; Buluç, Aydın; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-01-31

    Polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population.

  18. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  19. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-06-17

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario.

  20. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones

    PubMed Central

    Saint Pierre, C.; Burgueño, J.; Crossa, J.; Fuentes Dávila, G.; Figueroa López, P.; Solís Moya, E.; Ireta Moreno, J.; Hernández Muela, V. M.; Zamora Villa, V. M.; Vikram, P.; Mathews, K.; Sansaloni, C.; Sehgal, D.; Jarquin, D.; Wenzl, P.; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines’ performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha−1 across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  1. Exopolysaccharides from co-cultures of Weissella confusa 11GU-1 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS15 act synergistically on wheat dough and bread texture.

    PubMed

    Tinzl-Malang, Saskia Katharina; Rast, Peter; Grattepanche, Franck; Sych, Janice; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    The storage of bread is limited by both physical (staling) and microbial (mainly fungal) spoilage. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and organic acids from propionibacteria (PAB) have been used to enhance texture and extend shelf-life of bakery products. In this study the functionality of EPS of Weissella confusa A3/2-1 (dextran), W. confusa F3/2-2 (dextran and levan), W. confusa 11GU-1 (dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide) was evaluated in wheat bread. Two strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii (Pf), shown to produce a heteropolysaccharide (Pf JS15) or a β-glucan (Pf DF30), were tested in single and mixed cultures with W. confusa (Wc). The EPS fermentates were prepared by batch fermentation of cereal- or malt-based medium using sucrose (Wc) or lactic acid (Pf) as carbon source. Incorporation of EPS from single culture fermentates and 1:1 Weissella-Propionibacterium fermentate mixtures revealed strong positive effects of dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide produced by Wc 11GU-1 on bread staling retardation, with synergistic effects of EPS mixture from Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15. A co-fermentation of Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 was developed to produce EPS together with antifungal organic acid mixture (acetate and propionate) in a single step process. The addition of 15% (w/w flour base) co-culture, yielding EPS, acetate and propionate concentrations of 1.5, 0.5 and 1g/kg dough, respectively, resulted in improved bread texture, increased loaf volume and decreased crumb firming during storage for 3days compared with control breads and breads supplemented with equivalent levels of chemical organic acids. Our data showed that EPS could compensate for the negative effects of chemical acetate and propionate in a concentration range exerting antifungal effects. The natural bioingredient produced by Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 has potential for applications as antifungal, texture-building and anti-staling agent in breads, consistent with

  2. Exopolysaccharides from co-cultures of Weissella confusa 11GU-1 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS15 act synergistically on wheat dough and bread texture.

    PubMed

    Tinzl-Malang, Saskia Katharina; Rast, Peter; Grattepanche, Franck; Sych, Janice; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    The storage of bread is limited by both physical (staling) and microbial (mainly fungal) spoilage. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and organic acids from propionibacteria (PAB) have been used to enhance texture and extend shelf-life of bakery products. In this study the functionality of EPS of Weissella confusa A3/2-1 (dextran), W. confusa F3/2-2 (dextran and levan), W. confusa 11GU-1 (dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide) was evaluated in wheat bread. Two strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii (Pf), shown to produce a heteropolysaccharide (Pf JS15) or a β-glucan (Pf DF30), were tested in single and mixed cultures with W. confusa (Wc). The EPS fermentates were prepared by batch fermentation of cereal- or malt-based medium using sucrose (Wc) or lactic acid (Pf) as carbon source. Incorporation of EPS from single culture fermentates and 1:1 Weissella-Propionibacterium fermentate mixtures revealed strong positive effects of dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide produced by Wc 11GU-1 on bread staling retardation, with synergistic effects of EPS mixture from Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15. A co-fermentation of Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 was developed to produce EPS together with antifungal organic acid mixture (acetate and propionate) in a single step process. The addition of 15% (w/w flour base) co-culture, yielding EPS, acetate and propionate concentrations of 1.5, 0.5 and 1g/kg dough, respectively, resulted in improved bread texture, increased loaf volume and decreased crumb firming during storage for 3days compared with control breads and breads supplemented with equivalent levels of chemical organic acids. Our data showed that EPS could compensate for the negative effects of chemical acetate and propionate in a concentration range exerting antifungal effects. The natural bioingredient produced by Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 has potential for applications as antifungal, texture-building and anti-staling agent in breads, consistent with

  3. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  4. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls. PMID:25892800

  5. Implications of non-covalent interactions in zein-starch dough and bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation in the production of wheat-free breads is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Breads made from non-wheat flours such as rice, maize, and sorghum must be made from thick batters and are of lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic dough f...

  6. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Mascher, Martin; Buluc, Aydin; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A.; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2015-01-31

    We report that polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population.

  7. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Mascher, Martin; Buluc, Aydin; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; et al

    2015-01-31

    We report that polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible tomore » construct a mapping population.« less

  8. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Phytoene Synthase from Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Flowerika; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitesh; Thakur, Neha; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%. The protein sequence analysis demonstrated that TaPSY1 and TaPSY3 retain most of conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of all TaPSY revealed an evolutionary relationship among PSY proteins of various monocot species. TaPSY derived from A and D subgenomes shared proximity to the PSY of Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. The differential expression of TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 in the various tissues, seed development stages, and stress treatments suggested their role in plant development, and stress condition. TaPSY3 showed higher expression in all tissues, followed by TaPSY1. The presence of multiple stress responsive cis-regulatory elements in promoter region of TaPSY3 correlated with the higher expression during drought and heat stresses has suggested their role in these conditions. The expression pattern of TaPSY3 was correlated with the accumulation of β-carotene in the seed developmental stages. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of each TaPSY protein. Hence, TaPSY can be explored in developing genetically improved wheat crop. PMID:27695116

  9. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  10. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    PubMed

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods.

  11. Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of γ-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects.

  12. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  13. Effect of white wheat bread containing sugar beet fiber on serum lipids and hepatic mRNA in rats fed on a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yumi; Kanazawa, Mizuki; Liyanage, Ruvini; Iijima, Setsuko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Yamauchi, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Naoto; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2009-06-01

    We examined the effects of white wheat bread powder (BP) and white wheat bread powder containing sugar beet fiber (BBP) on serum cholesterol. The total cholesterol (-11%, -16%), HDL-cholesterol (-12%, -11%), non-HDL-cholesterol (-9%, -18%) and triacylglycerol (-44%, -58%) concentrations in the BP and BBP groups, respectively, were significantly different from those in the control group. The fecal excretion of neutral sterols in the BP and BBP groups and of acidic sterols in the BBP group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA level in the BP and BBP groups was significantly higher than that in the control group. The cecal total short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the BBP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that the observed changes in serum lipid levels in the BP and BBP groups were due to the increased fecal lipid and CYP7A1 mRNA levels.

  14. Kinetics of carotenoids degradation during the storage of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) flours.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2008-12-10

    To evaluate the effect of storage temperature, the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in wholemeal and white flour of einkorn cv. Monlis and bread wheat cv. Serio, stored at -20, 5, 20, 30, and 38 degrees C, was assessed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Monlis, the carotenoids content (8.1 and 9.8 mg/kg for wholemeal and white flour, respectively) was 8-fold higher than in Serio (1.0 and 1.1 mg/kg). Only lutein and zeaxanthin were detected in bread wheat, while significant quantities of (alpha and beta)-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in einkorn. Carotenoids degradation was influenced by temperature and time, following first-order kinetics. The degradation rate was similar in wholemeal and white flour; however, loss of lutein and total carotenoids was faster in Serio than in Monlis. The activation energy E(a) ranged from 35.2 to 52.5 kJ/mol. Temperatures not exceeding 20 degrees C better preserve carotenoids content and are recommended for long-term storage.

  15. The Introgression of RNAi Silencing of γ-Gliadins into Commercial Lines of Bread Wheat Changes the Mixing and Technological Properties of the Dough

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J.; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’ indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance. PMID:23029328

  16. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15–22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL. PMID:27351632

  17. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL. PMID:27351632

  18. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL.

  19. Integration of promoters, inverted repeat sequences and proteomic data into a model for high silencing efficiency of coeliac disease related gliadins in bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten has unique nutritional and technological characteristics, but is also a major trigger of allergies and intolerances. One of the most severe diseases caused by gluten is coeliac disease. The peptides produced in the digestive tract by the incomplete digestion of gluten proteins trigger the disease. The majority of the epitopes responsible reside in the gliadin fraction of gluten. The location of the multiple gliadin genes in blocks has to date complicated their elimination by classical breeding techniques or by the use of biotechnological tools. As an approach to silence multiple gliadin genes we have produced 38 transgenic lines of bread wheat containing combinations of two endosperm-specific promoters and three different inverted repeat sequences to silence three fractions of gliadins by RNA interference. Results The effects of the RNA interference constructs on the content of the gluten proteins, total protein and starch, thousand seed weights and SDSS quality tests of flour were analyzed in these transgenic lines in two consecutive years. The characteristics of the inverted repeat sequences were the main factor that determined the efficiency of silencing. The promoter used had less influence on silencing, although a synergy in silencing efficiency was observed when the two promoters were used simultaneously. Genotype and the environment also influenced silencing efficiency. Conclusions We conclude that to obtain wheat lines with an optimum reduction of toxic gluten epitopes one needs to take into account the factors of inverted repeat sequences design, promoter choice and also the wheat background used. PMID:24044767

  20. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. PMID:26920275

  1. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an “integrative typology” of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the “5W1H” questions: “Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?” Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978–1999, I answer the “5W1H” questions through establishing the “six typologies” framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology.

  2. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an “integrative typology” of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the “5W1H” questions: “Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?” Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978–1999, I answer the “5W1H” questions through establishing the “six typologies” framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology. PMID:27670975

  3. The effect of different types of Finnish bread on postprandial glucose response in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, L; Korpela, R; Mantere, S

    1985-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the fibre content of the bread and the effect of the state of graining on the postprandial blood glucose response in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. The breads were white wheat bread, mixed wholemeal wheat/rye bread, wholemeal rye bread and grained wholemeal rye bread. Finnish wholemeal rye bread induced a slower postprandial blood glucose response than the mixed wholemeal (wheat/rye) bread (P less than or equal to 0.05) and the white wheat bread (P less than or equal to 0.01). Grained wholemeal rye bread resulted in a similar blood glucose response to that from wholemeal rye bread.

  4. QTL for spot blotch resistance in bread wheat line Saar co-locate to the biotrophic disease resistance loci Lr34 and Lr46.

    PubMed

    Lillemo, Morten; Joshi, Arun K; Prasad, Ravindra; Chand, Ramesh; Singh, Ravi P

    2013-03-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world including south Asian countries such as India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar which carries the leaf tip necrosis (LTN)-associated rust resistance genes Lr34 and Lr46 has exhibited a low level of spot blotch disease in field trials conducted in Asia and South America. One hundred and fourteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Avocet (Susceptible) × Saar, were evaluated along with parents in two dates of sowing in India for 3 years (2007-2008 to 2009-2010) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spot blotch resistance, and to determine the potential association of Lr34 and Lr46 with resistance to this disease. Lr34 was found to constitute the main locus for spot blotch resistance, and explained as much as 55 % of the phenotypic variation in the mean disease data across the six environments. Based on the large effect, the spot blotch resistance at this locus has been given the gene designation Sb1. Two further, minor QTL were detected in the sub-population of RILs not containing Lr34. The first of these was located about 40 cM distal to Lr34 on 7DS, and the other corresponded to Lr46 on 1BL. A major implication for wheat breeding is that Lr34 and Lr46, which are widely used in wheat breeding to improve resistance to rust diseases and powdery mildew, also have a beneficial effect on spot blotch.

  5. Effect of bread baking on the bioavailability of hydrogen-reduced iron powder added to unenriched refined wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Atsushi A; Glahn, Raymond P; Lei, Xin Gen; Miller, Dennis D

    2006-10-18

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and other cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe(0) to Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model and a piglet model were used to measure bioavailability. Bread flour, either unfortified or fortified with hydrogen-reduced (HR) iron powder or FeSO(4) (300 mg Fe/kg flour), was baked into bread. For the in vitro studies, bread samples were treated with pepsin at pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 and subsequently incubated with pancreatic enzymes at pH 7 in a chamber positioned above monolayers of cultured Caco-2 cells. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron bioavailability. Ferritin formation in cells fed HR Fe bread was similar to cells fed FeSO(4) bread when the peptic digestion was conducted at a pH 2 but lower when the peptic phase was conducted at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 (P < 0.05). Pig diets containing 35% dried bread were prepared and fed to cross-bred (Hampshire x Landrace x Yorkshire) anemic pigs in two studies. The rate of increase in hemoglobin Fe over the feeding period was used to calculate relative biological value (RBV), an index of iron bioavailability. In the first pig study, RBV of HR Fe added to flour prior to baking was 47.9% when compared to FeSO(4) fortified flour (P < 0.05). In the second pig study, a third treatment consisting of unfortified bread with HR iron added during diet mixing (after bread baking) was included. RBVs of the HR Fe diet (Fe added after baking) and HR Fe diet (Fe added before baking) were 40.1% and 53.5%, respectively, compared to the FeSO(4) diet. Differences in RBV between the HR Fe (before and after baking) and FeSO(4) (before baking) treatment groups were significant, but the difference between the before and after HR treatment groups was not significant. We conclude that bread baking does not enhance the bioavailability of elemental

  6. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    PubMed

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet. PMID:24633046

  7. The Shutdown of Celiac Disease-Related Gliadin Epitopes in Bread Wheat by RNAi Provides Flours with Increased Stability and Better Tolerance to Over-Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet. PMID:24633046

  8. Regions of the bread wheat D genome associated with variation in key photosynthesis traits and shoot biomass under both well watered and water deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Svetlana; Permyakov, Alexey; Permyakova, Marina; Pshenichnikova, Tatyana; Verkhoturov, Vasiliy; Rudikovsky, Alexandr; Rudikovskaya, Elena; Shishparenok, Alexandr; Doroshkov, Alexey; Börner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach was taken to reveal the genetic basis in wheat of traits associated with photosynthesis during a period of exposure to water deficit stress. The performance, with respect to shoot biomass, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment content and the activity of various ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and catalase, of a set of 80 wheat lines, each containing a single chromosomal segment introgressed from the bread wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii, was monitored in plants exposed to various water regimes. Four of the seven D genome chromosomes (1D, 2D, 5D, and 7D) carried clusters of both major (LOD >3.0) and minor (LOD between 2.0 and 3.0) QTL. A major QTL underlying the activity of glutathione reductase was located on chromosome 2D, and another, controlling the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, on chromosome 7D. A region of chromosome 2D defined by the microsatellite locus Xgwm539 and a second on chromosome 7D flanked by the marker loci Xgwm1242 and Xgwm44 harbored a number of QTL associated with the water deficit stress response.

  9. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María-Carmen; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds. PMID:26241856

  10. Studies on rye (Secale cereale L.) lines exhibiting a range of extract viscosities. 2. Rheological and baking characteristics of rye and rye/wheat blends and feeding value for chicks of wholemeals and breads.

    PubMed

    Ragaee, S M; Campbell, G L; Scoles, G J; McLeod, J G; Tyler, R T

    2001-05-01

    Five rye lines exhibiting a wide range of extract viscosities were evaluated for the rheological and baking properties of their flours, individually and in blends with hard red spring wheat flour. Commercial cultivars of rye and triticale were included in the study as controls. Extract viscosities of rye flours were higher than those of corresponding wholemeals, indicating shifting of water-extractable arabinoxylan into flour during roller milling. Falling numbers of the rye flours correlated positively with their extract viscosities in the presence (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) or absence (r = 0.65, p < 0.05) of an enzyme inhibitor. Farinograms revealed the weakness of rye and triticale flours compared to wheat flour. Extract viscosities of rye flours were negatively correlated (r = -0.65, p < 0.05) with mixing tolerance index and positively correlated (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) with dough stability, suggesting a positive impact of extract viscosity on dough strength. Extract viscosity was negatively correlated (r = -0.74, p < 0.05) with loaf volume and specific volume (r = -0.73, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) with loaf weight of rye/wheat bread. Overall, the results indicated that 30% of flour from high or low extract viscosity rye could be incorporated into rye/wheat breads without seriously compromising bread quality. Inclusion of rye, particularly high extract viscosity rye, in chick diets seriously impeded growth performance and feed efficiency. Part of the arabinoxylan survived bread-making and exerted an effect on chicks, although substantially lower digesta viscosities were observed in chicks fed rye bread diets than in those fed rye wholemeals.

  11. Serish inulin and wheat biopolymers interactions in model systems as a basis for understanding the impact of inulin on bread properties: a FTIR investigation.

    PubMed

    Pourfarzad, Amir; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H; Khayyat, Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2015-12-01

    In this study the interactions between Serish root inulin and the main biopolymer types of wheat flour namely gluten, starch and phospholipid, were investigated in different model systems using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to unravel the underlying physical mechanism by which inulin impacts dough and bread properties. Interactions of inulin with starch and phospholipid were not considerable compared to gluten, but it was also clear that the modes of these interactions varied with the type and the amount of additives used in model formulation. This study revealed that when inulin is added to gluten, water redistribution promotes partial dehydration of gluten and collapse of β-spirals into intermolecular β-sheet structures; this trans-conformations might be due to physical reasons are believed to further impact the poor quality of bread containing added inulin. Upon performing Gaussian-Lorenzian curve fitting, it was observed that by adding of inulin to model systems, the relative contribution of characteristic peaks of β-turn and intramolecular β-sheet was progressively decreased whereas intermolecular β-sheet and α-helix contents were increased.

  12. Erythropoietic response of anemic rats to enriched white bread and bread ash.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    1976-01-01

    Iron-deficient rats were rehabilitated with diets supplying iron from white wheat bread, bread ash or ferrous sulfate as a standard. The relative biological value of iron in bread or its ash was greater when evaluated from red blood cell count than when estimated from hemoglobin concentration. Ash obtained by heating bread in a muffle furnace and reduced with hydrogen was more effective in stimulating blood cell production than could be accounted for by its iron content alone. PMID:1029817

  13. Exploring the tertiary gene pool of bread wheat: sequence assembly and analysis of chromosome 5M(g) of Aegilops geniculata.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Wang, Shichen; Danilova, Tatiana; Koo, Dal Hoe; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Hribova, Eva; Rawat, Nidhi; Kalia, Bhanu; Singh, Narinder; Friebe, Bernd; Doležel, Jaroslav; Akhunov, Eduard; Poland, Jesse; Sabir, Jamal S M; Gill, Bikram S

    2015-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of important genes and alleles in crop plants and their wild relatives. Despite great advances in NGS technologies, whole-genome shotgun sequencing is cost-prohibitive for species with complex genomes. An attractive option is to reduce genome complexity to a single chromosome prior to sequencing. This work describes a strategy for studying the genomes of distant wild relatives of wheat by isolating single chromosomes from addition or substitution lines, followed by chromosome sorting using flow cytometry and sequencing of chromosomal DNA by NGS technology. We flow-sorted chromosome 5M(g) from a wheat/Aegilops geniculata disomic substitution line [DS5M(g) (5D)] and sequenced it using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 system at approximately 50 × coverage. Paired-end sequences were assembled and used for structural and functional annotation. A total of 4236 genes were annotated on 5M(g) , in close agreement with the predicted number of genes on wheat chromosome 5D (4286). Single-gene FISH indicated no major chromosomal rearrangements between chromosomes 5M(g) and 5D. Comparing chromosome 5M(g) with model grass genomes identified synteny blocks in Brachypodium distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Chromosome 5M(g) -specific SNPs and cytogenetic probe-based resources were developed and validated. Deletion bin-mapped and ordered 5M(g) SNP markers will be useful to track 5M-specific introgressions and translocations. This study provides a detailed sequence-based analysis of the composition of a chromosome from a distant wild relative of bread wheat, and opens up opportunities to develop genomic resources for wild germplasm to facilitate crop improvement.

  14. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects. PMID:27438909

  15. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects.

  16. What actually confers adaptive capacity? Insights from agro-climatic vulnerability of Australian wheat.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Huai, Jianjun; Connor, Jeff; Gao, Lei; King, Darran; Kandulu, John; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have often invoked sustainable livelihoods theory to support the quantification of adaptive capacity based on the availability of capital--social, human, physical, natural, and financial. However, the assumption that increased availability of these capitals confers greater adaptive capacity remains largely untested. We quantified the relationship between commonly used capital indicators and an empirical index of adaptive capacity (ACI) in the context of vulnerability of Australian wheat production to climate variability and change. We calculated ACI by comparing actual yields from farm survey data to climate-driven expected yields estimated by a crop model for 12 regions in Australia's wheat-sheep zone from 1991-2010. We then compiled data for 24 typical indicators used in vulnerability analyses, spanning the five capitals. We analyzed the ACI and used regression techniques to identify related capital indicators. Between regions, mean ACI was not significantly different but variance over time was. ACI was higher in dry years and lower in wet years suggesting that farm adaptive strategies are geared towards mitigating losses rather than capitalizing on opportunity. Only six of the 24 capital indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity in a way predicted by theory. Another four indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity but of the opposite sign, countering our theory-driven expectation. We conclude that the deductive, theory-based use of capitals to define adaptive capacity and vulnerability should be more circumspect. Assessments need to be more evidence-based, first testing the relevance and influence of capital metrics on adaptive capacity for the specific system of interest. This will more effectively direct policy and targeting of investment to mitigate agro-climatic vulnerability.

  17. What Actually Confers Adaptive Capacity? Insights from Agro-Climatic Vulnerability of Australian Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Brett A.; Huai, Jianjun; Connor, Jeff; Gao, Lei; King, Darran; Kandulu, John; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have often invoked sustainable livelihoods theory to support the quantification of adaptive capacity based on the availability of capital—social, human, physical, natural, and financial. However, the assumption that increased availability of these capitals confers greater adaptive capacity remains largely untested. We quantified the relationship between commonly used capital indicators and an empirical index of adaptive capacity (ACI) in the context of vulnerability of Australian wheat production to climate variability and change. We calculated ACI by comparing actual yields from farm survey data to climate-driven expected yields estimated by a crop model for 12 regions in Australia’s wheat-sheep zone from 1991–2010. We then compiled data for 24 typical indicators used in vulnerability analyses, spanning the five capitals. We analyzed the ACI and used regression techniques to identify related capital indicators. Between regions, mean ACI was not significantly different but variance over time was. ACI was higher in dry years and lower in wet years suggesting that farm adaptive strategies are geared towards mitigating losses rather than capitalizing on opportunity. Only six of the 24 capital indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity in a way predicted by theory. Another four indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity but of the opposite sign, countering our theory-driven expectation. We conclude that the deductive, theory-based use of capitals to define adaptive capacity and vulnerability should be more circumspect. Assessments need to be more evidence-based, first testing the relevance and influence of capital metrics on adaptive capacity for the specific system of interest. This will more effectively direct policy and targeting of investment to mitigate agro-climatic vulnerability. PMID:25668192

  18. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  19. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  20. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  1. Joint Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Changes in the Primary Metabolism and Imbalances in the Subgenome Orchestration in the Bread Wheat Molecular Response to Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Warth, Benedikt; Sharma, Sapna; Ametz, Christian; Bueschl, Christoph; Parich, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Matthias; Siegwart, Gerald; Steiner, Barbara; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Buerstmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Kugler, Karl G.; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which leads to considerable losses in yield and quality. Quantitative resistance to the causative fungus Fusarium graminearum is poorly understood. We integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics data to dissect the molecular response to the fungus and its main virulence factor, the toxin deoxynivalenol in near-isogenic lines segregating for two resistance quantitative trait loci, Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A. The data sets portrait rearrangements in the primary metabolism and the translational machinery to counter the fungus and the effects of the toxin and highlight distinct changes in the metabolism of glutamate in lines carrying Qfhs.ifa-5A. These observations are possibly due to the activity of two amino acid permeases located in the quantitative trait locus confidence interval, which may contribute to increased pathogen endurance. Mapping to the highly resolved region of Fhb1 reduced the list of candidates to few genes that are specifically expressed in presence of the quantitative trait loci and in response to the pathogen, which include a receptor-like protein kinase, a protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. On a genome-scale level, the individual subgenomes of hexaploid wheat contribute differentially to defense. In particular, the D subgenome exhibited a pronounced response to the pathogen and contributed significantly to the overall defense response. PMID:26438291

  2. Joint Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Changes in the Primary Metabolism and Imbalances in the Subgenome Orchestration in the Bread Wheat Molecular Response to Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Warth, Benedikt; Sharma, Sapna; Ametz, Christian; Bueschl, Christoph; Parich, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Matthias; Siegwart, Gerald; Steiner, Barbara; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Buerstmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Klaus F X; Kugler, Karl G; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium head blight is a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which leads to considerable losses in yield and quality. Quantitative resistance to the causative fungus Fusarium graminearum is poorly understood. We integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics data to dissect the molecular response to the fungus and its main virulence factor, the toxin deoxynivalenol in near-isogenic lines segregating for two resistance quantitative trait loci, Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A. The data sets portrait rearrangements in the primary metabolism and the translational machinery to counter the fungus and the effects of the toxin and highlight distinct changes in the metabolism of glutamate in lines carrying Qfhs.ifa-5A. These observations are possibly due to the activity of two amino acid permeases located in the quantitative trait locus confidence interval, which may contribute to increased pathogen endurance. Mapping to the highly resolved region of Fhb1 reduced the list of candidates to few genes that are specifically expressed in presence of the quantitative trait loci and in response to the pathogen, which include a receptor-like protein kinase, a protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. On a genome-scale level, the individual subgenomes of hexaploid wheat contribute differentially to defense. In particular, the D subgenome exhibited a pronounced response to the pathogen and contributed significantly to the overall defense response. PMID:26438291

  3. Joint Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Changes in the Primary Metabolism and Imbalances in the Subgenome Orchestration in the Bread Wheat Molecular Response to Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Warth, Benedikt; Sharma, Sapna; Ametz, Christian; Bueschl, Christoph; Parich, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Matthias; Siegwart, Gerald; Steiner, Barbara; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Buerstmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Klaus F X; Kugler, Karl G; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2015-10-04

    Fusarium head blight is a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which leads to considerable losses in yield and quality. Quantitative resistance to the causative fungus Fusarium graminearum is poorly understood. We integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics data to dissect the molecular response to the fungus and its main virulence factor, the toxin deoxynivalenol in near-isogenic lines segregating for two resistance quantitative trait loci, Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A. The data sets portrait rearrangements in the primary metabolism and the translational machinery to counter the fungus and the effects of the toxin and highlight distinct changes in the metabolism of glutamate in lines carrying Qfhs.ifa-5A. These observations are possibly due to the activity of two amino acid permeases located in the quantitative trait locus confidence interval, which may contribute to increased pathogen endurance. Mapping to the highly resolved region of Fhb1 reduced the list of candidates to few genes that are specifically expressed in presence of the quantitative trait loci and in response to the pathogen, which include a receptor-like protein kinase, a protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. On a genome-scale level, the individual subgenomes of hexaploid wheat contribute differentially to defense. In particular, the D subgenome exhibited a pronounced response to the pathogen and contributed significantly to the overall defense response.

  4. Haplotypes of the TaGS5-A1 Gene Are Associated with Thousand-Kernel Weight in Chinese Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shasha; Yan, Xuefang; Wang, Yongyan; Liu, Hongmei; Cui, Dangqun; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we cloned TaGS5 gene and found the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits. In this study, the promoter sequence of the TaGS5-A1 gene was isolated from bread wheat. Sequencing results revealed that a G insertion was found in position -1925 bp of the TaGS5-A1 gene (Reference to ATG), which occurred in the Sp1 domain of the promoter sequence. Combined with previous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TaGS5-A1 exon sequence, four genotypes were formed at the TaGS5-A1 locus and were designated as TaGS5-A1a-a, TaGS5-A1a-b, TaGS5-A1b-a, and TaGS5-A1b-b, respectively. Analysis of the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits indicated that cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-b allele possessed significantly higher thousand-kernel weight (TKW) and lower plant height than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-a allele, and cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-b allele showed higher TKW than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-a allele. The differences of these traits between the TaGS5-A1a-a and TaGS5-A1a-b alleles were larger than those of the TaGS5-A1b-a and TaGS5-A1b-b alleles, suggesting that the -1925G insertion plays the more important role in TaGS5-A1a genotypes than in TaGS5-A1b genotypes. qRT-PCR indicated that TaGS5-A1b-b possessed the significantly highest expression level among four TaGS5-A1 haplotypes in mature seeds and further showed a significantly higher expression level than TaGS5-A1b-a at five different developmental stages of the seeds, suggesting that high expression of TaGS5-A1 was positively associated with high TKW in bread wheat. This study could provide a relatively superior genotype in view of TKW in wheat breeding programs and could also provide important information for dissection of the regulatory mechanism of the yield-related traits. PMID:27375643

  5. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  6. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  7. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  8. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes. PMID:25209724

  9. Fractal Bread.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  10. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat.

  11. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance.

  12. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance. PMID:25697954

  13. Effects of post-anthesis fertilizer on the protein composition of the gluten polymer in a US bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both genetic and environmental factors influence the types and amounts of wheat proteins that link together to form polymers essential for flour quality. To understand how plant growth conditions might influence gluten polymer formation, protein fractions containing small and large polymers were se...

  14. Genetic characterization of Lophopyrum elongatum salt tolerance and associated ion regulation as expressed in bread wheat. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-07

    Lophopyrum elongatum is a highly salt-tolerant relative of wheat. Its salt tolerance is partially expressed in the amphiploid from a cross between wheat cv. Chinese Spring and L. elongatum. Genetic studies showed that the tolerance of gradually imposed salt stress is controlled by L. elongatum chromosomes 3E, 4E, 5E, and 7E and the tolerance of suddenly imposed salt stress by chromosomes 3E, 5E, 6E, and 7E. In wheat, rye, barley, and Dasypyrum, chromosomes of the same homoeologous groups, 3, 5, 6, and 7, were found to control the tolerance of these stress regimes. To gain insight into the physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance by wheat and L. elongatum, accumulation of Na and K, 20 protein amino acids, glycinebetaine, aminobutyrate, all TCA cycle intermediates, oxalate, glycerol-3-P, glyceraldehyde-3-P, pyruvate, lactate, ornithine, taurine, glucose, sucrose and other sugars was examined in the amphiploid and Chinese Spring by gas chromatography and H-NMR.

  15. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  16. Bioprocess for efficient production of recombinant Pichia anomala phytase and its applicability in dephytinizing chick feed and whole wheat flat Indian breads.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-10-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala (PPHY) is a suitable biocatalyst as a food and feed additive because of its adequate thermostability, acid stability, protease insensitivity and broad substrate spectrum. The cell-bound nature and low phytase titres are the main bottlenecks for its utility in food and feed industries. In this investigation, we have overcome the problems by constitutive secretory expression of PPHY under glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. A ~44-fold increase in rPPHY titre has been achieved after optimization of cultural variables by one-variable-at-a-time approach and two factorial statistical design. The use of GAP promoter makes the cultivation of the recombinant P. pastoris straight forward and eliminates the requirement of methanol for induction and hazards associated with its storage. Among metal-phytate complexes, Ca(2+) phytate is hydrolyzed more efficiently by rPPHY than Co(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) phytates. The enzyme is effective in dephytinizing whole wheat unleavened flat Indian breads (naan and tandoori) and different broiler feeds, thus mitigating anti-nutritional effects of phytates. PMID:26264930

  17. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat.

  18. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. PMID:27570278

  20. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R.; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P.; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C.; Kala, Yugal K.; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat—a novel step toward the development of

  1. Polymerization of wheat gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2016-06-15

    Polymerization of gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) were investigated, providing a theoretical basis to improve and regulate the quality of CSB. Protein extractability and free sulfhydryl (SH) contents increased to some degree during the dough preparation stage, but significantly (P<0.05) decreased during steaming. Remarkable protein aggregates were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. The microstructure study of the gas cell and the protein network by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) further revealed the formation of a continuous and three-dimensional gluten network. The loss and recovery of GMP wet weight during dough processing were significant (P<0.05). Glutenin depolymerization negatively correlated with GMP wet weight and the contents of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). Gluten polymerization led to a decrease in G' and G″ of GMP while gluten depolymerization induced a slight recovery in G' and G″ of GMP.

  2. Identification of Winter-Responsive Proteins in Bread Wheat Using Proteomics Analysis and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Huo, Wang; Zhang, Lingran; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-09-01

    Proteomic approaches were applied to identify protein spots involved in cold responses in wheat. By comparing the differentially accumulated proteins from two cultivars (UC1110 and PI 610750) and their derivatives, as well as the F10 recombinant inbred line population differing in cold-tolerance, a total of 20 common protein spots representing 16 unique proteins were successfully identified using 2-DE method. Of these, 14 spots had significantly enhanced abundance in the cold-sensitive parental cultivar UC1110 and its 20 descendant lines when compared with the cold-tolerant parental cultivar PI 610750 and its 20 descendant lines. Six protein spots with reduced abundance were also detected. The identified protein spots are involved in stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, energy metabolism, and photosynthesis. The 20 differentially expressed protein spots were chosen for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to investigate expression changes at the RNA level. The results indicated that the transcriptional expression patterns of 11 genes were consistent with their protein expression models. Among the three unknown proteins, Spot 20 (PAP6-like) showed high sequence similarities with PAP6. qRT-PCR results implied that cold and salt stresses increased the expression of PAP6-like in wheat leaves. Furthermore, VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing)-treated plants generated for PAP6-like were subjected to freezing stress, these plants had more serious droop and wilt, an increased rate of relative electrolyte leakage, reduced relative water content (RWC) and decreased tocopherol levels when compared with viral control plants. However, the plants that were silenced for the other two unknown proteins had no significant differences in comparison to the BSMV0-inoculated plants under freezing conditions. These results indicate that PAP6-like possibly plays an important role in conferring cold tolerance in wheat. PMID

  3. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  4. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Babben, Steve; Perovic, Dragan; Koch, Michael; Ordon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i) identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS) of candidate genes, (ii) intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii) identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv); testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT) lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%), corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence.

  5. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Babben, Steve; Perovic, Dragan; Koch, Michael; Ordon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i) identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS) of candidate genes, (ii) intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii) identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv); testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT) lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%), corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence. PMID:26565976

  6. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat.

  7. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  8. Selection of parents for crossing based on genotyping and phenotyping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) resistance and agronomic traits in bread wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Irfaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Abdul Jabbar; Khattak, Gul Sanat Shah; Mohammad, Tila; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm consisting of 45 genotypes were clustered phenotypically using ten morphological traits and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) as measure of stripe rust resistance. The clustering was ratified by using twenty three molecular markers (SSR, EST and STS) linked to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistant QTLs. The aim was to asses the extent of genetic variability among the genotypes in order to select the parents for crossing between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with respect to stripe rust. The Euclidian dissimilarity values resulted from phenotypic data regarding morphological traits and AUDPC were used to construct a dendrogram for clustering the accessions. Using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic means, another dendrogram resulted from the similarity coefficient values was used to distinguish the genotypes with respect to stripe rust. Clustering based on phenotypic data produced two major groups and five clusters (with Euclidian dissimilarity ranging from 244 to 16.16) whereas genotypic data yielded two major groups and four clusters (with percent similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.1 to 46.0) to separate the gene pool into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible genotypes. With few exceptions, the outcome of both type of clustering was almost similar and resistant as well as susceptible genotypes came in the same clusters of molecular genotyping as yielded by phenotypic clustering. As a result seven genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Frontana, Saleem 2000, Tatara, Inqilab-91, Fakhre Sarhad and Karwan) of diverse genetic background were selected for pyramiding stripe rust resistant genes as well as some other agronomic traits after hybridization.

  9. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level

    PubMed Central

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC) and grain yield (GY) in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD) has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU) by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81) with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering–flowering + 250 degree-days) independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80) to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY. PMID:26886933

  10. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    PubMed

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC) and grain yield (GY) in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD) has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU) by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81) with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days) independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80) to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY.

  11. Characterization of the multigene family TaHKT 2;1 in bread wheat and the role of gene members in plant Na+ and K+ status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A member of the TaHKT2;1 multigene family was previously identified as a Na+ transporter with a possible role in root Na+ uptake. In the present study, the existing full-length cDNA of this member was used as a basis to query the International Wheat Genome Survey Sequence to identify all members of the TaHKT2;1 family. Individual TaHKT2;1 genes were subsequently studied for gene and predicted protein structures, promoter variability, tissue expression and their role in Na+ and K+ status of wheat. Results Six TaHKT2;1 genes were characterized which included four functional genes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7DL-1) and two pseudogenes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7AL-3), on chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D of hexaploid wheat. Variability in protein domains for cation specificity and in cis-regulatory elements for salt response in gene promoters, were identified amongst the functional TaHKT2;1 members. The functional genes were expressed under low and high NaCl conditions in roots and leaf sheaths, but were down regulated in leaf blades. Alternative splicing events were evident in TaHKT2;1 7AL-1. Aneuploid lines null for each functional gene were grown in high NaCl nutrient solution culture to identify potential role of each TaHKT2;1 member. Aneuploid lines null for TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1 and TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 showed no difference in Na+ concentration between Chinese Spring except for higher Na+ in sheaths. The same aneuploid lines had lower K+ in roots, sheath and youngest fully expanded leaf but only under high (200 mM) NaCl in the external solution. There was no difference in Na+ or K+ concentration for any treatment between aneuploid line null for the TaHKT2;1 7DL-1 gene and Chinese Spring. Conclusions TaHKT2;1 is a complex family consisting of pseudogenes and functional members. TaHKT2;1 genes do not have an apparent role in controlling root Na+ uptake in bread wheat seedlings under experimental conditions in this study

  12. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laino, Paolo; Limonta, Margherita; Gerna, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant’Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century. PMID:26379457

  13. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight.

  14. Influence of a fertilizer solution on yield and quality of bread wheat in Guadalquivir Valley (Córdoba, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción Benítez, M.; González, José Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The use of by-products of food industries in agricultural practices has become a routine over the last few decades. The addition of beet vinasse, by-products of the two sep olive mill process and by-products of defatted sunflower flour, etc., to soils is a common agricultural practice, since sensible use has been reported to improve the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the soil and to increase harvest yield, and in many cases harvest quality Previous research carried out by the authors (Ordóñez et al., 2001) examined a process whereby a protein concentrate is obtained from defatted sunflower flour. In this process, floating liquid phosphorus, potassium contents and smaller amounts of humic substances and nitrogen are obtained. The potential application of this solution as a fertiliser has been evaluated on rye grass, confirming that its effects are comparable to those produced by a nutritional solution in terms of phosphorus and potassium foliar levels. The experiment was performed on soil classified as Typic Haploxererts located in the Middle Valley of the river Guadalquivir Cajeme wheat (Triticum aestivum var) variety was used at a dose of 180 kg seeds / ha. For both crop, four fertiliser treatments were applied in triplicate to randomly distributed 7 x 8 m plots. The greatest positive effect of applying the experimental phospho-potassic solution was found for the leaf levels of K, in maturity; this influence was most significant when the highest dosage of said solution. With reference to the levels of N, P and K in wheat grain, the levels of potassium were significantly different for all the fertilising treatments, and the plot fertilised with the highest dosage of the experimental phospho-potassic solution presented the highest values. As for the data obtained for harvest yield and quality, the addition of the experimental solution was observed to have a significantly positive influence (but only in the highest dosages) on the production levels.

  15. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by −28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices. PMID:26615881

  16. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  17. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population.

    PubMed

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  18. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from ‘Zenkouji-komugi’ (high PHS resistance) × ‘Chinese Spring’ (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance. PMID:27162497

  19. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, B. A.; King, D.; Zhao, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps.

  20. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread.

    PubMed

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas

    2012-08-29

    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  1. Stability of sterigmatocystin during the bread making process and its occurrence in bread from the Latvian market.

    PubMed

    Veršilovskis, Aleksandrs; Bartkevičs, Vadims

    2012-05-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced by fungi of many Aspergillus species. The aim of this research was to test the stability of STC during the bread making process and to check bread samples from the Latvian market for STC contamination, using a previously developed electrospray positive ionisation (ESI(+)) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Wheat grain naturally contaminated with STC was used for bread baking. STC was found to be stable during the bread-making process. In the food survey 17% of the analysed breads were positive for STC, with concentration levels of 2-7 μg kg(-1). One out of six rye bread samples, one out of nine rye-wheat bread samples and three out of 14 wheat bread samples were contaminated with STC. Four out of five contaminated samples contained whole grains as the main ingredient. We conclude that whole grain bread may be a possible source of STC, although even STC-positive bread samples identified in this study contained quite low toxin levels. PMID:23606050

  2. Stability of sterigmatocystin during the bread making process and its occurrence in bread from the Latvian market.

    PubMed

    Veršilovskis, Aleksandrs; Bartkevičs, Vadims

    2012-05-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced by fungi of many Aspergillus species. The aim of this research was to test the stability of STC during the bread making process and to check bread samples from the Latvian market for STC contamination, using a previously developed electrospray positive ionisation (ESI(+)) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Wheat grain naturally contaminated with STC was used for bread baking. STC was found to be stable during the bread-making process. In the food survey 17% of the analysed breads were positive for STC, with concentration levels of 2-7 μg kg(-1). One out of six rye bread samples, one out of nine rye-wheat bread samples and three out of 14 wheat bread samples were contaminated with STC. Four out of five contaminated samples contained whole grains as the main ingredient. We conclude that whole grain bread may be a possible source of STC, although even STC-positive bread samples identified in this study contained quite low toxin levels.

  3. Using alternative flours as partial replacement of barbari bread formulation (traditional Iranian bread).

    PubMed

    Pourafshar, Shirin; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Krishnan, Padmanaban G

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour is used in most of breads because of its nutrient components and high availability, but different problems are associated with this flour, such as allergies and loss of nutrient components due to milling and refining. In this study, five flours were used (20 %) in combination with wheat flour (80 %).to produce traditional Iranian Barbari bread. These included amaranth, barley, DDGS, rye and oat. Compositional measurements of moisture, fat, fiber, protein and ash content were taken. Physical tests were done to understand the changes in color, thickness, and texture. Results showed that the gluten content of each flour had a significant effect on the texture and thickness of the bread. Bread made with rye flour had the highest L* and that made with oat flour had the highest a*. As for b*, the highest was for the bread made with DDGS. It was also determined that bread made with 20 % DDGS and 80 % wheat flour had the highest fiber and moisture content, while that made with amaranth had the highest ash content, and that with rye had the highest fat. Adding different flours to wheat changed the physical and chemical attributes of final producst significantly. PMID:26344982

  4. Improved wheat for baking.

    PubMed

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  5. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  6. Physico-chemical aspects of leavened gluten-free breads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For wheat breads, there is wide consensus that gluten is the relevant component in determining breadmaking quality. For gluten-free bread, intact and damaged starch, hemicelluloses, added hydrocolloids, proteins and lipids all have been shown to have some impact. However, their individual contributi...

  7. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  8. Composition and Palatability of Breads Made with Ground Soybean Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barbara P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Ground soy products made from whole soybeans were used in bread as substitutes for 12 percent of the wheat flour to demonstrate that home-prepared soy products can be used to bake palatable breads and supplement their protein content. (Author/SK)

  9. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 106, 1976: Decreased absorption of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus by humans due to increased fiber and phosphorus consumption as wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, J G; Faradji, B; Abadi, P; Ismail-Beigi, F

    1991-07-01

    During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to increased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal fiber excretion. Balances of nitrogen remained positive. Mineral elements were well-utilized by the same subjects during a 20 day period of white bread consumption.

  10. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2014 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2014 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spr...

  11. The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Anita Mofidi; Parsons, Patricia M; Duncan, Alison M; Robinson, Lindsay E; Yada, Rickey Y; Graham, Terry E

    2009-02-01

    Structural characteristics and baking conditions influence the metabolic responses to carbohydrate-containing foods. We hypothesized that consumption of whole wheat or sourdough breads would have a favourable effect on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis after first and second meals, compared with those for white bread. Ten overweight volunteers consumed 50 g available carbohydrate of each of the four breads (white, whole wheat, sourdough, whole wheat barley) followed 3 h later by a standard second meal. Blood was sampled for 3 h following bread ingestion and a further 2 h after the second meal for determination of glucose, insulin, paracetamol (indirect marker of gastric emptying), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose and GLP-1 responses to sourdough bread were lower (P < 0.05) than whole wheat and whole wheat barley breads. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough bread was lower than those for whole wheat (P < 0.005) and whole wheat barley (P < 0.03) breads for the entire study. GIP AUC after sourdough bread ingestion was lower compared to white (P < 0.004) and whole wheat barley (P < 0.002) breads following the second meal. There were no significant differences in insulin and paracetamol concentrations among the test breads. Ultra-fine grind whole wheat breads did not result in postprandial responses that were lower than those of white bread, but sourdough bread resulted in lower glucose and GLP-1 responses compared to those of these whole wheat breads following both meals.

  12. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Sugiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Mario; Kokawa, Mito; Fujita, Kaori; Tsuta, Mizuki; Nabetani, Hiroshi; Araki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice porridge on the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread during storage. Three types of bread, wheat flour bread, 15% rice flour bread, and 15% rice porridge bread, were prepared. After baking and storing the bread for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h at room temperature, we measured the texture and viscoelastic properties of the bread crumbs by texture profile analysis (TPA) and creep test. The 15% rice porridge bread showed a significantly higher specific volume and maintained softer crumbs than the other two types (p<0.05). It also had a slightly stickier texture than the others. It can be concluded that rice porridge improves the specific volume, texture, and viscoelastic properties of bread crumbs during storage.

  13. RICE BREAD FOR PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This technical bulletin was written to describe new process to make whole rice bread (WRB) for Celiacs, a disease caused by proteins found in wheat, barley and rye. The rice is free of these proteins and hence an ideal grain to develop foods for Celiacs. Absence of these proteins, however make it ...

  14. Novel microRNAs uncovered by deep sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachypodium distachyon is a promising model for studying temperate grasses, most importantly wheat. Small RNA (smRNAs), especially 21 nt and 24 nt smRNAs, play essential roles in plant development and physiology. We performed seep sequencing of smRNA repertoires in Brachypodium and wheat and found ...

  15. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M.; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of ‘Yumechikara’ that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into ‘Yumechikara’ makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics. PMID:26175621

  16. Antifungal activity of Meyerozyma guilliermondii: identification of active compounds synthesized during dough fermentation and their effect on long-term storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Trani, Antonio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Preliminarily, 146 strains of yeasts were screened for the antifungal activity toward the indicator Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The strain Meyerozyma guilliermondii LCF1353 was selected and used for dough fermentation. The water/salt soluble extract of the dough was analyzed by HPLC and GC/MS-SPME. The synthesis of the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzyme β-1,3-glucanase and ethyl-acetate was shown. The effect on conidia germination mainly suggested a fungistatic activity. M. guilliermondii LCF1353 was used as starter for dough fermentation in combination with Wickeramomyces anomalus 1695 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7, which were previously selected for antifungal activity. The growth of the strains was monitored by plate count and molecular techniques, and competitive or antagonistic interactions among them were excluded. Bread started with the combination of M. guilliermondii LCF1353, W. anomalus LCF1695 and L. plantarum 1A7 showed a more prolonged shelf life compared to the other breads. Fungal growth was delayed at least until 14 days of storage, under conditions of high artificial inoculum. The bread manufactured with the above combination showed good chemical and textural characteristics and, as shown by sensory analysis, it was appreciated for elasticity, color and taste.

  17. Bread in a Bag. Teacher's Packet. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This unit is designed to familiarize students in grades 3-6 with wheat production; teach them the nutritional value of wheat products and their role in a well-balanced diet; and give then an easy, hands-on experience in bread making with a nominal amount of cleanup for teachers. The kit suggests that in the first week, teachers discuss wheat…

  18. Bioavailability of zinc in fiber-enriched bread fortified with zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mona M

    2002-12-01

    The present study aimed to reduce the caloric value of bread by substituting a part of wheat flour with artichoke bracts at levels of 5%, 10% and 15% without sacrificing taste, texture or acceptability. Moreover, considerable trials had been made to reduce zinc deficiency in wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread and also to study the effect of fiber on zinc bioavailability. Therefore, zinc sulphate was added to bread at levels of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 mg/100 g edible portion. The results from this study show that: (i) The addition of artichoke bracts to wheat flour increased the water absorption, arrival time, development time, and weakening of the dough as the level of artichoke bracts increased, while dough stability decreased. (ii) Mixing wheat flour with increasing amount of artichoke bracts increased the content of protein, fiber and total essential amino acids, also all essential amino acids increased in wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread after fortification with zinc sulphate at a level of 100 mg/100 g edible portion except methionine, threonine and tyrosine. (iii) The best level of zinc sulphate to give the best bioavailability for zinc is 100 mg/100 g edible portion. (iv) Evaluation of fortified wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread with zinc sulphate showed no significant difference by test panel.

  19. Quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) incorporated functional bread.

    PubMed

    Mannuramath, Mamata; Yenagi, Nirmala; Orsat, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The study was undertaken with the objective of formulating a fiber enriched functional bread by incorporating little millet flour (LMF). Wheat flour (WF) was replaced with LMF at various proportions (10, 30 and 50%) in the bread preparation. The developed breads were evaluated for physical, sensory and nutritional characteristics. The loaf volume, weight, height and specific volume were decreased significantly with increased levels of LMF. The wheat bread (control), 10 and 30 % percent incorporation of LMF did not show significance difference in the sensory scores. Control and bread with 30 % incorporation of LMF were evaluated further for nutritional characteristics. There was an increase in the percentage of micronutrients such as Iron (94%), Zinc (29%), Copper (70%), Phosphorus (28%) and also fiber (19%) which improved the nutritional value of the wheat bread when substituted with LMF. The incorporation of LMF at 30% level in bread can be considered as a functional and nutritional food choice for the management of diet related metabolic disorders. PMID:26604415

  20. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  1. Molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and expression analysis of upstream genes involved in organic acid transport under Al stress in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Oliveira, Ana Luísa; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Tolrá, Roser; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tarquis, Marta; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Benito, César

    2014-11-01

    In bread wheat, besides malate, the importance of citrate efflux for Al tolerance has also been reported. For better understanding the Al tolerance mechanism in bread wheat, here, we performed both a molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and an investigation on the upstream variations in citrate and malate transporter genes. TaMATE1 belong to multidrug transporter protein family, which are located on the long arm of homoeologous group 4 chromosomes (TaMATE1-4A, TaMATE1-4B TaMATE1-4D). TaMATE1 homoeologues transcript expression study exhibited the preponderance of homoeologue TaMATE1-4B followed by TaMATE1-4D whereas homoeologue TaMATE1-4A seemed to be silenced. TaMATE1, particularly homoeologue TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 transcripts were much more expressed in the root apices than in shoots of Al tolerant genotype Barbela 7/72/92 under both control and Al stress conditions. In addition, in both tissues of Barbela 7/72/92, higher basal levels of these gene transcripts were observed than in Anahuac (Al sensitive). Noticeably, the presence of a transposon in the upstream of TaMATE1-4B in Barbela 7/72/92 seems to be responsible for its higher transcript expression where it may confer citrate efflux. Thus, promoter variations (transposon in TaMATE1-4B upstream and type VI promoter in TaALMT1) associated with higher basal transcript expression of TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 clearly show how different mechanisms for Al tolerance operate simultaneously in a single genotype. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Barbela 7/72/92 has favorable alleles for these organic acids transporter genes which could be utilized through genomic assisted selection to develop improved cultivars for acidic soils.

  2. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    PubMed

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters. PMID:26139880

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal protein mRNA over-expression in bread wheat seedlings by Trichoderma harzianum Raifi (KRL-AG2) elicitation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asbahi, Adnan A S

    2012-02-25

    Association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and majority of terrestrial plant species provides many benefits to plants that range from stress alleviation and bioremediation in soils polluted with heavy metals to plant growth promotion and yield quantity. Some non-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi such as, Trichoderma harzianum, are known to enhance the AMF symbiosis with vascular plants. However, information about their role in AMF symbiosis is still limited. Shoots of (Avocet S) wheat seedlings were sprayed with the fungal culture filtrate and gene expression patterns were analyzed in the treated tissues. An increase in the level of mRNA of arbuscular mycorrhizal protein comparing with control was found. The over-expression of this protein in wheat tissues might contribute in initiation of AMF colonization in wheat tissues. The result of this study can spark future researches to elucidate possible role of this protein in the symbiotic interaction mechanisms between soil AMF and various plant roots.

  4. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyu; Wu, Yufang; Xu, Mengjun; Gao, Tian; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Lina; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1) in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1) at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes. PMID:27669224

  5. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoyu; Wu, Yufang; Xu, Mengjun; Gao, Tian; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Lina; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1) in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus—virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1) at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes. PMID:27669224

  6. New data on the bioavailability of bread magnesium.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Leenhardt, F; Remesy, C

    2004-12-01

    Whole cereal products are the main source of magnesium in human nutrition. Even if wholemeal bread is an important source of Mg, it also contains considerable amounts of phytic acid (PA), a natural chelator that lowers the absorption of trace elements such as Fe or Zn as well as Ca or Mg in cereal products. Significant Mg bioavailability improvement in bread could be supplied by the choice of raw materials and the baking processes of cereals. Improvement in the Mg content of wheat grain was proved possible by traditional plant selection. Bread making using sourdough improves the nutritional properties of bread by reducing the amounts of phytic acid and phytate breakdown, which is mainly explained by the acidity level in the sourdough process that promotes greater efficiency in the wheat phytase activity. A slight acidification due to sourdough effectively reduces the phytate content and improves Mg bioavaibility.

  7. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice.

  9. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice. PMID:27442951

  10. Grain dormancy loss is associated with changes in ABA and GA sensitivity and hormone accumulation in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge about the hormonal control of seed dormancy and dormancy loss is essential in wheat, because low seed dormancy at maturity is associated with the problem of preharvest sprouting (PHS) when rain occurs before harvest. Low GA (gibberellin) hormone sensitivity and high ABA (abscisic acid) sen...

  11. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26299814

  12. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  13. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  14. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  15. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. PMID:26771635

  16. Utilization of deletion bins to anchor and order sequences along the wheat 7B chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a large, complex and highly repetitive genome which is challenging to assemble into high quality pseudo-chromosomes. As part of the international effort to sequence the hexaploid bread wheat genome by the international wheat genome sequencing consortium (IWGSC)...

  17. TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, Maarten; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; McIntyre, C Lynne; Xue, Gang-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A γ-vacuolar processing enzyme (γ-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Taγ-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait.

  18. TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, Maarten; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Xue, Gang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A γ-vacuolar processing enzyme (γ-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Taγ-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait. PMID:23873993

  19. Genetic and physiological analysis of Rht8 in bread wheat: an alternative source of semi-dwarfism with a reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Debora; Greenland, Andy; Hedden, Peter; Dreos, René; Harwood, Wendy; Griffiths, Simon

    2012-07-01

    Over the next decade, wheat grain production must increase to meet the demand of a fast growing human population. One strategy to meet this challenge is to raise wheat productivity by optimizing plant stature. The Reduced height 8 (Rht8) semi-dwarfing gene is one of the few, together with the Green Revolution genes, to reduce stature of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and improve lodging resistance, without compromising grain yield. Rht8 is widely used in dry environments such as Mediterranean countries where it increases plant adaptability. With recent climate change, its use could become increasingly important even in more northern latitudes. In the present study, the characterization of Rht8 was furthered. Morphological analyses show that the semi-dwarf phenotype of Rht8 lines is due to shorter internodal segments along the wheat culm, achieved through reduced cell elongation. Physiological experiments show that the reduced cell elongation is not due to defective gibberellin biosynthesis or signalling, but possibly to a reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids. Using a fine-resolution mapping approach and screening 3104 F(2) individuals of a newly developed mapping population, the Rht8 genetic interval was reduced from 20.5 cM to 1.29 cM. Comparative genomics with model genomes confined the Rht8 syntenic intervals to 3.3 Mb of the short arm of rice chromosome 4, and to 2 Mb of Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 5. The very high resolution potential of the plant material generated is crucial for the eventual cloning of Rht8.

  20. Comparative genomics of Australian isolates of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici reveals extensive polymorphism in candidate effector genes

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Garnica, Diana P.; Karaoglu, Haydar; Sperschneider, Jana; Nemri, Adnane; Xu, Bo; Mago, Rohit; Cuomo, Christina A.; Rathjen, John P.; Park, Robert F.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    The wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is one of the most destructive pathogens of wheat. In this study, a draft genome was built for a founder Australian Pgt isolate of pathotype (pt.) 21-0 (collected in 1954) by next generation DNA sequencing. A combination of reference-based assembly using the genome of the previously sequenced American Pgt isolate CDL 75-36-700-3 (p7a) and de novo assembly were performed resulting in a 92 Mbp reference genome for Pgt isolate 21-0. Approximately 13 Mbp of de novo assembled sequence in this genome is not present in the p7a reference assembly. This novel sequence is not specific to 21-0 as it is also present in three other Pgt rust isolates of independent origin. The new reference genome was subsequently used to build a pan-genome based on five Australian Pgt isolates. Transcriptomes from germinated urediniospores and haustoria were separately assembled for pt. 21-0 and comparison of gene expression profiles showed differential expression in ∼10% of the genes each in germinated spores and haustoria. A total of 1,924 secreted proteins were predicted from the 21-0 transcriptome, of which 520 were classified as haustorial secreted proteins (HSPs). Comparison of 21-0 with two presumed clonal field derivatives of this lineage (collected in 1982 and 1984) that had evolved virulence on four additional resistance genes (Sr5, Sr11, Sr27, SrSatu) identified mutations in 25 HSP effector candidates. Some of these mutations could explain their novel virulence phenotypes. PMID:25620970

  1. Cross-genome map based dissection of a nitrogen use efficiency ortho-metaQTL in bread wheat unravels concerted cereal genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Pont, Caroline; Foucrier, Séverine; Desmaizieres, Gregory; Confolent, Carole; Rivière, Nathalie; Charmet, Gilles; Paux, Etienne; Murigneux, Alain; Guerreiro, Laurent; Lafarge, Stéphane; Le Gouis, Jacques; Feuillet, Catherine; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in plants is becoming essential to maintain yield while reducing fertilizer usage. Optimized NUE application in major crops is essential for long-term sustainability of agriculture production. Here, we report the precise identification of 11 major chromosomal regions controlling NUE in wheat that co-localise with key developmental genes such as Ppd (photoperiod sensitivity), Vrn (vernalization requirement), Rht (reduced height) and can be considered as robust markers from a molecular breeding perspective. Physical mapping, sequencing, annotation and candidate gene validation of an NUE metaQTL on wheat chromosome 3B allowed us to propose that a glutamate synthase (GoGAT) gene that is conserved structurally and functionally at orthologous positions in rice, sorghum and maize genomes may contribute to NUE in wheat and other cereals. We propose an evolutionary model for the NUE locus in cereals from a common ancestral region, involving species specific shuffling events such as gene deletion, inversion, transposition and the invasion of repetitive elements.

  2. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  3. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

  4. A metabolomics approach used to profile plasma from portal-arterial pigs revealed differences between breads incurred by dietary fibre and protein contents.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) metabolomics analysis of plasma from portal-arterial catheterised pigs fed breads prepared with whole-grain rye or wheat flour with added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX) or β-glucan (BG) was conducted. Comparison of the effects of concentrated fibres with whole grains has received little attention. Six female catheterised pigs were given two white wheat breads with wheat AX or oat BG, two rye breads with ground rye (GR) or intact rye kernels (RK), and a control white wheat bread (WF) on separate occasions in a randomised cross-over design. The amount of available carbohydrate was similar for the five breads but varied in the content of protein. Plasma was collected continuously for 4 h after feeding. Glucose levels in the portal vein were reduced postprandially in response to the AX, GR and RK breads that had high contents of AX compared with WF bread (P < 0·03). AX and RK breads further tended to decrease plasma levels of some lysophosphatidylcholine species (P ≤ 0·10). The abundance of amino acids in plasma correlated with the protein contents in the breads and leucine uptake significantly affected insulin secretion in the mesenteric artery. In conclusion, the present study revealed that concentrated AX in wheat bread had similar positive effects as whole-grain rye bread on glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:26101587

  5. Quantitative trait loci for leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in relation to biomass and yield in bread wheat and their chromosome deletion bin assignments.

    PubMed

    Czyczyło-Mysza, I; Tyrka, M; Marcińska, I; Skrzypek, E; Karbarz, M; Dziurka, M; Hura, T; Dziurka, K; Quarrie, S A

    2013-06-01

    Relatively little is known of the genetic control of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and pigment traits important in determining efficiency of photosynthesis in wheat and its association with biomass productivity. A doubled haploid population of 94 lines from the wheat cross Chinese Spring × SQ1 was trialled under optimum glasshouse conditions for 4 years to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for CF traits including, for the first time in wheat, JIP-test parameters per excited cross section (CSm): ABS/CSm, DIo/CSm, TRo/CSm, RC/CSm and ETo/CSm, key parameters determining efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents to establish associations with biomass and grain yield. The existing genetic map was extended to 920 loci by adding Diversity Arrays Technology markers. Markers and selected genes for photosynthetic light reactions, pigment metabolism and biomass accumulation were located to chromosome deletion bins. Across all CF traits and years, 116 QTL for CF were located on all chromosomes except 7B, and 39 QTL were identified for pigments on the majority of chromosomes, excluding 1A, 2A, 4A, 3B, 5B, 1D, 2D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Thirty QTL for plant productivity traits were mapped on chromosomes 3A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 4B, 6B, 7B, 3D and 4D. A region on chromosome 6B was identified where 14 QTL for CF parameters coincided with QTL for chlorophyll content and grain weight per ear. Thirty-five QTL regions were coincident with candidate genes. The environment was shown to dominate in determining expression of genes for those traits.

  6. Targeting of prolamins by RNAi in bread wheat: effectiveness of seven silencing-fragment combinations for obtaining lines devoid of coeliac disease epitopes from highly immunogenic gliadins.

    PubMed

    Barro, Francisco; Iehisa, Julio C M; Giménez, María J; García-Molina, María D; Ozuna, Carmen V; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Gluten proteins are responsible for the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour but also for triggering pathologies in susceptible individuals, of which coeliac disease (CD) and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity may affect up to 8% of the population. The only effective treatment for affected persons is a strict gluten-free diet. Here, we report the effectiveness of seven plasmid combinations, encompassing RNAi fragments from α-, γ-, ω-gliadins, and LMW glutenin subunits, for silencing the expression of different prolamin fractions. Silencing patterns of transgenic lines were analysed by gel electrophoresis, RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), whereas gluten immunogenicity was assayed by an anti-gliadin 33-mer monoclonal antibody (moAb). Plasmid combinations 1 and 2 downregulated only γ- and α-gliadins, respectively. Four plasmid combinations were highly effective in the silencing of ω-gliadins and γ-gliadins, and three of these also silenced α-gliadins. HMW glutenins were upregulated in all but one plasmid combination, while LMW glutenins were downregulated in three plasmid combinations. Total protein and starch contents were unaffected regardless of the plasmid combination used. Six plasmid combinations provided strong reduction in the gluten content as measured by moAb and for two combinations, this reduction was higher than 90% in comparison with the wild type. CD epitope analysis in peptides identified in LC-MS/MS showed that lines from three plasmid combinations were totally devoid of CD epitopes from the highly immunogenic α- and ω-gliadins. Our findings raise the prospect of breeding wheat species with low levels of harmful gluten, and of achieving the important goal of developing nontoxic wheat cultivars. PMID:26300126

  7. Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Cao-Ying; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shou-Min; Li, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (≥2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance.

  8. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  9. Wholemeal bread and satiety.

    PubMed

    Bryson, E; Dore, C; Garrow, J S

    1980-04-01

    Ten normal volunteers were offered unlimited amounts of bread, butter and jam at midday on four successive Tuesdays: on two days the bread was white (70 per cent extraction flour) and on the other two days it was wholemeal (100 per cent extraction flour). Contrary to previous reports, there was no significant effect of the type of bread on the quantity or type of nutrient intake at the meal, or in the subsequent 24 hours.

  10. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of whest extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein content in meals based on bread.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Arvidsson, B; Cederblad, A; Björn-Rasmussen, E

    1980-04-01

    The absorption of zinc in man from composite meals based on bread was measured with a radionuclide technique using 65Zn and whole-body counting. Bread was made up from wheat flour of 100 and 72% extraction rate. A lower absolute amount of zinc was absorbed from the white bread compared to the absorption from the same amount of wholemeal bread. When the two types of bread were enriched with zinc chloride the absorption was higher from the white bread than from the wholemeal bread. Addition of calcium in the form of milk products improved the absorption of zinc from a meal with wholemeal bread. A significant positive correlation was found between zinc absorption and the protein content in meals containing milk, cheese, beef, and egg in various combinations with the wholemeal bread.

  11. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. PMID:25766816

  12. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.

  13. Properties of bread dough with added fiber polysaccharides and phenolic antioxidants: a review.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-10-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking.

  14. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  15. Protein and Quality Characterization of Triticale Translocation Lines in Bread Making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-Did locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of storage protein loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the bread making quality of triticale. One means to achieve such restoration of the gen...

  16. Comparison of oxidized and reduced glutathione in the bread-making qualities of rice batter.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    The demand for gluten-free bread is growing as the recognition of celiac disease and wheat allergy has increased worldwide. In our previous study, reduced glutathione (GSH) was found to improve the gas-retaining properties of rice batter used for gluten-free bread. In this article, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was shown to have the same effect. Moreover, sensory tests revealed that GSSG bread had a significantly reduced sulfurous odor. Analyses by a gas chromatography-flame photometric detector demonstrated the presence of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan in the headspace of GSH bread, and also their significant reduction in GSSG bread. The viscoelastic properties and microstructures of GSSG and GSH bread did not noticeably differ. These observations suggest the usefulness of GSSG in making gluten-free rice bread and extend our knowledge of the use of glutathione in food processing. Practical Application: Glutathione, a widely-distributed peptide in cells, improves the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter. While both the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione are effective, GSSG-bread has significantly reduced sulfurous odor compared to GSH-bread.

  17. Influence of sorghum flour addition on flat bread in vitro starch digestibility, antioxidant capacity and consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Adel; Nhepera, Dorothy; Johnson, Stuart

    2012-09-15

    Wheat flour (WF) flat bread was prepared with varying levels of wholegrain "white" sorghum flour (WSF) or "red" sorghum flour (RSF). Farinograph dough rheology indicated reduced water absorption and stability time and increased breakdown with increased sorghum flour addition. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the 40% RSF flat bread >40% WSF flat bread>control (100% WF) flat bread. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) level was lower in the 40% WSF and 40% RSF flat breads than the control (100% WF). Hedonic sensory evaluation indicated that sorghum addition did not reduce the sensory preference for the flat breads. Human clinical studies are now required to determine if the lower levels of RDS and higher antioxidants observed in the sorghum containing flat breads translate into beneficial low glycemic index and reduced oxidative stress in vivo.

  18. Short-chain fatty acids produced in vitro from fibre residues obtained from mixed diets containing different breads and in human faeces during the ingestion of the diets.

    PubMed

    Wisker, E; Daniel, M; Rave, G; Feldheim, W

    2000-07-01

    It was studied whether the type of bread (i.e. a low-fibre wheat-rye mixed bread and coarse or fine wholemeal rye bread) either as part of a diet or alone, had an influence on the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced during in vitro fermentation. Fermentation substrates were dietary fibre residues obtained from diets and breads. In addition, it was investigated whether the faecal SCFA pattern in the inoculum donors, who ingested the experimental diets, could be predicted by in vitro fermentation. Yields of SCFA in vitro were 0.51-0.62 g/g fermented polysaccharide. In vitro, the molar ratios of butyrate were higher for the two high-fibre diets containing coarse or fine wholemeal bread than for the low fibre diet containing wheat-rye mixed bread; the difference was significant for the coarse (P < 0.01), but not for the fine bread diet (P = 0.0678). The coarse wholemeal bread alone produced a higher molar ratio of butyrate than the fine wholemeal bread (P < 0.05) and the wheat-rye mixed bread (P < 0.01). Ingestion by the inoculum donors of the diets containing wholemeal bread led to higher faecal butyrate ratios (molar ratios: coarse bread diet 19.6, fine bread diet 17.7) compared with the wheat-rye mixed bread-containing diet (14.9), but the differences between the diets were not significant. For the diets investigated, there were no significant differences between faecal and in vitro SCFA patterns.

  19. Use of wheat SSRs to assess genetic diversity in medusahead (Taenintherum caput-medusae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) is a close relative of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that is native to Eurasia but has become a noxious, invasive weed in North America. Intergeneric use of primers for bread wheat microsatellite (SSR) markers was tested in medusahead in order to expand the...

  20. Okra-gum fortified bread: formulation and quality.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Mohammed S

    2014-10-01

    Freeze-dried okra extract was added to Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat flour intended for high soluble-fiber bread. Seedless okra pods were blended in 0.05 M NaOH solution and the extract (OE) was freeze-dried at pH 7. SE-HPLC of OE showed the presence of covalently bound peptides. Okra extract powder (OE) 4, 7, 10, and 13 % was used to replace wheat flour in preparing four bread formulations. Although Farinograph water absorption was increased up to 4.4 % due to OE addition, the dough mixing Tolerance (MIT) was also increased. In the presence of OE, bread loaf volume was lower and freezable water was higher. Overall, bread firmness was lower at lower storage temperature, but higher OE increased firmness, due to water migration from crumb to crust. Color was darker for both crust and crumb. The bread melting temperature shifted to lower values at higher OE content as shown by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The test indicated that the properties of the blends were similar around the glass transition region. Dynamic rheology of the blends revealed weaker visco-elastic behavior compared to the control. The magnitude of the complex moduli for the 4 % OE was independent of frequency, while the remaining blends were frequency dependent. PMID:25328176

  1. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  2. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  3. Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elke K; Ryan, Liam A M; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough has been used since ancient times and its ability to improve the quality and increase the shelf-life of bread has been widely described. During sourdough fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a number of metabolites which have been shown to have a positive effect on the texture and staling of bread, e.g. organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and/or enzymes. EPS produced by LAB have the potential to replace more expensive hydrocolloids used as bread improvers. Organic acids affect the protein and starch fractions of flour. Additionally, the drop in pH associated with acid production causes an increase in the proteases and amylases activity of the flour, thus leading to a reduction in staling. While improving the textural qualities of bread, sourdough fermentation also results in increased mineral bioavailability and reduced phytate content. In this review we will be discussing the effect of sourdough on wheat and rye bread as well as the potential of sourdough to improve the quality of gluten-free bread.

  4. Wheat breadmaking properties in dependance on wheat enzymes status and climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Popović, Ljiljana; Hristov, Nikola; Nikolovski, Branislava

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate albumins profile, proteolytic and amylolytic activity level and baking performance of wheat varieties grown in two production years with different climate conditions (2011 and 2012) in four locations. The results of ANOVA showed that variety, location, production year, and their interactions all had significant effects on all tested wheat quality parameters. The enzymatic activity and specific bread volume were mainly influenced by the variety. The samples from 2012 production year, had the lower values of albumin content, proteolytic and amylolytic activity, and bread specific volume. The correlation analysis, performed for 2011 production year, showed that albumin fraction (15-30 kDa) and proteolytic activity were negatively correlated with bread specific volume indicating the role of this fraction on lowering the crucial bread quality parameter. In 2012 production year, albumin fractions (5-15 kDa; 50-65 kDa) showed the most correlations, especially with parameters of bread quality.

  5. Lack of effect on blood lipid and calcium concentrations of young men on changing from white to wholemeal bread.

    PubMed

    Heaton, K W; Manning, A P; Hartog, M

    1976-01-01

    1. When nineteen "free-living" male students, who normally ate 231 (SEM 14) g white bread/d changed to wholemeal bread for a 19-week period, there was no significant change in body-weight, plasma cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. These values, as well as plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, urate and haemoglobin, remained essentially the same as those for a control group. 2. Increasing the wheat-fibre intake by eating wholemeal bread is not an effective method for reducing blood lipids levels, at least in healthy young men with a moderate bread intake.

  6. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

    2015-01-01

    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread.

  7. Soluble dietary fibres in Jerusalem artichoke powders: composition and application in bread.

    PubMed

    Praznik, W; Cieślik, E; Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A

    2002-06-01

    Powders of tubers from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.), cultivar Gigant, of different harvesting times (autumn and spring) were applied in bakery products, particularly in wheat/rye bread. The quality of this bread was compared to bread with cereal flours substituted with commercial products as Raftilin ST and Raftilose P95. Compared to standard and substituted bread, Jerusalem artichoke bread shows a high quality in organoleptic evaluation (grade I with 36.5 and 37.5 scores). In utilised Jerusalem artichoke powders (JAPs) the amount of fructan (inulin) hydrolysis to fructose during the baking process depends on its initial degree of polymerisation (dp). With JAP of autumn harvest (fructan: dpn = 9.9, dpw = 21.8) less fructose (24.6%) is formed than with those of spring harvest (fructan: dpn = 4.9, dpw = 7.1) (40.7%). Compared to this bread, substitution with commercial products Raftilin ST (inulin: dpn = 8.4, dpw = 17.4) and Raftilose P95 (fructo-oligosaccharides: dpn = 2.7, dpw = 3.0) yields 11.9% and 45.8% of fructose upon total hydrolysis, respectively. The loss of fructan content by the bakery process is 38% in bread with JAP of autumn and 43% in bread with JAP of spring harvest; Raftilin ST- and Raftilose P95-bread come up with loss of fructan content of 35% and 47%, respectively.

  8. Improvements in the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-14

    The wide prevalence of celiac disease and wheat allergy has led to a growing demand for gluten-free foods. Rice proteins do not possess the viscoelastic properties typically found in gluten, thus making rice flour unsuitable for the production of yeast-leavened products. In the present study, we found that the addition of glutathione to rice batter improves its gas-retaining properties. Glutathione was found to prevent the formation of the disulfide-linked macromolecular protein barrier, which is reported to confer resistance to the deformation of rice batter in the baking process. Also, glutathione appeared to gelatinize rice starch at lower temperatures. Microstructure analyses of glutathione-added rice bread revealed it to have a perforated structure like wheat bread but with a smoother-looking surface. These data collectively suggest that glutathione facilitates the deformation of rice batter, thus increasing its elasticity in the early stages of bread baking and the volume of the resulting bread.

  9. The contribution of glutenin macropolymer depolymerization to the deterioration of frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lee, Tung-Ching; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2016-11-15

    Depolymerization of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) widely exists in the frozen dough with little effort in elucidating its effects on steamed bread quality. To clarify this, GMP was fractionated from wheat flour and reconstituted to yeast and chemical leavened dough (YLD/CLD). Results showed that with supplementary GMP fraction, depolymerization degree was alleviated in frozen dough. The bread quality loss from freezing was partially counteracted along with better preserved GMP content. Both of dough elasticity and gas retention capability were enhanced in GMP-enriched frozen dough. Gassing power in frozen YLD decreased while remained constant in CLD. Addition of GMP did not affect the gassing power, which allowed interpreting the improved bread qualities from the enhanced dough elasticity and gas retention capability. Based on the improved facts of frozen steamed bread dough quality with additional GMP fractions, this study revealed the pivotal role of GMP depolymerization on the frozen steamed bread dough quality. PMID:27283603

  10. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  11. Effects of hydrocolloids as texture improver in coriander bread.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipi; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2015-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the effects of hydrocolloids on loaf weight, volume, crumb grain characteristics, crumb moisture, firmness and dough rheological properties on 3.0 % coriander leaf supplemented breads. Carrageenan (CA), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) and xanthan gum (XG) were added in the proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % w/w of 100 g wheat flour. Addition of hydrocolloid increased the loaf volume and decreased the average cell area. An inverse relationship was observed between specific volume and average cell area. XG showed uniform change in crumb moisture on storage at all levels of substitution. However highest loss of moisture occurred in bread samples supplemented with GG. Crumb firming kinetics using Avrami's model showed slower firming rates for GG and CMC. High complex modulus (G*) values were observed in breads with 0.75 and 1.0 % XG. PMID:26028750

  12. Effects of hydrocolloids as texture improver in coriander bread.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipi; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2015-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the effects of hydrocolloids on loaf weight, volume, crumb grain characteristics, crumb moisture, firmness and dough rheological properties on 3.0 % coriander leaf supplemented breads. Carrageenan (CA), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) and xanthan gum (XG) were added in the proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % w/w of 100 g wheat flour. Addition of hydrocolloid increased the loaf volume and decreased the average cell area. An inverse relationship was observed between specific volume and average cell area. XG showed uniform change in crumb moisture on storage at all levels of substitution. However highest loss of moisture occurred in bread samples supplemented with GG. Crumb firming kinetics using Avrami's model showed slower firming rates for GG and CMC. High complex modulus (G*) values were observed in breads with 0.75 and 1.0 % XG.

  13. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  14. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies. PMID:19447521

  15. Physical and sensory properties of all-barley and all-oat breads with additional hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) ß-glucan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is a substituted cellulose that reduces serum cholesterol at modest intake levels. HPMC has also been used for decades in gluten-free breads at a level to optimize loaf volume. Because consumers resist the consumption of whole wheat breads, we evaluated the sen...

  16. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  17. Effect of cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase [corrected] on dough rheology and bread quality from rice flour.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Guardiola, Ignacio; Carbonell, José Vicente; Rosell, Cristina M

    2003-06-18

    Gluten-free breads are usually characterized by deficient quality characteristics as compared to wheat breads. Problems related to volume and crumb texture are associated with gluten-free breads even when rice flour is used, which seems to be the best raw material for this type of bread. The potential use of cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase) as a rice bread improver is presented. The effect of CGTase addition to rice flour on dough rheology and bread quality was investigated. In addition, an experimental design was developed to optimize the levels of CGTase, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and oil. The addition of CGTase produced a reduction in the dough consistency and also in the elastic modulus. With regard to the rice bread quality, better specific volume, shape index, and crumb texture were obtained. The amount of cyclodextrins in the bread crumb was quantified to explain the action of this enzyme. The data indicate that the improving effect of the CGTase results from a combination of its hydrolyzing and cyclizing activities, the latter being responsible for the release of cyclodextrins, which have the ability to form complexes with lipids and proteins.

  18. Bread Baking Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  19. Effect of processing on folic acid fortified Baladi bread and its possible effect on the prevention of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.

  20. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L A M; Dal Bello, F; Arendt, E K

    2008-07-31

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the outgrowth of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, or Penicillium expansum spores, however on wheat bread outgrowth of Penicillium roqueforti spores was not affected. In an attempt to reduce the amounts of chemical additives in bread, the antifungal sourdoughs were used in combination with calcium propionate (CAP) and possible synergistic effects were evaluated. Presence of 3000 ppm CAP in the bread did not affect the outgrowth of P. roqueforti, whereas outgrowth of the other fungi was retarded. A strong synergistic effect was observed when CAP and antifungal sourdoughs were combined into the bread formulation, and outgrowth of P. roqueforti was affected. The use of reduced CAP amount (1000 ppm) showed significant inhibition only when antifungal sourdough was added. Remarkably, the increase in shelf life achieved was higher than that obtained using 3000 ppm of CAP alone. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly show that the addition of antifungal sourdough has the potential to reduce the levels of chemical additives needed in the bakery industry to ensure the microbiological safety of bread.

  1. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  2. Relationship between bread and obesity.

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Luis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that promoting the Mediterranean diet pattern as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of overweight/obesity. Bread consumption, which has been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet, has continued to decline in Spain and in the rest of the world, because the opinion of the general public is that bread fattens. The present study was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, both in the population at large or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The results of the present review indicate that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread, consumption within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat. It appears that the different composition between whole-grain bread and white bread varies in its effect on body weight and abdominal fat. However, the term 'whole-grain bread' needs to be defined for use in epidemiological studies. Finally, additional studies employing traditional ways of bread production should analyse this effect on body-weight and metabolic regulation.

  3. Evaluation of seedling resistance to tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum, 2n = 4x = 28, AABB) is an important cereal specifically used for making pasta products but its production is more vulnerable to various wheat diseases than hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). In order to identify res...

  4. Stem rust resistance in South African wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance and anticipated spread of race TTKS (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici have renewed interest in breeding for durable resistance to stem rust of wheat. In an attempt to determine the current status of stem rust resistance, 67 South African (SA) bread wheat cultivars and l...

  5. A whole-genome, radiation hybrid map of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generating a reference sequence of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a challenging task because of its large, highly repetitive and allopolyploid genome. Ordering of BAC- and NGS-based contigs in ongoing wheat genome-sequencing projects primarily uses recombination and comparative genomics-base...

  6. Ochratoxin A exposure assessment of the inhabitants of Lisbon during winter 2007/2008 through bread and urine analysis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, S C; Bento, J M V; Pena, A; Lino, C M

    2009-10-01

    A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 41 bread samples was carried out in the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. Maize (5) and wheat bread (36) and 43 representative urine samples from the Lisbon region were assayed for OTA levels using immunoaffinity column cleanup (IAC) and HPLC with fluorimetric detection (LC–FD). The percentage of OTA-positive samples was slightly higher for maize bread (80%) than wheat bread (70.8%), although, due to its higher consumption, the latter contributes more to OTA exposure, featuring a higher estimated daily intake (EDI). In the urine samples analyzed, both female and male residents displayed similarly high levels of OTA frequency and average contamination. In summary, OTA is a food contaminant of concern and may constitute a hazard for public health through consumption of cereal-based products.

  7. Effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D1, Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Pinb-D1 loci on flour characteristics and bread loaf volume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doubled haploid wheat lines developed from a cross between Keumkang, a hard white winter wheat, and Olgeuru, soft red winter wheat were used to determine the effects of allelic variation in Glu-D1, Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Pinb-D1 loci on physiochemical properties of flour and bread loaf volume. Variation...

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Cultivars with Differing Drought Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kristina L.; Cassin, Andrew; Bacic, Antony

    2011-01-01

    Using a series of multiplexed experiments we studied the quantitative changes in protein abundance of three Australian bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to a drought stress. Three cultivars differing in their ability to maintain grain yield during drought, Kukri (intolerant), Excalibur (tolerant), and RAC875 (tolerant), were grown in the glasshouse with cyclic drought treatment that mimicked conditions in the field. Proteins were isolated from leaves of mature plants and isobaric tags were used to follow changes in the relative protein abundance of 159 proteins. This is the first shotgun proteomics study in wheat, providing important insights into protein responses to drought as well as identifying the largest number of wheat proteins (1,299) in a single study. The changes in the three cultivars at the different time points reflected their differing physiological responses to drought, with the two drought tolerant varieties (Excalibur and RAC875) differing in their protein responses. Excalibur lacked significant changes in proteins during the initial onset of the water deficit in contrast to RAC875 that had a large number of significant changes. All three cultivars had changes consistent with an increase in oxidative stress metabolism and reactive O2 species (ROS) scavenging capacity seen through increases in superoxide dismutases and catalases as well as ROS avoidance through the decreases in proteins involved in photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle. PMID:22639595

  9. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  10. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  11. Bread enriched with quinoa leaves - the influence of protein-phenolics interactions on the nutritional and antioxidant quality.

    PubMed

    Swieca, Michał; Sęczyk, Lukasz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the functional and potential biological properties of bread fortified with quinoa leaves (QL) in the light of protein-phenolic interactions. The addition of QL changed the textural properties of bread crumb. With the replacement of wheat flour by QL (1-5%), a linear increase in crumb hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess was observed. Fortification positively affected antioxidant properties and phenolic contents; however, in some cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The QL addition affected nutrient content and digestibility. The starch digestibility of the bread investigated in this study was inversely proportional to the percentage content of QL (the changes in protein digestibility were not so pronounced). Increasing peak areas of extracts obtained after digestion of fortified bread and the significant reduction of free amino groups confirm the presence of interactions between phenolics and proteins. The quality of fortified bread is strongly affected by phenolic compounds and food matrix interactions.

  12. Yeast leavened banana-bread: formulation, processing, color and texture analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana powder (BP) was added to Hard Red Spring Wheat flour (HRSW) intended for yeast-leavened bread formulation. Five different formulations containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% BP were prepared with varying amounts of base flour, while vital gluten was maintained at 25% in all blends. Based on the...

  13. Improved viscoelastic zein-starch doughs for leavened gluten-free breads: Their rheology and microstructure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by protein sequences in wheat, rye and barley. Permitted gluten-free grains include rice, maize and sorghum. Traditional gluten-free breads are made from soft, batter-like doughs based on these gluten-free grains, and are often of very poor quali...

  14. Influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of minerals from bread with differing bran content.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Beata; Siemianowska, Ewa; Skibniewska, Krystyna Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bread is considered an important source of minerals; however, the presence of fiber and phytic acid reduces bioavailability of minerals from cereal products. It is well established that activity of microorganisms in human gut increases the amount of nutrients released during digestion. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of some minerals from bread using an in vitro process of enzymatic digestion. White bread and with addition of 15, 30, or 45% of bran was baked in a bakery by traditional methods, with addition of yeasts and rye leaven, from flour made of wheat, Tonacja variety. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Bread was enzymatically digested in vitro without and with the addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 (inoculum 10(6) CFU/cm(3)) and percentages of minerals released were determined. The concentration of minerals released during enzymatic digestion varied depending upon the element, quantity of bran, and presence of bacteria. Increase in bran content decreased release of elements. Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 enhanced amounts of magnesium and zinc released from all types of bread, while manganese and copper rose only from white bread with 15% bran addition. Bacteria decreased amounts of calcium and iron released from bread. Data indicate that diets rich in beneficial bacteria (probiotics) but not balanced with minerals might increase mineral deficiency.

  15. Glycaemic responses to different types of bread in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects (IDDM): studies at constant insulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, O; Winther, E; Hermansen, K

    1991-02-01

    To study the glycaemic effect of various Danish bread types in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects (IDDM) we looked at the incremental blood glucose areas after isocaloric meals of grained wholemeal rye bread, wholemeal bread (graham bread) and white bread in seven C-peptide negative diabetic subjects. Furthermore, we evaluated the glycaemic potency of dried fruits by exchanging 40 per cent of the starch of grained wholemeal rye bread as dried figs. Prior to the meal intake the patients had attained normoglycaemia and isoinsulinaemia by means of the artificial pancreas. The four test meals containing 50 g of available carbohydrate were taken in random order. The postprandial blood glucose response areas after whole-meal bread (1037 +/- 113 mM X 180 min) and white bread (1021 +/- 100 mM X 180 min) were significantly higher than that to grained wholemeal rye bread (786 +/- 66 mM X 180 min, P less than 0.05). Exchange of 40 per cent of the complex carbohydrate as grained wholemeal rye bread with simple sugars, such as figs, had no influence on the blood glucose response (786 +/- 66 mM X 180 min vs. 766 +/- 56 mM X 180 min). Constant and identical serum-free insulin levels at 30 mU/l and similar amounts of glucose lost in the urine were found after the four test meals. In conclusion, the difference in extraction rate of wheat in the form of white flour (0, 7) and wholemeal flour (1, 0) was not reflected in the glycaemic responses in IDDM subjects. Grained wholemeal rye bread is a fibre-rich, cheap nutrient which elicits a significantly lower glycaemic response compared to wholemeal and white bread and can be recommended to diabetic subjects.

  16. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  17. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making. PMID:21678896

  18. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value.

  19. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana extracts (Var. Morita) and their incorporation into a potential functional bread.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, J C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Y B; Matus-Basto, A J; Segura-Campos, M R

    2015-12-01

    In this study a new wheat bread was designed whose sugars were replaced with S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract. The impact of the S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract on nutritional and sensory quality, its ability to reduce sugar intake and its antioxidant properties were investigated. Functional bread with 50 % of sugars replaced with S. rebaudiana extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The extract demonstrated alpha amylase (IC50 = 198.40 μg/mL) glucosidase (596.77 μg/mL) inhibition. The radical scavenging activity exhibited an IC50 value of 335.94 mg/mL. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50 % stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of S. rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread is suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26604361

  20. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana extracts (Var. Morita) and their incorporation into a potential functional bread.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, J C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Y B; Matus-Basto, A J; Segura-Campos, M R

    2015-12-01

    In this study a new wheat bread was designed whose sugars were replaced with S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract. The impact of the S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract on nutritional and sensory quality, its ability to reduce sugar intake and its antioxidant properties were investigated. Functional bread with 50 % of sugars replaced with S. rebaudiana extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The extract demonstrated alpha amylase (IC50 = 198.40 μg/mL) glucosidase (596.77 μg/mL) inhibition. The radical scavenging activity exhibited an IC50 value of 335.94 mg/mL. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50 % stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of S. rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread is suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  1. Breads enriched with guava flour as a tool for studying the incorporation of phenolic compounds in bread melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Alves, Genilton; Perrone, Daniel

    2015-10-15

    In the present study we aimed at studying, for the first time, the incorporation of phenolic compounds into bread melanoidins. Fermentation significantly affected the phenolics profile of bread doughs. Melanoidins contents continuously increased from 24.1 mg/g to 71.9 mg/g during baking, but their molecular weight decreased at the beginning of the process and increased thereafter. Enrichment of white wheat bread with guava flour increased the incorporation of phenolic compounds up to 2.4-fold. Most phenolic compounds showed higher incorporation than release rates during baking, leading to increases from 3.3- to 13.3-fold in total melanoidin-bound phenolics. Incorporation patterns suggested that phenolic hydroxyls, but not glycosidic bonds of melanoidin-bound phenolics are cleaved during thermal processing. Antioxidant capacity of bread melanoidins increased due to enrichment with guava flour and increasing baking periods and was partially attributed to bound phenolics. Moreover, FRAP assay was more sensitive to measure this parameter than TEAC assay.

  2. Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H; Granfeldt, Y; Björck, I

    1992-08-01

    In the present study, the potential of including intact kernels from different cereals was evaluated as a means of developing bread with 'lente' characteristics. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to bread products were studied in healthy subjects. In parallel, the in-vitro enzymic starch availability was investigated. Also studied were the contents of in-vitro indigestible starch. Coarse bread (CB) products composed of 80% pre-boiled kernels from wheat, rye, oats or barley and 20% white wheat flour were baked. In the case of barley, two forms for pre-treatments was used, boiling and scalding. A bread with 80% wholemeal barley flour and 20% white wheat flour (WMB) was also included and a white wheat bread (WWB) was used as reference. The glycaemic and insulinaemic indexes (GI and II, respectively) were calculated from the 95 and 120 min incremental blood glucose and insulin areas. The GIs were significantly lower with CB from wheat, rye and barley than with WWB. In contrast, the GIs with CB from oats and WMB from barley were similar to that with WWB. The GIs and IIs were generally closely correlated. However, the II with CB from oats was significantly lower than with WWB despite similar GI. The GIs, and in particular IIs, were closely correlated with the hydrolysis rate index (HI) obtained in vitro, and this procedure can be recommended as a tool for ranking of starchy food. It is concluded that the botanical structure is an important determinant of the enzymic availability and hence of the metabolic responses. The in-vitro indigestible starch content was highest in CB from barley (1.2% dry weight basis) and lowest in CB from oats (0.5%).

  3. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  4. Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

  5. Model approach to starch functionality in bread making.

    PubMed

    Goesaert, Hans; Leman, Pedro; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-08-13

    We used modified wheat starches in gluten-starch flour models to study the role of starch in bread making. Incorporation of hydroxypropylated starch in the recipe reduced loaf volume and initial crumb firmness and increased crumb gas cell size. Firming rate and firmness after storage increased for loaves containing the least hydroxypropylated starch. Inclusion of cross-linked starch had little effect on loaf volume or crumb structure but increased crumb firmness. The firming rate was mostly similar to that of control samples. Presumably, the moment and extent of starch gelatinization and the concomitant water migration influence the structure formation during baking. Initial bread firmness seems determined by the rigidity of the gelatinized granules and leached amylose. Amylopectin retrogradation and strengthening of a long-range network by intensifying the inter- and intramolecular starch-starch and possibly also starch-gluten interactions (presumably because of water incorporation in retrograded amylopectin crystallites) play an important role in firming.

  6. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data.

  7. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. PMID:26787943

  8. Reduction of the phytate content of bran by leavening in bread and its effect on zinc absorption in man.

    PubMed

    Nävert, B; Sandström, B; Cederblad, A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of leavening of bread containing bran on the phytic acid content and on zinc absorption in man was studied. Twenty breads with leavening times varying from 0 to 120 h were prepared. The breads contained 250 g wheat bran/kg flour. The phytic acid content was determined after baking. The phytic acid content of bread containing bran was reduced to about 40% after 2 h of leavening and to 15% after 2 d. No further decrease was observed. Zn absorption from single meals was determined using a radioisotope technique. Forty-two students volunteered for these studies. They were served a breakfast of milk, butter, bread and 10, 16 or 30 g bran served either raw or baked into the bread with fermentation times of 15 min, 45 min, 3 h or 16 h. One meal contained no bran, but phytate and Zn were added in amounts equivalent to the content of 10 g bran. The amount and percentage of Zn absorbed increased at each bran level as fermentation was prolonged. The percentage of Zn absorbed was reduced by increased bran content in the meal. It is concluded that the fermentation of bread containing bran reduces the phytic acid content and increases Zn absorption from such bread. This may be of importance to people subjected to diets with a high cereal content, especially in combination with a low animal-protein intake.

  9. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread). PMID:26787978

  10. [Nebraska 4-H Wheat Science School Enrichment Project, Teacher/Leader Guides 213-222 and 227.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…

  11. Visible and near-infrared instruments for detection and quantification of sprouted wheat kernels and falling number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting of wheat kernels within the grain head presents serious problems as it can greatly affect end use quality. Functional properties of wheat flour made from sprouted wheat result in poor dough and bread-making quality. This research examined the ability of two instruments to estim...

  12. A multistrategic approach in the development of sourdough bread targeted towards blood pressure reduction.

    PubMed

    Peñas, E; Diana, M; Frias, J; Quílez, J; Martínez-Villaluenga, C

    2015-03-01

    Rising prevalence of hypertension is pushing food industry towards the development of innovative food products with antihypertensive effects. The aim was to study the effect of reduced sodium content and 21% addition of wholemeal wheat sourdough (produced by Lactobacillus brevis CECT 8183 and protease) on proximate composition, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and peptide content of wheat bread. Angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Sodium replacement by potassium salt did not affect chemical composition and biological activities of bread. In contrast, GABA and peptides <3 kDa contents in sourdough bread (SDB) were 7 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the observed in control. ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction < 3 kDa from SDB was 1.7 and 2.6-3.0 times higher than control. Therefore, the combination of reduced sodium content with enriched concentrations of bioactive compounds in bread making may provide interesting perspectives for development of innovative breads towards blood pressure reduction.

  13. Acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from zinc-fortified cereal flours among young children and adults in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Aaron, G J; Lo, N Ba; Hess, S Y; Guiro, A T; Wade, S; Ndiaye, N F; Guinard, J-X; Brown, K H

    2011-01-01

    We completed a series of studies to assess the acceptability of zinc-fortified, cereal-based complementary foods and zinc-fortified wheat breads. Young children and their caregivers completed acceptability tests with complementary foods fortified with iron only (60 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram cereal flour), or the same level of iron and zinc (240 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram cereal flour), and the caregivers completed triangle taste tests to compare the same products. A separate group of adult participants completed acceptability tests with wheat breads fortified with iron and folic acid (15 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram flour and 1.5 mg folic acid per kilogram flour) or the same levels of iron-folic acid and 2 levels of zinc (63 mg zinc or 126 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour). Finally, a threshold test was administered to another group of adult participants to compare nonfortified wheat bread to breads fortified with zinc in 80 mg increments ranging from 80 to 400 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour. All products were acceptable when compared to non-zinc-fortified equivalents, and were well liked by the respective participants. For the triangle tests, caregivers were not able to detect significant differences between products. For threshold tests, adult participants detected differences in breads prepared from fortified wheat flour at 80 mg, 160 mg, and 320 mg zinc per kilogram flour, but not at 240 mg and 400 mg zinc per kilogram flour, respectively, when compared to nonfortified bread equivalents. Zinc fortification of cereal flours in the ranges of fortification that were tested does not adversely affect the acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from these flours. Practical Application: Fortification of staple food products is a low-cost approach to deliver additional micronutrients (including zinc) to large segments of a population. Determining the acceptability of products fortified with zinc is

  14. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  15. Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough.

    PubMed

    Novotni, Dubravka; Curić, Duška; Bituh, Martina; Colić Barić, Irena; Skevin, Dubravka; Cukelj, Nikolina

    2011-02-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria starters were used to prepare sourdough to make partially-baked frozen wholemeal wheat bread. The sourdough was prepared with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum or with commercial starters containing Lactobacillus brevis combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri (LV4), Lactobacillus fermentum (PL1), or Lactobacillus fermentum with phytase (PL3). We determined the acetic and lactic acid concentrations in sourdough, bread chemical composition, total phenolics content and glycemic index (GI) in vivo. Depending on the starter, the lactic to acetic acid ratio in the sourdough was significantly different. The GI of control bread without sourdough (70) was significantly higher than that of bread containing sourdough prepared with LV4 starter (50), PL1 starter (56) or PL3 starter (56), but not from bread with L. plantarum sourdough (60). The addition of 10% sourdough with a lower molar ratio of lactic to acetic acid ( ≤ 4) and higher total phenolics content is preferable for generating bread with medium and low GI.

  16. Domestication and Crop Physiology: Roots of Green-Revolution Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and ‘Veery’-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Methods Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. Key Results The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F2 of ‘Norin 10’ and ‘Brevor’, further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat–rye translocation in ‘Kavkaz’ for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Conclusions Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters. PMID:17940075

  17. Identification of fungal diseases associated with imported wheat in Iranian silos.

    PubMed

    Okhovvat, S M; Zakeri, Z

    2003-01-01

    In this study, imported wheat varieties used for cookies and bread making were evaluated for the presence of fungal diseases in the silos. Grain samples were taken and cultured on nutrient agar medium and sterile papers impregnated with nutrient. The results showed the presence of pathogenic fungi such as Ulocladium sp., Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium sp. and Trichothecium sp. in varieties from Australian, Mucor sp., R. nigricans, Fusarium sp., A. triticum, Helminthosporium sp. and Penicillium sp. from Argentina, Alternaria sp., Ulocladium sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor mucedo, R. nigricans, Fusorium sp., Curvularia triticola, U. clamydosporium and C. tritici from Kazakistan varieties stored in Karaj silos or unloading trains. It is noteworthy to mention that Fusarium sp., Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., A. tritici, A. triticola and U. clamydosporium are phytopathogenic fungi that often cause serious diseases on crops, produce lots of spores that are widely disseminated across the field and grow and reproduce in plant residues and diseased or wounded plant tissues and mature grains particularly under moist conditions. If in case, farmers try to use contaminated wheat grains that are distributed among them for flour, for cultivation purposes, it is highly probable that new fungal strains and species will be introduced in the areas where wheat production has never been threatened before. Fungal disease such as Indian smut or rusts is not native to Iran but are considered quarantine diseases. In addition, high incidence of contamination due to the presence of mycotoxins produced by Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. in foreign wheat cultivars, could result in serious toxicity and illness in humans and birds.

  18. Studies on the baking properties of wheat: pigeonpea flour blends.

    PubMed

    Harinder, K; Kaur, B; Sharma, S

    1999-01-01

    Pigeonpea flour was substituted at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25% to wheat flour and whole wheat meal for bread and Chapatti making, respectively. Blends were prepared up to 50% for cookie making. Increasing levels of pigeonpeas in the blends significantly increased the protein and mineral content of the baked products. The bread from 10% pigeonpea flour blend with 2-3% vital gluten and 0.5% SSL had high loaf volume and loaf quality. Blends containing 15% pigeonpea flour were acceptable for Chapatti and 30% pigeonpea flour with 0.25% SSL were acceptable for cookie making.

  19. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application.

    PubMed

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  20. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  1. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

  2. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses. PMID:23674066

  3. Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 1.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Liza A H; Östman, Elin M; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Andersson, Annika A M; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Rakszegi, Marianne; Bedö, Zoltan; Björck, Inger M E

    2011-11-23

    Rye products typically induce low insulin responses and appear to facilitate glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in postprandial glucose, insulin, and satiety responses between breads made from five rye varieties. Breads made from whole grain rye (Amilo, Rekrut, Dankowski Zlote, Nikita, and Haute Loire Pop) or a white wheat bread (WWB) were tested in a randomized cross-over design in 14 healthy subjects (50 g available starch). Metabolic responses were also related to the composition of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds in the breads and to the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis. The Amilo and Rekrut rye breads induced significantly lower insulin indices (II) than WWB. Low early postprandial glucose and insulin responses (tAUC 0-60 min) were related to higher amounts of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and vanillic acids in the rye breads, indicating that the phenolic acids in rye may influence glycemic regulation. All rye breads induced significantly higher subjective feelings of fullness compared to WWB. A low II was related to a higher feeling of fullness and a lower desire to eat in the late postprandial phase (180 min). The data indicate that some rye varieties may be more insulin-saving than others, possibly due to differences in dietary fiber, rate of starch hydrolysis, and bioactive components such as phenolic acids.

  4. Ozone gas affects the physical and chemical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone can oxidize hydroxyl groups present at C2, C3, and C6 positions on the starch molecule and affect its physicochemical properties. In this experiment, bread wheat flour and isolated wheat starch were treated with ozone gas (1,500 ppm, gas flow rate 2.5 L/minutes) for 45 minutes and 30 minutes, ...

  5. Searching for new sources of FHB resistance in the relatives of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, have threatened the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L., subsp. durum) in North America in recent years. Deployment of FHB-resistant cultivars has been considered th...

  6. Rewiring the wheat reproductive system to harness heterosis for the next wave of yield improvements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread wheat (hexaploid Triticum aestivum) provides an extraordinary ten-thousand-year story of a new species, established by early farmers, selecting for simple agronomical traits to facilitate efficient and plentiful grain harvest. The genetic changes underlying wheat domestication over thousands ...

  7. Dwarfing Genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b Are Associated with Both Type I FHB Susceptibility and Low Anther Extrusion in Two Bread Wheat Populations

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinyao; Singh, Pawan K.; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lillemo, Morten; Duveiller, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are associated with Type I susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat; but the underlying mechanism has not been well delineated. Anther extrusion (AE) has also been related to Type I resistance for initial FHB infection, where high AE renders FHB resistance. In this study, two doubled haploid populations were used to investigate the impact of the two dwarfing genes on FHB resistance and AE, and to elucidate the role of AE in Rht-mediated FHB susceptibility. Both populations were derived by crossing the FHB susceptible cultivar ‘Ocoroni F86’ (Rht-B1a/Rht-D1b) with an FHB resistant variety (Rht-B1b/Rht-D1a), which was ‘TRAP#1/BOW//Taigu derivative’ in one population (the TO population) and ‘Ivan/Soru#2’ in the other (the IO population). Field experiments were carried out from 2010 to 2012 in El Batán, Mexico, where spray inoculation was adopted and FHB index, plant height (PH), and AE were evaluated, with the latter two traits showing always significantly negative correlations with FHB severity. The populations were genotyped with the DArTseq GBS platform, the two dwarfing genes and a few SSRs for QTL analysis, and the results indicated that Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b collectively accounted for 0–41% of FHB susceptibility and 13–23% of reduced AE. It was also observed that three out of the four AE QTL in the TO population and four out of the five AE QTL in the IO population were associated with FHB resistance. Collectively, our results demonstrated the effects of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b on Type I FHB susceptibility and reducing AE, and proposed that their impacts on Type I FHB susceptibility may partly be explained by their effects on reducing AE. The implication of the relationship between the two dwarfing genes and AE for hybrid wheat breeding was also discussed. PMID:27606928

  8. Dwarfing Genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b Are Associated with Both Type I FHB Susceptibility and Low Anther Extrusion in Two Bread Wheat Populations.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Singh, Pawan K; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lillemo, Morten; Duveiller, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are associated with Type I susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat; but the underlying mechanism has not been well delineated. Anther extrusion (AE) has also been related to Type I resistance for initial FHB infection, where high AE renders FHB resistance. In this study, two doubled haploid populations were used to investigate the impact of the two dwarfing genes on FHB resistance and AE, and to elucidate the role of AE in Rht-mediated FHB susceptibility. Both populations were derived by crossing the FHB susceptible cultivar 'Ocoroni F86' (Rht-B1a/Rht-D1b) with an FHB resistant variety (Rht-B1b/Rht-D1a), which was 'TRAP#1/BOW//Taigu derivative' in one population (the TO population) and 'Ivan/Soru#2' in the other (the IO population). Field experiments were carried out from 2010 to 2012 in El Batán, Mexico, where spray inoculation was adopted and FHB index, plant height (PH), and AE were evaluated, with the latter two traits showing always significantly negative correlations with FHB severity. The populations were genotyped with the DArTseq GBS platform, the two dwarfing genes and a few SSRs for QTL analysis, and the results indicated that Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b collectively accounted for 0-41% of FHB susceptibility and 13-23% of reduced AE. It was also observed that three out of the four AE QTL in the TO population and four out of the five AE QTL in the IO population were associated with FHB resistance. Collectively, our results demonstrated the effects of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b on Type I FHB susceptibility and reducing AE, and proposed that their impacts on Type I FHB susceptibility may partly be explained by their effects on reducing AE. The implication of the relationship between the two dwarfing genes and AE for hybrid wheat breeding was also discussed. PMID:27606928

  9. In vitro carbohydrate digestibility of whole-chickpea and chickpea bread products.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Amanda; Johnson, Stuart K

    2005-05-01

    Pulses such as the chickpea are generally considered to be valuable dietary sources of slowly digestible starch, a form of starch that is considered beneficial to health since it results in relatively low post-meal blood glucose levels compared with more rapidly digested starch. The development of novel chickpea-based foods is necessary to help expand the worldwide consumption of the chickpea. However, the effect of different processing methods on the starch digestibility of chickpea-based foods has not been widely investigated. This study used an in vitro method simulating human carbohydrate digestion to determine levels of slowly digestible starch, rapidly digestible starch (RDS), resistant starch, total starch and rapidly available glucose (RAG) of: (i) whole-chickpea products (domestically boiled, commercially canned and commercially precooked/vacuum-packaged); and (ii) standard white bread, chickpea flour bread (25% replacement of wheat flour by chickpea flour) and extruded chickpea flour bread (25% replacement of wheat flour by extruded chickpea flour). The RAG levels were then used to predict the relative in vivo glycaemic indices of the products. The commercially precooked/vacuum-packaged whole chick peas demonstrated higher levels of RDS than the commercially canned and domestically boiled products (P<0.05). In addition, the domestically boiled product had lower levels of RAG (g/100 g available carbohydrate) compared with the canned and precooked/vacuum-packaged products (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between any of the carbohydrate digestibility measures of the white bread, chickpea flour bread and extruded chickpea flour bread (P>0.05) and all bread products demonstrated far higher RAG (g/100 g available carbohydrate) values than the whole-chickpea products. The findings suggest that the commercially precooked/vacuum-packaged whole chick peas and the canned product may have higher and less beneficial glycaemic indices than the

  10. Kinetics of bread crumb hydration as related to porous microstructure.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Vincent; Monnet, Anne-Flore; Jourdren, Solenne; Panouillé, Maud; Chappard, Christine; Souchon, Isabelle

    2016-08-10

    During oral processing and throughout the digestion process, hydration mechanisms have a key influence on the functional properties of food. This is the case with bread, for which hydration may affect the kinetics of starch hydrolysis as well as taste, aroma and texture perceptions. In this context, the aim of the present study is to understand how crumb porous micro-architecture impacts hydration kinetics. Four types of French baguettes were considered, varying in structure and/or compositions. An experimental set-up was developed for the real-time measurement of water uptake in crumb samples. Mathematical models were then fitted to extract quantitative parameters of use for the description and the understanding of experimental observations. Finally, bread crumb samples were analyzed before and after hydration through X-ray micro-computed tomography for the assessment of crumb micro-architectural properties. Distinct hydration behaviors were observed for the four types of bread. Higher hydration rates and capacities were reported for industrial baguettes (highest porosity) compared to denser semi-industrial, whole wheat and traditional baguettes. However, crumb porosity alone is not sufficient to predict hydration behavior. This study made it possible to point out the importance of capillary action in crumb hydration mechanisms, with a strong role of cells with diameters of 2 mm and below. The high density of these small cells generates high interconnection probabilities that may have an impact both on crumb hydration duration and capacity. As a consequence, accounting for microstructural features resulting from bread formulation may provide useful leverages for the control of functional properties. PMID:27466974

  11. Wheat breadmaking properties in dependance on wheat enzymes status and climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Popović, Ljiljana; Hristov, Nikola; Nikolovski, Branislava

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate albumins profile, proteolytic and amylolytic activity level and baking performance of wheat varieties grown in two production years with different climate conditions (2011 and 2012) in four locations. The results of ANOVA showed that variety, location, production year, and their interactions all had significant effects on all tested wheat quality parameters. The enzymatic activity and specific bread volume were mainly influenced by the variety. The samples from 2012 production year, had the lower values of albumin content, proteolytic and amylolytic activity, and bread specific volume. The correlation analysis, performed for 2011 production year, showed that albumin fraction (15-30 kDa) and proteolytic activity were negatively correlated with bread specific volume indicating the role of this fraction on lowering the crucial bread quality parameter. In 2012 production year, albumin fractions (5-15 kDa; 50-65 kDa) showed the most correlations, especially with parameters of bread quality. PMID:26776009

  12. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue?

    PubMed

    Moroni, Alice V; Dal Bello, Fabio; Arendt, Elke K

    2009-10-01

    The increasing demand for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is raising the need for new approaches in GF bread-making. Sourdough is the foremost fermentation used for baking purposes and it has been proven to be ideal for improving the texture, palatability, aroma, shelf life and nutritional value of wheat and rye breads. These characteristic features derive from the complex metabolic activities of the sourdough-resident lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, e.g. acidification, production of exopolysaccharides, proteolytic- amylolytic- and phytase activity, and production of antimicrobial substances. These effects have been extensively studied and well described for traditional baking, whereas little is known about the role of sourdough in GF baking. Yet, the microbiological and qualitative characterisation of local GF fermented products indicate an overlap with the microbiota of wheat/rye fermentation and suggest that the positive metabolic activities of the sourdough microbiota are still retained during fermentation of GF crops. Thus, the use of sourdough in GF baking may be the new frontier for improving the quality, safety and acceptability of GF bread.

  13. Gastric emptying of wholemeal and white bread.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D S; Goddard, J

    1977-09-01

    We studied the rates at which solid and liquid leave the stomach after meals of wholemeal and white bread by using a double isotope technique. There was no difference in the rates at which the solid phases of the gastric contents left the stomach but liquid left the stomach significantly more rapidly with white bread than with wholemeal bread. Furthermore, the amount of liquid leaving the stomach unaccompanied and therefore unbuffered by solid was significantly greater after while bread than wholemeal bread. These findings may be of significance in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and they provide a rational basis for a possible form of dietary treatment.

  14. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  15. Advances in gluten-free bread technology.

    PubMed

    Ngemakwe, P H Nitcheu; Le Roes-Hill, M; Jideani, V A

    2015-06-01

    The unattractive appearance of gluten-free bread still remains a challenge in gluten-free breadmaking. In response to this, additives such as dairy products, soya and eggs have been used to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, but with limited success. In recent years, enzymes (transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase) and hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) have become the main focus for the improvement of gluten-free bread. Transglutaminase has been shown to improve the dough viscoelasticity and decrease crumb hardness (6.84-5.73 N) of the resulting bread. Cyclodextrinase also enhances dough viscoelasticity, resulting in an improvement of 53% in shape index and crumb firmness. Similarly, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose improves gas retention and water absorption of dough and reduces crumb hardening rate of the resulting bread, while carboxymethylcellulose significantly increases dough elasticity (60-70 BU) and bread volume (230-267 cm(3)/100 g bread).

  16. Advances in gluten-free bread technology.

    PubMed

    Ngemakwe, P H Nitcheu; Le Roes-Hill, M; Jideani, V A

    2015-06-01

    The unattractive appearance of gluten-free bread still remains a challenge in gluten-free breadmaking. In response to this, additives such as dairy products, soya and eggs have been used to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, but with limited success. In recent years, enzymes (transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase) and hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) have become the main focus for the improvement of gluten-free bread. Transglutaminase has been shown to improve the dough viscoelasticity and decrease crumb hardness (6.84-5.73 N) of the resulting bread. Cyclodextrinase also enhances dough viscoelasticity, resulting in an improvement of 53% in shape index and crumb firmness. Similarly, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose improves gas retention and water absorption of dough and reduces crumb hardening rate of the resulting bread, while carboxymethylcellulose significantly increases dough elasticity (60-70 BU) and bread volume (230-267 cm(3)/100 g bread). PMID:24837594

  17. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable.

  18. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable. PMID:26604402

  19. [Integral bread development with soybean, chia, linseed, and folic acid as a functional food for women].

    PubMed

    Justo, Mayela Bautista; Alfaro, Alejandra Denisse Castro; Aguilar, Ernesto Camarena; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Guzmán, Guadalupe Alanís; Sierra, Zeferino Gamiño; Zanella, Victor Da Mota

    2007-03-01

    Six bread formulations were developed, using different proportions of whole-wheat flour, chia seeds and flaxseed flour. All of our formulations were added with folic acid. Sensorial and texture evaluations were performed, showing good acceptance of the products. Proximal chemical analysis was carried out; in addition, the following parameters were determined: calcium, phosphorus, total dietary fiber, folic acid, water hydration capacity, Glucose Dialysis Retardation Index (GDRI) and fatty acids. The results obtained showed higher protein levels in the developed breads (23.23-30.24 (g/100g dry matter) as compared to a control (21.00% of proteins in bread elaborated without chia or flaxseed). Furthermore, the breads contained 10.07-12.15 of lipids (g/100g dry matter) (linoleic acid: 2.43-4.05%; linolenic acid: 1.12-4.46 %; oleic acid: 2.93-6.13 %), GDRI values were between 89.1 and 98.1 % and folic acid was in the range 699.44 - 991.3 (microg/100g dry matter). The same parameters were determined in the chia seed and in the flaxseed flour. It was concluded that; due to their high levels of protein, insaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), dietary fiber and folic acid, these breads have a high nutritional value, so they could have special benefits for woman.

  20. Neural network classification technique and machine vision for bread crumb grain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Chung, O. K.; Caley, M.

    1995-10-01

    Bread crumb grain was studied to develop a model for pattern recognition of bread baked at Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL), Grain Marketing and Production Research Center (GMPRC). Images of bread slices were acquired with a scanner in a 512 multiplied by 512 format. Subimages in the central part of the slices were evaluated by several features such as mean, determinant, eigen values, shape of a slice and other crumb features. Derived features were used to describe slices and loaves. Neural network programs of MATLAB package were used for data analysis. Learning vector quantization method and multivariate discriminant analysis were applied to bread slices from what of different sources. A training and test sets of different bread crumb texture classes were obtained. The ranking of subimages was well correlated with visual judgement. The performance of different models on slice recognition rate was studied to choose the best model. The recognition of classes created according to human judgement with image features was low. Recognition of arbitrarily created classes, according to porosity patterns, with several feature patterns was approximately 90%. Correlation coefficient was approximately 0.7 between slice shape features and loaf volume.

  1. Microbiology of salt rising bread.

    PubMed

    Juckett, Gregory; Bardwell, Genevieve; McClane, Bruce; Brown, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Salt rising bread (SRB) is an Appalachian traditional bread made without yeast, using a starter derived from flour, milk and potatoes. The "rising agent" has been identified as Clostridium perfringens, not salt, and is presumably derived from the environment. Although no cases of illness have been attributed to SRB, C. perfringens type A is a common cause of food poisoning from meats and gravies. Other C. perfringens isolates may cause enteritis necroticans (pig-bel disease) and gas gangrene. Past research documents that pathogenic strains derived from wounds may be used to produce bread and that bacteria isolated from this bread retain their pathogenicity. SRB starter samples were cultured at the University of Pittsburgh and abundant C. perfringens, type A grew out of all samples. However none of the cultures were positive for enterotoxin and thus would be unlikely to cause human food borne disease. While this does not preclude the possibility of other starter mixes containing enteropathogenic strains, the baking process appears to reduce bacterial contamination to safe levels and SRB has not been implicated in causing any human disease.

  2. Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

    2014-11-26

    Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C∞, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (≥ 3 g dietary fibre/100g bread).

  3. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages.

  4. Selenium concentration and speciation in biofortified flour and bread: Retention of selenium during grain biofortification, processing and production of Se-enriched food.

    PubMed

    Hart, D J; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Broadley, M R; Dickinson, S J; Foot, I; Knott, P; McGrath, S P; Mowat, H; Norman, K; Scott, P R; Stroud, J L; Tucker, M; White, P J; Zhao, F J; Hurst, R

    2011-06-15

    The retention and speciation of selenium in flour and bread was determined following experimental applications of selenium fertilisers to a high-yielding UK wheat crop. Flour and bread were produced using standard commercial practices. Total selenium was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the profile of selenium species in the flour and bread were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS. The selenium concentration of flour ranged from 30ng/g in white flour and 35ng/g in wholemeal flour from untreated plots up to >1800ng/g in white and >2200ng/g in wholemeal flour processed from grain treated with selenium (as selenate) at the highest application rate of 100g/ha. The relationship between the amount of selenium applied to the crop and the amount of selenium in flour and bread was approximately linear, indicating minimal loss of Se during grain processing and bread production. On average, application of selenium at 10g/ha increased total selenium in white and wholemeal bread by 155 and 185ng/g, respectively, equivalent to 6.4 and 7.1μg selenium per average slice of white and wholemeal bread, respectively. Selenomethionine accounted for 65-87% of total extractable selenium species in Se-enriched flour and bread; selenocysteine, Se-methylselenocysteine selenite and selenate were also detected. Controlled agronomic biofortification of wheat crops for flour and bread production could provide an appropriate strategy to increase the intake of bioavailable selenium.

  5. Soft kernel durum wheat -- a new bakery ingredient?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread wheat”, also known as “common wheat” (Triticum aestivum L.), is a leading cereal that sustains humankind. Current worldwide production stands at over 700 million metric tons produced from around 220 million hectares. In contrast, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is grown on about ...

  6. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86).

  7. Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch content.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H; Björck, I

    1994-03-01

    Attempts to reduce glycaemia to bread were evaluated in healthy subjects. The contents of in vitro resistant starch (RS) were also measured in the bread products. The potential of including intact barley kernels at different concentrations (80% and 40%) was tested in two products (SCB-80 and SCB-40). Three variants of barley bread made from wholemeal were also studied: ordinary (WMB), sourdough fermented (WMB-s) and one made from scalded flour (SWMB). A commercial pumpernickel bread (PB) based on sourdough fermented rye kernels was included for comparison and a white wheat bread (WWB) used as reference for calculation of glycaemic index. The glycaemic and insulinaemic indices for SCB-80 were 33 and 39, and for PB 69 and 61, respectively. The glycaemic index was lowered also in case of SCB-40 (66). No differences in indices were found between the WMB products or versus WWB. A high content of RS (8% starch basis) was found in the PB product, compared with the remaining bread products (0.8-1.7%).

  8. Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification. PMID:23265541