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Sample records for australian football league

  1. Home advantage in the Australian Football League.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen R

    2005-04-01

    The results of this study on home advantage in Australian rules football demonstrate that individual clubs have different home advantages. Traditional measures of home advantage as applied to whole competitions such as percentage of games won, and alternative measures such as average margin of victory for the home team, are calculated. Problems with these measures are discussed. Individual home advantages for each team are obtained using a linear model fitted to individual match margins; the resultant home advantages are analysed, and variations and possible causes or groupings of home advantage are proposed. It is shown that some models allowing different home advantages for different clubs are a significant improvement over previous models assuming a common home advantage. The results show a strong isolation effect, with non-Victorian teams having large home advantages, and lend support to the conclusion that crowd effects and ground familiarity are a major determinant of home advantage.

  2. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  3. Bringing the Game into Disrepute": The Ben Cousins Saga, Sports Entertainment, Player Welfare and Surveillance in the Australian Football League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Hickey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the elite Australian Rules footballer Ben Cousins was suspended by the Australian Football League for 12 months for "bringing the game into disrepute". Cousins was the first, and at the time of writing, the only player to be suspended by the AFL for actions and behaviors that were claimed to be damaging to the reputation of the game and…

  4. Detecting deficits in change of direction performance using the preplanned multidirectional Australian football league agility test.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Spiteri, Tania; Lockie, Robert G; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Football League (AFL) agility test is a preplanned multidirectional circuit involving 5 directional changes of various magnitudes that might differently assess athletes of particular leg dominance. This study served to establish whether the AFL agility test appropriately examines athletes of differing limb dominance, while also quantifying performance deficits prevalent between limbs of Australian Footballers. Fifty-eight Australian Footballers were recruited from the Western Australian Football League (age = 21.9 ± 2.8 years; height = 183.7 ± 5.9 cm; weight = 86.4 ± 4.7 kg). Two circuits of the AFL agility test were set up in accordance with official specifications. The finish line of the second circuit was relocated to the opposite side to modify the starting direction. Footballers were randomized and counterbalanced between versions, performing 3 trials in each direction. Paired t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to examine differences between dominant and nondominant trials. Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to identify differences between left and right leg dominant groups. The current version of the AFL agility test appropriately examined ∼61% of footballers in this cohort. The remaining ∼39% produced significantly faster times during the alternate version (0.63-0.82 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). All footballers demonstrated a performance deficit of 5-10% between limbs (∼0.72 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). Limb dominance (directional preference) was evident for all footballers. Change of direction capabilities should therefore be examined bilaterally to eliminate bias toward athletes with particular leg dominance profiles and to provide a limb deficit measure for enhanced athletic profiling outcomes.

  5. Prodigious alcohol consumption by Australian rugby league footballers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J S; Evans, A R

    1992-01-01

    As an incidental finding in a general 'life-style' survey, amateur rugby footballers were found to drink prodigious (12-24 schooners per session) quantities of beer. Such drinking was regarded by the players as part of the traditions of mateship associated with the game. The need for intervention is discussed. PMID:16840276

  6. Epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League, seasons 1997–2000

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, J; Seward, H

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League (AFL) over four seasons. Methods: An injury was defined as "any physical or medical condition that caused a player to miss a match in the regular season." The rationale for this definition was to eliminate a previously noted tendency of team recorders to interpret injury definitions subjectively. Administrative records of injury payments to players who did not play matches determined the occurrence of an injury. Results: The seasonal incidence of new injuries was 39 per club (of 40 players) per season (of 22 matches). The match injury incidence for AFL games was 25.7 injuries per 1000 player hours. The injury prevalence (percentage of players missing through injury in an average week) was 16%. The recurrence rate of injuries was 17%. The most common and prevalent injury was hamstring strain (six injuries per club per season, resulting in 21 missed matches per club per season), followed in prevalence by anterior cruciate ligament and groin injuries. Conclusions: The injury definition of this study does not produce incidence rates that are complete for all minor injuries. However, the determination of an injury is made by a single entity in exactly the same manner for all teams, which overcomes a significant methodological flaw present in other multiteam injury surveillance systems. PMID:11867491

  7. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  8. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  9. Selected physical capacity norms for Australian football players at the non-elite level.

    PubMed

    Batt, Angela K; Braham, Rebecca A; Goodman, Carmel

    2007-04-01

    Australian football is a popular male team sport that consists mainly of participants competing at the non-elite level. The main purpose of this study was to compare in non-elite Australian football players competing in sub-elite and community leagues, selected physical capacities recognised as predictors of lower extremity injury in Australian football and/or other sports. Participants were 143 adult (mean age of 22.2 years) male Western Australian footballers from the Western Australian Football League (WAFL) (sub-elite) and the Western Australian Amateur Football League (WAAFL) (community). During the 2005 regular playing season participants completed a questionnaire and a physical measurement testing session. The physical testing session involved the following lower extremity measures: generalised joint laxity, leg length discrepancy, presence of Morton's toe, foot arch, hamstring flexibility and static balance. Football players from the sub-elite and community leagues did not differ significantly in any of the physical testing session measures or in the questionnaire items relating to injury number in the past 12 months and lower limb preventative device use. However, they did differ in some measures with players from the sub-elite league significantly more likely to stretch after a match and training, and to have a designated stretching leader at their club. While players from the community league were significantly more likely to smoke and to participate in sports additional to Australian football. Although the selected physical capacities did not differ between the sub-elite and community players in this study, future research should be aimed at identifying differences for a greater number of physical capacities, including skill and endurance, while utilising a larger sample.

  10. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  11. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  12. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  13. The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications.

    PubMed

    Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective.

  14. Body size and composition of National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Torine, Jon C; Silvestre, Ricardo; French, Duncan N; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition of National Football League (NFL) players prior to the start of the regular season. Fifty-three members of the Indianapolis Colts professional football team were measured for height, body mass, and percentage body fat using the BOD POD air-displacement plethysmography system during summer camp of the 2003 football season. These data were categorized by position for comparison with previous studies of NFL football players. The relationships observed were as follows (= represents nonsignificant; > represents p < or = 0.05): Height: Offensive Line = Defensive Line = Quarterbacks/Kickers/Punters = Tight Ends > Linebackers > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Body Mass: Offensive Line = Defensive Line > Tight Ends = Linebackers > Running Backs = Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters > Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Percentage Body Fat: Offensive Line > Defensive Line > Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters = Linebackers = Tight Ends > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Comparisons to teams in the 1970s indicate that body mass has increased only for offensive and defensive linemen; however, height and body fat among player positions have not dramatically changed. Furthermore, the body mass index is not an accurate measure or representation of body fat or obesity in NFL players. These data provide a basic template for size profiles and differences among various positions and allow comparisons with other studies for changes in the NFL over the past 3 decades.

  15. Safety attitudes and beliefs of junior Australian football players

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C; Donohue, S; Garnham, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the safety attitudes and beliefs of junior (aged 16–18 years) Australian football players. Setting: Six Victorian Football League Under 18 (VFL U18) clubs in Victoria, Australia. Methods: Cross sectional survey. Altogether 103 players completed a self report questionnaire about their safety beliefs and perceptions of support when injured, across three contexts in which they played: VFL U18 club, local club, and school. Results: Although only 6% believed it was safe to play with injuries, 58% were willing to risk doing so. This increased to almost 80% when players perceived that their chances of being selected to play for a senior elite team would be adversely affected if they did not play. There were significant differences in the perceived level of support for injured players and in the ranking of safety as a high priority across the three settings. In general, the VFL U18 clubs were perceived as providing good support for injured players and giving a high priority to safety issues, but local clubs and particularly schools were perceived to address these issues less well. Conclusions: Junior Australian football players have certain beliefs and perceptions in relation to injury risk that have the potential to increase injuries. These negative beliefs need to be addressed in any comprehensive injury prevention strategy aimed at these players. PMID:12120836

  16. Movement demands and match performance in professional Australian football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W; Murphy, A; Pruyn, E C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between coaches' perception of match performance and movement demands in Australian Football. Movement demands were collected from 21 professional players over 12 matches during one Australian Football League season, with 69 player files collected. Additionally, match events relative to playing time and distance covered, along with player physical characteristics were collected. Based on coaches subjective rating of match performance (out of 20), relatively high calibre (HC) players (≥ 15/20) were compared with relatively low calibre (LC) players (≤ 9/20) for all variables. The HC players were older (+17%, p=0.011), spent a greater percentage of time performing low-speed running (+2%, p=0.039), had more kicks (38%, p=0.001) and disposals (35%, p=0.001) per min and covered less distance per kick (- 50%, p=0.001) and disposal (- 44%, p=0.001) than the LC group, with the effect sizes also supporting this trend. Further, HC players covered less distance (- 14%, p=0.037), spent less percentage of time (- 17%, p=0.037) and performed fewer (- 9%, p=0.026) efforts per min high-speed running than LC players, which was further confirmed by the effect sizes. Movement demands and match events are related to coaches' perception of match performance in professional Australian Football. Further, high levels of involvement with the football appeared to be more important to performance than high exercise speed. PMID:22095328

  17. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  18. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-01

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League. PMID:3600465

  19. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas B.; Dunn, Reginald E.; Lincoln, Andrew E.; Tucker, Andrew M.; Vogel, Robert A.; Heyer, Robert A.; Yates, Anthony P.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Pellmen, Elliot J.; Allen, Thomas W.; Newman, Anne B.; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prior studies have suggested that the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) among players in the National Football League (NFL) is disproportionately high. SDB can increase cardiovascular disease risk and is correlated with hypertension. NFL players have a higher prevalence of hypertension, and we sought to determine the prevalence of SDB among players the NFL and the associations of SDB with anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: NFL athletic training facilities from April to July 2007. Participants: A total of 137 active veteran players from 6 NFL teams. Measurements: This evaluation of SDB among players in the NFL used a single-channel, home-based, unattended, portable, sleep apnea monitor. Multiple domains of self-reported sleep were assessed. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, neck circumference, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as blood pressure, cholesterol, and fasting glucose concentrations were measured. Results: The mean respiratory disturbance index was 4.7 (± 12), with a median (interquartile range) of 2 (1,4). The prevalence of at least mild SDB (RDI ≥ 5) was 19% (95% confidence interval, 12.8%-26.6%). Only 4.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%-9.2%) of participants had respiratory disturbance index of 15 or greater. Linemen and non-linemen were not different in their prevalence or severity of SDB. No single anthropometric measure was highly associated with SDB, and SDB was not well correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: The prevalence of SDB in active NFL players was modest, predominately mild, and positively associated with several measures of adiposity. SDB did not account for excess cardiovascular risk factors. Citation: Rice TB; Dunn RE; Lincoln AE; Tucker AM; Vogel RA; Heyer RA; Yates AP; Wilson PWF; Pellmen EJ; Allen TW; Newman AB; Strollo PJ. Sleep-disordered breathing in the National Football League

  20. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. Images p100-a p100-b PMID:4027491

  1. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  2. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  3. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games. PMID:27300917

  4. Concussion in the National Football League: viewpoint of an elite player.

    PubMed

    DeLamielleure, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy resulting from head hits and concussions is an unfortunate illness that has affected numerous football players, especially in the National Football League. Many of my fellow players suffer from this problem, and many have died prematurely because of it. I make some suggestions for improving the situation for retired and current players.

  5. Acute elbow injuries in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Kenter, K; Behr, C T; Warren, R F; O'Brien, S J; Barnes, R

    2000-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review to evaluate acute medial collateral ligament injuries of the elbow in professional football players from 1991 to 1996 (5 seasons). There were 5 acute medial collateral ligament injuries in 4 players (1 player with bilateral involvement). All injuries occurred with the hand planted on the playing surface while a valgus or hyperextension force was applied to the elbow. There were 2 centers, both involved with long-snapping situations, 1 running back, and 1 quarterback. All elbows had valgus instability on physical examination. Despite this instability, all players were able to function without operative reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament. No evidence of valgus instability was seen at the time of follow-up (average, 3.4 years). Next, we reviewed all acute elbow injuries in the National Football League from the same 5-season period. Ninety-one acute elbow injuries were reviewed. Overall, there were 70 (76.9%) elbow sprains, 16 (17.6%) dislocation/subluxation patterns, 4 (4.4%) fractures, and 1 (1.1%) miscellaneous injury. Review of the acute elbow sprains revealed 39 (55.7%) hyperextension injuries, 14 (20%) medial collateral ligament injuries, 2 (2.9%) lateral collateral ligament sprains, and 15 (21.4%) nonspecific sprains. The epidemiology of the 14 medial collateral ligament injuries was studied in more detail. The 2 most common mechanisms of injury were blocking at the line of scrimmage (50%) and the application of a valgus force with the hand planted on the playing surface (29%). There were 8 linemen, 4 receivers, 1 running back, and 1 quarterback. All injuries were managed with nonoperative treatment. The average time lost was 0.64 games (range, 0 to 4). We report 19 acute medial collateral ligament injuries of the elbow in elite football players, 2 of whom are considered overhead throwing athletes, who were able to function at a competitive level without surgical repair or reconstruction, in contrast to baseball

  6. A profile of a National Football League team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J Luke; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J; Palmieri, Gerard A; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physical profiles of players on the 2011 New York Giants (NYG) team and to make comparisons with the historical literature on previous National Football League (NFL) player profiles. In this study, height, body mass (BM), body fat percentage (BF%) using skinfold measurements, and several predicted 1 repetition maximal strength and power measures in 30 returning players from the 2011 NYG team, who recently won the Super Bowl, were collected. Players were grouped by position: running back, quarterback (QB), wide receiver (WR), tight end, offensive lineman (OL), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), and defensive back (DB). Pooled and weighted mean differences (NYG - NFL) and effect sizes were used to evaluate height, BM, and BF% comparisons of NYG to previous NFL studies from 1998 to 2009. The characteristics of the players as a group were: age, height, BM, BF%: 26 ± 2 years, 183.8 ± 9.0 cm, 144.9 ± 20.8 kg, 14.3 ± 5.5%, respectively. Comparisons highlight distinct position-specific dissimilarity in strength measures, BM, and BF%, which reflect current strength training, conditioning, and team play strategy. As expected, NYG positional differences were found for height (p ≤ 0.05), BM (p ≤ 0.037), BF% (p ≤ 0.048), bench press (p ≤ 0.048), inclined bench press (p ≤ 0.013), and squat (p ≤ 0.026). Anthropometrics profiles did not significantly differ from previously published trends in NFL players indicating equity in physical characteristics over the past 13 years. However, NYG LBs, DLs, OLs, QBs, and WRs trended toward less BF% but generally similar BM compared with NFL players, suggesting greater lean BM in these positions. This study adds new players' data to prototypical position-specific databases that may be used as templates for comparison of players for draft selection or physical training.

  7. Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Henry; Hansen, Lotte; Hoskins, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury. PMID:16078999

  8. The Overtime Rule in the National Football League: Fair or Unfair?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgievski, Nicholas; DeFranco, Thomas C.; Swaminatha, Hariharan; Sofronas, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    In 1974, the National Football League (NFL) initiated a sudden death overtime rule for games ending in a tie score at the end of regulation time. The rule states that the sudden death system of determining the winner shall prevail when the score is tied at the end of the regulation playing time of all NFL games. The team scoring first during…

  9. Chasing Rainbows: A Comment on School Choice and the National Football League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Brent D.; Olson Beal, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Brent Beal, and Heather Olson Beal respond to comments made about their article: "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," appearing in this issue of the Journal of School Choice. Comments were made by Vitteritti, Houck, Coulson, Bast, and Merrifield. In their…

  10. Comparison of home advantage in men's and women's football leagues in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Most research into home advantage is based on men's sports. This article analyses home advantage in the women's domestic football leagues of Europe and makes a comparison with the corresponding men's football leagues. A total of 47,042 games were included. From 2004 to 2010, home advantage existed in the domestic women's soccer leagues of all 26 European countries analysed, ranging from 51.0% to 58.8% and averaging 54.2%. In every country, this was less than the corresponding men's home advantage which averaged 60.0%. Crowd effects, both on players and referees, and different gender perceptions of territorial protection are plausible reasons for the differences found. Using a regression model that controlled for the competitive balance of each league, as well as for crowd size, the Gender Gap Index, which quantifies the status of women in each country, was a significant predictor of the difference between men's and women's home advantage. As the status of women becomes closer to that of men within a country, the difference in home advantage is less between the men's and women's football leagues.

  11. Relationships between National Football League combine performance measures.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the athletic skills measured at the National Football League (NFL) combine. The combine comprises the following tests: 36.6-m sprint with split times at 9.1 and 18.3 m, vertical and horizontal jumps, 18.3-m shuttle run, 3-cone drill, and 102.1-kg bench press. Draftees to the NFL who participated in the annual combine from 2005 to 2009 were included in the study (n = 1,136). Pearson's (r) correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between the tests, and coefficients of determination (r) were used to determine common variance. The 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprint times are nearly perfectly correlated (r ranges from 0.900 to 0.967) as are the change-of-direction ability tests, 18.3-m shuttle run, and 3-cone drill (r = 0.948), suggesting similar skills are being measured. Performance in both jumping tasks is more strongly associated with longer sprint distances, suggesting mechanisms such as the stretch-shortening cycle may be more important at maximal, or near-maximal, speeds. The correlations between change-of-direction ability and sprinting and jumping are generally much weaker (r ranges from 0.250 to -0.653), suggesting less association and independent motor skills. Although not particularly large correlation coefficients, bench press performance is positively correlated with outcomes in all running drills and inversely correlated with jump abilities, suggesting that in the observed cohort, upper body strength may be of little benefit to these tasks. Incorporation of a nonacceleration influenced (i.e., moving start) measure of maximal speed may be preferred if the intention of a test battery is to measure independent motor skills. Further, when constructing test batteries, either the 18.3-m shuttle or 3-cone drill is likely sufficient as a measure of change-of-direction ability. Test batteries should be constructed to measure independent motor skills.

  12. Match analysis and the physiological demands of Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gray, Adrian J; Jenkins, David G

    2010-04-01

    Australian Football, the most popular football code in Australia, is a contact sport played by two teams of 18 players who contest play over four 20-minute quarters; the object of the game is to score the most points through goal kicking. Sixteen professional senior sides compete against each other in the Australian Football League (AFL) and, similar to other football codes, game demands at the elite level in the AFL have changed considerably in recent years. Early time-motion analysis studies highlighted the long periods of time players spent in low intensity activities (standing and walking). While recent studies utilizing global positioning systems (GPS) technology are somewhat in agreement with earlier findings, available evidence suggests that the game is getting faster. For example, 'playing on' after a mark (a feature of the game where players who catch the ball on the full from a kick longer than 15 m are awarded a free kick) is now much quicker. Indeed, rule changes in recent years have increased the flow and speed of the game; there has been a reduction in the time taken for umpires to restart play, and for players to kick-in (after the opposition kicks a behind) or take a set shot at goal. Nomadic players (a broad term for midfielders and ruckmen because they follow play over the entire playing field) cover slightly greater distances (12,310 m) than both forwards (11,920 m) and backs (11,880 m) in a game. Compared with players in other positions, midfielders are consistently found to spend the most time at higher intensities (running and sprint efforts with movement velocities > 4.44 m/sec), complete more high intensity efforts (approximately 98 per game), sustain them for longer and have shorter recovery periods between high intensity exercise bouts (approximately 90 seconds on average). 'Ruckmen' have similar but less intense running profiles, while forwards and backs generally have less game involvement but have a more intermittent running profile

  13. Explaining match outcome in elite Australian Rules football using team performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Back, Nicole; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between team performance indicators and match outcome have been examined in many team sports, however are limited in Australian Rules football. Using data from the 2013 and 2014 Australian Football League (AFL) regular seasons, this study assessed the ability of commonly reported discrete team performance indicators presented in their relative form (standardised against their opposition for a given match) to explain match outcome (Win/Loss). Logistic regression and decision tree (chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID)) analyses both revealed relative differences between opposing teams for "kicks" and "goal conversion" as the most influential in explaining match outcome, with two models achieving 88.3% and 89.8% classification accuracies, respectively. Models incorporating a smaller performance indicator set displayed a slightly reduced ability to explain match outcome (81.0% and 81.5% for logistic regression and CHAID, respectively). However, both were fit to 2014 data with reduced error in comparison to the full models. Despite performance similarities across the two analysis approaches, the CHAID model revealed multiple winning performance indicator profiles, thereby increasing its comparative feasibility for use in the field. Coaches and analysts may find these results useful in informing strategy and game plan development in Australian Rules football, with the development of team-specific models recommended in future.

  14. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  15. Don't Read University Rankings like Reading Football League Tables: Taking a Close Look at the Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of university ranking is of much interest and concern to the many stakeholders, including university's sponsors, administrators, staff, current and prospective students, and the public. The results of rankings presented in the form of league tables, analogous to football league tables, attract more attention than do the processes by…

  16. Presentation and mechanisms of concussion in professional Rugby League Football.

    PubMed

    Hinton-Bayre, A D; Geffen, G; Friis, P

    2004-09-01

    The present study prospectively recorded the circumstances, incidence, mechanisms, injury detection and presentation of concussion in Rugby League. Forty-three consecutive concussions were recorded over three competitive seasons in 175 professional Rugby League players. Data showed (i) the incidence of concussion ranged from 5.9 to 9.8 injuries/1000 player hours across grades - except when age-group players were mismatched (18.4): (ii) 'head-high tackles' accounted for a significant number of concussions; (iii) concussion rarely involved a loss of consciousness with the most common indicators of concussion being amnesia, headache and unsteadiness, with the mechanism of injury often missed: and (iv) concussion often occurs concurrently with other injuries. Concussion (including repeated episodes) is a common injury in Rugby League. Systematic mental status questioning is warranted whenever concussion is suspected. Coaches, trainers and players need more education in the recognition and management of concussion. Stricter penalties for illegal 'head-high' tackling are strongly recommended.

  17. Profile of Position Movement Demands in Elite Junior Australian Rules Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Veale, James P.; Pearce, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the positional movement patterns in elite junior Australian Football (AF). Thirty players (17.1 ± 0.9 years) participating in this study were tracked over seven home games of the regular 2006 Victorian junior (Under 18) league season. Using lapsed-time video analysis, each position for an entire match was videotaped on three separate occasions over the course of the season. Data analysed included the number of individual efforts, duration and frequency of efforts; distance and percentage time for the classifications of standing, walking jogging, running and sprinting. Results showed that the midfield position travelled the greatest distance (4173 ± 238 m per quarter; p < 0.05; ES = .94) whilst the full forward/full back travelled the least (2605 ± 348 m per quarter, p < 0.05, ES = 1.21). For all positions, walking or jogging accounted for the greatest number of efforts (45-55%), conversely running and sprinting accounted for 5-13% of match efforts. The majority of efforts across all classifications were between 0-3.99 s. The data from this study provides further evidence that AF is an intermittent sport characterised by high intensity movements separated by low intensity movements at a ratio of one high intensity effort every 12-40 s. However, careful interpretation of the data is required when training junior AF players for specific positions, given the specific group studied. Key points Training for Australian Football should incorporate repeated sprint bouts rather than long continuous running that reflect the characteristics of the sport. Specialised positional training (involving distances and repetitions) can be prescribed to prepare junior athletes for specialist roles in senior level Australian Football. Differences between elite junior and senior Australian football provides further evidence to coaches that junior athletes should not be trained as adults. PMID:24149993

  18. Discriminating talent-identified junior Australian football players using a video decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P < 0.05) and the ROC curve was maximised with a score of 15.5/26 (60%) (AUC = 89.0%), correctly classifying 92% and 76% of the talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group. PMID:26019058

  19. Discriminating talent-identified junior Australian football players using a video decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P < 0.05) and the ROC curve was maximised with a score of 15.5/26 (60%) (AUC = 89.0%), correctly classifying 92% and 76% of the talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group.

  20. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  1. The Irish brawn drain: English League clubs and Irish footballers, 1946-1995.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P

    2000-09-01

    This paper draws on world systems and resource dependency theories to show how the changing recruitment practices of English League clubs have deepened the brawn drain from Irish football, thereby compounding its underdevelopment. An analysis of the origins, method of recruitment and destinations of Irish players (North and South) who appeared in the English League between 1946 and 1995 shows that English clubs imported large numbers of Irish players throughout the second half of the twentieth century. However, it was the inclusion of Irish teenagers within the youth policies of the largest clubs in the period after the 1970s that marked a break from the traditional pattern of buyer-supplier relations. Instead of continuing to purchase players who had established reputations within the Irish leagues, English clubs began to hire the most promising schoolboys before they joined Irish sides. As this practice spread, it eventually eliminated a valuable source of income: the selling of players to English clubs. Despite this development it would, however, be inappropriate to view the relationship between the Irish and English football industries as a simple zero sum game as Irish clubs benefit from employing highly trained young players who return home after failing to establish careers in England. PMID:11038130

  2. Normative neurocognitive data for National Football League players: an initial compendium.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

    2015-03-01

    The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research.

  3. Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: an initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    The use of neurocognitive testing in the assessment of professional athletes sustaining sports-related concussions has become widespread over the past decade. Baseline neurocognitive testing is now a requirement for athletes in the National Football League (NFL). We present preliminary normative data on a computer based neurocognitive test (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; ImPACT) for 159 NFL athletes. Also included are summary data on basic biopsychosocial characteristics, including medical, psychiatric, chemical dependency, concussion, learning disability/attention deficit disorder, and symptom variables, and the relevance of each to baseline neurocognitive test scores.

  4. Concussion in professional football: summary of the research conducted by the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2006-01-01

    PIn 1994 the National Football League (NFL) initiated a comprehensive clinical and biomechanical research study of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), a study that is ongoing. Data on mild TBIs sustained between 1996 and 2001 were collected and submitted by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers, and these data were analyzed by the NFL's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. At the same time, analysis of game videos was performed for on-field mild TBIs to quantify the biomechanics involved and to develop means to improve the understanding of these injuries so that manufacturers could systematically improve and update their head protective equipment. The findings and analysis of the Committee have been presented in a series of articles in Neurosurgery.

  5. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic. PMID:23940981

  6. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.

  7. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  8. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits. PMID:25137112

  9. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  10. Biomechanical characteristics of handballing maximally in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2014-11-01

    The handball pass is influential in Australian football, and achieving higher ball speeds in flight is an advantage in increasing distance and reducing the chance of interceptions. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive kinematic data and identify key technical aspects of maximal handball performance. Three-dimensional full body kinematic data from 19 professional Australian football players performing handball pass for maximal speed were collected, and the hand speed at ball contact was used to determine performance. Sixty-four kinematic parameters initially obtained were reduced to 15, and then grouped into like components through a two-stage supervised principal components analysis procedure. These components were then entered into a multiple regression analysis, which indicated that greater hand speed was associated with greater shoulder angular velocity and separation angle between the shoulders and pelvis at ball contact, as well as an earlier time of maximum upper-trunk rotation velocity. These data suggested that in order to increase the speed of the handball pass in Australian football, strategies like increased shoulder angular velocity, increased separation angle at ball contact, and earlier achievement of upper-trunk rotation speed might be beneficial.

  11. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: an English Premier Football League table of fans' singing tunefulness.

    PubMed

    Howard, David M

    2004-01-01

    Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table. PMID:15260183

  12. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321

  13. Physiological Responses of Elite Junior Australian Rules Footballers During Match-Play

    PubMed Central

    Veale, James P.; Pearce, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Australian Football (AF) is Australia’s major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs) participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL) Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR), Blood Lactate (BLa), Core Temperature (Tcore), and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007). Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001) with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001). This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches. Key points Specific conditioning sessions for junior athletes should include high intensity bouts; greater than 85% of heart rate maximum zone. Football anaerobic conditioning activities (e.g. sprint training) should be randomised throughout training sessions to replicate demands of the game (e.g. training in a fatigued state). Coaches and fitness

  14. The National Football League: cerebral concussion, peer-review, and the oath of Hippocrates: keynote address--NFL concussion summit, Chicago 2007.

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2008-01-01

    The following comments convey the assembled keynote points made at a summit called by Commissioner Roger Goodell involving all leading medical personnel in the National Football League, outside experts and players union representatives.

  15. Does community-level Australian football support injury prevention research?

    PubMed

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C F; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2003-06-01

    The progress of injury prevention research in Australian football to date has been slow despite its recognition as a public health goal. In particular, field-based studies to identify injury risk factors and evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies need to be undertaken to ensure safety gains in this sport. For these types of studies to be successful and complied with, considerable support is required from clubs, coaches and players. To date, the actual level of support for injury prevention research at the community-level of football has not been established. A survey of 82 club administrators and coaches from the Victorian Amateur Football Association was undertaken to determine the level of support for injury prevention research, along with incentives for, and barriers towards, participation in such research. The highest priorities for injury prevention research were given as the prevention of knee, hamstring and concussion injuries and investigation into the content of training programs. The most common incentives reported as being necessary for participation in injury prevention research were financial assistance (59.5%), more club staff (57.0%) and further education (36.7%). The most commonly reported barriers to research were the expertise (50.0%) and number of (48.8%) of club medical staff members. Overall community-level football club administrators and coaches rank the importance of injury prevention research highly. The findings of this study are positive for injury prevention researchers and suggest that clubs are keen to participate in such research.

  16. Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Caumo, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; La Torre, Antonio; Battaglini, Claudio L; Carandente, Franca

    2016-10-01

    Vitale, JA, Caumo, A, Roveda, E, Montaruli, A, La Torre, A, Battaglini, CL, and Carandente, F. Physical attributes and NFL Combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2802-2808, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine anthropometric measurements and the results of a battery of performance tests administered during the National Football League (NFL) Combine between American football players who were declared eligible to participate in the NFL Combine and football players of a top Italian team (Rhinos Milan). Participants (N = 50) were categorized by position into 1 of 3 groups based on playing position: skill players (SP) included wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs; big skill players (BSP) consisted of fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends; lineman (LM) included centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used for comparisons between Italian players by playing position. Ninety-five percent CIs were used for comparisons between American and Italian football for the NFL Combine performance tests. Significant differences for all the variables between the 3 playing categories were observed among the Italian players; LM had higher anthropometric and body composition values than SP (p < 0.001) and BSP (p < 0.001), whereas LM performed significantly worse in the physical tests, except for the 225-lb bench press test when compared with SP (p < 0.002). American football players presented significantly higher anthropometric values and test performance scores when compared with Italian players. Administrators of professional football teams in Italy need to improve the player's physical attributes, so the gap that currently exists between American and Italian players can be reduced, which could significantly improve the

  17. Circadian rhythms and enhanced athletic performance in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Smith, R S; Guilleminault, C; Efron, B

    1997-05-01

    Circadian rhythms produce daily changes in critical elements of athletic performance. We explored the significance of performing at different circadian times in the National Football League (NFL) over the last 25 seasons. West Coast (WC) NFL teams should have a circadian advantage over East Coast (EC) teams during Monday Night Football (MNF) games because WC teams are essentially playing closer to the proposed peak athletic performance time of day. Retrospective data analysis was applied to all games involving WC versus EC teams playing on MNF with start times of 9:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) from the 1970-1994 seasons. Logistic regression analysis of win-loss records relative to point spreads and home-field advantage was examined. West Coast teams win more often (p < 0.01) and by more points per game than EC teams. West Coast teams are performing significantly (p < 0.01) better than is predicted by the Las Vegas odds (the point spread). This apparent advantage enhances home-field advantage for WC teams and essentially eliminates the beneficial effects of home-field advantage for EC teams during MNF games. These results support the presence of an enhancement of athletic performance at certain circadian times of the day.

  18. The NFL combine: does it predict performance in the National Football League?

    PubMed

    Kuzmits, Frank E; Adams, Arthur J

    2008-11-01

    The authors investigate the correlation between National Football League (NFL) combine test results and NFL success for players drafted at three different offensive positions (quarterback, running back, and wide receiver) during a recent 6-year period, 1999-2004. The combine consists of series of drills, exercises, interviews, aptitude tests, and physical exams designed to assess the skills of promising college football players and to predict their performance in the NFL. Combine measures examined in this study include 10-, 20-, and 40-yard dashes, bench press, vertical jump, broad jump, 20- and 60-yard shuttles, three-cone drill, and the Wonderlic Personnel Test. Performance criteria include 10 variables: draft order; 3 years each of salary received and games played; and position-specific data. Using correlation analysis, we find no consistent statistical relationship between combine tests and professional football performance, with the notable exception of sprint tests for running backs. We put forth possible explanations for the general lack of statistical relations detected, and, consequently, we question the overall usefulness of the combine. We also offer suggestions for improving the prediction of success in the NFL, primarily the use of more rigorous psychological tests and the examination of collegiate performance as a job sample test. Finally, from a practical standpoint, the results of the study should encourage NFL team personnel to reevaluate the usefulness of the combine's physical tests and exercises as predictors of player performance. This study should encourage team personnel to consider the weighting and importance of various combine measures and the potential benefits of overhauling the combine process, with the goal of creating a more valid system for predicting player success.

  19. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, <$500,000; group B, ≤$500,000 to $2,000,000; and group C, >$2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million

  20. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, <$500,000; group B, ≤$500,000 to $2,000,000; and group C, >$2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million

  1. Characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Jodie L; Lloyd, David G; Buttfield, Alec; Seward, Hugh; McGivern, Jeanne

    2007-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most costly injuries in football at both professional and amateur levels (Orchard J, Seward H, McGivern J, Hood S. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med 2001;29:196-200.). In this study video analysis of 34 ACL injuries in Australian football was performed to investigate the causes of these injuries. Factors that may have contributed to the cause of the injury were analysed, rated and reported. The factors analysed were: type of manoeuvre, direction the knee 'gave way', running speed, knee angle, cutting angle and if the player was accelerating or decelerating. The majority of the injuries analysed occurred in non-contact situations (56%). Of these 37% occurred during sidestepping manoeuvres, 32% in landing, 16% land and step, 10% stopping/slowing and 5% crossover cut manoeuvres. Ninety-two percent of the non-contact injuries occurred at extended knee angles of 30 degrees or less, which is also commonly known to place stress on the ACL and reduce the protective role of hamstrings. Over half (54%) of non-contact injuries occurred whilst decelerating. It would be expected that greater speed and angle cut too would increase the frequency of ACL injury. The results could not confirm this with most injuries occurring at running speeds of slow jogging to running and equal number of injuries occurred at cutting to angles of the ranges 15-45 degrees and 45-75 degrees. These results give greater understanding into potential causes or contributors of ACL injury and information to assist in the development of knee injury prevention programs. PMID:16807104

  2. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. Results: NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Conclusion: Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This

  3. The University of the National Football League: How Technology, Injury Surveillance, and Health Care Have Improved the Safety of America's Game.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Görtz, Simon

    2016-07-01

    American football has become one of the most popular sports in the United States. Despite the millions of players at all levels of competition who gain the physical, social, and psychological rewards that football provides, many interested stakeholders continue to ask, "Is football safe?" Although there are only approximately 1,700 players on National Football League (NFL) rosters, the injuries they sustain have garnered the most attention-and criticism-from the national media. Increased public awareness of the injury potential football possesses has led to an open debate and a major shift in public sentiment over the past 5 years. Although no sport is perfectly safe, the question is whether it can be made relatively safe and if the long-term consequences are worth the risk. This article reviews the methods by which one sports league-the NFL-has used advances in medical technology and injury surveillance to improve the health and safety of its players.

  4. Influence of Extrinsic Risk Factors on National Football League Injury Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of injury associated with American football is significant, with recent reports indicating that football has one of the highest rates of all-cause injury, including concussion, of all major sports. There are limited studies examining risk factors for injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Purpose: To identify risk factors for NFL concussions and musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Injury report data were collected prospectively for each week over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons for all 32 teams. Poisson regression models were used to identify the relationship between predetermined variables and the risk of the 5 most frequent injuries (knee, ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and concussion). Results: A total of 480 games or 960 team games (TGs) from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons were included in this study. A trend to an increasing risk of concussion and TG ankle injury with decreasing mean game-day temperature was observed. The risk of TG concussion (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.16; 95% CI, 1.35-3.45; P = .001) and TG ankle injury (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98; P = .01) was significantly greater for TGs played at a mean game-day temperature of ≤9.7°C (≤49.5°F) compared with a mean game-day temperature of ≥21.0°C (≥69.8°F). The risk of TG shoulder injury was significantly increased for TGs played on grass surfaces (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81; P = .038) compared with synthetic surfaces. The risk of TG injury was not associated with time in season, altitude, time zone change prior to game, or distance traveled to a game. Conclusion: This study evaluated extrinsic risk factors for injury in the NFL. A hazardous association was identified for risk of concussion and ankle injury with colder game-day temperature. Further research should be conducted to substantiate this relationship and its potential implication for injury prevention initiatives. PMID

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Woods, Daniel P.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. Purpose: This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A comprehensive online search identified any NFL player who had suffered an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013. Position, playing surface, activity, and date were recorded. Each player was researched for any history of previous ACL injury. The NFL games database from USA Today was used to determine the incidence of ACL injuries on artificial turf and grass fields. Databases from Pro Football Focus and Pro Football Reference were used to determine the injury rate for each position. Results: NFL players suffered 219 ACL injuries between 2010 and 2013. Forty players (18.3%) had a history of previous ACL injury, with 27 (12.3%) retears and 16 (7.3%) tears contralateral to a previous ACL injury. Five players (2.28%) suffered their third ACL tear. Receivers (wide receivers and tight ends) and backs (linebackers, fullbacks, and halfbacks) had significantly greater injury risk than the rest of the NFL players, while perimeter linemen (defensive ends and offensive tackles) had significantly lower injury risk than the rest of the players. Interior linemen (offensive guards, centers, and defensive tackles) had significantly greater injury risk compared with perimeter linemen. ACL injury rates per team games played were 0.050 for grass and 0.053 for turf fields (P > .05). Conclusion: In this retrospective epidemiological study of ACL tears in NFL players, retears and ACL tears contralateral to a previously torn ACL constituted a substantial portion (18.3%) of total ACL injuries. The significant majority of ACL injuries in

  6. Effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme on lower limb neuromuscular control in Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G; Misson, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme and conventional football practice warm-up on lower limb neuromuscular control. The purpose-built active movement extent discrimination apparatus was used to assess lower limb neuromuscular control in 29 footballers from one professional Australian Football League club. Without vision of the contact point, participants performed 40 backward swing movement trials with each leg and made a judgment of the magnitude of each movement. Scores representing the ability to discriminate between different movement extents were calculated as the area under the player's receiver operating characteristic curve, constructed using non-parametric signal detection theory methods. Participants were randomized to either an intervention or control group that performed different procedures in the warm-up prior to football practice sessions over a 6-week period, and then were re-tested. The intervention group performed the HamSprint programme-drills specific to the improvement of running technique, co-ordination and hamstring function. The control group performed their usual warm-up of stretching, running, and increasingly intense football drills. Backward leg swing extent discrimination was significantly better in players following the 6-week HamSprint programme when compared to discrimination scores of players who performed their usual practice warm-up only. Significant improvement was observed in lower limb neuromuscular control in movements similar to the late-swing early stance phase of running. The HamSprint programme can therefore improve control in a specific aspect of sensorimotor system performance, and this may be useful particularly in athletes who have lower function levels or those deemed at risk of hamstring injury.

  7. U.S. National Football League Athletes Seeking Unproven Stem Cell Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kirstin R.W.; Cuchiara, Maude L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965

  8. U.S. National Football League athletes seeking unproven stem cell treatments.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-12-01

    From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically.

  9. U.S. National Football League athletes seeking unproven stem cell treatments.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-12-01

    From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965

  10. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates.

  11. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (<4 years AFL experience), 22 sub-elite senior, and 21 elite junior AF players were assessed for anthropometric profile (fat-free soft tissue mass [FFSTM], fat mass, and bone mineral content) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, upper-body strength (bench press and bench pull), and lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump with 20 kg). A 1-way analysis of variance assessed differences between the playing levels in these measures, whereas relationships between anthropometry and performance were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The elite senior and sub-elite senior players were older and heavier than the elite junior players (p ≤ 0.05). Both elite playing groups had greater total FFSTM than both the sub-elite and junior elite players; however, there were only appendicular FFSTM differences between the junior elite and elite senior players (p < 0.001). The elite senior playing groups were stronger and had greater CMJ performance than the lower level players. Both whole-body and regional FFSTM were correlated with bench press (r = 0.43-0.64), bench pull (r = 0.58-0.73), and jump squat performance measures (r = 0.33-0.55). Australian Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  12. Playing by the Rules: Researching, Teaching and Learning Sexual Ethics with Young Men in the Australian National Rugby League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…

  13. Pancreatic injuries in under-age Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Burton, Paul; Fenton, Edmond

    2007-04-01

    Blunt injury to the pancreas is rare in children. It has significant physiological effects and can result in death. The most common injury mechanism is a high-velocity motor vehicle accident. Bicycle accidents, non-accidental injuries and falls can also cause pancreatic injury.(1) Given the protected retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, it is not surprising that low-velocity injuries are an uncommon cause of pancreatic injury. Over a 12-month period we have observed three cases of blunt pancreatic injury, occurring during under-age Australian rules football (AFL) matches. These represented a spectrum of injuries from 'traumatic pancreatitis' to a devascularized distal pancreas requiring initial percutaneous drainage complicated by pseudocyst development requiring cyst gastrostomy. AFL is a free flowing game that combines certain attributes of soccer and rugby. There is an emphasis on physical contact and high-velocity interpersonal collisions are frequent.

  14. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  15. The National Football League (NFL) combine: does normalized data better predict performance in the NFL draft?

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive ability of National Football League (NFL) combine physical test data to predict draft order over the years 2005-2009. The NFL combine provides a setting in which NFL personnel can evaluate top draft prospects. The predictive ability of combine data in its raw form and when normalized in both a ratio and allometric manner was examined for 17 positions. Data from 8 combine physical performance tests were correlated with draft order to determine the direction and strength of relationship between the various combine measures and draft order. Players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,155) were included in the study. The primary finding was that performance in the combine physical test battery, whether normalized or not, has little association with draft success. In terms of predicting draft order from outcomes of the 8 tests making up the combine battery, normalized data provided no advantage over raw data. Of the 8 performance measures investigated, straight sprint time and jumping ability seem to hold the most weight with NFL personnel responsible for draft decisions. The NFL should consider revising the combine test battery to reflect the physical characteristics it deems important. It may be that NFL teams are more interested in attributes other than the purely physical traits reflected in the combine test battery. Players with aspirations of entering the NFL may be well advised to develop mental and technical skills in addition to developing the physical characteristics necessary to optimize performance.

  16. Positional physical characteristics of players drafted into the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the positional physical requirements necessary to be drafted into the National Football League (NFL), data from the annual NFL combine over the years 2005-2009 were examined. Only those players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,136) were included in the study. Data from 8 combine physical performance tests were examined for 15 positions. Combine measures evaluated for the center, cornerback, defensive end, defensive tackle, free safety, fullback, inside linebacker, offensive guard, offensive tackle, outside linebacker, quarterback, running back, strong safety, tight end, and wide receiver positions were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, the vertical and broad jumps, the 18.3-m shuttle run, the 3-cone drill, and the 102.1-kg bench press for maximum repetitions and, from this, a predicted measure of 1 repetition maximum. A 1-way analysis of variance detected differences in all 9 performance measures (p < 0.01). Post hoc independent t-tests indicated that over most tests many positions exhibited outcomes significantly different from most other positions. Generally, lineman positions performed inferiorly in sprint, jump and change-of-direction ability measures and superiorly in the upper body strength measures. Conversely, defensive back positions were the worst performers in the upper body strength test, and wide receivers and defensive backs were the best performers in all other measures. In general, offensive and defensive positions that commonly compete directly against one another display similar physical characteristics. Any advantages (statistically significant and not) between positions in direct competition were consistently in favor of defensive positions. The results of the present research present position-specific profiles for each of 15 positions. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to better prepare athletes for entry into the NFL.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League Players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alice Y.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Cannaday, John; Zhang, Song; Patel, Amit; Palmer, M. Dean; Reddy, Gautham P.; Ordovas, Karen G.; Stillman, Arthur E; Janowitz, Warren; Radford, Nina B.; Roberts, Arthur J.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity exists among National Football League (NFL) players as determined by body mass index (BMI). It is not established whether elevated BMI is associated with a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or coronary atherosclerosis in former NFL players as in non-athletes. This study compared cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis among retired NFL players and two groups of community controls, the population-based Dallas Heart Study and the preventive medicine cohort, the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Retired NFL players (n=201) were matched for ethnicity, age and BMI (Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, age only). CV risk factors were assessed by survey and screening visit. Coronary atherosclerosis was measured by computed tomography as coronary artery calcium (CAC). Compared to population-based controls, retired NFL players had a significantly lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome, yet a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and hyperlipidemia. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (46 v 48.3%, p=0.69) or distribution of CAC (0-10, 10-100, 100-400, 400+, p=0.11). Comparing retired NFL players to the physically active preventive medicine controls, there was no difference in the amount of CAC. Among retired NFL players, age and hyperlipidemia, not body size, were the most significant predictors of CAC. In conclusion, despite their large body size, retired NFL players do not have a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or amount of CAC than community controls. PMID:19733715

  18. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  19. Style of Play and Rate of Concussions in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Masaru; Petron, David J.; Cross, Chad L.; Willick, Stuart E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of studies on concussion in the National Football League (NFL) focus on testing, evaluation, and outcomes. Meanwhile, there is a paucity of research on how a team’s style of play influences the risk of concussion. Hypothesis: Style of play, such as offensive and defensive strategies, is associated with the rate of concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The current study retrospectively analyzed data from the 2012 to 2014 NFL regular seasons. Reported numbers of concussions were stratified by each team and each position and were compared based on style of play, including offensive scheme (West Coast offense, Air Coryell offense, or other offensive schemes) and defensive alignment (3-4 or 4-3), attempts statistics, per-drive statistics, and offensive and defensive productions, along with strength of schedule (SoS) and team quality measured by simple rating system (SRS). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. Results: There were 437 documented concussions during the 2012 to 2014 NFL regular seasons, with a mean 4.6 concussions per season per team. In general, players most involved in pass plays reported more concussions. The number of concussions sustained by offensive players was significantly higher among the teams adopting the West Coast offense (mean, 3.0) than among those utilizing the Air Coryell offense (mean, 1.6; P = .006) or those with non–West Coast offenses combined (mean, 1.9; P = .004). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the West Coast offense or not, SoS, and SRS explained 25.3% of the variance in the number of concussions by offensive players. After accounting for SRS, the West Coast offense was found to be a significant predictor of the number of concussions (P = .007), while there was a tendency for SoS to be inversely associated with the number of concussions (P = .105). None of the

  20. A BALANCED TEAM WINS CHAMPIONSHIPS: 66 YEARS OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION AND THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE.

    PubMed

    Otten, Mark P; Miller, Travis J

    2015-12-01

    Explicitly monitoring one's own actions has been noted as detrimental to the performance of fine motor skills under duress. Offensive skills rather than defensive skills are typically studied in this context. Defensive techniques typically require skills such as footwork and continuous movement, as opposed to more precise, hand-eye coordinated action. Explicit monitoring theory may be less relevant for defensive skills than offensive skills when playing under pressure. Archival data (66 years) for teams and for individual players was compiled from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Football League (NFL). For basketball (n=778) and football (n=515) teams, regular season offensive and defensive statistics similarly predicted success in the postseason, which was assumed to create more pressure. For individual basketball players (n=5,132), nine indices of offensive (FG, free throw and three-point shooting, offensive win shares, points, and assists) and defensive (defensive win shares, steals, and blocks) production were compared; among these, three-point shooting percentage was least correlated from season to postseason, suggesting it is especially variable under pressure. A balanced basketball or football team that focuses on both offense and defense may be most successful.

  1. A BALANCED TEAM WINS CHAMPIONSHIPS: 66 YEARS OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION AND THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE.

    PubMed

    Otten, Mark P; Miller, Travis J

    2015-12-01

    Explicitly monitoring one's own actions has been noted as detrimental to the performance of fine motor skills under duress. Offensive skills rather than defensive skills are typically studied in this context. Defensive techniques typically require skills such as footwork and continuous movement, as opposed to more precise, hand-eye coordinated action. Explicit monitoring theory may be less relevant for defensive skills than offensive skills when playing under pressure. Archival data (66 years) for teams and for individual players was compiled from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Football League (NFL). For basketball (n=778) and football (n=515) teams, regular season offensive and defensive statistics similarly predicted success in the postseason, which was assumed to create more pressure. For individual basketball players (n=5,132), nine indices of offensive (FG, free throw and three-point shooting, offensive win shares, points, and assists) and defensive (defensive win shares, steals, and blocks) production were compared; among these, three-point shooting percentage was least correlated from season to postseason, suggesting it is especially variable under pressure. A balanced basketball or football team that focuses on both offense and defense may be most successful. PMID:26595202

  2. Project NFFL: The Niagara Fantasy Football League and Sport Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dexter J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…

  3. Muscle Imbalance Among Elite Australian Rules Football Players: A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Trunk Muscle Size

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie; Stanton, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Context: Trunk muscles, such as the transversus abdominis (TrA) and multifidus, play a key role in lumbopelvic stability, which is important in athletic performance. Asymmetry or imbalance in these and other trunk muscles could result from the specific requirements of the game of Australian rules football. Objective: To determine whether seasonal variations in the sizes of key trunk muscles associated with lumbopelvic stability occur in Australian Football League players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Hospital. Patients or Other Participants: The number of players eligible to participate at each of the 4 time points was 36 at the start of preseason 1 (T1), 31 at end of season 1 (T2), 43 at the end of preseason 2 (T3), and 41 at the start of preseason 3 (T4). The group with data at all 4 time points (n  =  20) was used in the analyses and was shown to be representative of the total sample. Intervention(s): Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus (vertebral levels L2 to L5) and lumbar erector spinae (LES) muscles (L3), as well as the thickness of the TrA and internal oblique (IO) muscles at L3. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cross-sectional areas of the multifidus and LES muscles and thickness of the TrA and IO muscles. Results: By the end of the playing season, results showed 11.1% atrophy for multifidus CSA at L3 and 21% atrophy for TrA thickness at rest. In comparison, the CSA of the LES muscles increased by 3.6%, and the thickness of the IO muscle increased by 11.8% compared with the start of the preseason. Conclusions: The results indicated an imbalance of the key muscles associated with lumbopelvic stability. PMID:22892413

  4. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed.

  5. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. PMID:26595758

  6. Predictive Value of National Football League Scouting Combine on Future Performance of Running Backs and Wide Receivers.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Willick, Stuart E

    2016-05-01

    The National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine is held each year before the NFL Draft to measure athletic abilities and football skills of college football players. Although the NFL Scouting Combine can provide the NFL teams with an opportunity to evaluate college players for the upcoming NFL Draft, its value for predicting future success of players has been questioned. This study examined whether the NFL Combine measures can predict future performance of running backs (RBs) and wide receivers (WRs) in the NFL. We analyzed the 2000-09 Combine data of RBs (N = 276) and WRs (N = 447) and their on-field performance for the first 3 years after the draft and over their entire careers in the NFL, using correlation and regression analyses, along with a principal component analysis (PCA). The results of the analyses showed that, after accounting for the number of games played, draft position, height (HT), and weight (WT), the time on 10-yard dash was the most important predictor of rushing yards per attempt of the first 3 years (p = 0.002) and of the careers (p < 0.001) in RBs. For WRs, vertical jump was found to be significantly associated with receiving yards per reception of the first 3 years (p = 0.001) and of the careers (p = 0.004) in the NFL, after adjusting for the covariates above. Furthermore, HT was most important in predicting future performance of WRs. The analyses also revealed that the 8 athletic drills in the Combine seemed to have construct validity. It seems that the NFL Scouting Combine has some value for predicting future performance of RBs and WRs in the NFL. PMID:27100168

  7. Predictive Value of National Football League Scouting Combine on Future Performance of Running Backs and Wide Receivers.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Willick, Stuart E

    2016-05-01

    The National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine is held each year before the NFL Draft to measure athletic abilities and football skills of college football players. Although the NFL Scouting Combine can provide the NFL teams with an opportunity to evaluate college players for the upcoming NFL Draft, its value for predicting future success of players has been questioned. This study examined whether the NFL Combine measures can predict future performance of running backs (RBs) and wide receivers (WRs) in the NFL. We analyzed the 2000-09 Combine data of RBs (N = 276) and WRs (N = 447) and their on-field performance for the first 3 years after the draft and over their entire careers in the NFL, using correlation and regression analyses, along with a principal component analysis (PCA). The results of the analyses showed that, after accounting for the number of games played, draft position, height (HT), and weight (WT), the time on 10-yard dash was the most important predictor of rushing yards per attempt of the first 3 years (p = 0.002) and of the careers (p < 0.001) in RBs. For WRs, vertical jump was found to be significantly associated with receiving yards per reception of the first 3 years (p = 0.001) and of the careers (p = 0.004) in the NFL, after adjusting for the covariates above. Furthermore, HT was most important in predicting future performance of WRs. The analyses also revealed that the 8 athletic drills in the Combine seemed to have construct validity. It seems that the NFL Scouting Combine has some value for predicting future performance of RBs and WRs in the NFL.

  8. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  9. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  10. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  11. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results. PMID:27328273

  12. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  13. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  14. Movement analysis of Australian national league soccer players using global positioning system technology.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, George M; Hartwig, Timothy B; Duncan, Craig S

    2014-03-01

    Player activity profiles of match play provide valuable information for optimal athlete training prescriptions, competition strategies, and managing load and recovery and are currently lacking in elite Australian-league (A-League) soccer. The aims of the study were, therefore, to (a) determine match activity profiles for elite A-League soccer players and make match-half and positional comparisons and (b) examine the effect of situational factors including evolving match status (drawing, winning, or losing) and goals being scored and conceded on selected match activity profile variables. Global positioning system tracking devices were used to determine activity profiles of 19 elite male adult soccer players during 8 preseason matches (n = 95 files). Total distance, average speed, high-intensity running (HIR) distance, and very high-intensity running distance decreased from the first to the second half by 7.92, 9.47, 10.10, and 10.99%, respectively. Midfielders covered 11.69% more total distance, 28.08% more HIR distance, and had a 10.93% higher average speed than defenders (p ≤ 0.05; d = 1.90, 1.03, and 1.83, respectively). Attackers performed 27.50 and 30.24% less medium accelerations than defenders and midfielders, respectively (p < 0.01; d = 1.54, and 1.73). When the team was winning, average speed was 4.17% lower than when the team was drawing (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.32). Scoring or conceding goals did not appear to affect HIR. This study adds to limited knowledge of match demands in elite A-League soccer. The match activity profiles provide descriptive benchmarks that could be used to make comparisons with other elite level soccer populations while also providing a framework for game-specific training prescription, competition strategy, and load management. The generalization that defenders experience a relatively lower match load may be questionable given their relatively high acceleration and deceleration demands.

  15. Health improvement for men and hard-to-engage-men delivered in English Premier League football clubs.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Robertson, Steven; Daly-Smith, Andy; White, Alan

    2014-06-01

    Unhealthy behaviours represent modifiable causes of non-communicable disease. In men, concern focuses on those (i) demonstrating the poorest health, exacerbated by a lack of awareness of the risks that their lifestyles pose and (ii) who neither consult their doctor nor use health services. Classed as 'hard-to-engage', distinctive strategies are needed to reach these men. Impact and process evaluations assessed the effect of a programme of men's health-delivered in/by English Premier League football clubs. Men attended match-day events and/or weekly classes involving physical activity and health education. Validated self-report measures for demographics and lifestyle behaviours were completed pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed on pre-versus-post-intervention differences in lifestyle profiles, whereas interviews (n = 57) provided men's accounts of programme experience. Participants were predominantly white British (70.4%/n = 2669), 18-44 (80.2%/n = 3032) and employed (60.7%/n = 1907). One-third (n = 860) 'never' visited their doctor. Over 85% (n = 1428) presented with combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Intention-to-treat analysis showed improvements (P < 0.001) in lifestyle profiles. Interviews confirmed recruitment of men who were hard-to-engage and unhealthy. Men were attracted through football and/or the clubs, whereas specific design factors impacted on participation. Limitations include use of self-reports, narrow demographics, small effect sizes, lack of follow-up and the absence of non-completers in interviews.

  16. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  17. An analysis of home advantage in the top two Spanish professional football leagues.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pedro A; García-Calvo, Tomás; Leo, Francisco M; Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the effect of the points system on home advantage in the two top Spanish professional football divisions between the 1980-1981 and 2006-2007 seasons. From 1980-81, teams were awarded 2 points for a win. This was increased to 3 points starting in 1995-1996. Lower home advantage was expected with the 3-point system as a consequence of encouraging more attacking play from away teams. The results of an analysis of 20,992 games showed no significant differences in home advantage values between the First Division (66.3% before and 62.1% after the 3-point system) and the Second Division (65.6% before and 59.5% after). Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease in home advantage in both the First and Second Divisions after the introduction of the 3-point system. The results were compared with two similar studies of professional football in England.

  18. Family fun or cultural free-for-all? A critique of the 2015 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kernan, William D; Reeves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to enumerate and describe violent and risky behaviors as well as other general health behaviors exhibited in the advertisements during the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl 2015. Methods: Commercials during the NFL Super Bowl 2015 were assessed for violent and risky behaviors. Additional health behaviors were indicated such as the advertisement of unhealthy food, promotion of physical activity, and sexual content. Results: A total of 110 commercials were documented, accounting for 64 minutes of broadcast time. Commercials promoting automobiles, television shows, food, and movies were the most prevalent, representing just over half (53.7%) of all of the advertisements featured. Depictions of unsafe driving were found in 10.9% (n = 12) of the commercials. All 12 commercials contained some sort of risky or wild driving behavior, and speeding was observed in 11 of the 12 commercials. A total of 32 (29.1%) of the commercials were coded as including violent content.Physical activity behavior was present in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials. Conversely, substance use was observed in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials, none of which included health promotion messaging. Of the 110 commercials aired during the 2015 Super Bowl, 12.7% (n = 14) included sexual content. Conclusion: Parents should consider the possibility that their children may observe acts of violence or conflicting safety messages during commercial breaks. PMID:27123435

  19. The National Football League Combine: performance differences between drafted and nondrafted players entering the 2004 and 2005 drafts.

    PubMed

    Sierer, S Patrick; Battaglini, Claudio L; Mihalik, Jason P; Shields, Edgar W; Tomasini, Nathan T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences between drafted and nondrafted athletes (N = 321) during the 2004 and 2005 National Football League (NFL) Combines. We categorized players into one of 3 groups: Skill, Big skill, and Linemen. Skill players (SP) consisted of wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs. Big skill players (BSP) included fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends. Linemen (LM) consisted of centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. We analyzed player height and mass, as well as performance on the following combine drills: 40-yard dash, 225-lb bench press test, vertical jump, broad jump, pro-agility shuttle, and the 3-cone drill. Student t-tests compared performance on each of these measures between drafted and nondrafted players. Statistical significance was found between drafted and nondrafted SP for the 40-yard dash (P < 0.001), vertical jump (P = 0.003), pro-agility shuttle (P < 0.001), and 3-cone drill (P < 0.001). Drafted and nondrafted BSP performed differently on the 40-yard dash (P = 0.002) and 3-cone drill (P = 0.005). Finally, drafted LM performed significantly better than nondrafted LM on the 40-yard dash (P = 0.016), 225-lb bench press (P = 0.003), and 3-cone drill (P = 0.005). Certified strength and conditioning specialists will be able to utilize the significant findings to help better prepare athletes as they ready themselves for the NFL Combine.

  20. Understanding the coach's role in the development of mental toughness: perspectives of elite Australian football coaches.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gordon, Sandy; Dimmock, James A; Mallett, Clifford J

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore elite coaches' perceptions of how they can both facilitate and impede the development of key mental toughness characteristics in the context of Australian football. Eleven coaches from a previous study (Gucciardi, Gordon, & Dimmock, 2008) were re-interviewed and the transcribed verbatim data were analysed using grounded theory data analytical procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Five categories that appear to be central to the coach's role in the development of mental toughness in Australian football emerged. Four of these categories (coach-athlete relationship, coaching philosophy, training environments, and specific strategies) were said to facilitate the developmental process, whereas the final category (negative experiences and influences) was said to impede this process. A grounded theory in which the aforementioned categories enable coaches to nurture a "generalized form" of mental toughness acquired during one's formative years into a "sport-specific form" pertinent to Australian football is presented. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Groin pain associated with ultrasound finding of inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency in Australian Rules footballers

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, J. W.; Read, J. W.; Neophyton, J.; Garlick, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency (sports hernia) in professional Australian Rules footballers using an ultrasound technique and correlate the results with the clinical symptom of groin pain. METHODS: Thirty five professional Australian footballers with and without groin pain were investigated blind with a dynamic high resolution ultrasound technique for presence of posterior wall deficiency. RESULTS: Fourteen players had a history of significant recent groin pain and ten of these were found to have bilateral inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency (p < 0.01). The relative risk for a history of groin pain with bilateral deficiency was 8.0 (95% confidence interval 1.73 to 37.1). Groin pain was also found to be associated with increasing age (p < 0.01) which was an independent risk factor. Surgical, clinical, and ultrasound follow up for players who underwent hernia repair confirmed the validity of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic ultrasound examination is able to detect inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency in young males with no clinical signs of hernia. This condition is very prevalent in professional Australian Rules footballers, including some who are asymptomatic. There was a correlation between bilateral deficiency and groin pain, although the temporal relationship between the clinical and ultrasound findings is not established by the current study. Ultrasound shows promise as a diagnostic tool in athletes with chronic groin pain who are considered possible candidates for hernia repair. 


 PMID:9631220

  2. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  3. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F.

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  4. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report.

    PubMed

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  5. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S

    2010-05-01

    The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group.

  6. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S

    2010-05-01

    The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group. PMID:19451033

  7. Sudden cardiac death while playing Australian Rules football: a retrospective 14 year review.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sarah; Lynch, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Australian Rules football is a sport which evolved from Gaelic football and which is played by a large number of predominantly male participants in a number of countries. The highest participation rates are in the southern states of Australia. A retrospective review over a period of 14 years identified 14 cases of sudden cardiac death that occurred in individuals while playing the sport. All were male and ranged in age from 13 to 36 years with a mean and median age of 23 years. A spectrum of cardiac causes was identified including coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocarditis, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and healed Kawasaki disease. In 5 cases the heart was morphologically normal raising the possibility of a channelopathy. No traumatic deaths were identified. Some of the individuals had experienced symptoms prior to the fatal episode and the role of pre participation screening in reducing mortality is discussed.

  8. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne T; Pollard, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:15967047

  9. The accuracy of MRI in predicting recovery and recurrence of acute grade one hamstring muscle strains within the same season in Australian Rules football players.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, N J; Cross, T M; Cameron, M; Houang, M T

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use MRI to classify acute grade one hamstring muscle strains in Australian Rules footballers to determine if it was accurate in predicting the recovery time for each injury and also able to predict those that would recur within the same season. A prospective study was performed over five years at a professional Australian Football League club. Thirty-one acute grade one hamstring injuries underwent MRI examination within 24-72 hours following the injury. Each injury underwent the same rehabilitation programme. The rehabilitation interval (RI) was the time in days for the player to resume full team training. Fourteen (45%) of the injuries were normal on MRI. Seventeen (55%) were abnormal with a hyperintense T2 lesion on the axial fat suppressed views. The MRI negative group had a significantly faster RI (6.6 days) compared with the MRI positive group (20.2 days). Both the length and cross sectional area (CSA) of the MRI positive lesions were measured. The length of the lesion had a stronger correlation coefficient with the RI (0.84) than did the CSA (0.76). Six of the 17 MRI positive strains recurred with no correlation found between the lesion's length or CSA, or the RI. None of the 14 MRI negative injuries recurred. The study confirms that MRI can aid in the investigation of acute grade one hamstring muscle strains in predicting recovery time. However the size of the initial strain or the RI do not seem to be reliable indicators in predicting those strains that might recur.

  10. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  11. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  12. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  13. Late maturers at a performance disadvantage to their more mature peers in junior Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents mature at different rates such that individuals competing in the same competition may differ in physical and biological maturity despite being of similar chronological age. Whether or not differences translate into on-field performance in competition is relatively unknown. This study investigated the influence of biological maturity on fitness and match running performance in junior Australian football. Eighty-seven under-15 years players were categorised into early (n = 20), average (n = 45) and late (n = 22) maturity groups based on self-reported and anthropometric assessment of biological maturity. Running movements during competition were collected using GPS (5 Hz) technology. Early maturers were heavier and taller than all other boys (P < 0.05), while biological maturity was significantly correlated to 20 m sprint (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). Total distance, high-intensity (>14.4 km · h(-1)) running distance and number of high-intensity efforts were significantly greater (20.8%, 53.6%, 31.7%, respectively; P < 0.01) in early compared to late maturers. Number of sprints and peak speed in competition were not different. Pubertal development and maturity status partially explained the differences between players in physical size, functional running fitness and match running performance. Late maturing players in this Australian football under-15 age group were at a physical and performance disadvantage to their earlier maturing peers.

  14. Individualized multi-modal management of osteitis pubis in an Australian Rules footballer

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe and discuss the successful management of osteitis pubis in a semi-elite Australian Rules football player through the utilization of an individualized multi-modal treatment approach provided by a chiropractor. Clinical Features A 20-year-old male semi-elite Australian Rules football player presented to a chiropractic clinic with groin pain of eight months duration. A clinical diagnosis of osteitis pubis was made through synthesis of the patient history and physical examination. Intervention and Outcome Treatment consisted of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulative therapy, mechanically assisted adjusting techniques utilizing a hand-held mechanical thrusting instrument and drop piece table, myofascial release and active release soft tissue techniques, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, and an individually designed rehabilitation program. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred over four weeks. No recurrence of injury was reported over a six-month period. Conclusions This case suggests that the implementation of an individualized multi-modal management approach directed specifically toward an athlete's deficiencies and requirements, may lead to a more rapid recovery from osteitis pubis. PMID:22014865

  15. The effects of physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Kasey; Larkin, Paul; O'Connor, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making is a key component of an umpire's in-game performance, with each decision potentially having a direct impact on the result of the game. Additionally, umpires have to be physically fit to ensure they keep up with the gameplay. While research has identified the decision-making demands and running demands of umpires separately, few have explored the relationship between them. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance of Australian football umpires at the sub-elite and junior levels. A total of 18 Australian football umpires (sub-elite, n = 10; junior n = 8) performed 10 × 300 m runs, with each repetition immediately followed by a video-based decision-making test, then 1 min of recovery. A Mann-Whitney U assessment indicated a significant difference between the sub-elite and junior level umpires for decision-making accuracy (U = 13.00, z = -2.43, P = 0.016, r = -0.5). However, there was no significant difference in response time (U = 28.00, z = -1.07, P = 0.315, r = -0.25). The sub-elite umpires completed the running efforts in significantly less time than the junior umpires (P < 0.05). Further, there was no significant correlation between decision-making performance and running times for either skill level (P > 0.05). This suggests decision-making performance may not be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, it may be suggested coaches of football umpires allocate more time to the decision-making development of their umpires instead of focusing largely on the physical fitness side, as is currently the trend.

  16. The effects of physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Kasey; Larkin, Paul; O'Connor, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making is a key component of an umpire's in-game performance, with each decision potentially having a direct impact on the result of the game. Additionally, umpires have to be physically fit to ensure they keep up with the gameplay. While research has identified the decision-making demands and running demands of umpires separately, few have explored the relationship between them. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance of Australian football umpires at the sub-elite and junior levels. A total of 18 Australian football umpires (sub-elite, n = 10; junior n = 8) performed 10 × 300 m runs, with each repetition immediately followed by a video-based decision-making test, then 1 min of recovery. A Mann-Whitney U assessment indicated a significant difference between the sub-elite and junior level umpires for decision-making accuracy (U = 13.00, z = -2.43, P = 0.016, r = -0.5). However, there was no significant difference in response time (U = 28.00, z = -1.07, P = 0.315, r = -0.25). The sub-elite umpires completed the running efforts in significantly less time than the junior umpires (P < 0.05). Further, there was no significant correlation between decision-making performance and running times for either skill level (P > 0.05). This suggests decision-making performance may not be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, it may be suggested coaches of football umpires allocate more time to the decision-making development of their umpires instead of focusing largely on the physical fitness side, as is currently the trend. PMID:26654891

  17. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key Points Strength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes. An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength. Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance. PMID:24570620

  18. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jason; Hooke, Chloe; Orchard, John; Parkinson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches. PMID:26464875

  19. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jason; Hooke, Chloe; Orchard, John; Parkinson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches. PMID:26464875

  20. Injuries, Matches Missed and the Influence of Minimum Medical Standards in the A-League Professional Football: A 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hughes Schwab, Brendan A.; Vivian, Adam; M. M. J. Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological data on the occurrence of time-loss injuries over several A-League seasons remains lacking, while the effect of the mandatory implementation of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’ as a part of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) needs to be explored. Objectives: To explore the 5 year evolution of hamstring, groin, knee, ankle and total time-loss injuries among professional footballers in the A-League; to evaluate the consequences of these time-loss injuries in terms of total matches missed and costs incurred; and to explore whether the mandatory implementation of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’ in the A-League had led to a decrease in the occurrence of total time-loss injuries and total matches missed. Patients and Methods: An observational prospective study has been carried out since 2008. Data were collected weekly during the seasons 2008 - 2009 to 2012 - 2013 through official match previews/reviews, official media releases, official websites and/or self-reports by players. Total and specific (hamstring, groin, knee and ankle) numbers of time-loss injuries and matches missed were obtained for each season and the related financial costs calculated. Results: The total number of time-loss injuries and matches missed rose from 129 and 506 respectively in 2008 - 2009 to 202 and 1110 in 2010 - 2011. Following the introduction of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’, both categories decreased (significantly for matches missed). These time-loss injuries and matches missed led to high costs of up to AUD$ 37,317,029.29 (2012 - 2013 season). The same trend was found for knee injuries, while hamstring and ankle injuries remained almost the same. However, time-loss due to groin injuries increased despite the introduction of “Minimum Medical Standards”. Conclusions: The introduction of “Minimum Medical Standards” in the A-League had a favorable effect on the number of total, hamstring, knee and ankle injuries and on the number of matches missed

  1. Hip adductor muscle strength is reduced preceding and during the onset of groin pain in elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Crow, Justin F; Pearce, Alan J; Veale, James P; VanderWesthuizen, Dan; Coburn, Paul T; Pizzari, Tania

    2010-03-01

    Groin pain is a condition with a high prevalence in young Australian football players. It is considered that early identification of this condition allows for optimal management. Eighty-six players from two elite under-age Australian football sides were screened weekly for hip adductor muscle strength, using a hand-held dynamometer and for the onset of groin pain. The maximum variation in the average hip adductor muscle strength values of the sample was a 2.6% decrease from baseline in week 7 of the study. Twelve players (14% of the sample studied) reported groin pain for two consecutive weeks and were considered to have an onset of groin injury. The mean hip adductor muscle strength of these players was decreased significantly from baseline by an average of 11.75+/-2.50% at the week of pain onset (F=264.76 (1,11), p<0.001), and 5.82+/-5.16% in the week preceding the onset of pain (F=14.03 (1,10), p=0.004). These results confirm that hip adductor muscle strength is decreased both preceding and during the onset of groin injury in elite under-age Australian footballers. PMID:19546030

  2. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Carl T.; Banyard, Harry G.; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p < 0.05), with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  3. The application of a multi-dimensional assessment approach to talent identification in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane; Robertson, Sam

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated whether a multi-dimensional assessment could assist with talent identification in junior Australian football (AF). Participants were recruited from an elite under 18 (U18) AF competition and classified into two groups; talent identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.6 ± 0.4 y) and non-talent identified (non-State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.4 ± 0.5 y). Both groups completed a multi-dimensional assessment, which consisted of physical (standing height, dynamic vertical jump height and 20 m multistage fitness test), technical (kicking and handballing tests) and perceptual-cognitive (video decision-making task) performance outcome tests. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of status on the test criterions, whilst a receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the discrimination provided from the full assessment. The talent identified players outperformed their non-talent identified peers in each test (P < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve reflected near perfect discrimination (AUC = 95.4%), correctly classifying 95% and 86% of the talent identified and non-talent identified participants, respectively. When compared to single assessment approaches, this multi-dimensional assessment reflects a more comprehensive means of talent identification in AF. This study further highlights the importance of assessing multi-dimensional performance qualities when identifying talented team sports. PMID:26862858

  4. Relationship between physical capacity and match performance in semiprofessional Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Ben G; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between physical performance and match performance in Australian Rules Football (ARF). Thirty-six semiprofessional ARF players participated in this study. Physical capacity was measured using a 3-km time trial. Match performance was measured throughout the 2013 season through 2 methods: direct game involvements (DGIs) per minute and a recording of coaches' vote after the game. The main finding of the study was that 3-km time trial performance was a significant predictor of DGI per minute (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the number of senior games played was also significant in predicting DGI per minute (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the number of senior games significantly correlated with coaches' votes (p ≤ 0.05). There were no significant relationships between 3-km time trial and coaches' vote. The results highlight the importance of developing physical capacity in the preseason period; the players who were better performers in the 3-km time trial had a greater number of DGIs per minute. This information is important to consider in preseason planning to ensure sufficient time is dedicated to developing physical capacity in the training program, as it is directly associated with performance. In addition, this research also highlights the importance of playing experience in relation to team selection. Playing experience, as measured by the number of senior games played, had a significant relationship with both measures of match performance.

  5. Tackle and impact detection in elite Australian football using wearable microsensor technology.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P < 0.01). The tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms.

  6. Kinematics of preferred and non-preferred handballing in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    In Australian football (AF), handballing proficiently with both the preferred and non-preferred arm is important at elite levels; yet, little information is available for handballing on the non-preferred arm. This study compared preferred and non-preferred arm handballing techniques. Optotrak Certus (100 Hz) collected three-dimensional data for 19 elite AF players performing handballs with the preferred and non-preferred arms. Position data, range of motion (ROM), and linear and angular velocities were collected and compared between preferred and non-preferred arms using dependent t-tests. The preferred arm exhibited significantly greater forearm and humerus ROM and angular velocity and significantly greater shoulder angular velocity at ball contact compared to the non-preferred arm. In addition, the preferred arm produced a significantly greater range of lateral bend and maximum lower-trunk speed, maximum strike-side hip speed and hand speed at ball contact than the non-preferred arm. The non-preferred arm exhibited a significantly greater shoulder angle and lower- and upper-trunk orientation angle, but significantly lower support-elbow angle, trunk ROM, and trunk rotation velocity compared to the preferred arm. Reduced ROM and angular velocities found in non-preferred arm handballs indicates a reduction in the degrees of freedom and a less developed skill. Findings have implication for development of handballing on the non-preferred arm. PMID:24863906

  7. Tackle and impact detection in elite Australian football using wearable microsensor technology.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P < 0.01). The tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms. PMID:24499311

  8. Australian rural football club leaders as mental health advocates: an investigation of the impact of the Coach the Coach project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. Method Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Results Club leaders (n = 36) who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275) who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Conclusions Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many coaches, benefit from MHFA

  9. A pilot randomised controlled trial of eccentric exercise to prevent hamstring injuries in community-level Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Gabbe, B J; Branson, R; Bennell, K L

    2006-05-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common injury sustained by Australian Football players. Eccentric training has been proposed as a potential preventative strategy. This pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of a pre-season eccentric training program for preventing hamstring injuries at the community level of Australian Football. Seven amateur clubs (n=220 players) were recruited. Players were randomised within clubs to the intervention (eccentric exercise) or control (stretching) groups and randomisation was stratified according to previous history of hamstring injury. Five exercise sessions were completed over a 12-week period, three during the pre-season and two during the first 6 weeks of the season. Compliance was recorded and players were monitored for the season to collect injury and participation data. There was no difference between the control (n=106) or intervention (n=114) groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Only 46.8% of all players completed at least two program sessions. Compliance was poorest for the intervention group. Intention-to-treat analysis suggested that players in the intervention group were not at reduced risk of hamstring injury (RR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8). When only control and intervention group players who participated in at least the first two sessions were analysed, 4.0% of intervention and 13.2% of control group players sustained a hamstring injury (RR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4; p=0.098). The findings suggest that a simple program of eccentric exercise could reduce the incidence of hamstring injuries in Australian Football but widespread implementation of this program is not likely because of poor compliance.

  10. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-04-26

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport.

  11. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  12. Premier League Reading Stars. Annual Review 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is an educational project that harnesses the motivational power of football to encourage families to enjoy reading. It targets those hard to reach groups in society who may not have shown an interest in reading, but who do have a passion for football. PLRS has been running since 2003 following the creation of a…

  13. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  14. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  15. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  16. Teaching Note--Was the Champions League Draw Rigged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijms, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This teaching note gives a real-life example of Bayesian thinking. It discusses how credible accusations are that the outcome of the draw for the quarter-finals in the 2013 European Champions League Football was manipulated.

  17. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530

  18. Changes in Anthropometry, Upper-Body Strength, and Nutrient Intake in Professional Australian Football Players During a Season.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate; Livingston, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in body composition, nutrition, and upper-body (UB) strength in professional Australian Football (AF) players. The prospective longitudinal study examined changes in anthropometry (body mass, fat-free soft-tissue mass [FFSTM], and fat mass) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 5 times during an AF season (start preseason, midpreseason, start season, midseason, end season) in 45 professional AF players. Dietary intakes and strength (bench press and bench pull) were also assessed at these time points. Players were categorized as experienced (>4 y experience, n = 23) or inexperienced (<4 y experience, n = 22). Fat mass decreased during the preseason but was stable through the in-season for both groups. %FFSTM was increased during the preseason and remained constant thereafter. UB strength increased during the preseason and was maintained during the in-season. Changes in UB FFSTM were related to changes in UB-strength performance (r = .37-.40). Total energy and carbohydrate intakes were similar between the experienced and inexperienced players during the season, but there was a greater ratio of dietary fat intake at the start-preseason point and an increased alcohol, reduced protein, and increased total energy intake at the end of the season. The inexperienced players consumed more fat at the start of season and less total protein during the season than the experienced players. Coaches should also be aware that it can take >1 y to develop the appropriate levels of FFSTM in young players and take a long-term view when developing the physical and performance abilities of inexperienced players. PMID:26217046

  19. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    PubMed

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  20. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  1. The long-term effects of sports concussion on retired Australian football players: a study using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Alan J; Hoy, Kate; Rogers, Mark A; Corp, Daniel T; Maller, Jerome J; Drury, Hannah G K; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated corticomotor excitability and inhibition, cognitive functioning, and fine motor dexterity in retired elite and amateur Australian football (AF) players who had sustained concussions during their playing careers. Forty male AF players who played at the elite level (n=20; mean age 49.7±5.7 years) or amateur level (n=20; mean age 48.4±6.9 years), and had sustained on average 3.2 concussions 21.9 years previously, were compared with 20 healthy age-matched male controls (mean age 47.56±6.85 years). All participants completed assessments of fine dexterity, visuomotor reaction time, spatial working memory (SWM), and associative learning (AL). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure corticospinal excitability: stimulus-response (SR) curves and motor evoked potential (MEP) 125% of active motor threshold (aMT); and intracortical inhibition: cortical silent period (cSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). Healthy participants performed better in dexterity (p=0.003), reaction (p=0.003), and movement time (p=0.037) than did both AF groups. Differences between AF groups were found in AL (p=0.027) and SWM (p=0.024). TMS measures revealed that both AF groups showed reduced cSP duration at 125% aMT (p>0.001) and differences in SR curves (p>0.001) than did healthy controls. Similarly, SICI (p=0.012) and LICI (p=0.009) were reduced in both AF groups compared with controls. Regression analyses revealed a significant contribution to differences in motor outcomes with the three measures of intracortical inhibition. The measures of inhibition differed, however, in terms of which performance measure they had a significant and unique predictive relationship with, reflecting the variety of participant concussion injuries. This study is the first to demonstrate differences in motor control and intracortical inhibition in AF players who had sustained concussions during their playing

  2. Is there a relationship between ground and climatic conditions and injuries in football?

    PubMed

    Orchard, John

    2002-01-01

    Most soccer, rugby union, rugby league, American football, Australian football and Gaelic football competitions over the world are played on natural grass over seasons that commence in the early autumn (fall) and extend through winter. Injury surveillance in these competitions has usually reported high rates of injury to the lower limb and an increased incidence of injuries early in the season. This 'early-season' bias has not usually been reported in summer football competitions, or in sports played indoors, such as basketball. Although easily compared rates have not often been published there has also been a reported trend towards a greater injury incidence in football played in warmer and/or drier conditions. Injury incidence in American football played on artificial turf has often been reported to be higher than in games played on natural grass. This review concludes that the most plausible explanation for all of these reported findings involves variations in playing surface characteristics. Shoe-surface traction for the average player is the specific relevant variable that is most likely to correlate with injury incidence in a given game of football. Shoe-surface traction will usually have a positive correlation with ground hardness, dryness, grass cover and root density, length of cleats on player boots and relative speed of the game. It is possible that measures to reduce shoe-surface traction, such as, ground watering and softening, play during the winter months, use of natural grasses such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and player use of boots with shorter cleats, would all reduce the risk of football injuries. The most pronounced protective effect is likely to be on injuries to the lower limb of a noncontact nature, including anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Intervention studies should be performed, both using randomised and historical controls.

  3. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  4. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. Objective To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Methods Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Results Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). Conclusions These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. PMID:26399611

  5. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  6. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player.

  7. Can the League Cope with a Renegade Owner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    The Raiders won the right in court to move from Oakland to Los Angeles, but they face an appeal by the National Football League (NFL) and a separate lawsuit by the city of Oakland. The NFL's appeal of the antitrust verdict and Oakland's suit based on eminent domain theory are reviewed. (SR)

  8. Premier League Reading STARS 2013/14. Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabion, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust's Premier League Reading Stars programme (PLRS) is a reading intervention for children aged 8 to 13 that captures the motivational power of football to inspire children and young people to read more and to improve their literacy skills. PLRS is delivered by teachers and librarians. The programme delivers statutory…

  9. Home advantage and referee bias in European football.

    PubMed

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Home team crowd support has been shown to be a likely causal factor and its influence on referee decision-making appears to play a significant role. Match data from the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and Europa League were used to investigate referee bias in terms of the association between match location (home vs. away) and disciplinary sanctions used by football referees. The adjusted mean number of yellow cards received by home and away teams and the ratios of these means were estimated from Poisson regression models. After controlling for within-match measures of attacking dominance referees in the Champions League and Europa League issued 25% (p<0.001) and 10% (p=0.002) more yellow cards, respectively, to away teams than to home teams. The higher level of home team bias in the Champions League appeared to be mainly due to higher crowd densities. In a combined analysis of both UEFA leagues the magnitude of referee bias increased with increasing crowd density (p<0.001). Crowd size and crowd proximity were not associated with referee bias after controlling for crowd density. These results provide further evidence that crowd support influences referee decisions. Failure to control for within-match team performance may over-estimate the extent of referee bias in terms of the number of disciplinary sanctions used.

  10. "Love" Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, William S.

    1975-01-01

    The author, headmaster and football coach of St. Mary's and St. John's School, Peekskill, New York, tells us how he changed his football players' fear of opponents through use of civil rights tactics by using a positive approach to fearful situations. (RK)

  11. Football Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    The probabilities of certain English football teams winning different playoffs are determined. In each case, a mathematical model is fitted to the observed data, assumptions are verified, and the calculations performed. (LS)

  12. The League of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…

  13. The Negro Leagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tygiel, Jules

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of the black baseball experience. Describes formation of the black leagues, the players, and the discrimination they faced in baseball in the United States. Explains how the early black players introduced new aspects to the major leagues that transformed and improved the quality of play. (DK)

  14. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  15. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated a trend

  16. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John W; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Orchard, Jessica J; Chivers, Ian; Seward, Hugh; Ekstrand, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) teams in northern (warmer) areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler) areas. Conversely, in soccer (football) in Europe, teams in northern (cooler) areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer) areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer) parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999-2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.10) with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.58), knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74), and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.37) all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47-1.03). In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction) that are universal across different football codes.

  17. Science and Gaelic football: a review.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Doran, D

    2001-03-01

    This review focuses on Gaelic football and scientific reports of the characteristics of its players and the demands of the game. Anthropometric characteristics vary according to positional role, but top players display high muscularity and good all-round fitness at the peak of the competitive season. Match analysis indicates that exercise intensity is roughly equivalent to that for professional soccer. Average heart rates are approximately 160 beats x min(-1) during competitive matches, and average oxygen consumption is about 72% of maximum. Metabolic fatigue in active muscles is unlikely. Conventional biomechanical and electromyographic techniques are useful in gaining insight into individual games skills. Inadequate attention has been given to injury prevention and to psychological aspects of the game. Although possessing unique characteristics, Gaelic football has many similarities with other football codes, especially Australian Rules football where the ball is played by both hands and feet and where tackling is permitted.

  18. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  19. Ivy League Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Ruth Simmons made a big news splash a decade ago when she was named president of Brown University, making her the first Black president of an Ivy League institution. She made another splash three years later by naming a committee to investigate Brown's role in the slave trade and make recommendations on possible reparations. Reflecting on her…

  20. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  1. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  2. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, E.; Nußbaumer, A.; Janke, W.; Weigel, M.

    2009-02-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenological distributions used before can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the “FIFA World Cup” series, and found the proposed models to be applicable rather universally. In particular, here we analyze the results of the German women’s premier football league and consider the two separate German men’s premier leagues in the East and West during the cold war times as well as the unified league after 1990 to see how scoring in football and the component of self-affirmation depend on cultural and political circumstances.

  3. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N) to 202 N (p<0.001) while on the left, the recorded results improved from 158 N to 223 N (p<0.001). Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications. PMID:23031635

  4. The Generalized Matching Law in Elite Sport Competition: Football Play Calling as Operant Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Derek D.; Critchfield, Thomas S.; Martens, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of operant choice, the generalized matching law was used to analyze play-calling data from the 2004 National Football League season. In all analyses, the relative ratio of passing to rushing plays was examined as a function of the relative ratio of reinforcement, defined as yards gained, from passing versus rushing. Different…

  5. "I Found out the Hard Way": Micro-Political Workings in Professional Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Andrew; Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-political experiences of Adam (a pseudonym), a newly appointed fitness coach at a Football Association Premier League club, in his search for acceptance by senior colleagues. Data were collected through a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews, before being subject to a process of inductive analysis. Goffman's…

  6. Comment on "football-specific fitness testing: adding value or confirming the evidence?".

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Collins, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The recent point-counter-point exchange arising from the article by Mendez-Villanueva and Buchheit (2013) (Football-specific fitness testing: Adding value or confirming the evidence? Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1503-1508) has generated an interesting debate on the real-world utility of fitness testing in professional association football (soccer). In the present authors' opinion, this exchange could also have been placed more in the context of the physical testing and subsequent benchmark profiling of the youth player within elite academy talent identification and development processes. This point is further strengthened by the current media debate at the time of writing on the development of elite youth football players in England and the Elite Player Performance Plan or EPPP (The Premier League. (2011). Elite Player Performance Plan. London: Author) published by the English Premier League as part of a vision for the future development of youth football in the League and throughout the English professional game. The EPPP recommends the implementation of a national database to enable comparison of Academy player performances against national physical testing "benchmark" profiles. In continuing the above debate, this letter questions the real-world utility and potential pitfalls of nationwide athletic benchmark profiling programmes for elite youth football. PMID:24878103

  7. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    FIRST LEGO League participants listen to Aerospace Education Specialist Chris Copelan explain the playing field for 'Nano Quest' during a recent FLL kickoff event at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center. The kickoff began the 2006 FLL competition season. Eighty-five teachers, mentors, parents and 9- to 14-year-old students from southern and central Mississippi came to SSC to hear the rules for Nano Quest. The challenge requires teams to spend eight weeks building and programming robots from LEGO Mindstorms kits. They'll battle their creations in local and regional competitions. The Dec. 2 competition at Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College will involve about 200 students. FIRST LEGO League, considered the 'little league' of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation, and to promote the principles of team play and gracious professionalism. Because NASA advocates robotics and science-technology education, the agency and SSC support FIRST by providing team coaches, mentors and training, as well as competition event judges, referees, audio-visual and other volunteer staff personnel. Two of Mississippi's NASA Explorer Schools, Bay-Waveland Middle and Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, were in attendance. The following schools were also represented: Ocean Springs Middle, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Jackson Preparatory Academy, North Woolmarket Middle, D'Iberville Middle, West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Roseland Park Baptist Academy and Nicholson Elementary, as well as two home-school groups from McComb and Brandon. Gulfport and Picayune Memorial-Pearl River high schools' FIRST Robotics teams conducted robotics demonstrations for the FLL crowd.

  8. The League of Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Brandel, A.; Paat, A. M.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The League of Astronomers is committed to engaging the University of Washington (UW) and the greater Seattle communities through outreach, research, and events. Since its re-founding two years ago, the LOA has provided a clear connection between the UW Astronomy Department, undergraduate students, and members of the public. Weekly outreach activities such as public star parties and planetarium talks in both the UW Planetarium and the Mobile Planetarium have connected enthusiastic LOA volunteers with hundreds of public observers. In addition, collaboration with organizations like the Seattle Astronomical Society and the UW Society of Physics Students has allowed the LOA to reach an even greater audience. The club also provides opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research projects. The UW Student Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) both allow students to practice collecting their own data and turning it into a completed project. Students have presented many of these research projects at venues like the UW Undergraduate Research Symposium and meetings of the American Astronomical Society. For example, the LOA will be observing newly discovered globular clusters at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, B.C. and constructing color-magnitude diagrams. The LOA also helps engage students with the Astronomy major through a variety of events. Bimonthly seminars led by graduate students on their research and personal experiences in the field showcase the variety of options available for students in astronomy. Social events hosted by the club encourage peer mentoring and a sense of community among the Astronomy Department’s undergraduate and graduate students. As a part of one of the nation’s largest undergraduate astronomy programs, members of the League of Astronomers have a unique opportunity to connect and interact with not only the Seattle public but also the greater astronomical community.

  9. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Randall Hicks (right), Jacobs Technology's Education Services manager at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center, answers questions about the playing field for FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League's 2007 Challenge, `Power Puzzle.' More than 140 teachers, mentors, parents and students from 15 schools attended the Sept. 15 FLL season kickoff at StenniSphere, the visitor center at SSC. The teams from southern and central Mississippi and Mobile, Ala., who came to SSC heard rules for and asked questions about `Power Puzzle,' and saw robot demonstrations by Gulfport and Picayune high schools' past FIRST Robotics competitions. Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT kits, FLL teams of children ages 9-14 will spend the next three months building and programming robots to perform 'Power Puzzle's' challenge tasks, then pit them in competitions. They also will submit a research project about how energy choices impact the environment and the economy. The season will culminate at the Mississippi Championship Tournament on Dec. 8 at the Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College. FLL, considered the `little league' of the FIRST Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation. NASA recognizes FIRST activities as an excellent hands-on method to increase student knowledge of science, engineering, technology and mathematics. Schools represented in this year's kickoff were: Madison Avenue Upper Elementary, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' Conehatta Elementary, Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Oktibehha Elementary, d'Iberville Middle, Saucier's West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Nicholson Elementary and Roseland Park Baptist Church Academy, Bay St. Louis' St. Stanislaus College and Mobile's Davidson High, as well as two home-school groups from the Jackson area.

  10. The impact of playing in matches while injured on injury surveillance findings in professional football.

    PubMed

    Hammond, L E; Lilley, J M; Pope, G D; Ribbans, W J

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the frequency, nature, and consequences of footballers playing matches while injured, and to examine the impact on injury surveillance findings. High levels of inter-rater reliability and content validity were established for a tool designed to document players who were already injured at the start of a match. The tool was implemented in three English football teams (a Championship, League 1, and League 2 team) for one season, using a "time loss" definition of injury. One hundred forty-three matches were surveyed, revealing 102 match appearances by players who were already injured. Almost half of all games featured at least one injured player, with episodes of playing with injury occurring more frequently and lasting longer in League 2 players compared with higher level players. No association was observed between the number of injured players starting matches and match outcome [χ(2) (4, N = 143) = 3.27, P = 0.514]. Fifteen percent of all injury episodes captured were only through prospective documentation of playing while injured. The findings show that both traumatic and overuse injuries are managed by footballers through competitive matches, and have important implications for aiding understanding of the epidemiology of injury in professional football.

  11. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  12. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists.

  13. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists. PMID:26140538

  14. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club’s success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network. PMID:27253198

  15. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Liu, Yu-Liang; Lu, Xin-Hang; Wang, Qi-Xuan; Wang, Tong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network.

  16. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Liu, Yu-Liang; Lu, Xin-Hang; Wang, Qi-Xuan; Wang, Tong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network. PMID:27253198

  17. Comparison of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in professional baseball players versus professional football players.

    PubMed

    Helzberg, John H; Waeckerle, Joseph F; Camilo, Joel; Selden, Michael A; Tang, Fengming; Joyce, Steven A; Browne, Jon E; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-09-01

    In 2006, a newspaper report indicated an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and early mortality in retired professional football players compared to professional baseball players. This study included 69 professional football players from a 2008 National Football League training camp and 155 professional baseball players from an American League 2009 spring training site who volunteered to participate in a study of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2), waist circumference > or =100 cm, waist/height ratio >0.5, blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio >3.5, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl, and alanine aminotransferase > or =40 IU/L was determined in baseball players and compared to measurements obtained in a matched cohort from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), professional football players, and linemen and nonlinemen subsets. In conclusion, professional baseball players had favorable cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of an increased prevalence of hypertension, compared to the reference population, and professional baseball players had decreased measures of obesity, hyperglycemia, and the cardiometabolic syndrome compared to professional football lineman.

  18. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

  19. Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

    PubMed

    Amen, Daniel G; Newberg, Andrew; Thatcher, Robert; Jin, Yi; Wu, Joseph; Keator, David; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

  20. Asymmetry after hamstring injury in English Premier League: issue resolved, or perhaps not?

    PubMed

    Barreira, P; Drust, B; Robinson, M A; Vanrenterghem, J

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries constitute one of the most concerning injuries in English Premier League football, due to its high primary incidence but also its recurrence. Functional methods assessing hamstring function during high-risk performance tasks such as sprinting are vital to identify potential risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess horizontal force deficits during maximum sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill in football players with previous history of hamstring strains as a pre-season risk-assessment in a club setting. 17 male football players from one Premier League Club were divided into 2 groups, experimental (n=6, age=24.5±2.3 years) and control (n=11, age=21.3±1.2 years), according to history of previous hamstring injury. Participants performed a protocol including a 10-s maximum sprint on a non-motorized treadmill. Force deficits during acceleration phase and steady state phases of the sprint were assessed between limbs and between groups. The main outcome measures were horizontal and vertical peak forces during the acceleration phase or steady state. There were no significant differences in peak forces between previously injured and non-injured limbs, or between groups, challenging the ideas around functional force deficits in sprint running as a diagnostic measure of hamstring re-injury risk.

  1. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  2. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  3. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    PubMed

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society. PMID:22670651

  4. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    PubMed

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society.

  5. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  6. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068

  7. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  8. Home advantage and the debate about competitive balance in professional sports leagues.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David; Beaumont, James; Goddard, John; Simmons, Robert

    2005-04-01

    A recurrent theme in sports economics is the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. This debate has ignored the phenomenon of home advantage, which may, however, be important to the extent that, if all teams had equal talent, all matches may then be weighted heavily in favour of the home team. We present an analysis of the relationship between attendance and match-level uncertainty in the English Football League. A simulation from our model indicates that equality of playing talent would in fact lower aggregate attendance. This result is explained by the loss of prospectively the most uncertain games, where weak teams have home advantage over strong teams.

  9. Practice and play in the development of German top-level professional football players.

    PubMed

    Hornig, Manuel; Aust, Friedhelm; Güllich, Arne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental sporting activities of 52 German football first Bundesliga professionals (including 18 senior national team members) and 50 fourth to sixth league amateur players. They reported their volumes of organised football practice/training, including its "microstructure" (proportions of physical conditioning, skill exercises and playing forms), non-organised leisure football play and engagement in other sports through their career, respectively. Analyses revealed that the Bundesliga professionals performed moderate amounts of organised football practice/training throughout their career. They accumulated 4264 (mean value) hours over ~16 years before debuting in 1st Bundesliga; senior National Team debut was preceded by 4532 hours (mean) over ~17 years. Within the "microstructure" of organised practice/training, the proportion of playing forms developed from ~52% (childhood) to ~45% (adolescence) and ~40% (adulthood) and physical conditioning from ~13% to ~14% and ~23%. Outside organised involvement, these players engaged in extensive non-organised leisure football play making ~68%, ~54% and ~9% of all football involvement. Subsuming organised and non-organised football, ~86% (childhood), ~73% (adolescence) and ~43% (adulthood) of all activity was game play (exclusive matchplay). National Team differed from amateurs in more non-organised leisure football in childhood, more engagement in other sports in adolescence, later specialisation, and in more organised football only at age 22+ years. Relative to numerous other studies, these players performed less organised practice, particularly less physical conditioning, but greater proportions of playing activities. The findings are discussed relative to the significance of playing forms and variable involvements and are reflected against the deliberate practice and Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP) frameworks.

  10. A comparison of the physiological profiles of elite Gaelic footballers, hurlers, and soccer players

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Gaelic football, soccer, and hurling are prominent field games in Ireland and involve participants undertaking a variety of playing tasks and skills which place various physiological demands on the participants. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the mid-season physiological profiles of elite players. Methods: Physiological assessment was carried out on 29 inter-county Gaelic footballers, 30 inter-county hurlers, and 21 League of Ireland soccer players. Results: Significant differences were reported for % body fat (p<0.05), aerobic capacity (p<0.05), flexibility (p<0.05), upper body strength (p<0.05), upper body strength endurance (p<0.05), abdominal endurance (p<0.05), and speed endurance (p<0.05), while there were no differences recorded for height, weight, or speed levels. A relatively heterogeneous body size is evident for all three sports. Soccer players had lower body fat levels, greater aerobic capacity, greater strength endurance, and greater flexibility compared to both Gaelic footballers and hurlers, possibly due to specific training and conditioning programmes or physical adaptation to match play The greater strength of both Gaelic footballers and hurlers and the superior speed endurance levels of Gaelic footballers also reflect the physical nature of the sports. Similar speed levels amongst all three sports reflect the importance of speed for performance. Conclusions: The various physiological attributes for Gaelic football, soccer, and hurling reflect the physical requirements for success and participation in each of these field games. PMID:15976166

  11. Can watching football be a component of developing a state of mental health for men?

    PubMed

    Pringle, Alan

    2004-05-01

    Football supporters, by and large, continue to have a negative image and be presented in a very destructive way by the media generally. This has been reflected academically by the fact that much of the research that has been done into football and football fans has focused on negative aspects of small numbers of supporters' behaviours such as hooliganism and racism. This paper describes a two stage study exploring some of the more positive effects noted during studies with football fans from Mansfield Town, a team currently in the third division of the English Football League. The study explores the perceived benefits to mental health for fans gained from the supporting experience in such areas as stress relief, catharsis and the development of good parent-child relationships. Discussion takes place around the paradox that some of the behaviours described by supporters as beneficial and done in 'the spirit of carnival' may challenge liberal beliefs and be viewed as antisocial and offensive. The key feature in health promotional terms is the overwhelming view of fans that the 'carnivalesque' behaviours stay in the football ground where such behaviours are viewed as acceptable and socially sanctioned.

  12. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.

  13. STS-27 crew poses for inflight portrait on forward flight deck with football

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    With WILSON NFL football freefloating in front of them, STS-27 astronauts pose on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, forward flight deck for inflight crew portrait. Crewmembers, wearing blue mission t-shirts, are (left to right) Commander Robert L. Gibson, Mission Specialist (MS) Richard M. Mullane, MS Jerry L. Ross, MS William M. Shepherd, and Pilot Guy S. Gardner. Forward flight deck overhead control panels are visible above crewmembers, commanders and pilots seats in front of them, and forward windows behind them. An auto-set 35mm camera mounted on the aft flight deck was used to take this photo. The football was later presented to the National Football League (NFL) at halftime of the Super Bowl in Miami.

  14. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of

  15. Comprehensive Coach Education Reduces Head Impact Exposure in American Youth Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan W.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite little evidence that defines a threshold of head impact exposure or that participation in youth sports leads to long-term cognitive impairments, it is prudent to identify methods of reducing the frequency of head impacts. Purpose: To compare the mean number of head impacts between youth football players in practice and games between leagues that implemented the Heads Up Football (HUF) educational program and those that did not (NHUF). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: During the 2014 season, head impact exposure was measured using xPatch accelerometers from 70 youth football players aged 8 to 15 years from 5 leagues. Data were collected during both games and practices. The NHUF group comprised 32 players from 8 teams within 3 leagues. The HUF group comprised 38 players from 7 teams within 2 leagues. Independent-sample t tests evaluated differences in head impact exposure across groups (ie, HUF and NHUF). Results: Players (mean ± SD: age, 11.7 ± 1.4 years; height, 152.2 ± 10.5 cm; weight, 51.6 ± 9.6 kg) experienced a total of 7478 impacts over 10g, of which 4250 (56.8%) and 3228 (43.2%) occurred in practices and games, respectively. The majority of impacts occurred within the NHUF group (62.0%), followed by the HUF group (38.0%). With a 10g impact threshold, the mean number of impacts during practice per individual event was lower in the HUF group (mean ± SD, 5.6 ± 2.9) than in the NHUF group (mean ± SD, 8.9 ± 3.1; difference, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.9-3.9). This difference was attenuated when the threshold was changed to 20g but remained significant (difference, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). At both the 10g and 20g impact thresholds, no differences were found in games. Conclusion: Players who participated in HUF leagues accumulated fewer head impacts per practice at both the 10g and 20g thresholds. Youth football leagues should consider the HUF educational program, while exploring additional interventions, to help reduce the

  16. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment. PMID:24786769

  17. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  18. Teaching Competition in Professional Sports Leagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been some dispute over the appropriate way to model decision making in professional sports leagues. In particular, Szymanski and Kesenne (2004) argue that formulating the decision-making problem in a noncooperative game leads to radically different conclusions about the nature of competition in sports leagues. The author…

  19. Benchmarking in Universities: League Tables Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of benchmarking universities using a "league table" approach. Taking the example of the "Sunday Times University League Table", the author reanalyses the descriptive data on UK universities. Using a linear programming technique, data envelope analysis (DEA), the author uses the re-analysis to demonstrate the major…

  20. Concerns on little league elbow.

    PubMed

    Wells, M J; Bell, G W

    1995-09-01

    Little League elbow is a common overuse injury that will become more prevalent as more youths participate in baseball programs and other sports that involve overhead arm activities. The condition is highly treatable if diagnosed early in its development. Symptoms such as swelling and limited range of motion usually indicate an advanced overuse condition. Prevention and treatment should emphasize education of athletes, parents, and coaches about coaches about its etiology. Factors involved are proper pitching mechanics, stretching and strengthening programs, improving early recognition, and, most importantly, limiting the number of pitches thrown daily.

  1. Concerns on Little League Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    Little League elbow is a common overuse injury that will become more prevalent as more youths participate in baseball programs and other sports that involve overhead arm activities. The condition is highly treatable if diagnosed early in its development. Symptoms such as swelling and limited range of motion usually indicate an advanced overuse condition. Prevention and treatment should emphasize education of athletes, parents, and coaches about coaches about its etiology. Factors involved are proper pitching mechanics, stretching and strengthening programs, improving early recognition, and, most importantly, limiting the number of pitches thrown daily. PMID:16558344

  2. Newspapers, Football & Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Star/Times, MO. Educational Services Dept.

    This booklet focuses on the Kansas City (Missouri) Chiefs professional football team and is designed to teach geography through the use of newspapers. In Section 1, "The Local Scene," the instructional activities help students to learn about the Kansas City metropolitan area through collecting news stories and advertisements. Section 2, "The…

  3. The Science of Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity designed to interest and motivate students in science. By comparing scientific experimentation to the processes employed in planning, playing, and analyzing the results of a football match, students become more aware of the similarity between activities in their lives and in science. (JR)

  4. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  5. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  6. Physical and fitness characteristics of successful Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    Watson, A W

    1995-12-01

    Anthropometric and fitness observations were made on 32 members of a top level Gaelic football squad that reached the All Ireland final in the year in which these measurements were taken. The subjects were found to be large and well muscled with a mean somatotype of 2.6:5.6:3.1 (endomorphy:mesomorphy:ectomorphy). Body fat content of the whole squad averaged 15.0% but the most successful group of players averaged 12.4%. The body mass index (BMI) of the group was high and averaged 24.7 km.m-2. This group of Gaelic footballers was found to be taller and heavier than top level soccer players but smaller than Australian rules and American footballers. At 58.6 ml.min-1.kg-1 maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was higher than that reported for rugby players and American footballers and is probably similar to that of professional soccer players. Scores on three lung function tests: (1) forced vital capacity (FVC), (2) forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV1), and (3) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were between 112% and 115% of the values predicted from height and age. There were wide variations in flexibility among the members of the group, the best individuals being as flexible as elite track and field athletes while the worst were less flexible than untrained subjects. Vertical jump scores were high and averaged 503 mm. The fitness observations made on this group of elite Gaelic footballers showed that they were not only fitter but more homogeneously fit than rugby players and American footballers and their fitness was generally similar to that reported for professional soccer players.

  7. Physical and fitness characteristics of successful Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A W

    1995-01-01

    Anthropometric and fitness observations were made on 32 members of a top level Gaelic football squad that reached the All Ireland final in the year in which these measurements were taken. The subjects were found to be large and well muscled with a mean somatotype of 2.6:5.6:3.1 (endomorphy:mesomorphy:ectomorphy). Body fat content of the whole squad averaged 15.0% but the most successful group of players averaged 12.4%. The body mass index (BMI) of the group was high and averaged 24.7 km.m-2. This group of Gaelic footballers was found to be taller and heavier than top level soccer players but smaller than Australian rules and American footballers. At 58.6 ml.min-1.kg-1 maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was higher than that reported for rugby players and American footballers and is probably similar to that of professional soccer players. Scores on three lung function tests: (1) forced vital capacity (FVC), (2) forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV1), and (3) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were between 112% and 115% of the values predicted from height and age. There were wide variations in flexibility among the members of the group, the best individuals being as flexible as elite track and field athletes while the worst were less flexible than untrained subjects. Vertical jump scores were high and averaged 503 mm. The fitness observations made on this group of elite Gaelic footballers showed that they were not only fitter but more homogeneously fit than rugby players and American footballers and their fitness was generally similar to that reported for professional soccer players. PMID:8808534

  8. Age of first exposure to football and later-life cognitive impairment in former NFL players

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Julie M.; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Martin, Brett M.; McClean, Michael D.; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between exposure to repeated head impacts through tackle football prior to age 12, during a key period of brain development, and later-life executive function, memory, and estimated verbal IQ. Methods: Forty-two former National Football League (NFL) players ages 40–69 from the Diagnosing and Evaluating Traumatic Encephalopathy using Clinical Tests (DETECT) study were matched by age and divided into 2 groups based on their age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football: AFE <12 and AFE ≥12. Participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List Learning test (NAB-LL), and Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4) Reading subtest as part of a larger neuropsychological testing battery. Results: Former NFL players in the AFE <12 group performed significantly worse than the AFE ≥12 group on all measures of the WCST, NAB-LL, and WRAT-4 Reading tests after controlling for total number of years of football played and age at the time of evaluation, indicating executive dysfunction, memory impairment, and lower estimated verbal IQ. Conclusions: There is an association between participation in tackle football prior to age 12 and greater later-life cognitive impairment measured using objective neuropsychological tests. These findings suggest that incurring repeated head impacts during a critical neurodevelopmental period may increase the risk of later-life cognitive impairment. If replicated with larger samples and longitudinal designs, these findings may have implications for safety recommendations for youth sports. PMID:25632088

  9. Recovery-stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  10. Review of cardiometabolic risk factors among current professional football and professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Helzberg, John H; Camilo, Joel; Waeckerle, Joseph F; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-10-01

    Data on the development of cardiovascular disease in professional football players are conflicting. Studies have documented a higher prevalence of obesity, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, increased left ventricular and left atrial size, and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in former professional football linemen compared with nonlinemen. It has been suggested that former National Football League players are at risk for early cardiovascular disease and premature death. A print media report in 2006 indicated an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and early mortality in professional football players compared with professional baseball players. However, there has been little scientific evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in professional baseball players. Our data suggest that there is increased cardiovascular disease risk in football players, but this is limited to heavier linemen. In preliminary studies, baseball players do not appear to demonstrate the same increased risk. However, caution should be used in the interpretation of increased cardiovascular disease risk, as it does not necessarily translate into early increased mortality. PMID:20959699

  11. Recovery–stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  12. Review of cardiometabolic risk factors among current professional football and professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Helzberg, John H; Camilo, Joel; Waeckerle, Joseph F; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-10-01

    Data on the development of cardiovascular disease in professional football players are conflicting. Studies have documented a higher prevalence of obesity, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, increased left ventricular and left atrial size, and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in former professional football linemen compared with nonlinemen. It has been suggested that former National Football League players are at risk for early cardiovascular disease and premature death. A print media report in 2006 indicated an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and early mortality in professional football players compared with professional baseball players. However, there has been little scientific evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in professional baseball players. Our data suggest that there is increased cardiovascular disease risk in football players, but this is limited to heavier linemen. In preliminary studies, baseball players do not appear to demonstrate the same increased risk. However, caution should be used in the interpretation of increased cardiovascular disease risk, as it does not necessarily translate into early increased mortality.

  13. An examination of the frequency and severity of injuries and incidents at three levels of professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of injury to professional footballers during European international and English Premier and First Division league matches. METHODS: Videotaped recordings of 29, 49, and 93 matches from the 1996 European Championship, 1996/1997 English Premier season and 1994 to 1997 English First Division seasons respectively were analysed. During each match, several relevant variables, including the number of fouls, injuries, time of incident, player identity, and injury mechanism, were recorded. RESULTS: Significantly more free kicks were awarded during international matches than during league matches; however, there were no significant differences between the numbers of free kicks awarded over the three First Division seasons assessed. Between 1.7 and 3.0% of fouls resulted in a player requiring treatment for injury, but only 15-28% of all injuries resulted from foul play. In all "non-foul" situations, in which injury resulted, at least 60% still involved player to player contact. No significant differences in injury frequency were observed between playing positions or match halves. CONCLUSIONS: The results equate to a total of 808 players per season from the estimated 2600 players in the four English professional football leagues sustaining a match injury that caused them to miss at least one game. The large number of underlying "non-injury" incidents is identified as the reason for this level of injury rather than a higher ratio of "injury" to "non-injury" incidents in professional football compared with other occupations. 


 PMID:9865406

  14. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  15. "Working Your Words": Appraisal in the AFL Post-Match Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the language used by Australian Football League (AFL) footballers and Australian Broadcast Corporation (ABC) journalists in their post-match interviews broadcast on ABC (774 Melbourne) radio. From Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), Appraisal is used to investigate the evaluative language expressed by the AFL footballers in…

  16. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Akinbo, Sunday R A; Tella, Bosede A; Olawale, Olajide A

    2014-05-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years) in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT) or a control (CON) group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25%) of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 - 0.86; p = 0.006)] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.82; p = 0.004)]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players. Key pointsThe FIFA 11+ has only been tested in randomised controlled trials conducted on female youth football players; this study

  17. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  18. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  19. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  20. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  1. The League of Astronomers: Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paat, Anthony; Brandel, A.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Thomas, N. H.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.; Astronomers, League of

    2014-01-01

    The University of Washington League of Astronomers (LOA) is an organization comprised of University of Washington (UW) undergraduate students. Our main goal is to share our interest in astronomy with the UW community and with the general public. The LOA hosts star parties on the UW campus and collaborates with the Seattle Astronomical Society (SAS) on larger Seattle-area star parties. At the star parties, we strive to teach our local community about what they can view in our night sky. LOA members share knowledge of how to locate constellations and use a star wheel. The relationship the LOA has with members of SAS increases both the number of events and people we are able to reach. Since the cloudy skies of the Northwest prevent winter star parties, we therefore focus our outreach on the UW Mobile Planetarium, an inflatable dome system utilizing Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software. The mobile planetarium brings astronomy into the classrooms of schools unable to travel to the UW on-campus planetarium. Members of the LOA volunteer their time towards this project and we make up the majority of the Mobile Planetarium volunteers. Our outreach efforts allow us to connect with the community and enhance our own knowledge of astronomy.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of acute hamstring injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    ZANON, GIACOMO; COMBI, FRANCO; COMBI, ALBERTO; PERTICARINI, LORIS; SAMMARCHI, LUIGI; BENAZZO, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose muscle injuries have a high incidence in professional football and are responsible for the largest number of days lost from competition. Several in vitro studies have confirmed the positive role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in accelerating recovery and in promoting muscle regeneration, and not fibrosis, in the healing process. This study examines the results of intralesional administration of PRP in the treatment of primary hamstring injuries sustained by players belonging to a major league football club. Methods twenty-five hamstring injuries (grade 2 according to MRI classification) sustained by professional football players during a 31-months observation period were treated with PRP and analyzed. Sport participation absence (SPA), in days, was considered to correspond to the healing time, and we also considered the re-injury rate, and tissue healing on MRI. The mean follow-up was 36.6 months (range 22–42). Results there were no adverse events. The mean SPA for the treated muscle injuries was 36.76±19.02 days. The re-injury rate was 12%. Tissue healing, evaluated on MRI, was characterized by the presence of excellent repair tissue and a small scar. Conclusions this study confirmed the safety of PRP in treating hamstring lesions in a large series of professional football players. PRP-treated lesions did not heal more quickly than untreated lesions described in the literature, but they showed a smaller scar and excellent repair tissue. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:27386443

  3. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804–12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious—reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  4. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results.

  5. Relationship between leader-member exchange and burnout in professional footballers.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Süleyman M

    2011-11-01

    Numerous variables influence burnout, one of which is leader-member exchange. The present study was conducted to determine whether leader-member exchange quality affects burnout in professional footballers. The study used the Leader-Member Exchange-7 scale developed by Scandura and Graen ( 1984 ) to measure leader (coach)-member (player) exchange and Pines's ( 2005 ) abbreviated version of the burnout scale developed by Pines and Aronson ( 1988 ) to measure burnout. The data were obtained from the professional players (N = 107) of six football clubs in the Turkish Secondary Football League in western Turkey. The results demonstrated that quality of leader-member exchange significantly and inversely influenced burnout of professional footballers. The study also evaluated quality of leader-member exchange in terms of three strengths of relationship (low, fair, and high) between the coach and players. Contrary to expectations, the results revealed significant differences in burnout when comparing low versus fair quality and low versus high quality, while no significant difference in burnout was observed between fair and high quality.

  6. Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Sandy; Wakelin, Delia; Lewis, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    Football fans' views on their role in the home advantage were obtained by placing links to an internet questionnaire on supporters' websites. Altogether, 461 fans from clubs which had been promoted, relegated or unchanged in the past season of the English football leagues rated crowd support as significantly more influential than familiarity, travel, territoriality and referee bias in contributing to the home advantage. Fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to victory, took credit for distracting opponents, and believed that they could influence officials into making decisions in their team's favour. However, they did not accept personal blame for poor results. No effects for gender, age or the team's outcome in the promotion/relegation battle emerged, though season ticket holders were more extreme in their feelings of responsibility overall. Furthermore, it was suggested that mechanisms such as the perception of being superior to rivals can encourage fans to retain their allegiance to their teams, even when outcomes are disappointing. Indeed, affiliation may become so incorporated into self-identity that supporters may not have the option of abandoning their team, but instead perceive a reciprocal relationship in which both they and the team are expected to do their best to achieve success.

  7. Physical Demands of Different Positions in FA Premier League Soccer.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jonathan; Polman, Remco; O'Donoghue, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands of English Football Association (FA) Premier League soccer of three different positional classifications (defender, midfielder and striker). Computerised time-motion video-analysis using the Bloomfield Movement Classification was undertaken on the purposeful movement (PM) performed by 55 players. Recognition of PM had a good inter-tester reliability strength of agreement (κ= 0.7277). Players spent 40.6 ± 10.0% of the match performing PM. Position had a significant influence on %PM time spent sprinting, running, shuffling, skipping and standing still (p < 0.05). However, position had no significant influence on the %PM time spent performing movement at low, medium, high or very high intensities (p > 0.05). Players spent 48.7 ± 9.2% of PM time moving in a directly forward direction, 20.6 ± 6.8% not moving in any direction and the remainder of PM time moving backward, lateral, diagonal and arced directions. The players performed the equivalent of 726 ± 203 turns during the match; 609 ± 193 of these being of 0° to 90° to the left or right. Players were involved in the equivalent of 111 ± 77 on the ball movement activities per match with no significant differences between the positions for total involvement in on the ball activity (p > 0.05). This study has provided an indication of the different physical demands of different playing positions in FA Premier League match-play through assessment of movements performed by players. Key pointsPlayers spent ~40% of the match performing Pur-poseful Movement (PM).Position had a significant influence on %PM time spent performing each motion class except walking and jogging. Players performed >700 turns in PM, most of these being of 0°-90°.Strikers performed most high to very high intensity activity and most contact situations.Defenders also spent a significantly greater %PM time moving backwards than the other two posi-tions.Different positions could

  8. Preventive Health Perspective in Sports Medicine: The Trend at the Use of Medications and Nutritional Supplements during 5 Years Period between 2003 and 2008 in Football

    PubMed Central

    Kavukcu, Ethem; Burgazlı, Kamil Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of medication and nutritional supplement use in male Football Super League players and to observe the long term changes of players’ attitudes during 5 years period (4 seasons). Study Design: Retrospective study. Material and Methods: Review and analysis of 4176 doping control forms -declaration reports- about players’ medication intake including; Super League, UEFA Cup and the UEFA Champions League matches. Team physician was asked to document all medications and nutritional supplements taken by the Football Super League players in the last 72 hours before each match. Results: A total intake of 5939 substances were documented, of which almost half 49.2% (n=2921) were classified as medications and 50.8% (n=3018) were nutritional supplements. The average consumption per player was 1.42 substance/match; 0.70 were medications and 0.72 of nutritional supplements. The supplements used most frequently were NSAIDs 24.6% (n=1460) accounting for almost one in four of all reported supplements. Diclofenac Sodium was the most frequently reported active pharmaceutical ingredient. Second most frequently used supplements were vitamins (22.2%). The average drug consumption reported per player has been increasing every passing year. It was 0.7 substance/match/player (0.4 medication; 0.3 nutritional supplement) in 2003–2004 season; was increased to 1.8 substance/match (0.8 medication; 1.0 nutritional supplement) in 2006–2007 season. Conclusion: The trends seen in this survey point to an overuse of NSAIDs and vitamins in comparison with other medications, amoung Turkish Super League football players (p<0.001). The use of NSAIDs has increased but the medication groups did not differ significantly between seasons, in terms of distribution. This increasing use of medications especially of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional supplements is alarming and needs to be argued. PMID:25207073

  9. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  10. Dietary intakes and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S

    1991-12-01

    The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570

  11. Longevity of major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.

  12. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  13. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  14. Teaching French via American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  15. 'Thoroughly Good Football': Teachers and the Origins of Elementary School Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrigan, Colm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of elementary school soccer (football), addressing topics such as: the role of public schools in organized soccer, soccer in elementary schools, the first schoolboy soccer association, South London Schools' Football Association, the London Schools' Football Association, and the English Schools' Football Association. (CMK)

  16. Do community football players wear allocated protective equipment? Descriptive results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Braham, R A; Finch, C F

    2004-06-01

    Before protective equipment can be adopted as an effective sports safety intervention, its protective effects in reducing the incidence and severity of injury need to be demonstrated, Importantly, it also needs to be well accepted by the players. The Australian Football Injury Prevention Project (AFIPP) was a large scale community-based randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of headgear and mouthguards in preventing head/neck/dental injuries in Australian Football. A subcomponent of this study was to assess the extent to which community football players complied with the requirement to wear protective headgear and/or mouthguards, as this equipment is not compulsory in this sport. Three hundred and one community football players from 23 teams were randomly allocated to one of three protective equipment intervention arms or one control arm. Protective equipment usage was measured by a primary data collector at each training and game session during the 2001 playing season. Mouthguard use was higher than headgear use, with the highest usage for both being measured during games rather than training. Although many players use mouthguards, particularly in games, most do not wear headgear. Given the low adoption of headgear, other strategies to prevent head injuries need further investigation.

  17. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  18. Urban League Calls for Voc Ed Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Carol

    1979-01-01

    The director of education for the National Urban League discusses urban education needs, the negative feelings of Blacks toward vocational education, and the need for a coalition of vocational education advocates with positive attitudes toward Black participation in vocational programs with community support. (MF)

  19. The Urban League of Rochester Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William A., Jr.

    In 1985 the Urban League of Rochester organized an Education Initiative and held a series of Speak Out Forums and conferences for students, parents, educators, and the community to arrive at an answer to the question: What can be done to improve the academic performance of Rochester's students? This document contains the following papers pertinent…

  20. A Day at FIRST Lego League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This article features an after-school FIRST Lego League (FLL) program at Chaminade Middle School in Chatsworth, California, USA. The after-school FLL program feeds into the high school FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC) program wherein aspiring young engineers come to the high school team with several years of FLL experience. Through the FLL…

  1. Comparison of lower body strength, power, acceleration, speed, agility, and sprint momentum to describe and compare playing rank among professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2008-01-01

    Success in rugby league football seems heavily reliant on players possessing an adequate degree of various physical fitness qualities, such as strength, power, speed, agility, and endurance, as well as the individual skills and team tactical abilities. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the lower body strength, power, acceleration, maximal speed, agility, and sprint momentum of elite first-division national rugby league (NRL) players (n = 20) to second-division state league (SRL) players (n = 20) players from the same club. Strength and maximal power were the best discriminators of which players were in the NRL or SRL squads. None of the sprinting tests, such as acceleration (10-m sprint), maximal speed (40-m sprint), or a unique 40-m agility test, could distinguish between the NRL or SRL squads. However, sprint momentum, which was a product of 10-m velocity and body mass, was better for discriminating between NRL and SRL players as heavier, faster players would possess better drive forward and conversely be better able to repel their opponents' drive forward. Strength and conditioning specialists should therefore pay particular attention to increasing lower body strength and power and total body mass through appropriate resistance training while maintaining or improving 10-m sprint speed to provide their players with the underlying performance characteristics of play at the elite level in rugby leagues.

  2. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  3. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE

  4. Sporting hero launches Australian "Men Too" campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-02-14

    Top Australian rugby league captain Wally Lewis last month launched a "Men Too" campaign for the Family Planning Association (FPA) in Queensland, Australia. The campaign has been based very closely on Britain's, using a great deal of material from the United Kingdom FPA. Several radio spots have also been produced, and are currently being broadcast on all the commercial stations in community service spots. Future plans include a 30-second television commercial, and the use of the Brisbane Bullets, a popular basketball team, to promote the "male involvement" theme.

  5. Comprehensive Coach Education and Practice Contact Restriction Guidelines Result in Lower Injury Rates in Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Mensch, James; Dodge, Thomas; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research evaluating the effect of comprehensive coach education and practice contact restriction in youth football injury rates is sparse. In 2012, USA Football released their Heads Up Football coaching education program (HUF), and Pop Warner Football (PW) instituted guidelines to restrict contact during practice. Purpose: To compare injury rates among youth football players aged 5 to 15 years by whether their leagues implemented HUF and/or were PW-affiliated. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2014 youth football season. Players were drawn from 10 leagues across 4 states. The non–Heads Up Football (NHUF) group consisted of 704 players (none of whom were PW-affiliated) from 29 teams within 4 leagues. The HUF+PW group consisted of 741 players from 27 teams within 2 leagues. The HUF-only group consisted of 663 players from 44 teams within 4 leagues. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% CIs. Results: A total of 370 injuries were reported during 71,262 athlete-exposures (AEs) (rate, 5.19/1000 AEs). Compared with the NHUF group (7.32/1000 AEs), the practice injury rates were lower for the HUF+PW group (0.97/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.21) and the HUF-only group (2.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.26-0.53). Compared with the NHUF group (13.42/1000 AEs), the game injury rate was lower for the HUF+PW group (3.42/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44) but not for the HUF-only group (13.76/1000 AEs; IRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.73-1.43). Also, the HUF+PW game injury rate was lower than that of HUF-only (IRR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.12-0.36). Higher injury rates were typically found in those aged 11 to 15 years compared with those aged 5 to 10 years. However, stronger effects related to HUF implementation and PW affiliation were seen among 11- to 15-year-olds. When restricted to concussions only, the sole difference was found

  6. The Generalized Matching Law in Elite Sport Competition: Football Play Calling as Operant Choice

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D; Critchfield, Thomas S; Martens, Brian K

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of operant choice, the generalized matching law was used to analyze play-calling data from the 2004 National Football League season. In all analyses, the relative ratio of passing to rushing plays was examined as a function of the relative ratio of reinforcement, defined as yards gained, from passing versus rushing. Different analyses focused on season-aggregate data for the league as a whole, game-by-game data for the league as a whole, and game-by-game data for individual teams. In all analyses except those for a few individual teams, the generalized matching law accounted for a majority of variance in play calling. The typical play-calling pattern reflected undermatching (suggesting imperfect sensitivity of play calling to yardage-gained reinforcers) and a bias for calling rushing plays. Bias was found to be a function of both the relative risk of turnovers and the relative variability in yards gained associated with passing versus rushing plays. The external validity of the matching analyses was supported by significant correlations between parameters of the generalized matching law and team success on offense and season winning percentage. These results illustrate the broad applicability of the generalized matching law to problems outside of the laboratory. PMID:17020210

  7. The possession game? A comparative analysis of ball retention and team success in European and international football, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Collet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Possession is thought of as central to success in modern football, but questions remain about its impact on positive team outcomes (Bate, 1988; Hughes & Franks, 2005; Pollard & Reep, 1997; Stanhope, 2001). Recent studies (e.g. Bloomfield, Polman, & O'Donoghue, 2005; Carling, Williams, & Reilly, 2005; James, Mellallieu, & Holley, 2002; Jones, James, & Mellalieu, 2004; Lago, 2009; Lago & Martin, 2007; Lago-Peñas & Dellal, 2010; Lago-Peñas, Lago-Ballesteros, Dellal, & Gómez, 2010; Taylor, Mellalieu, & James, 2005; Tucker, Mellalieu, James, & Taylor, 2005) that have examined these questions have often been constrained by an exclusive focus on English or Spanish domestic play. Using data from five European leagues, UEFA and FIFA tournaments, the study found that while possession time and passing predicted aggregated team success in domestic league play, both variables were poor predictors at the individual match level once team quality and home advantage were accounted for. In league play, the effect of greater possession was consistently negative; in the Champions League, it had virtually no impact. In national team tournaments, possession failed to reach significance when offensive factors were accounted for. Much of the success behind the 'possession game' was thus a function of elite teams confined in geographic and competitive space. That ball hegemony was not consistently tied to success suggests that a nuanced approach to possession is needed to account for variant strategic environments (e.g. James et al., 2002) and compels match analysts to re-examine the metric's overall value.

  8. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  9. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  10. It's not football.

    PubMed

    Ryan, G

    1998-01-01

    Today I am as happy as I could ever be. I have created a lot out of very little, I have worked full time, played full time, got full-time friends, full-time independence, had full-time love and am lucky enough to be with my new full-time love who helps me a great deal both physically and mentally. It is definitely no fun coughing until your chest is sore in the morning, afternoon and evening. Having wringing night-sweats from cepacia. Wanting to sleep more than Mr Sleep from Sleepland. Taking tablets the size of which sunk the Belgrano. Finding time for physiotherapy, eating the right meals, playing on my Playstation. Depression has got through on previous occasions, but not for long, and it has never resulted in anything more than a 'wake up and smell the coffee' call from myself. Having CF is no ball game (otherwise it would be called football or something!), but I have had a lot of fun and will continue to do so for however long. Two years, five years, 20 years--who's to say, not me. We could all have the same left, I just hope that everyone has as much fun.

  11. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  12. Lack of blood pressure difference by race in professional American football players.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew M; Lincoln, Andrew E; Vogel, Robert A; Black, Henry R; Dunn, Reginald E; Wilson, Peter W F; Pellman, Elliot J

    2015-05-01

    Previous findings suggest that professional American football players have higher blood pressures (BP) and a higher prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension than the general population. We sought to determine whether race is associated with differences in BP and prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension among a large sample of professional football players. BP was measured at 2009 team mini-camps for 1484 black (n = 1007) and white (n = 477) players from 27 National Football League (NFL) teams. Players were categorized into three position groups based on body mass index (BMI). There was no racial difference in mean systolic or diastolic BP in any of the three position groups. There were no racial differences in prevalence of hypertension (99 [9.8%] black players vs. 39 [8.2%] white players; P = .353) or pre-hypertension (557 [55.3%] black players vs. 264 [55.3%] white players; P = 1.0). Contrary to findings in the general population, BP and prevalence of pre-hypertension/hypertension did not vary with race in a large population of active NFL players.

  13. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population.

  14. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the experimental helmet impact certification tests performed by USAARL, who provided data for comparison. The goal of this set of simulations was to demonstrate the overall validity of LLNL's computational analyses and methods and understand the general physics of helmet impacts. In these tests and the corresponding simulations, an inverted ACH containing pads and a head-form are dropped onto a hemispherical anvil, at 10 and 14.14 ft/s impact velocities. The simulations predicted peak accelerations (the metric used by USAARL for comparing the performance of pad systems), rebound velocities, and impact durations consistent with the experimental data, thus demonstrating the validity and relevance of the simulation methods. Because the NFL pad systems are approximately double the thickness of the U.S. Army pads, they do not fit into the ACH. As a result, the NFL pads could not be simply placed into an ACH shell in either a simulation or an experiment without modifying their size and shape. Since impact mitigation depends critically on the available stopping distance and the area over which the stopping force is applied, it is important to consider identically shaped pads in order to compare their performance in a fair and meaningful manner. Consequently, the second set of simulations utilized a simplified simulation geometry consisting of a 5 kg cylindrical impactor (equal in mass to a head) striking equally sized pads from each manufacturer. The simulated bilayer foam pads had the same proportions of hard and soft foam as the actual pad systems, while the Xenith pads were simulated as a bilayer foam pad with material properties adjusted to give the same response as the actual Xenith pads. The effects of trapped air were included in the simulations of the Team Wendy and Oregon Aero pads. All simulations used material properties derived from the experiments conducted at LLNL. The acceleration history of the center of mass of the impactor was used to calculate the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) for each simulation, to assess the pad performance. The HIC is a well-established metric that combines both acceleration and duration of impact to assess the danger of injury, and is a more robust measure than peak acceleration. Our key findings are: (1) The performance of a pad depends on the range of impact velocities. At lower impact velocity, softer pads perform better. At higher impact velocity, harder pads perform better; (2) Thicker pads perform better at all velocities, but especially at high velocities; and (3) For comparable thicknesses, neither the NFL systems nor the Oregon Aero pads outperform the Team Wendy pads currently used in the ACH system in militarily-relevant impact scenarios (impact speeds less than 20 ft/s). The second finding suggests a commercial off-the-shelf solution for mitigating impact-related traumatic brain injury to soldiers.

  15. Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Brent D.; Olson Beal, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    School choice advocates often assume that market-like competition will create a dynamic K-12 educational environment that will result in improved outcomes. We critically examine this assumption and draw on the literature on market failure and social dilemmas to demonstrate that the market metaphor in a public schooling context has limited utility.…

  16. Profile of movement demands of national football players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Naughton, G; Norton, K I

    2006-08-01

    Descriptive data on game movement demands of contemporary players in the Australian National Soccer League (NSL, now the A League) are lacking. The purpose of this study was to profile movement demands of NSL games and specifically analyse distance covered, time in various speed categories (e.g., walking, jogging, striding, etc.), number of sprint speed efforts and overall mean player speed. Video tapes of 45 players from the 2002 to 2003 NSL season were analysed for whole- and half-game movement patterns and game statistics using Trak Performance software. Bivariate and ANOVA statistics were used for between game halves and positional comparisons. Results showed no changes to the frequency and speed of high intensity demands in both halves of the game. However, a 14% slower overall speed in the second half of the game when compared with the first half was attributed to fewer observations of the low intensity movements (9.0% less walking and 12.4% less jogging) and more stationary periods. Engagement in game events such as kicking and passing was also 11.2% less frequent in the second versus first half of games. Position-specific results of higher movement speeds of midfield players (7.2kmh(-1)), compared with defenders (6.1kmh(-1)), agree with previous results from international professional leagues. The results provide position-specific directions for future conditioning drills and benchmark fitness requirements in high level soccer players. The results also highlight the challenge to ensure consistency of second-half performances for elite level soccer players in Australia.

  17. Monitoring named entity recognition: the League Table

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Named entity recognition (NER) is an essential step in automatic text processing pipelines. A number of solutions have been presented and evaluated against gold standard corpora (GSC). The benchmarking against GSCs is crucial, but left to the individual researcher. Herewith we present a League Table web site, which benchmarks NER solutions against selected public GSCs, maintains a ranked list and archives the annotated corpus for future comparisons. Results The web site enables access to the different GSCs in a standardized format (IeXML). Upon submission of the annotated corpus the user has to describe the specification of the used solution and then uploads the annotated corpus for evaluation. The performance of the system is measured against one or more GSCs and the results are then added to the web site (“League Table”). It displays currently the results from publicly available NER solutions from the Whatizit infrastructure for future comparisons. Conclusion The League Table enables the evaluation of NER solutions in a standardized infrastructure and monitors the results long-term. For access please go to http://wwwdev.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/calbc/assessmentGSC/. Contact: rebholz@ifi.uzh.ch. PMID:24034148

  18. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  19. Astronomical League Observing Programs Supported by the AAVSO (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Astronomical League provides many different observing programs designed to provide direction and goals for League members. The programs have certificates and pins to recognize the observers' accomplishments and for demonstrating their observing skills with a variety of instruments and objects. The AAVSO supports a Variable Star Observing award and the Astronomical League has recently agreed to adopt a new Binocular Variable Star Program.

  20. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.

  1. The Control of Externalities in Sports Leagues: An Analysis of Restrictions in the National Hockey League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Dennis W.; Frankel, Alan S.; Landes, Elisabeth M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides one of the few successful demonstrations of the efficiency of certain types of restrictions in the context of a joint venture. The joint venture we examine is the National Hockey League (NHL) in the 1980s, which was then composed of 21 separately owned teams. (It now has 30 teams.) The restriction we analyze is the NHL rule on…

  2. Impact energy attentuation of protective football headgear against a yielding surface.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, C

    2004-06-01

    There is no standard test to assess the ability of soft headgear to prevent the likelihood of head injuries in the Australian football codes. Therefore the impact energy attenuation of protective football headgear was assessed using a yielding artificial headform and impact surface to characterise the impact scenario. Seven soft football headgear of varying mass, materials and thickness were dropped from a height to generate impact energy of 56 J. The headgear were tested for a number of different impact locations. Accelerometers within the headform monitored the impact mechanics. A Head Injury Criterion (HIC) of 1000 was selected as the injury threshold. Reliability data, collected one week apart, revealed that the results were highly reproducible. Although several of the headgear generated HIC values about 1000 for the various impact locations, only one of the headgear, that with the greatest thickness (15 mm) generated a HIC score below 1000 for impacts to the side and front of the headgear. There was a significant correlation between headgear thickness and HIC scores. It was concluded that all but one of the commercially available soft football headgear tested provided inadequate impact energy attenuation due to the limited amount of padding. It is postulated that the padding material of the headgear would need to be at least 15 mm thick to offer adequate protection.

  3. League Tables as Policy Instruments: Uses and Misuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil; Saroyan, Alenoush

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role and usefulness of league tables that are increasingly used to measure and compare the performance of tertiary education institutions. The article begins with a general overview and a typology of league tables. It continues with a discussion of the controversies they have generated, including the basis and the range…

  4. Four Decades of Innovation: Impact of the League for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Santos, Gerardo E.; O'Banion, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the League for Innovation in the Community College which will be celebrating throughout 2008 its 40th anniversary as one of the oldest and most significant organizations in the community college world. Created in 1968, when community colleges were being established at the rate of one per week, the League became a beacon for…

  5. The League of Peaceful Schools: A Dream Shared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Helen C.

    2003-01-01

    The League of Peaceful Schools was formed in Nova Scotia to support schools committed to building a culture of peace. Guided by League facilitators, member schools offer children models for building healthy relationships through service learning and elders programs. Member schools develop discipline policies that are proactive instead of punitive,…

  6. Native Americans: The Constitution of the Iroquois League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katie; Carusone, John J.

    In recognition of the fact that it is important to understand the contributions of the minority groups to the culture of the United States, this booklet presents the major political and governmental philosophies of the Iroquois League as practiced by the original League, and as practiced by the Mohawk and Seneca Nations today. The booklet may be…

  7. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  8. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  9. Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries by Major League Soccer Team Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Joseph; Harris, Joshua D.; Kolstad, Kaare; McCulloch, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    ). Conclusion: This article successfully describes current management of ACL injuries among MLS team orthopaedic surgeons. The preference for single-bundle BPTB autograft is similar to published data in the National Football League and National Basketball Association. PMID:26535286

  10. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P < .001). Muscle activation of the rectus abdominis and external oblique in prone plank position exceeded the maximal voluntary isometric contraction activation, with a significantly higher activation in females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation.

  11. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P < .001). Muscle activation of the rectus abdominis and external oblique in prone plank position exceeded the maximal voluntary isometric contraction activation, with a significantly higher activation in females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation. PMID:26671894

  12. The postmodernity of football hooliganism.

    PubMed

    King, A

    1997-12-01

    By using a 'cultural' definition of 'postmodernism' (derived from Jameson and Martin) in which postmodernism is regarded as the transgression of modern boundaries, this article traces the emergence of postmodern aspects to violent male fandom at football games since the 1960s. It is argued that at games, male fans have created imaginary masculine and national boundaries by which they have affirmed their identities but that in fighting they have sought to breach these boundaries in postmodern fashion. PMID:9421956

  13. Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…

  14. Disability days in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Conte, S; Requa, R K; Garrick, J G

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the injury experience in Major League Baseball as reflected by the disabled list, based on data presented by American Specialty Companies in their publications, to examine any changes in injury rates over the past 11 years. It is reasonable to expect that improvements in training and conditioning, diagnostic methods, and surgical treatment over the last 11 years would have reduced injuries and resulted in fewer players on the disabled list. Yet, such does not appear to be the case. There is no evidence that the number of injuries in Major League Baseball has declined over the last decade; on the contrary, it appears that both the number of players and player days on the disabled list have increased. Team membership, injury location, and position do not appear to be related to the increase. Nor does it appear that the increase in injuries is a result of more sensitive diagnostic tests allowing the diagnoses of previously unrecognized injuries. Whatever the reason, it is significant that publicly available data, when viewed over an 11-year period, reveal a gradual and consistent increase in reported injuries--suggesting a problem that deserves attention.

  15. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  16. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  17. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  18. Emotional Energy among College Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.; And Others

    Emotional energy levels of football players from a Division I college (large enrollment) and a Division II college (small enrollment) were assessed. The 20-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure varsity football players' emotional energy (anxiety) level. The 25 Division I and 36 Division II athletes were initially tested 96…

  19. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  20. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  1. The applied physiology of American football.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R

    2008-09-01

    American football is the most popular sport in the United States. Its popularity is likely related to the intense, fast-paced, physical style of play. The importance of strength and conditioning to success in football has been long understood. In fact, the strength and conditioning profession in North America can take its roots from American football. However, only recently has scientific study confirmed the positive relationships between strength, speed, and power to success in this sport. Although strength and conditioning are integral to every American football program, the collaboration with sport scientists has not been as fruitful. Only limited studies are available examining the physiological effects of actual competition and physiological adaptations or maladaptations during a season of competition. Most studies on American football have primarily focused on physical performance characteristics of these athletes and how various training paradigms can be used to improve performance.

  2. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts v. Bellotti.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    The Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts instituted a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of a statute requiring minors seeking an abortion to obtain parental consent or to persuade a judge of their maturity to give informed consent or that abortion would be in their best interest. In order to invoke judicial review, the plaintiffs moved their suit to federal court. The District Court dismissed the case on grounds that federal review power would interfere with state administration. On appeal, the First Circuit Court of Appeals decided that the plaintiffs could proceed with their action. The Circuit Court found that federal adjudication would not unduly interfere with state administration and remanded the case for further proceedings. Although it affirmed the statute's validity, the circuit court ruled that the plaintiffs must be allowed the opportunity to demonstrate the statute's unconstitutionality.

  3. League tables, institutional success and professional ethics.

    PubMed

    Cribb, A

    1999-10-01

    League tables are just one example of the growing importance of "institutional success" in the health service. What are the implications of attaching importance to institutional success, and what impact might this have on professional ethics? This paper considers these issues and argues that public policy processes which centre on institutional performance, and which co-opt professional loyalties to this end, shift the balance between person-centred and impersonal standpoints in health care (from the former and towards the latter). There is no attempt to make a global ethical appraisal of this putative shift but rather to raise a matter of concern for those committed to a person-centred conception of professional ethics. PMID:10536768

  4. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  5. The American Football Uniform: Uncompensable Heat Stress and Hyperthermic Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Yamamoto, Linda M.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Emmanuel, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: In hot environments, the American football uniform predisposes athletes to exertional heat exhaustion or exercise-induced hyperthermia at the threshold for heat stroke (rectal temperature [Tre] > 39°C). Objective: To evaluate the differential effects of 2 American football uniform configurations on exercise, thermal, cardiovascular, hematologic, and perceptual responses in a hot, humid environment. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men with more than 3 years of competitive experience as football linemen (age  =  23.8 ± 4.3 years, height  =  183.9 ± 6.3 cm, mass  =  117.41 ± 12.59 kg, body fat  =  30.1% ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 controlled exercise protocols consisting of repetitive box lifting (lifting, carrying, and depositing a 20.4-kg box at a rate of 10 lifts per minute for 10 minutes), seated recovery (10 minutes), and up to 60 minutes of treadmill walking. They wore one of the following: a partial uniform (PART) that included the National Football League (NFL) uniform without a helmet and shoulder pads; a full uniform (FULL) that included the full NFL uniform; or control clothing (CON) that included socks, sneakers, and shorts. Exercise, meals, and hydration status were controlled. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, blood pressure, treadmill exercise time, perceptual measurements, plasma volume, plasma lactate, plasma glucose, plasma osmolality, body mass, and fat mass. Results: During 19 of 30 experiments, participants halted exercise as a result of volitional exhaustion. Mean sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, and treadmill exercise time during the CON condition were different from those measures during the PART (P range, .04–.001; d range, 0.42–0.92) and FULL (P range, .04–.003; d range, 1.04–1.17) conditions; no differences were detected for perceptual measurements, plasma

  6. Adams v. Bennett and Women's Equity Action League v. Bennett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Responding to requests to appeal Adams v. Bennett and Women's Equity Action League v. Bennett, both dealing with alleged illegal granting of federal funds, Judge Pratt decided that the plaintiffs in both cases lacked standing to continue their litigation. (BJV)

  7. Who's Turning Children's Little League Play into Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo

    1980-01-01

    Little League baseball is a valuable experience for youngsters. It fosters team spirit and cooperation. Pressure by parents and coaches can take the fun out of the sport and make it an anxiety producing experience for the young player. (RJG)

  8. ADN Programs Accredited by the National League for Nursing, 1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The complete list of programs leading to an associate degree in nursing that are accredited by the National League for Nursing is presented, without annotation. The institutions are listed alphabetically by State. (Author/AJ)

  9. The normalization of explosive functional movements in a diverse population of elite American football players.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the need to normalize, for body mass, explosive functional tasks in a population exhibiting diverse body masses. Measures investigated in elite college American football players attending the National Football League's annual combine (n = 1,136) were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, vertical and horizontal jumps, 18.3-m shuttle, and 3-cone drill. To determine the relationship between body mass and performance outcomes, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were generated using log-transformed data. Task-specific allometric exponents, accounting for body mass, were also determined. The strength of the correlations suggests that sprint and jump abilities are associated with body mass, whereas change-of-direction ability is not. The determined allometric exponents range between 0.296 and -0.463 for the sprint and jump tasks and are -0.022 and -0.006 for the 18.3-m shuttle and the 3-cone drill, respectively. In populations exhibiting relatively large variations in body mass, normalization of sprint and jump abilities is recommended, whereas normalization of change-of-direction ability is unwarranted. Novel suggestions derived from the present research are that sprint and jump abilities in diverse populations warrant normalization and that physical attributes associated with explosive functional movements deserve attribute-specific consideration when contemplating normalization.

  10. An ecological dynamics rationale to explain home advantage in professional football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, José; Dias, Gonçalo; Couceiro, Micael; Passos, Pedro; Davids, Keith; Ribeiro, João

    2016-03-01

    Despite clear findings, research on home advantage in team sports lacks a comprehensive theoretical rationale for understanding why this phenomenon is so compelling. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory theoretical rationale in ecological dynamics for the influence of home advantage observed in research on professional football. We recorded 30 competitive matches and analyzed 13958 passes, from one highly successful team in the Portuguese Premier League, during season 2010/2011. Performance data were analyzed using the Match Analysis Software—Amisco® (version 3.3.7.25), allowing us to characterize team activity profiles. Results were interpreted from an ecological dynamics perspective, explaining how task and environmental constraints of a competitive football setting required performers to continuously co-adapt to teammate behaviors. Despite slight differences in percentage of ball possession when playing home or away, the number of passes achieved by the team, while in possession of the ball, was quite different between home or away venues. When playing at home, the number of passes performed by the team was considerably higher than when playing away. The explanation proposed in this study for a home advantage effect can be understood from studying interpersonal coordination tendencies of team sports players as agents in a complex adaptive system.

  11. “We wouldn’t of made friends if we didn’t come to Football United”: the impacts of a football program on young people’s peer, prosocial and cross-cultural relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sport as a mechanism to build relationships across cultural boundaries and to build positive interactions among young people has often been promoted in the literature. However, robust evaluation of sport-for-development program impacts is limited. This study reports on an impact evaluation of a sport-for-development program in Australia, Football United®. Methods A quasi-experimental mixed methods design was employed using treatment partitioning (different groups compared had different levels of exposure to Football United). A survey was undertaken with 142 young people (average age of 14.7 years with 22.5% of the sample comprising girls) in four Australian schools. These schools included two Football United and two Comparison schools where Football United was not operating. The survey instrument was composed of previously validated measures, including emotional symptoms, peer problems and relationships, prosocial behaviour, other-group orientation, feelings of social inclusion and belonging and resilience. Face to face interviews were undertaken with a purposeful sample (n = 79) of those who completed the survey. The participants in the interviews were selected to provide a diversity of age, gender and cultural backgrounds. Results Young people who participated in Football United showed significantly higher levels of other-group orientation than a Comparison Group (who did not participate in the program). The Football United boys had significantly lower scores on the peer problem scale and significantly higher scores on the prosocial scale than boys in the Comparison Group. Treatment partitioning analyses showed positive, linear associations between other-group orientation and total participation in the Football United program. A lower score on peer problems and higher scores on prosocial behaviour in the survey were associated with regularity of attendance at Football United. These quantitative results are supported by qualitative data analysed

  12. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  13. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  14. Acceleration and sprint profiles of a professional elite football team in match play.

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Dalen, Terje; Hjelde, Geir Håvard; Drust, Barry; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic home game of one full season (n = 15) by an automatic tracking system based on microwave technology. Each player performed 91 ± 21 accelerations per match, with a lower number in the second compared with the first half (47 ± 12 vs. 44 ± 12). Players in lateral positions accelerated more often compared to players in central positions (98.3 ± 20.5 vs. 85.3 ± 19.5, p < 0.05). Average sprint distance was 213 ± 111 m distributed between 16.6 ± 7.9 sprints, with no differences between first (106 ± 60 m, 8.2 ± 4.2 sprints) and second halves (107 ± 72 m, 8.3 ± 4.8 sprints). Players in lateral positions sprinted longer distances (287 ± 211 m vs. 160 ± 76 m, p < 0.05) and tended to sprint more often (21.6 ± 7.8 vs. 13.0 ± 5.7, p = 0.064) compared to players in central positions. We found more walking and less of the more intense activities during the last third of the season compared to the first. The main finding in this study was that Norwegian elite players had substantially less number of accelerations and fewer but longer sprints than previous studies reported for higher-ranked leagues. Also, less high-intensity activity was found towards the end of the season. Ultimately, these data provide useful information for the fitness coach (1) in planning of position-specific football training and (2) to avoid the decline in high-intensity activities the last third of the competitive season.

  15. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes. PMID:26840444

  16. Anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles in a football stadium: Real-time characterization of emissions from cigarette smoking, cooking, hand flares, and color smoke bombs by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Veres, Patrick R.; Williams, Jonathan; Borrmann, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    Aerosol particles from several anthropogenic sources associated with football stadia including cooking, cigarette smoking, burning of color smoke bombs and hand flares were analyzed by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. The physical and chemical characteristics of these different aerosols, in particular the organic fraction, were explored in laboratory studies to obtain robust references. These data were compared with field campaign results from a Bundesliga (German football league) match in the Coface Arena (Mainz, Germany) on 20th April 2012. The field measurement revealed a strongly elevated mass concentration of organic aerosols (OA) compared to background levels showing a temporal structure clearly related to the match. PMF analysis established that during the football match event cigarette smoke was the predominant component of submicron organic aerosol (67% of total OA). Cooking emissions from food outlets within the stadium correlated well with the sales figures of the catering stations and were also found to be of relevance (24% of total OA) especially in the period before kickoff. Pyrotechnics were not observed during this football match and no signatures of these sources were found in the mass spectra from the stadium measurements. All species that were elevated during the football match returned to their initial background levels within one hour after the match had finished. This demonstrates a good ventilation capacity of the open-topped Coface Arena.

  17. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  18. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  19. Tibial shaft fractures in amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Lenehan, B; Fleming, P; Walsh, S; Kaar, K

    2003-01-01

    Background: Footballers constitute a unique group of patients with tibial shaft fractures. They tend to have excellent general health and well developed musculature in the leg, and their fractures are generally closed injuries caused by low velocity trauma. However, little has been reported on the outcome after tibial shaft fractures in this group. Objective: To identify patterns of injury, response to treatment, and functional outcome in such a group. Method: Fifty consecutive tibial shaft fractures in adult footballers treated at Merlin Park Regional Hospital over a five year period were analysed. Results: Most of the fractures were type A injuries (AO/ASIF classification). The incidence of complications was low. All patients reported good or excellent satisfaction with their outcome. However, only 54% of patients returned to playing competitive football. Conclusion: Tibial shaft fractures in amateur footballers are associated with good results when traditional outcome criteria are used, but many patients do not regain their previous level of function. PMID:12663363

  20. Some Tentative Plans for Football on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Tentative football televising agreements between the National Collegiate Athletics Association and four television broadcasting companies, unconfirmed by contract pending a Supreme Court antitrust ruling concerning network and cable television companies, are outlined. (MSE)

  1. Little League survey: the Houston study.

    PubMed

    Gugenheim, J J; Stanley, R F; Woods, G W; Tullos, H S

    1976-01-01

    1. In a study of 595 Little League pitchers, approximately 17% had a history of elbow symptoms: only 1% had elbow symptoms which had ever excluded them from pitching. There was no correlation between the presence of symptoms and years of pitching experience. 2. Some limitation of active extension of the elbow was seen in 12% of the pitchers; however, there was no correlation between elbow flexion contractures and years of pitching experience, symptoms, or roentgenographic pathology. No normal child had an elbow flexion contracture greater than 15 degrees. 3. A slight valgus carrying angle is considered a normal anatomic variant in the dominant arm. There was no correlation between valgus carrying angle and years of pitching experience or symptoms or roentgenographic pathology. 4. No roentgenographic evidence of avascular necrosis of the capitellum, radial head, or both was seen in this population. 5. Roentgenographic findings such as bony hypertrophy, enlargement of the medial epicondyle, and secondary ossification centers are normal anatomic variants not related to symptoms. Undisplaced stress fractures of the medial epicondyle respond well to conservative treatment, with no functional residual.

  2. More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161841.html More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease: Study Researchers track ... say they can show that brain inflammation from football head trauma may lead to the development of ...

  3. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  4. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  5. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  6. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  7. Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Aaron J; Reaburn, Peter; Piva, Terrence J; Rowsell, Greg J

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching (NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One group completed 6 weeks of normal training (NT) whilst the other group was deliberately overreached through intensified training (IT). Both groups then completed the same 7-day stepwise training load reduction taper. Multistage fitness test (MSFT) performance, VO2 (max), peak aerobic running velocity (V (max)), maximal heart rate, vertical jump, 10-s cycle sprint performance and body mass were measured pre- and post-training period and following the taper. Hormonal, haematological and immunological parameters were also measured pre-training and following weeks 2, 4 and 6 of training and post-taper. MANOVA for repeated measures with contrast analysis indicated that MSFT performance and VO2 (max) were significantly reduced in the IT group over time and condition, indicating that a state of overreaching was attained. However, the only biochemical measure that was significantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive endurance and power performance changes were observed post-taper in the IT group confirming NFOR. These changes were associated with increases in the T/C ratio and the Gln/Glu ratio and decreases in plasma glutamate and CK activity. These results indicate that although there was no single reliable biochemical marker of NFOR in these athletes, the Gln/Glu ratio and MSFT test may be useful measures for monitoring responses to IT in team sport athletes. PMID:17219174

  8. Hamstring Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Zachazewski, James; Silvers, Holly J.; Li, Bernard; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Insler, Stephanie; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a hamstring injury prevention program designed to address the high incidence of acute and chronic hamstring injuries and re-injuries that occur in the sport of professional baseball. Methods: This was a prospective cluster cohort study assessing the efficacy of an injury prevention intervention designed to address hamstring injury in rookie and professional baseball players participating in Minor and Major League Baseball (N = 213). Each athlete was asked to participate and consented (Johns Hopkins Internal Review Board, Baltimore, Maryland). Those athletes who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire detailing their hamstring injury history. The hamstring injury prevention program was disseminated to each medical staff (team physician, certified athletic trainer and strength and conditioning coach) and they were instructed on how to implement the program. Weekly individual compliance with the program and injury data was collected. At the end of the season, the data were analyzed for program compliance and hamstring (HS) injury rates (both acute and reoccurrence) compared to the control data in the MLB HITS database. All data were stripped of individual and team identifiers prior to analysis. Results: For the major and minor league intervention study, one Major and Minor League organization served as the intervention (INT) team, which encompassed Rookie League, Fall Ball, Class A, AA, AAA and major league rosters (6 total teams). A total of 213 athletes consented to participate: Minor League: N = 173 players and Majors League: N = 40. Weekly compliance, injury incidence and time loss due to injury was compared to the HITS database (age, skill matched control group). The average weighted utilization of the injury prevention program was 25.30 utilizations for the uninjured group compared to 13.53 in the injured group (p=0.09). In the majors, there were 2 HS injuries in the INT vs. 79 in the CON

  9. The healthy worker effect in major league baseball revisited.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the "healthy worker effect" (HWE) in major league baseball. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1939 were obtained and differences between those ages and age-adjusted life expectancies were examined to determine if longevity increased with career length, controlling for decade in which a player debuted, player position, and handedness. Major league baseball players (N = 4,492) lived an average of 4.8 (+/- 15.0 Standard deviation [SD]) years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length significantly and incrementally increased longevity of players from an average of 4.1 years for players playing one season to 7.4 years for players playing 11 or more years. None of the other factors, nor any of the interactions, was statistically significant. These data provide strong support for the HWE in professional baseball.

  10. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing, but men are less likely than women to attend existing weight management programmes. We have taken a novel approach to reducing perceived barriers to weight loss for men by using professional football (soccer) clubs to encourage participation in a weight management group programme, gender-sensitised in content and style of delivery. Football Fans in Training (FFIT) provides 12 weeks of weight loss, physical activity and healthy eating advice at top professional football clubs in Scotland. This pilot randomized trial explored the feasibility of using these clubs as a setting for a randomized controlled trial of 12 month weight loss following men’s participation in FFIT. Methods A two-arm pilot trial at two Scottish Premier League football clubs (one large, one smaller), with 103 men (aged 35–65, body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2) individually randomized to the intervention (n=51, received the pilot programme (p-FFIT) immediately) and waitlist comparison (n=52, received p-FFIT after four months) groups. Feasibility of recruitment, randomization, data collection and retention were assessed. Objective physical measurements (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, body composition) and questionnaires (self-reported physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, psychological outcomes) were obtained from both groups by fieldworkers trained to standard protocols at baseline and 12 weeks, and from the intervention group at 6 and 12 months. Qualitative methods elicited men’s experiences of participation in the pilot trial. Results Following a short recruitment period, the recruitment target was achieved at the large, but not smaller, club. Participants’ mean age was 47.1±8.4 years; mean BMI 34.5±5.0 kg/m2. Retention through the trial was good (>80% at 12 weeks and 6 months; >75% at 12 months), and 76% attended at least 80% of available programme delivery sessions. At 12 weeks, the intervention group lost

  11. Time-Loss and Non–Time-Loss Injuries in Youth Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Dompier, Thomas P; Powell, John W; Barron, Mary J; Moore, Marguerite T

    2007-01-01

    Context: Estimates suggest that more than 5.5 million youths play football annually, and 28% of youth football players (age range = 5 to 14 years) are injured each year, resulting in more than 187 000 emergency room visits. Objective: To analyze time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injury patterns across age groups in youth football players. Design: Two-year observational cohort. Setting: Two midwestern communities, including players from the fourth through eighth grades and between the ages of 9 and 14 years. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 779 players participated, including 296 in grades 4 and 5; 203 in grade 6; 188 in grade 7; and 92 in grade 8. (Players in the fourth and fifth grades participated on the same teams, so we considered them as a single group.) Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury frequencies and exposures were collected by certified athletic trainers present at each practice and game and used to calculate injury rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for both TL and NTL injuries across age groups. Results: A total of 474 injuries and 26 565 exposures were identified. Injuries were reported by 36.5% of the players, with 14.4% reporting more than 1 injury in a season. The overall injury rate per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es) was 17.8 (95% CI = 16.3, 19.5). The injury rate increased with each succeeding grade from 14.3 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 12.1, 16.9) in grades 4 and 5 to 21.7 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 17.2, 27.3) in grade 8. A total of 58.6% of all injuries were NTL. Non–time-loss injuries accounted for 70.1% of the injuries reported by fourth and fifth graders, 55.1% by sixth graders, 64.0% by seventh graders, and 33.8% by eighth graders. The cumulative NTL injury rate was 10.5 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 9.3, 11.8), and the TL injury rate was 7.4 per 1000 A-Es (95% CI = 6.4, 8.5). Conclusions: Youth football players sustained more NTL injuries than TL injuries. We recommend that a first-aid–certified coach or league official be

  12. Birth month and suicide among major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2005-08-01

    We examined the association between month of birth and completed suicides among major league baseball players (N = 76). More than twice as many players born in August committed suicide (N = 19) than any other birth month. This association was statistically significant when birth month was corrected for differences in days of the month. The differences were even larger when expressed in terms of birth month for those committing suicides divided by number of major league players born in each month. The association between birth month and suicide raises the possibility that prenatal factors may influence the inclination for suicide later in life.

  13. Facial fractures in Gaelic football and hurling.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Condon, K C; O'Connor, T P

    1995-01-01

    A one year, retrospective, epidemiological study of all facial fractures, sustained whilst playing the GAA sports of football and hurling, treated in the Cork Regional Hospital was undertaken. The results have been analysed and compared to a similar study performed in this unit in 1975. Of 332 patients treated for facial fractures, 110 (33%) were injured whilst playing sport and 47% of these occurred when playing Gaelic football or hurling (52 injuries in all). Eighty per cent of Gaelic football and hurling patients required operative treatment. All surgery was performed under general anaesthetic. The numbers of hurling fractures have more than halved since 1975-76. This coincides with an increase in the numbers hurling, an increase in the use of protective headgear and vastly improved coaching. This study demonstrates that improved safety can be achieved without diluting sporting enjoyment.

  14. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  15. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  16. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  17. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  18. Incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M; Grant, S; Henry, A; Newell, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive prospective epidemiological study of injuries sustained by elite Gaelic Football players over one season. The pattern of injury is strikingly similar across all teams with 47% of all injuries occurring in the final quarter of games and training. Injuries to the lower limb, particularly the hamstrings muscles accounted for the majority of injuries. 65% of players were unable to participate fully in Gaelic Football activity for between one and three weeks as a result of injury. The high incidence of injury especially hamstrings injuries in the latter stages of training and games warrants further investigation.

  19. Higher Education Ranking and Leagues Tables: Lessons Learned from Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…

  20. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  1. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  2. Building Nuclear Communities: The Hanford Education Action League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Jeanne; Salvador, Michael

    Many scholars have examined the jeremiad in American rhetoric and political discourse. The Hanford Education Action League (HEAL), which influenced policy changes in the operations of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington, is a social movement organization whose founding members used the jeremiad to create a symbolic community which…

  3. Teacher to Teacher: Learn about Statistics--Math League Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Presents an introductory activity in statistics in which a mathematics class is divided into groups to "draft" teams of major league baseball players. Describes the drafting procedure, charting the team, scoring, roster changes, and gathering and evaluating data. Includes draft list, daily box scores, and cumulative box scores. (MKR)

  4. Harold and Kumar Go to the Ivy League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    For having achieved a mild cult status after doing the movie "Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle," lead actors John Cho and Kal Penn deserve their fame, their million-dollar paychecks, and their groupies. Do they deserve Ivy League teaching jobs? This spring Penn (whose real name is Kalpen Modi) taught a large lecture class, "Images of Asian…

  5. Child Welfare League of America 1997 Salary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Patrick A.; Laitin, Anna

    This report details a study of trends in the salaries of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and other personnel at member agencies of the Child Welfare League of America. Responding to the study's mail survey were 377 out of 780 member agencies (48 percent return) and 327 out of 640 direct service CWLA agencies (51 percent return), including state…

  6. Fantasy Higher Education: University and College League Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Review of national (United Kingdom) and international university league tables published in 1998 in major British newspapers finds that these efforts to rank institutions by using weighted combinations of performance indicators do not provide most potential students with the critical information needed to choose a school. (DB)

  7. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of amateur rugby league players

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of amateur rugby league players. Methods—Thirty five amateur rugby league players (19 forwards and 16 backs) were measured for height, body mass, percentage body fat (sum of four skinfolds), muscular power (vertical jump), speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), and maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test). Data were also collected on match frequency, training status, playing experience, and employment related physical activity levels. Results—The 10 m and 40 m sprint, vertical jump, percentage body fat, and multistage fitness test results were 20–42% poorer than previously reported for professional rugby league players. Compared with forwards, backs had significantly (p<0.01) lower body mass (79.7 (74.7–84.7) kg v 90.8 (86.2–95.4) kg) and significantly (p<0.01) greater speed during the 40 m sprint (6.45 (6.35–6.55) v 6.79 (6.69–6.89) seconds). Values for percentage body fat, vertical jump, 10 m sprint, and maximal aerobic power were not significantly different (p>0.05) between forwards and backs. When compared with professional rugby league players, the training status of amateur rugby league players was 30–53% lower, with players devoting less than three hours a week to team training sessions and about 30 minutes a week to individual training sessions. The training time devoted to the development of muscular power (about 13 minutes a week), speed (about eight minutes a week), and aerobic fitness (about 34 minutes a week) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between forwards and backs. At the time of the field testing, players had participated, on average, in one 60 minute match every eight days. Conclusions—The physiological and anthropometric characteristics of amateur rugby league players are poorly developed. These findings suggest that position specific training does not occur in amateur rugby league. The poor fitness of non-elite players may be due to a low

  8. Mechanical properties of the triceps surae: differences between football and non-football players.

    PubMed

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Wood, Paola; Moreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae between professional, junior, and non-football players. Fifty-nine men participated in this study. The mechanical properties of the right legs' triceps surae were measured in vivo using a free oscillation technique; no significant differences existed between the groups. The mean results for musculo-articular stiffness, damping coefficient, and damping ratio were as follows: professional football players (21523 N· m⁻¹, 330.8 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.201); junior football players (21063 N · m⁻¹, 274.4 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.173); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). When analysed according to position, the results were as follows: defender (21447 N · m⁻¹, 308.6 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.189); midfielder (20762 N · m⁻¹, 250.7 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.157); winger (21322 N · m⁻¹, 335.1 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.212); forward (22085 N · m⁻¹, 416.2 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.254); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). Thus, football training, football games, and the position played had no effect on triceps surae mechanical properties. These results may be attributed to opposing adaptations between different types of training that are usually implemented in football. Alternatively, the minimum strain amplitude and/or frequency threshold of the triceps surae required to trigger adaptations of mechanical properties might not be achieved by football players with football training and matches.

  9. Science and football: a review of applied research in the football codes.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Gilbourne, David

    2003-09-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a growth in research directly related to football. Although most of this research is focused on soccer (association football), there has been a steady increase in publications related to the other football codes. There is evidence of more systematic training and selection influencing the anthropometric profiles of players who compete at the highest level. Fitness is being optimized to cope with match demands while accommodating the need for specific requirements of positional roles. There is evidence of work rate being higher in contemporary football games than in previous decades, with consequences for training and dietary practices. Notation analysis of actions during matches is now used regularly to provide detailed objective feedback on performance to players and coaches. Training regimens are designed for game-specific purposes where possible. Sports psychologists working in a football context have a more eclectic body of knowledge to draw from. In the professional soccer clubs, the rewards associated with a successful investment in youth academies have helped to focus attention on talent identification and development models. It is a challenge to those specializing in science and football to contribute to the success of such schemes.

  10. Absence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in retired football players with multiple concussions and neurological symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Tartaglia, Maria C.; Diamandis, Phedias; Davis, Karen D.; Green, Robin E.; Wennberg, Richard; Wong, Janice C.; Ezerins, Leo; Tator, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the term coined for the neurodegenerative disease often suspected in athletes with histories of repeated concussion and progressive dementia. Histologically, CTE is defined as a tauopathy with a distribution of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that is distinct from other tauopathies, and usually shows an absence of beta-amyloid deposits, in contrast to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the connection between repeated concussions and CTE-type neurodegeneration has been recently proposed, this causal relationship has not yet been firmly established. Also, the prevalence of CTE among athletes with multiple concussions is unknown. Methods: We performed a consecutive case series brain autopsy study on six retired professional football players from the Canadian Football League (CFL) with histories of multiple concussions and significant neurological decline. Results: All participants had progressive neurocognitive decline prior to death; however, only 3 cases had post-mortem neuropathological findings consistent with CTE. The other 3 participants had pathological diagnoses of AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the CTE cases showed co-morbid pathology of cancer, vascular disease, and AD. Discussion: Our case studies highlight that not all athletes with history of repeated concussions and neurological symptomology present neuropathological changes of CTE. These preliminary findings support the need for further research into the link between concussion and CTE as well as the need to expand the research to other possible causes of taupathy in athletes. They point to a critical need for prospective studies with good sampling methods to allow us to understand the relationship between multiple concussions and the development of CTE. PMID:23745112

  11. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  12. There's a Football Revival Goin' On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how within the last 2 years, several historically Black colleges (Benedict College, Allen University, Edward Waters College, Paul Quinn College, Lincoln University, Stillman College) have dusted the cobwebs off their football programs, most of which had been dormant for decades. The result has been increasing enrollment, income, and…

  13. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  14. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  15. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, J P

    1985-01-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries. Images p71-a PMID:4027497

  16. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  17. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  18. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  19. Modern Apprenticeships in English Professional Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…

  20. Anthropometry increases 1 repetition maximum predictive ability of NFL-225 test for Division IA college football players.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, Ronald K; Schroeder, Brian L; Wages, Jennifer J; Stickley, Christopher D; Kimura, Iris F

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare existing 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press prediction equations in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA college football players and determine if the error associated with the prediction of 1RM bench press from the National Football League (NFL)-225 test could be reduced through the addition of anthropometric measurements. Anthropometric measures, 1RM bench press, NFL-225 test repetitions to fatigue, and body composition data were collected on 87 Division IA football players (mean+/-SD age 19.9+/-1.3 years; height 182.3+/-7.3 cm; body mass 102.3+/-21.1 kg; % fat 13.9+/-6.7; 1RM bench press 140.5+/-2 6.6 kg; and NFL-225 reps to fatigue 14.1+/-8.0). Hierarchical regression revealed an R=0.87 when predicting 1RM from the NFL-225 test alone, which improved to R=0.90 with the addition of the anthropometric variables: arm circumference and arm length. The following equation was the best performing model to predict 1RM bench press: 1RM (lb)=299.08+2.47 arm circumference (cm)--4.60 arm length (cm)+5.84 reps @ 225; SEE=18.3 lb). This equation predicted 43.7% of subjects' within +/-10 lb of their actual 1RM bench press. Using a crossvalidation group, the equation resulted in estimates of 1RM which were not significantly different than the actual 1RM. Because of the variability that has been shown to be associated with 1RM prediction equations, the use of actual 1RM testing is recommended when this is a critical variable. However, coaches, scouts, and athletes, who choose to estimate 1RM bench press using repetitions to failure from the NFL-225 test, may benefit from the use of the equations developed in this study to estimate 1RM bench press with the inclusion of simple anthropometric measurements.

  1. Health Improvement for Men and Hard-to-Engage-Men Delivered in English Premier League Football Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Robertson, Steven; Daly-Smith, Andy; White, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviours represent modifiable causes of non-communicable disease. In men, concern focuses on those (i) demonstrating the poorest health, exacerbated by a lack of awareness of the risks that their lifestyles pose and (ii) who neither consult their doctor nor use health services. Classed as "hard-to-engage", distinctive…

  2. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  3. NFL-225 test to predict 1RM bench press in NCAA Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2012-10-01

    The National Football League (NFL)-225 test has gained popularity for assessing muscular performance among college football programs. Although the test is a measure of absolute muscular endurance, it was reputed to be highly correlated with maximum muscular strength. The purposes of this study were to assess the predictive potential of the NFL-225 test for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college football players and to evaluate the accuracy of previous NFL-225 prediction equations. Players (n = 289) in a successful Division I program were assessed over a period of 5 years for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lb). Test sessions occurred within 1 week of each other during the off-season training period. In a validation group (n = 202), repetitions were significantly correlated with 1RM (r = 0.95), producing a prediction equation (1RM [kg] = 103.5 + 3.08 Reps) with a standard error of estimate = 6.4 kg (coefficient of variation = 4.3%). In a randomly selected cross-validation group (n = 87), the new equation nonsignificantly underpredicted by 0.9 ± 7.2 kg produced a high correlation with actual 1RM (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.967), had a limit of agreement of -15.0 to 13.2 kg, and predicted 69% of the group within ±4.5 kg of their actual 1RM. The best previous equation was that of Slovak et al., which was nonsignificantly underpredicted by -0.5 ± 6.7 kg, produced a high correlation with actual 1RM (ICC = 0.975), and predicted 68% of the group within ±4.5 kg of their actual 1RM. The new NFL-225 test seems to be a reasonable predictor of 1RM bench press in Division I players but should be further assessed on players from other high-level programs.

  4. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. METHOD: Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. RESULTS: In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition. The overall injury frequency rate (IFR) was 8.5 injuries/1000 hours, with the IFR during competitions (27.7) being significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that during training (3.5). The IFRs for youth players were found to increase over the second half of the season, whereas they decreased for professional players. There were no significant differences in IFRs for professional and youth players during training. There were significantly (p < 0.01) injuries in competition in the 15 minute periods at the end of each half. Strains (41%), sprains (20%), and contusions (20%) represented the major types of injury. The thigh (23%), the ankle (17%), knee (14%), and lower leg (13%) represented the major locations of injury, with significantly (p < 0.01) more injuries to the dominant body side. Reinjury counted for 22% of all injuries. Only 12% of all injuries were caused by a breach of the rules of football, although player to player contact was involved in 41% of all injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The overall level of injury to professional footballers has been showed to be around 1000 times higher times higher than for industrial occupations generally regarded as high risk. The high level of muscle strains, in particular, indicates possible weakness in fitness training programmes and use of warming up and cooling down procedures by clubs and the need for benchmarking players' levels of fitness and performance. Increasing levels of injury to youth players as a season progresses emphasizes the

  5. Expertise and decision-making in American football.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  6. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-05-01

    A class demonstration and cooperative learning activity in which the ideal gas law is applied to determine the volume of a football is described. The mass of an air-filled football is recorded at two or more pressures, and students are asked to use these data to solve problems involving the volume, pressure, and mass of the football and the molecular weight of the gas in the ball. Several sample questions are included.

  7. Expertise and decision-making in American football

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Adam J.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F(2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  8. Travelling Fellowship Program for Football Medicine; Report on an Experience

    PubMed Central

    Seifbarghi, Tohid; Hashemi, Akram; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Football medicine has developed in the world in recent years. AFC Medical Committee, established the idea of football medicine travelling fellowship two years ago and provided high-level healthcare services to football players in Asian countries. This is a report on my one month experience in a travelling fellowship program for football medicine which is attempting to tell the reader about the interesting event that I experienced. This course has been held between Jan 15 to Feb 10, 2012 in 3 Asian countries: Qatar, Thailand and Malysia. The experience provided me with the valuable suggestions for future travelling fellowship periods. PMID:23012644

  9. Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gibson, Neil V; Twist, Craig; Gabbett, Tim J; MacNay, Sophie A; MacFarlane, Niall G

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition and the subsequent impact on match performance. The participants were 7 rugby league players competing in an international student tournament. The tournament involved three 80-minute games over a 5-day period, with 48 hours between each match. Baseline measures of upper and lower body neuromuscular functions via a plyometric press-up (PP) and countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively (peak power and peak force were measured), blood creatine kinase (CK), and perceptions of well-being were assessed with a questionnaire. These measures were repeated every morning of the competition; neuromuscular fatigue and CK were additionally assessed within 2 hours after the cessation of each game. During each match, player movements were recorded via global positioning system units. There were meaningful reductions in upper (effect size [ES] = -0.55) and lower body (ES = -0.73) neuromuscular functions, and perceptual well-being (ES = -1.56) and increases in blood CK (ES = 2.32) after game 1. These changes increased in magnitude as the competition progressed. There were large reductions in the relative distance covered in high-speed running (ES = -1.49) and maximal accelerations (ES = -0.85) during game 3. Additionally, moderate reductions in the percentage of successful tackles completed were observed during game 3 (ES = -0.59). Collectively, these results demonstrate that during an intensified period of rugby league competition, characterized by only 48 hours between matches, fatigue will accumulate. This cumulative fatigue may compromise high-intensity match activities such as high-speed running, accelerations, and tackling. Furthermore, CMJs and PPs appear to be sensitive measures for monitoring neuromuscular function in rugby league players.

  10. Little league shoulder: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Anthony R; Mason, Dan E

    2004-01-01

    When compared with adults, children have unique injury patterns secondary to their anatomical differences. The susceptibility of the growth plate to injury is well-documented. "Little Leaguer's shoulder" is the term used for injury to the open proximal humeral epiphysis in the Little League pitcher. We present a case report and literary review. Discussed are the possible etiologies, patient presentation, physical exam, radiographic findings, and treatment recommendations.

  11. Physical size associations to offensive performance among major league leaders.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam

    2014-09-01

    Minimal work has studied physical size effects on statistical performance among Major League players. In this study, longitudinal, bivariate, and regression analyses studied the impact of physical size on offensive baseball statistics within a homogeneous talent sample of Major League batting leaders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from heights and weights that were publicly available to form a statistical database of 4,360 offense leaders from 1950 to 2010. Repeated-measures analysis of variances examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between each decade from 1950 to 2010. Bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence, where all tests applied an a priori significance level (p ≤ 0.05). After 1980, offensive performance increased (p ≤ 0.05) concurrent to body mass and BMI growth (p < 0.001). During the 1960s, only batting average and on-base plus slugging percentages were found statistically decreased (p ≤ 0.05). All baseball statistics were positively correlated and predicted by BMI (p < 0.001). Consideration to covariant factors is required in data interpretation, yet nonetheless, our results showed physical size (BMI) to positively influence Major League offensive statistics. Over the 60-year period, greater body weight-to-height proportions owed to improved competitive performance, which suggests greater emphasis on hypertrophic stimuli in training and nutrition, as well as selection of larger professional baseball prospects. PMID:24875425

  12. Strength, speed and power characteristics of elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, James; Brughelli, Matt E; McGuigan, Michael R; Hansen, Keir T

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare strength, speed, and power characteristics between playing position (forwards and backs) in elite rugby league players. A total of 39 first team players (height, 183.8 ± 5.95 cm; body mass, 100.3 ± 10.7 kg; age, 24 ± 3 years) from a National Rugby League club participated in this study. Testing included 10-, 40-m sprint times, sprint mechanics on an instrumented nonmotorized treadmill, and concentric isokinetic hip and knee extension and flexion. Backs, observed to have significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lighter body mass (effect size [ES] = 0.98), were significantly faster (10-m ES = 1.26; 40-m ES = 1.61) and produced significantly greater relative horizontal force and power (ES = 0.87 and 1.04) compared with forwards. However, no significant differences were found between forwards and backs during relative isokinetic knee extension, knee flexion, relative isokinetic hip extension, flexion, prowler sprints, sprint velocity, contact time, or flight time. The findings demonstrate that backs have similar relative strength in comparison with forwards, but run faster overground and produce significantly greater relative horizontal force and power when sprinting on a nonmotorized instrumented treadmill. Developing force and power in the horizontal direction may be beneficial for improving sprint performance in professional rugby league players. PMID:24513623

  13. Injury risk due to collisions in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, D A; Davis, S W

    2014-07-01

    Purpose is to determine if Major League Baseball plays at risk for collisions have higher injury rates than typical base running plays. 2002-2011 Major League Baseball play data was obtained: non-force putouts by catcher at home plate (Catcher Tag Out), groundball force outs at 2(nd) base with less than 2 outs (Double Play Attempt), and the control play, outfield assisted non-force putouts of runners attempting to advance to 2(nd) or 3(rd) base (Outfield Assist 2(nd)/3(rd)). This list was cross-referenced with 2002-2011 disabled lists to see if an involved player went on the disabled list the day of or day after the play. An on-line search for each match determined if the injury was attributable to that play. Rate calculated per 1 000 plays, severity in days on disabled list. Injury rate and severity for Catcher Tag Out was 6.98 and 45.6 respectively, Double Play Attempt 0.42 and 41.3, Outfield Assist 2(nd/)3(rd) 1.56 and 47.0. Injury rate for Catcher Tag Out was higher (P = 0.03) than the control while Double Play Attempt trended lower (P = 0.05). There was no difference in severity. Catcher Tag Outs carry greater injury risk than typical base running plays. Major League Baseball should consider prohibiting base path collisions.

  14. Physical size associations to offensive performance among major league leaders.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam

    2014-09-01

    Minimal work has studied physical size effects on statistical performance among Major League players. In this study, longitudinal, bivariate, and regression analyses studied the impact of physical size on offensive baseball statistics within a homogeneous talent sample of Major League batting leaders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from heights and weights that were publicly available to form a statistical database of 4,360 offense leaders from 1950 to 2010. Repeated-measures analysis of variances examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between each decade from 1950 to 2010. Bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence, where all tests applied an a priori significance level (p ≤ 0.05). After 1980, offensive performance increased (p ≤ 0.05) concurrent to body mass and BMI growth (p < 0.001). During the 1960s, only batting average and on-base plus slugging percentages were found statistically decreased (p ≤ 0.05). All baseball statistics were positively correlated and predicted by BMI (p < 0.001). Consideration to covariant factors is required in data interpretation, yet nonetheless, our results showed physical size (BMI) to positively influence Major League offensive statistics. Over the 60-year period, greater body weight-to-height proportions owed to improved competitive performance, which suggests greater emphasis on hypertrophic stimuli in training and nutrition, as well as selection of larger professional baseball prospects.

  15. Smokeless tobacco use: how it affects the performance of major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Robertson, P B; DeRouen, T A; Ernster, V; Grady, D; Greene, J; Mancl, L; McDonald, D; Walsh, M M

    1995-08-01

    The authors examined the effect of smokeless tobacco use on the athletic performance of major league baseball players during the 1988 season. They evaluated performance records of 158 players on seven major league teams who played or pitched at least 10 games or innings during the 1988 season. ST use, they concluded, is not related to player performance in major league baseball but does place players at significantly increased risk for mucosal lesions and other oral pathology.

  16. Universality in the distance between two teams in a football tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Dahmen, Silvio R.

    2014-03-01

    Is football (soccer) a universal sport? Beyond the question of geographical distribution, where the answer is most certainly yes, when looked at from a mathematical viewpoint the scoring process during a match can be thought of, in a first approximation, as being modeled by a Poisson distribution. Recently, it was shown that the scoring of real tournaments can be reproduced by means of an agent-based model (da Silva et al. (2013) [24]) based on two simple hypotheses: (i) the ability of a team to win a match is given by the rate of a Poisson distribution that governs its scoring during a match; and (ii) such ability evolves over time according to results of previous matches. In this article we are interested in the question of whether the time series represented by the scores of teams have universal properties. For this purpose we define a distance between two teams as the square root of the sum of squares of the score differences between teams over all rounds in a double-round-robin-system and study how this distance evolves over time. Our results suggest a universal distance distribution of tournaments of different major leagues which is better characterized by an exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG). This result is corroborated by our agent-based model.

  17. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes.

  18. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.

  19. Aerodynamic analysis of a tumbling American football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Daniel Edmundson

    In this study, the aerodynamic effects on an American football are characterized, especially in a tumbling, or end-over-end, motion as seen in a typical kickoff or field goal attempt. The objective of this study is to establish aerodynamic coefficients for the dynamic motion of a tumbling American football. A subsonic wind tunnel was used to recreate a range of air velocities that, when coupled with rotation rates and differing laces orientations, would provide a test bed for aerodynamic drag, side, and lift coefficient analysis. Test results quantify effect of back-spin and top-spin on lift force. Results show that the presence of laces imposes a side force in the opposite direction of the laces orientation. A secondary system was installed to visualize air flow around the tumbling ball and record high-speed video of wake patterns, as a qualitative check of measured force directions.

  20. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  1. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768

  2. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. PMID:24225523

  3. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    El-Gohary, Y; Roarty, A; O'Rourke, P

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  4. Prevalence of Pituitary Hormone Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome, and Impaired Quality of Life in Retired Professional Football Players: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J.; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C.J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30–65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and

  5. Prevalence of pituitary hormone dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and impaired quality of life in retired professional football players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel F; Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C J; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30-65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and 50% had Met

  6. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  7. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  8. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  9. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  10. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  11. A Personality Profile of Southeastern Conference Football Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Eller, Ben F.

    Despite the importance of officiating, there is little information available on how major college football officials view their sport, themselves, and their role as officials. Southeastern Conference (SEC) football officials (N=39) responded to a survey packet consisting of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and a four-page profile of…

  12. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  13. Science and football: evaluating the influence of science on performance.

    PubMed

    Drust, B; Green, M

    2013-01-01

    The scientific study of football has its origins in the early research completed in the 1970's. Since these early efforts the available scientific knowledge base related to football has developed substantially. The ability of this scientific information to influence practice in the day-to-day activity of football organisations, especially elite teams, has been largely taken for granted. The close examination of this impact can lead to more uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the scientific data to the sport. Few articles are available that have attempted to critique the link between science and football practice. As such, the aims of this article are 2-fold; (i) to examine the historical background to "science and football" and to analyse the influence of sports science research on the current practice of coaches and practitioners within the sport and (ii) to identify potential ways to increase the influence of scientific research on practice in the "real world".

  14. Helmet hazards. Do's & don'ts of football helmet removal.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, D M; Pollak, A N; McAdam, C

    2001-07-01

    EMS providers must use extreme caution when evaluating and treating an unconscious football player, especially when the extent of the injury remains unknown. Suspect any unconscious football player has an accompanying spinal injury until proven otherwise. If the football player isn't breathing or the possibility of respiratory arrest exists, it's essential that certified athletic trainers and EMS providers work quickly and effectively to remove the face mask and administer care. In most situations, the helmet doesn't need to be removed in the field. Proper management of head and neck injuries includes leaving the helmet in place whenever possible, removing only the face mask from the helmet and developing a plan to manage head- and neck-injured football players using well-trained sports medicine and EMS providers. EMS agencies should work with their local high school or college athletic trainers to practice these removal techniques prior to the start of the football season.

  15. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. PMID:18175508

  16. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  17. A Special Report on Mentoring from Project PLUS and the National Urban League, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PLUS (Project Literacy U.S.).

    This newsletter describes mentoring programs that have been successful in improving the academic achievement of at-risk African American youth. "Mentors Play Role in League's Education Push" (J. E. Jacob) describes the key role of mentors in the Urban League's Education Initiative. "Mentoring: Effective for Youth" (L. Sullivan) discusses the…

  18. The League of Women Voters of the United States: A Case Study in Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman-Everett, Ileen N.

    The paper analyzes structure and organizational communication within the League of Women Voters. The document is presented in three major sections. The first section traces the history of the League of Women Voters from its origins in the women's suffrage movement to its current involvement with international relations, human rights, and…

  19. Fabricated World Class: Global University League Tables, Status Differentiation and Myths of Global Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    UK media coverage of global university league tables shows systematic bias towards the Russell Group, although also highlighting tensions within its membership. Coverage positions UK "elite" institutions between US superiority and Asian ascent. Coverage claims that league table results warrant UK university funding reform. However,…

  20. 77 FR 10618 - Western Coal Traffic League-Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Western Coal Traffic League--Petition for Declaratory Order AGENCY: Surface...) instituted a declaratory order proceeding on September 28, 2011, Western Coal Traffic League--Petition for... Service (FIRS) at (800) 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In this proceeding, the Western Coal...

  1. 77 FR 62311 - Western Coal Traffic League-Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Western Coal Traffic League--Petition for Declaratory Order AGENCY: Surface... proceeding to address the May 2, 2011 petition of the Western Coal Traffic League (WCTL), where WCTL...

  2. Creating the "International Mind": The League of Nations Attempts to Reform History Teaching, 1920-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken

    2016-01-01

    After the First World War, the League of Nations, through its International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, attempted to reshape the teaching of history in its member states. The League's supporters realized that its long-term success depended in part on supportive public opinion and that this, in turn, had implications for education. Aware…

  3. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in players on a major league baseball team.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John D

    2003-08-15

    We performed a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein test in major league baseball players. This test was of limited usefulness on preseason physical examination of 50 major league baseball players. The test is more likely to be of greater value performed on those whose 10-year risk of coronary heart disease is in the 10% to 20% range.

  4. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K

    2013-08-01

    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p < 0.05) were performed using the ordinary least squares method. The FBV was the dependent variable, where the explanatory variable was the game number (representing cumulative workload). Further analyses were performed on ball velocity differences predicted by days rest and PWRRs. The FBV increased linearly for the first 8 games of the season (R = 0.91, F(1,7) = 64.67, p < 0.001). Over the 8 - game period, mean FBVs increased 0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) with the greatest velocity increase occurring between the first and eighth game at 1.97 m/s (4.4 mph). Days rest and PWRRs did not impact FBV differences. When compared with previous research, minor league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications. PMID:23222081

  5. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K

    2013-08-01

    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p < 0.05) were performed using the ordinary least squares method. The FBV was the dependent variable, where the explanatory variable was the game number (representing cumulative workload). Further analyses were performed on ball velocity differences predicted by days rest and PWRRs. The FBV increased linearly for the first 8 games of the season (R = 0.91, F(1,7) = 64.67, p < 0.001). Over the 8 - game period, mean FBVs increased 0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) with the greatest velocity increase occurring between the first and eighth game at 1.97 m/s (4.4 mph). Days rest and PWRRs did not impact FBV differences. When compared with previous research, minor league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications.

  6. 75 FR 59158 - Earth Day Commitment/Friends of the Coast, Beyond Nuclear, Seacoast Anti-Pollution League, C-10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ..., Seacoast Anti-Pollution League, C-10 Research and Education Foundation, Pilgrim Watch, and New England... Anti- Pollution League, C-10 Research and Education Foundation, Pilgrim Watch, and New England..., Yankee Rowe, and Seabrook. Seacoast Anti-Pollution League (SAPL). SAPL has worked since 1969 to...

  7. Incidence of injury in semi-professional rugby league players

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T; Hodgson, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the site, nature, cause, and severity of injuries in semi-professional rugby league players. Methods: The incidence of injury was prospectively studied in one hundred and fifty six semi-professional rugby league players over two competitive seasons. All injuries sustained during matches and training sessions were recorded. Injury data were collected from a total of 137 matches and 148 training sessions. Information recorded included the date and time of injury, site, nature, cause, and severity of injury. Results: During the two seasons, 1694 playing injuries and 559 training injuries were sustained. The match injury incidence was 824.7 per 1000 player-position game hours and training injury incidence was 45.3 per 1000 training hours. Over 20% of the total training (17.4 per 1000) and playing (168.0 per 1000) injuries sustained were to the thigh and calf. Muscular injuries (haematomas and strains) were the most common type of injury sustained during training (22.0 per 1000, 48.7%) and matches (271.7 per 1000, 32.9%). Playing injuries were most commonly sustained in tackles (382.2 per 1000, 46.3%), while overexertion was the most common cause of training injuries (15.5 per 1000, 34.4%). The majority of playing injuries were sustained in the first half of matches (1013.6 per 1000, 61.5% v 635.8 per 1000, 38.5%), whereas training injuries occurred more frequently in the latter stages of the training session (50.0 per 1000, 55.3% v 40.5 per 1000, 44.7%). Significantly more training injuries were sustained in the early half of the season, however, playing injuries occurred more frequently in the latter stages of the season. Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in training and playing intensity impact significantly upon injury rates in semi-professional rugby league players. Further studies investigating the influence of training and playing intensity on injuries in rugby league are warranted. PMID:12547741

  8. Skinfold Estimates of Body Fat in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A E

    1981-10-01

    In brief: One hundred and thirty-seven major league baseball players and 32 coaches were tested for body composition, and comparisons were made among positions and among teams. Shortstops were the leanest players (9.2% fat), outfielders averaged 9.9%, and pitchers were the fattest (14.7% fat). The players' body composition reflected the movement patterns and defensive requirements of their positions. There were few differences among teams, and in general, the baseball players were comparable to other professional athletes.

  9. Motivation factors for participation in GLBT sports league.

    PubMed

    Place, Greg; Beggs, Brent

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated those factors that motivate members of the GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender) community to participate in a GLBT sports league. Data from a survey of 1151 members of a Chicago GLBT sports association were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis to determine the variables that contributed most to explaining leisure motivation in this setting. Results showed that the intellectual and social factors were the primary factors in determining motivation in participation. Also contributing to determining motivation were competency mastery and stimulus avoidance. In addition, findings suggested there was no primary difference between male and female participants.

  10. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  11. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions. PMID:26284680

  12. The physiological demands of Gaelic football.

    PubMed

    Florida-James, G; Reilly, T

    1995-03-01

    Match-lay demands of Gaelic football and fitness profiles were assessed at club competitive level. English Gaelic football club championship players (n = 11) were assessed for anthropometry, leg strength and time to exhaustion on a treadmill run. A similar test battery was administered to a reference group of University competitive soccer players (n = 12). Heart rate was recorded during match-play using radio telemetry and blood lactate concentrations were determined at half-time and after full-time. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the Gaelic and soccer players in: body mass (70.7 +/- 10.3 vs 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg); height (176 +/- 5.9 vs 177.7 +/- 6.4 cm); leg to trunk ratio (0.53 +/- 0.01 vs 0.54 +/- 0.03); adiposity (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs 13.5 +/- 3.2% body fat); mean somatotype (2.8 - 4.3-2.0 vs 2.4-4.2-2.4); leg strength measures; and performance on the treadmill. The percentage muscle mass values were lower for the Gaelic players compared to the soccer players (41.9 +/- 5.4 vs 47.3 +/- 5.2%; p > 0.005). For the Gaelic and soccer players, respectively, mean heart rate recorded during each half of match-play were (157 +/- 10 and 158 +/- 12 beats/min) and (164 +/- 10 and 157 +/- 11 beats/min), whilst blood lactates measured at the end of each half, were (4.3 +/- 1 and 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/l) and (4.4 +/- 1.2 and 4.5 +/- 2.1 mmol/l). Gaelic footballers at English club championship level seem to exhibit similar fitness profiles, and are subject to broadly similar physiological demands as University-level competitive soccer players.

  13. Head Impact Exposure in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Crisco, Joseph J.; Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steve; Duma, Stefan M.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378 rad/s2, and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387 rad/s2), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4 g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23%.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428 rad/s2) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts. PMID:21872862

  14. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  15. Head impact exposure in collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Greenwald, Richard M

    2011-10-13

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378rad/s(2) and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387rad/s(2)), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428rad/s(2)) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts.

  16. A fatal accident on the football field.

    PubMed

    Varga, M; Takács, P

    1990-12-01

    A 21-year old centre forward died after a collision with the opposing goalkeeper during a football match. The centre forward fell to the ground on his back and the goalkeeper fell on top of him, his knee hitting the centre forward hard in the chest and neck. There was no obvious foul and the referee did not award a penalty. The ambulance arrived too late to save the player's life. The medicolegal autopsy revealed a severe contusion of the larynx and rupture of thyroid cartilage, which resulted in hemorrhage and caused death by suffocation.

  17. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  18. Injury in rugby league: a four year prospective survey.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, S; Gissane, C; Jennings, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of injury in English professional rugby league over a period of four playing seasons. METHODS: All injuries that were received by players during match play were recorded. Each injury was classified according to site, type, player position, team playing for, activity at the time of injury, and time off as a result of injury. RESULTS: The overall injury rate was 114 (95% confidence interval 105 to 124) per 1000 playing hours, the most frequent type of injury were muscular injuries [34 (29 to 40) per 1000 playing hours], while the most frequently injured site was the head and neck region [38 (16 to 25) per 1000 playing hours]. Players received the largest percentage of injuries when being tackled [46.3% (41.9 to 50.7)], most injuries required less than one week away from playing and training [70.1% (66.1 to 74.2)], and forwards had a higher injury rate than backs (139 v 93 injuries per 1000 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of injury in rugby league are undoubtedly due to the high amount of bodily contact in the game. Being tackled has the highest risk of injury, because of being hit forcibly by other players. Forwards suffer higher injury rates than backs, probably because they are involved in a larger number of physical collisions. PMID:9015597

  19. Mortality league tables: do they inform or mislead?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M; Hunter, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine certain methodological issues related to the publication of mortality league tables, with particular reference to severity adjustment and sample size. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of inpatient hospital records. SETTING--22 hospitals in North West Thames health region for the fiscal year 1992-3. SUBJECTS--All admissions with a principal diagnosis of aortic aneurysm, carcinoma of the colon, cervical cancer, cholecystectomy, fractured neck of femur, head injury, ischaemic heart disease, and peptic ulcer. MAIN MEASURES--In hospital mortality rates adjusted by disease severity and calculated on the basis of both admissions and episodes. RESULTS--The numbers of deaths from specific conditions were often small and the corresponding confidence intervals wide. Rankings of hospitals by death rate are sensitive to adjustment for severity of disease. There are some differences that cannot be explained using routine data. CONCLUSIONS--Comparison of crude death rates may be misleading. Some adjustment for differences in severity is possible, but current systems are unsatisfactory. Differences in death rates should be studied, but because of the scope for manipulating data, this should be undertaken in a collaborative rather than a confrontational way. Any decision to publish league tables of death rates will be on political rather than scientific grounds. PMID:10142037

  20. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Major League Baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.

  1. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  2. Gaze location prediction for broadcast football video.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qin; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Achim, Alin M; Bull, David R

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of the human visual system decreases dramatically with increasing distance from the fixation location in a video frame. Accurate prediction of a viewer's gaze location has the potential to improve bit allocation, rate control, error resilience, and quality evaluation in video compression. Commercially, delivery of football video content is of great interest because of the very high number of consumers. In this paper, we propose a gaze location prediction system for high definition broadcast football video. The proposed system uses knowledge about the context, extracted through analysis of a gaze tracking study that we performed, to build a suitable prior map. We further classify the complex context into different categories through shot classification thus allowing our model to prelearn the task pertinence of each object category and build the prior map automatically. We thus avoid the limitation of assigning the viewers a specific task, allowing our gaze prediction system to work under free-viewing conditions. Bayesian integration of bottom-up features and top-down priors is finally applied to predict the gaze locations. Results show that the prediction performance of the proposed model is better than that of other top-down models that we adapted to this context. PMID:23996558

  3. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  4. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players.

  5. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  6. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  7. Safer Heads Prevail with New High School Football Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 27, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Concussions are a major risk for high school football ... NeuroTrauma Research Lab at University of Michigan. A concussion is a blow delivered to the head with ...

  8. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  9. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  10. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Brolinson, Gunnar; Goforth, Mike; Dietter, Dave; Duma, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Each year, between 1.6x10(6) and 3.8x10(6) concussions are sustained by athletes playing sports, with football having the highest incidence. The high number of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. Human head acceleration data for a range of impact severities were collected by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers. The helmets of ten Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with measurement devices for every game and practice for the 2007 football season. The measurement devices recorded linear and angular accelerations about each of the three axes of the head. Data for each impact were downloaded wirelessly to a sideline data collection system shortly after each impact occurred. Data were collected for 1712 impacts, creating a large and unbiased data set. While a majority of the impacts were of relatively low severity (<30 g and <2000 rad/s2), 172 impacts were greater than 40 g and 143 impacts were greater than 3000 rad/s2. No instrumented player sustained a clinically diagnosed concussion during the 2007 season. A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players. Football provides a unique opportunity to collect head acceleration data of varying severity from human volunteers. The addition of concurrent concussive data may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury. With an increased understanding of the biomechanics of head impacts in collegiate football and human tolerance to head acceleration, better equipment can be designed to prevent head injuries.

  11. Manual laterality and hitting performance in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Grondin, S; Guiard, Y; Ivry, R B; Koren, S

    1999-06-01

    Asymmetrical hand function was examined in the context of expert sports performance: hitting in professional baseball. An archival study was conducted to examine the batting performance of all Major League Baseball players from 1871 to 1992, focusing on those who batted left (n = 1,059) to neutralize the game asymmetry. Among them, left-handers (n = 421) were more likely to hit with power and to strike out than right-handers (n = 638). One possible account, based on the idea of hand dominance and an analogy to tennis, is that batting left involves a double-handed forehand for left-handers and a weaker and more reliable double-handed backhand for right-handers. The results are also interpretable in the light of Y. Guiard's (1987) kinematic chain model of a between-hands asymmetrical division of labor, which provides a detailed account of why left batting is optimal for left-handers. PMID:10385985

  12. Effects of multiple concussions on retired national hockey league players.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jeffrey G; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meanings and lived experiences of multiple concussions in professional hockey players using hermeneutic, idiographic, and inductive approaches within an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviewer was an athlete who had suffered multiple concussions, and the interviewees were five former National Hockey League athletes who had retired due to medically diagnosed concussions suffered during their careers. The men discussed the physical and psychological symptoms they experienced as a result of their concussions and how the symptoms affected their professional careers, personal relationships, and quality of life. The former professional athletes related these symptoms to the turmoil that is ever present in their lives. These findings are of interest to athletes, coaches, sport administrators, family members, sport psychology practitioners, and medical professionals, as they highlight the severity of short- and long-term effects of concussions.

  13. Does education matter? Major League Baseball players and longevity.

    PubMed

    Kalist, David E; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-08-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the educaton [sic]-health link applies to professional athletes. Another important determinant of longevity was race. In addition, a player's body mass index was positively associated with a higher hazard of death. Compared with the general population, the death rate of baseball players was lower--the observed number of deaths in the dataset was only 31% of the expected number. Findings in this article are likely attributable to education being correlated with other variables that affect longevity, most likely intelligence and time preference.

  14. Manual laterality and hitting performance in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Grondin, S; Guiard, Y; Ivry, R B; Koren, S

    1999-06-01

    Asymmetrical hand function was examined in the context of expert sports performance: hitting in professional baseball. An archival study was conducted to examine the batting performance of all Major League Baseball players from 1871 to 1992, focusing on those who batted left (n = 1,059) to neutralize the game asymmetry. Among them, left-handers (n = 421) were more likely to hit with power and to strike out than right-handers (n = 638). One possible account, based on the idea of hand dominance and an analogy to tennis, is that batting left involves a double-handed forehand for left-handers and a weaker and more reliable double-handed backhand for right-handers. The results are also interpretable in the light of Y. Guiard's (1987) kinematic chain model of a between-hands asymmetrical division of labor, which provides a detailed account of why left batting is optimal for left-handers.

  15. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Witnauer, William D; Rogers, Richard G; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2007-08-01

    Although baseball is considered "the" American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point of a player's career, the chance of exiting is at least 11%. Position players who start younger and begin their career in more recent decades all have longer and more stable careers; nevertheless, baseball careers are not compressed versions of normal careers, but are substantially skewed toward early exit.

  16. Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires.

  17. The physiological demands of Gaelic football.

    PubMed Central

    Florida-James, G; Reilly, T

    1995-01-01

    Match-lay demands of Gaelic football and fitness profiles were assessed at club competitive level. English Gaelic football club championship players (n = 11) were assessed for anthropometry, leg strength and time to exhaustion on a treadmill run. A similar test battery was administered to a reference group of University competitive soccer players (n = 12). Heart rate was recorded during match-play using radio telemetry and blood lactate concentrations were determined at half-time and after full-time. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the Gaelic and soccer players in: body mass (70.7 +/- 10.3 vs 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg); height (176 +/- 5.9 vs 177.7 +/- 6.4 cm); leg to trunk ratio (0.53 +/- 0.01 vs 0.54 +/- 0.03); adiposity (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs 13.5 +/- 3.2% body fat); mean somatotype (2.8 - 4.3-2.0 vs 2.4-4.2-2.4); leg strength measures; and performance on the treadmill. The percentage muscle mass values were lower for the Gaelic players compared to the soccer players (41.9 +/- 5.4 vs 47.3 +/- 5.2%; p > 0.005). For the Gaelic and soccer players, respectively, mean heart rate recorded during each half of match-play were (157 +/- 10 and 158 +/- 12 beats/min) and (164 +/- 10 and 157 +/- 11 beats/min), whilst blood lactates measured at the end of each half, were (4.3 +/- 1 and 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/l) and (4.4 +/- 1.2 and 4.5 +/- 2.1 mmol/l). Gaelic footballers at English club championship level seem to exhibit similar fitness profiles, and are subject to broadly similar physiological demands as University-level competitive soccer players. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5&6 PMID:7788217

  18. Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyou; Gómez, Miguel-Angel; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that match-to-match variation adds important information to performance descriptors in team sports, as it helps measure how players fine-tune their tactical behaviours and technical actions to the extreme dynamical environments. The current study aims to identify the differences in technical performance of players from strong and weak teams and to explore match-to-match variation of players' technical match performance. Performance data of all the 380 matches of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Twenty-one performance-related match actions and events were chosen as variables in the analyses. Players' technical performance profiles were established by unifying count values of each action or event of each player per match into the same scale. Means of these count values of players from Top3 and Bottom3 teams were compared and plotted into radar charts. Coefficient of variation of each match action or event within a player was calculated to represent his match-to-match variation of technical performance. Differences in the variation of technical performances of players across different match contexts (team and opposition strength, match outcome and match location) were compared. All the comparisons were achieved by the magnitude-based inferences. Results showed that technical performances differed between players of strong and weak teams from different perspectives across different field positions. Furthermore, the variation of the players' technical performance is affected by the match context, with effects from team and opposition strength greater than effects from match location and match outcome.

  19. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  20. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  1. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  2. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  3. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  4. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  5. Australian Public and Smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Reinhold; Saunders, Vicki; Speare, Rick; Lowe, John B.

    2005-01-01

    A national survey of 1,001 Australians found that most were concerned about a bioterrorist attack and were ill-informed about smallpox prevention and response. Since general practitioners were commonly identified as the initial point of care, they should become a focus of bioterrorism response planning in Australia. PMID:16318729

  6. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants of Apprentice Training by Small and…

  7. Religion in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavor, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Explains the various instructional approaches taken to religious education in Australia. Examines how church agencies throughout Australia's history have influenced these approaches. States that sectarianism affected religious instruction. Summarizes current patterns and trends in religious education in six Australian states, pointing out that…

  8. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  9. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  10. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  11. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  12. South Africa: ANC Youth League President found guilty of hate speech.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 15 March 2010, the Johannesburg Equality Court found African National Congress (ANC) Youth League President Julius Malema guilty of hate speech and harassment for his comments regarding rape survivors. PMID:21188953

  13. An Alternative View of the Past: Re-visiting the Mutual Welfare League (1913-1923).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests the need to understand how indirect social conditions shaped prison reformers' ideals and struggles. Examines the impact of prisoners' agency on the history of a key movement in prison education: the development of the Mutual Welfare Leagues. (JOW)

  14. South Africa: ANC Youth League President found guilty of hate speech.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 15 March 2010, the Johannesburg Equality Court found African National Congress (ANC) Youth League President Julius Malema guilty of hate speech and harassment for his comments regarding rape survivors.

  15. Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S.

  16. Optimizing lifestyles for men regarded as 'hard-to-reach' through top-flight football/soccer clubs.

    PubMed

    Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Pringle, Andy; Daly-Smith, Andy; Robertson, Steven; White, Alan

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of a 12-week behavioural intervention delivered in and by English Premier League football/soccer clubs, and its influence on lifestyle behaviours, in men typically regarded as hard-to-reach. One hundred and thirty men aged 18 years or older engaging in the programme self-reported data on optimal lifestyle behaviours (OLBs) (physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption) at pre- and post-intervention. Logistic regression models were used to predict the likelihood of OLBs post-intervention. Healthy behaviours were uncommon at baseline, yet at 12 weeks, 19% (n = 24) of men displayed positive change in one behaviour and 67% (n = 87) had changed ≥2. A combination of improving diet (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65-4.63) and being employed (OR = 4.90, CI = 1.46-16.5) significantly increased the likelihood of reporting ≥150 min of physical activity per week. Increased physical activity significantly increased the likelihood of self-reporting a healthy diet (OR = 2.32, CI = 1.36-3.95). This study shows that a 12-week behavioural intervention can reach and engage a proportion of at risk men. Further, among such men, the intervention helped to stabilize and improve several of the most important lifestyle behaviours that impact mortality and morbidity. PMID:23193195

  17. Optimizing lifestyles for men regarded as 'hard-to-reach' through top-flight football/soccer clubs.

    PubMed

    Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Pringle, Andy; Daly-Smith, Andy; Robertson, Steven; White, Alan

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of a 12-week behavioural intervention delivered in and by English Premier League football/soccer clubs, and its influence on lifestyle behaviours, in men typically regarded as hard-to-reach. One hundred and thirty men aged 18 years or older engaging in the programme self-reported data on optimal lifestyle behaviours (OLBs) (physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption) at pre- and post-intervention. Logistic regression models were used to predict the likelihood of OLBs post-intervention. Healthy behaviours were uncommon at baseline, yet at 12 weeks, 19% (n = 24) of men displayed positive change in one behaviour and 67% (n = 87) had changed ≥2. A combination of improving diet (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65-4.63) and being employed (OR = 4.90, CI = 1.46-16.5) significantly increased the likelihood of reporting ≥150 min of physical activity per week. Increased physical activity significantly increased the likelihood of self-reporting a healthy diet (OR = 2.32, CI = 1.36-3.95). This study shows that a 12-week behavioural intervention can reach and engage a proportion of at risk men. Further, among such men, the intervention helped to stabilize and improve several of the most important lifestyle behaviours that impact mortality and morbidity.

  18. The care of epileptics: from the madhouse to the League against Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Salomone, G; Arnone, R

    1993-03-01

    We trace the first steps in the organization of the International League against Epilepsy, the great initial impetus for which came from an Italian savant, Prof. Tamburini, among others. The League came into being because of the need to differentiate epilepsy from insanity and to channel into a single institution all research into the etiopathogenesis, new therapies and principles of care to ensure their rapid diffusion all over the world.

  19. It May Be Time to Punt on Your Favorite Football Fare

    MedlinePlus

    ... May Be Time to Punt on Your Favorite Football Fare Nutrition expert says tailgating standards aren't ... flowing beer may be the norm at many football or tailgate parties, but the American Heart Association ( ...

  20. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  1. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  2. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players’ Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90–1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards’ training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46–1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue. PMID:26465599

  3. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players' Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90-1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards' training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46-1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue.

  4. Career/Life Transition Needs of National Hockey League Players and Career-Life Transition Needs of National Hockey League Players: Spouses Perspectives. Final Reports Prepared for the National Hockey League Players' Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blann, Wayne; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    Two surveys were conducted regarding the career and life transition needs of National Hockey League (NHL) players and their spouses. The Professional Athletes' Career Transition Inventory was distributed to player representatives and members of eight NHL teams. Results revealed that 85 percent of players believed it important that help be provided…

  5. Artificial turf football fields: environmental and mutagenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Traversi, Deborah; Degan, Raffaella; Pignata, Cristina; Alessandria, Luca; Scozia, Dario; Bono, Roberto; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The public has recently raised concerns regarding potential human health and environmental risks associated with tire crumb constituents in the artificial turf of football fields. The aim of the present study was to develop an environmental analysis drawing a comparison between artificial turf football fields and urban areas relative to concentrations of particles (PM10 and PM2.5) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs), and mutagenicity of organic extracts from PM10 and PM2.5. No significant differences were found between PM10 concentrations at an urban site and on a turf football field, both during warm and in cold seasons, either with or without on-field activity. PM2.5 concentrations were significantly greater at the urban site in the cold season as was the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. BTXs were significantly greater at urban sites than on turf football fields on both on warm and cold days. The ratio of toluene to benzene (T/B ratio) was always comparable with that of normal urban conditions. The concentration of PAHs on the monitored football fields was comparable with urban levels during the two different sampling periods, and the contribution of PAHs released from the granular material was negligible. PM10 organic extract mutagenicity for artificial turf football fields was greater, whereas PM2.5 organic extract mutagenicity was lower, compared with the urban site studied. However, both organic extract mutagenicity values were comparable with the organic extract mutagenicity reported in the literature for urban sites. On the basis of environmental monitoring, artificial turf football fields present no more exposure risks than the rest of the city.

  6. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: Model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.

  7. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues.

    PubMed

    Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.

  8. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues.

    PubMed

    Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance. PMID:24387553

  9. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  10. Sport and Children's Nutrition: What Can We Learn from the Junior Australian Football Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire

    2016-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…

  11. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Explore Australian Football Coaches' Experience with Game Sense Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a project framed as a strengths-based case study in the field of sport coaching. The aim of this research was twofold. First, the project trialled. Appreciate Inquiry (AI) for sport pedagogy research and explain how AI can be used in sport coaching research. Second, using an appreciative perspective, the aim of the research…

  12. Huntington disease in indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F

    2008-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828

  13. Match and training injuries in rugby league: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Milburn, Peter D; Guttenbeil, Dain

    2010-02-01

    Rugby league is an international collision sport played by junior, amateur, semiprofessional and professional players. The game requires participants to be involved in physically demanding activities such as running, tackling, passing and sprinting, and musculoskeletal injuries are common. A review of injuries in junior and senior rugby league players published in Sports Medicine in 2004 reported that injuries to the head and neck and muscular injuries were common in senior rugby league players, while fractures and injuries to the knee were common in junior players. This current review updates the descriptive data on rugby league epidemiology and adds information for semiprofessional, amateur and junior levels of participation in both match and training environments using studies identified through searches of PubMed, CINHAL, Ovid, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and SportDiscus databases. This review also discusses the issues surrounding the definitions of injury exposure, injury rate, injury severity and classification of injury site and type for rugby league injuries. Studies on the incidence of injuries in rugby league have suffered from inconsistencies in the injury definitions utilized. Some studies on rugby league injuries have utilized a criterion of a missed matchas an injury definition, total injury incidences or a combination of both time-loss and non-time-loss injuries, while other studies have incorporated a medical treatment injury definition. Efforts to establish a standard definition for rugby league injuries have been difficult, especially as some researchers were not in favour of a definition that was all-encompassing and enabled non-time-loss injuries to be recorded. A definition of rugby league injury has been suggested based on agreement by a group of international researchers. The majority of injuries occur in the match environment, with rates typically increasing as the playing level increases. However, professional level injury rates were reportedly less

  14. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented.

  15. Glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ricchetti, E T; Weidner, Z; Lawrence, J T R; Sennett, B J; Huffman, G R

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about outcomes of glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We hypothesized that following repair, pitching performance would not be significantly different from an uninjured cohort. Fifty-one pitchers were identified who pitched in at least one MLB game prior to undergoing isolated glenoid labral repair. For the three years prior to and following surgery, demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with labral injury and repair, and compared to a control cohort of MLB pitchers without history of repair. Following surgery, 72.5% of pitchers returned to MLB at a mean of 13.1 months with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers had a higher risk of labral injury requiring repair (p< or =0.05). Pitchers that returned to play averaged more innings pitched in the seasons prior to surgery and had a higher body mass index than those that did not return to play (p< or =0.05). Approximately 70% of MLB pitchers undergoing labral repair can be expected to return to competition postoperatively with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers are more likely to undergo repair, but pitchers with greater preoperative innings pitched per season have a greater likelihood of returning to play.

  16. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented. PMID:26991568

  17. The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the 'serious life'.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Sport, in particular football, constitutes one of the most dynamic, sociologically illuminating domains of globalization. This paper examines the globalization of football with particular reference to Robertson's theorizations of global processes. We examine football's cultural globalization through the concept of 'glocalization', which highlights the interdependence of local and global processes within the game's identities and institutions. We address economic globalization in football by considering the world's leading clubs as 'glocal' transnational corporations. We assess the political globalization of football with reference to the possible enhancement of democracy within the game's international governance. We conclude by affirming the utility of sport in advancing our empirical and theoretical understanding of globalization processes.

  18. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  19. Analysis of linear head accelerations from collegiate football impacts.

    PubMed

    Brolinson, P Gunnar; Manoogian, Sarah; McNeely, David; Goforth, Mike; Greenwald, Richard; Duma, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Sports-related concussions result in 300,000 brain injuries in the United States each year. We conducted a study utilizing an in-helmet system that measures and records linear head accelerations to analyze head impacts in collegiate football. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System is an in-helmet system with six spring-mounted accelerometers and an antenna that transmits data via radio frequency to a sideline receiver and laptop computer system. A total of 11,604 head impacts were recorded from the Virginia Tech football team throughout the 2003 and 2004 football seasons during 22 games and 62 practices from a total of 52 players. Although the incidence of injury data are limited, this study presents an extremely large data set from human head impacts that provides valuable insight into the lower limits of head acceleration that cause mild traumatic brain injuries.

  20. Impact performance of modern football helmets.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Halstead, David

    2012-01-01

    Linear impact tests were conducted on 17 modern football helmets. The helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with the neck attached to a sliding table. The head was instrumented with an array of 3-2-2-2 accelerometers to determine translational acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HIC. Twenty-three (23) different impacts were conducted on four identical helmets of each model at eight sites on the shell and facemask, four speeds (5.5, 7.4, 9.3, and 11.2 m/s) and two temperatures (22.2 and 37.8 °C). There were 1,850 tests in total; 276 established the 1990 s helmet performance (baseline) and 1,564 were on the 17 different helmet models. Differences from the 1990 s baseline were evaluated using the Student t test (p < 0.05 as significant). Four of the helmets had significantly lower HICs and head accelerations than the 1990 s baseline with average reductions of 14.6-21.9% in HIC, 7.3-14.0% in translational acceleration, and 8.4-15.9% in rotational acceleration. Four other helmets showed some improvements. Eight were not statistically different from the 1990 s baseline and one had significantly poorer performance. Of the 17 helmet models, four provided a significant reduction in head responses compared to 1990 s helmets.

  1. The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Shane; Riches, Christopher J; Jennings, Carl; Weatherby, Robert P; Meir, Rudi A; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M

    2007-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an herbal nutritional supplement that is promoted to produce large gains in strength and lean muscle mass in 5-28 days (15, 18). Although some manufacturers claim T. terrestris will not lead to a positive drug test, others have suggested that T. terrestris may increase the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, which may place athletes at risk of a positive drug test. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of T. terrestris on strength, fat free mass, and the urinary T/E ratio during 5 weeks of preseason training in elite rugby league players. Twenty-two Australian elite male rugby league players (mean +/- SD; age = 19.8 +/- 2.9 years; weight = 88.0 +/- 9.5 kg) were match-paired and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to either a T. terrestris (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) group. All subjects performed structured heavy resistance training as part of the club's preseason preparations. A T. terrestris extract (450 mg.d(-1)) or placebo capsules were consumed once daily for 5 weeks. Muscular strength, body composition, and the urinary T/E ratio were monitored prior to and after supplementation. After 5 weeks of training, strength and fat free mass increased significantly without any between-group differences. No between-group differences were noted in the urinary T/E ratio. It was concluded that T. terrestris did not produce the large gains in strength or lean muscle mass that many manufacturers claim can be experienced within 5-28 days. Furthermore, T. terrestris did not alter the urinary T/E ratio and would not place an athlete at risk of testing positive based on the World Anti-Doping Agency's urinary T/E ratio limit of 4:1.

  2. Calculating Home Advantage in the First Decade of the 21th Century UEFA Soccer Leagues.

    PubMed

    García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Oscar Gutiérrez; Marques, Paulo Sa; Tobío, Gabriel Torres; Fernández Romero, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Home advantage has been studied in different sports, establishing its existence and its possible causes. This article analyzes the home advantage in soccer leagues of UEFA countries in the first part of the 21st century. The sample of 52 countries monitored during a period of 10 years allows us to study 520 leagues and 111,030 matches of the highest level in each country associated with UEFA. Home advantage exists and is significant in 32 of the 52 UEFA countries, where it equals 55.6%. A decrease can be observed in the tendency towards home advantage between the years 2000 and 2010. Values between 55 and 56 were observed for home advantage in the top ten leagues in Europe. It has also been observed that home advantage depends on the level of the league evaluated using UEFA's 2010/11 Country coefficients. The home advantage is calculated taking into account the teams' position and the points obtained in each of the leagues. A direct relationship was observed with the number of points gained and an inverse relationship was observed with the team position.

  3. Calculating Home Advantage in the First Decade of the 21th Century UEFA Soccer Leagues

    PubMed Central

    García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Óscar Gutiérrez; Marques, Paulo Sa; Tobío, Gabriel Torres; Fernández Romero, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Home advantage has been studied in different sports, establishing its existence and its possible causes. This article analyzes the home advantage in soccer leagues of UEFA countries in the first part of the 21st century. The sample of 52 countries monitored during a period of 10 years allows us to study 520 leagues and 111,030 matches of the highest level in each country associated with UEFA. Home advantage exists and is significant in 32 of the 52 UEFA countries, where it equals 55.6%. A decrease can be observed in the tendency towards home advantage between the years 2000 and 2010. Values between 55 and 56 were observed for home advantage in the top ten leagues in Europe. It has also been observed that home advantage depends on the level of the league evaluated using UEFA’s 2010/11 Country coefficients. The home advantage is calculated taking into account the teams’ position and the points obtained in each of the leagues. A direct relationship was observed with the number of points gained and an inverse relationship was observed with the team position. PMID:24235990

  4. Stochastic league tables: an application to diabetes interventions in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hutubessy, Raymond C W; Niessen, Louis W; Dijkstra, Rob F; Casparie, Ton F; Rutten, Frans F

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of stochastic league tables approach in cost-effectiveness analysis of diabetes interventions. It addresses the common grounds and differences with other methods of presenting uncertainty to decision-makers. This comparison uses the cost-effectiveness results of medical guidelines for Dutch diabetes type 2 patients in primary and secondary care. Stochastic league tables define the optimum expansion pathway as compared to baseline, starting with the least costly and most cost-effective intervention mix. Multi-intervention cost-effectiveness acceptability curves are used as a way to represent uncertainty information on the cost-effectiveness of single interventions as compared to a single alternative. The stochastic league table for diabetes interventions shows that in case of low budgets treatment of secondary care patients is the most likely optimum choice. Current care options of diabetes complications are shown to be inefficient compared to guidelines treatment. With more resources available one may implement all guidelines and improve efficiency. The stochastic league table approach and multi-intervention cost-effectiveness acceptability curves in uncertainty analysis lead to similar results. In addition, the stochastic league table approach provides policy makers with information on affordability by budget level. It fulfils more adequately the information requirements to choose between interventions, using the efficiency criterion.

  5. Developing and Implementing Major League Baseball's Health and Injury Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology.

  6. Developing and Implementing Major League Baseball's Health and Injury Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology. PMID:26874305

  7. 'Football is good for your sleep': favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning of adolescent male intense football players compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Gerber, Markus; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that physical activity exerts a favorable impact on sleep, although scientific evidence is lacking. This study investigated the impact of football sports on the sleep patterns of 36 male chronic and intense football players and 34 controls. Participants completed a sleep log for seven consecutive days. Compared to controls, football players reported shorter sleep onset latency, fewer awakenings, higher scores of sleep quality and a lower variability of sleep from weekdays to weekends. The findings suggest that football sports activity is positively associated with both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of sleep. PMID:19858334

  8. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

  9. New Directions in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, G. W.; And Others

    This book consists of 16 selected papers that focus on the broad topic of new trends in Australian education. All the papers were originally presented at the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education, which was held in May 1976. Titles of the papers include "Perspectives on Recent Changes in Australian…

  10. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality.

  11. What You Don't Find out about England's Educational Performance in the PISA League Table. Election Factsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    This election factsheet highlights the following points: (1) It isn't always possible to say with certainty from looking at a country's rank in the PISA educational league tables alone whether one country or economy has definitely performed better than another; (2) England's position in the league tables is dependent on which countries and…

  12. Stages and demands in the careers of Canadian National Hockey League players.

    PubMed

    Battochio, Randy C; Stambulova, Natalia; Schinke, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have identified some demands of Canadian National Hockey League (NHL) players, yet there is little direction for players hoping to reach the lucrative league. The objectives of this study were to identify the stages, statuses and demands in Canadian NHL players' careers and propose an empirical career model of Canadian NHL players. In total, 5 rookies, 5 veterans and 13 retirees had their interviews undergo an interpretive thematic analysis. Prospects face the NHL combine, training camp and minor league assignment. While developing into NHL players, rookies deal with NHL call-ups, team competition and formative production while sophomores seemed preoccupied by the opposition. Prime veterans become All-Stars by garnering point production and challenging for the Stanley Cup while seasoned veterans remain relevant through training camps. A discussion about the model's viability is followed by applications for sport psychology researchers and practitioners.

  13. Alcoholic dogs and glory for all: the Anti-Saloon League and public relations, 1913.

    PubMed

    Lamme, Margot Opdycke

    2007-01-01

    In 1913, the Anti-Saloon League of America declared its intention to pursue national prohibition. While it continued to adhere to its core principles of agitation, it expanded its communication efforts and entered a partnership with the Scientific Temperance Federation, a spin-off of the education arm of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The League's tactics were not necessarily new to the temperance movement -- or even to other reform movements of the time. What did set it apart was its single-minded focus on stopping the liquor traffic. Tracing through archival artifacts the League's communication strategies and tactics during 1913, then, this study contributes to a larger body of work that seeks to expand on the traditional model of public relations history.

  14. Alcoholic dogs and glory for all: the Anti-Saloon League and public relations, 1913.

    PubMed

    Lamme, Margot Opdycke

    2007-01-01

    In 1913, the Anti-Saloon League of America declared its intention to pursue national prohibition. While it continued to adhere to its core principles of agitation, it expanded its communication efforts and entered a partnership with the Scientific Temperance Federation, a spin-off of the education arm of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The League's tactics were not necessarily new to the temperance movement -- or even to other reform movements of the time. What did set it apart was its single-minded focus on stopping the liquor traffic. Tracing through archival artifacts the League's communication strategies and tactics during 1913, then, this study contributes to a larger body of work that seeks to expand on the traditional model of public relations history. PMID:20069744

  15. Performance indicators analysis at Brazilian and Italian women's volleyball leagues according to game location, game outcome, and set number.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fabio A D; Stanganélli, Luiz C R; Campos, Leandra C B; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Gómez, Miguel-Angel

    2014-04-01

    This study was done to investigate the advantage of playing at home in elite women's volleyball leagues and the influence of performance indicators in the game score according to set number. The sample consisted of 240 games of the Brazilian Volleyball League (n = 132 games) and the Italian Volleyball League (n = 108 games) from the 2011-2012 season. The relationship of performance indicators (including serve, attack, block, and opponents' errors) with the game outcome (win or lose) was assessed. The results showed that there was a home advantage effect in women's volleyball leagues, with a higher prevalence of victory for the home teams in Brazilian and Italian leagues (58 and 56%, respectively). When related to the performance indicators and among the aspects that were most highly correlated with victory, the attack was the technical indicator that explained most of the results of volleyball games.

  16. Performance indicators analysis at Brazilian and Italian women's volleyball leagues according to game location, game outcome, and set number.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fabio A D; Stanganélli, Luiz C R; Campos, Leandra C B; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Gómez, Miguel-Angel

    2014-04-01

    This study was done to investigate the advantage of playing at home in elite women's volleyball leagues and the influence of performance indicators in the game score according to set number. The sample consisted of 240 games of the Brazilian Volleyball League (n = 132 games) and the Italian Volleyball League (n = 108 games) from the 2011-2012 season. The relationship of performance indicators (including serve, attack, block, and opponents' errors) with the game outcome (win or lose) was assessed. The results showed that there was a home advantage effect in women's volleyball leagues, with a higher prevalence of victory for the home teams in Brazilian and Italian leagues (58 and 56%, respectively). When related to the performance indicators and among the aspects that were most highly correlated with victory, the attack was the technical indicator that explained most of the results of volleyball games. PMID:24897872

  17. Screening for smokeless tobacco use and presence of oral lesions in major league baseball athletes.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Amy K; Hutton, Stephen B; Munnelly, Maureen; Bay, R Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The historically disproportionate use of smokeless tobacco (ST) by baseball players is well documented. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) are associated with ST use. Prevalence of ST use and OMLs was assessed among a sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) athletes, while also assessing behavioral and demographic risk factors. ST-use prevalence and OML developmental risk was higher than natiornal averages. MLB policy intervention has not changed ST-use rates, and increased prevalence of ST use remains.

  18. Screening for smokeless tobacco use and presence of oral lesions in major league baseball athletes.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Amy K; Hutton, Stephen B; Munnelly, Maureen; Bay, R Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The historically disproportionate use of smokeless tobacco (ST) by baseball players is well documented. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) are associated with ST use. Prevalence of ST use and OMLs was assessed among a sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) athletes, while also assessing behavioral and demographic risk factors. ST-use prevalence and OML developmental risk was higher than natiornal averages. MLB policy intervention has not changed ST-use rates, and increased prevalence of ST use remains. PMID:25632515

  19. Birth month is not related to suicide among Major League Baseball players.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2011-02-01

    In 2005, Abel and Kruger reported that, compared to the other 10 months of the year, Major League Baseball players are much less likely to commit suicide if they are born in July and much more likely to commit suicide if they are born in August. The data and statistical tests used to support this claim are both incorrect. A correct test applied to the complete, accurate data shows that there is no relationship between birth month and suicide for Major League Baseball players.

  20. Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishe, Patrick James

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1995-96 academic year for schools that compete at the Division I level of college athletics to determine the influence of the presence and profitability of football on female athletes in terms of funding and opportunity. Reveals that presence and profitability, as well as regional and ethnic considerations, influence…

  1. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  2. Antitrust Challenge to Football Group Dismissed by Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An administrative-law judge dismissed the Federal Trade Commission's antitrust complaint against the College Football Association (CFA), saying it had no jurisdiction over the association. CFA's five-year television contract with the American Broadcasting Company was found to have a nonprofit purpose. (MSE)

  3. Effects of Football Collars on Cervical Hyperextension and Lateral Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, Jeffery A.; Swanik, C. Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of 3 football collars in reducing cervical range of motion. Design and Setting: A repeated-measures design in a controlled laboratory setting. Subjects: Fifteen male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity football athletes. Measurements: Cervical hyperextension and lateral flexion were measured with video analysis. Subjects underwent 5 testing conditions: standard football helmet, standard helmet and shoulder pads, and standard pads with the addition of the Cowboy Collar, A-Force Neck Collar, or a foam neck roll. Subjects performed motions both actively and passively. Results: All 3 collars reduced hyperextension when compared with the helmet and shoulder pads alone (P < .05); in addition, the Cowboy Collar was superior to the foam neck roll (P < .05) in reducing hyperextension. No collar reduced passive lateral flexion when compared with the helmet and shoulder pads, but the foam neck roll permitted significantly less active lateral flexion (P < .01) than the other 3 brace conditions. Conclusions: In a laboratory setting, cervical hyperextension can be controlled through the use of various cervical collars. Cervical lateral flexion (a more common cause of burners in a scholastic population) cannot be controlled with any of the cervical collars tested. Moreover, foam collars may impede active lateral flexion while not providing additional protection when loaded. These results are limited in that they were produced in a controlled situation as opposed to active football play. PMID:14608429

  4. Football Pools and the Reactivity Series of Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselden, Russ

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity which presents the reactivity of metals series as a football pool with more reactive metals at the top of the table and unreactive metals at the bottom. Describes how the activity can be applied in different ways for different ability groups. (Author/MM)

  5. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  6. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  7. Behavioral Interventions to Improve Performance in Collegiate Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon L.; Ward, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Using a multitreatment withdrawal design, this study evaluated the differential effects of publicly posted plus verbal feedback, goal setting plus verbal feedback, and publicly posted feedback, verbal feedback, and goal setting together on the performance of 3 collegiate football players in practice scrimmages. Also assessed was whether the…

  8. In a Tough Economy, Charlotte Makes a Play for Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Despite tough economic times, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte hopes to win trustees' approval to raise funds to field a Division I-AA football team. Athletics officials and supporters at Charlotte are hopeful that they will raise the more than $45-million in capital expenses necessary to get the program up and running. However, the…

  9. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  10. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  11. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index,…

  12. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  13. FMRI of visual working memory in high school football players.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Trey E; Robinson, Meghan E; Svaldi, Diana O; Abbas, Kausar; Breedlove, Katherine M; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Visual working memory deficits have been observed in at-risk athletes. This study uses a visual N-back working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging task to longitudinally assess asymptomatic football athletes for abnormal activity. Athletes were increasingly "flagged" as the season progressed. Flagging may provide early detection of injury. PMID:25961587

  14. Fitness Changes in Professional Football Players During Preseason Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-three professional football players participated in a 14-week conditioning program prior to regular training. Seven fitness variables were measured at the beginning and at the end of the program in order to quantify changes in fitness. (Author/MT)

  15. External Foam Layers to Football Helmets Reduce Head Impact Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2014-01-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  16. Injuries of veteran football (soccer) players in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Dvorák, Jirí; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of injury data for the population of veteran football players. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted to investigate injury incidences and characteristics. Over one season, injuries and exposure of 18 teams (n = 265 players, age: 44.2±7.3 years, BMI: 26.6±3.2 kg/m(2)) were documented. Sixty-three players sustained a total of 88 injuries during the season. The incidence of training injuries (4.5 per 1000 hours) was significantly lower than of match injuries (24.7 per 1000 hours). The majority of injuries (n = 73; 83%) were located at the lower extremities, 52 (47%) were muscle injuries. The injury incidence of veteran football players is similar to other male football players of different skill levels and age groups, indicating a need for the implementation of preventive measures. Prevention programmes should consider the specific injury characteristics, with more muscle injuries in this population compared with younger football players.

  17. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  18. Preparticipation Screening of Athletic Officials: SEC Football Referees at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John L., Jr.; Walters, Rod; Leski, Mark J.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Wooldridge, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed prevalence data on health parameters for football officials, noting outcomes when screening criteria were applied in preseason exams. Referees had a lower risk than the national 10-year coronary heart disease risk but a higher risk compared with that of the low-risk population. Results suggested that more graded exercise testing was…

  19. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A.; Gailey, Robert S.; Kelley, William P.; Alemi, Timothy J.; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A.; West, Dustin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. Case Description A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. Outcomes The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m2 to 30.6 kg/m2. Discussion This case report illustrates the positive effects of a

  20. Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring normative data for elite collegiate American football players participating in the NFL Scouting Combine.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, John E; Toriscelli, Todd A; Merrick, W Shannon; Papp, Derek F; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2014-04-01

    Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength data using a Cybex dynamometer are collected for elite collegiate American football players invited to the annual National Football League Scouting Combine. We constructed a normative (reference) database of the Cybex strength data for the purpose of allowing comparison of an individual's values to his peers. Data reduction was performed to construct frequency distributions of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) ratios and side-to-side strength differences. For the cohort (n = 1,252 players), a statistically significant but very small (1.9%) mean quadriceps strength preference existed for dominant side vs. nondominant side. Peak torque (Newton meters, best repetition) for quadriceps and hamstrings was significantly correlated to player body mass (weight) (the same relationship was found for other variables using peak torque in the calculation). Peak torque varied by player position, being greatest for offensive linemen and lowest for kickers (p < 0.0001). Adjusting for body weight overcorrected these differences. The H/Q ratios and frequency distributions were similar across positions, with a mean of 0.6837 ± 0.137 for the cohort dominant side vs. 0.6940 ± 0.145 for the nondominant side (p = 0.021, n = 1,252). Considerable variation was seen for dominant-to-nondominant side difference for peak torque. For quadriceps, 47.2% of players had differences between -10% and +10%, 21.0% had a peak torque dominant-side deficit of 10% or greater compared to nondominant side, and for 31.8% of players, dominant-side peak torque was greater than 10% compared to nondominant side. For hamstrings, 57.0% of players had differences between -10% and +10%, 19.6% had a peak torque dominant-side deficit of 10% or greater compared to nondominant side, and 23.4% of players, dominant-side peak torque was greater than 10% compared to nondominant side. We observed that isokinetic absolute strength variables are dependent on body weight and vary