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Sample records for australian lungfish revealed

  1. Spatial and temporal pattern for the dentition in the Australian lungfish revealed with sonic hedgehog expression profile.

    PubMed

    Smith, Moya M; Okabe, Masataka; Joss, Jean

    2009-02-22

    We report a temporal order of tooth addition in the Australian lungfish where timing of tooth induction is sequential in the same pattern as osteichthyans along the lower jaw. The order of tooth initiation in Neoceratodus starts from the midline tooth, together with left and right ones at jaw position 2, followed by 3 and then 1. This is the pattern order for dentary teeth of several teleosts and what we propose represents a stereotypic initiation pattern shared with all osteichthyans, including the living sister group to all tetrapods, the Australian lungfish. This is contrary to previous opinions that the lungfish dentition is otherwise derived and uniquely different. Sonic hedgehog (shh) expression is intensely focused on tooth positions at different times corresponding with their initiation order. This deployment of shh is required for lungfish tooth induction, as cyclopamine treatment results in complete loss of these teeth when applied before they develop. The temporal sequence of tooth initiation is possibly regulated by shh and is know to be required for dentition pattern in other osteichthyans, including cichlid fish and snakes. This reflects a shared developmental process with jawed vertebrates at the level of the tooth module but differs with the lack of replacement teeth.

  2. The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri: a personal story.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean M P

    2011-08-01

    The following is a brief description of how lungfish research at Macquarie University began, of the period in which it flourished, and, most recently, of the winding down of the University's involvement with this research. During this latter period, the Australian lungfish in the wild were threatened by the construction of a megadam in their very limited habitat. Fortunately, this was averted in December 2009, after 3 years of lobbying the Federal Government. They now await another "Aussie" to make them accessible for further research by Australian and international researchers.

  3. True enamel covering in teeth of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Satchell, P G; Shuler, C F; Diekwisch, T G

    2000-01-01

    Lungfish are a unique order of sarcopterygian fish cleidographically positioned between tetrapods and fish. An uninterrupted 400-million-year-old fossil record has documented lungfish skeletal elements to remain virtually unchanged since the Early Devonian. In the current study we investigated the enamel layer of lungfish teeth in order to determine whether there was evidence for higher vertebrate "true" enamel in the Australian lungfish. Juvenile lungfish from the Brisbane River were processed for light and electron microscopy and analyzed for parameters indicative of true enamel formation. Using anti-amelogenin primary antibodies for immunodetection and Western blots, enamel protein epitopes were detected in developing lungfish teeth. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis, long and parallel-oriented hydroxyapatite crystals were observed in lungfish outer tooth coverings. Our findings indicate that Australian lungfish teeth are covered by a layer of true enamel. Based on the lungfish fossil record we conclude that features of true enamel formation may be as old as 400 million years. Based on taxonomic classification we confirm that true enamel is found not only in tetrapods but also in the sarcopterygian clade of the Gnathostomata.

  4. Cranial neural crest cell migration in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Falck, P; Joss, J; Olsson, L

    2000-01-01

    A crucial role for the cranial neural crest in head development has been established for both actinopterygian fishes and tetrapods. It has been claimed, however, that the neural crest is unimportant for head development in the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), a member of the group (Dipnoi) which is commonly considered to be the living sister group of the tetrapods. In the present study, we used scanning electron microscopy to study cranial neural crest development in the Australian lungfish. Our results, contrary to those of Kemp, show that cranial neural crest cells do emerge and migrate in the Australian lungfish in the same way as in other vertebrates, forming mandibular, hyoid, and branchial streams. The major difference is in the timing of the onset of cranial neural crest migration. It is delayed in the Australian lungfish in comparison with their living sister group the Lissamphibia. Furthermore, the delay in timing between the emergence of the hyoid and branchial crest streams is very long, indicating a steeper anterior-posterior gradient than in amphibians. We are now extending our work on lungfish head development to include experimental studies (ablation of selected streams of neural crest cells) and fate mapping (using fluoresent tracer dyes such as Dil) to document the normal fate as well as the role in head patterning of the cranial neural crest in the Australian lungfish.

  5. Visual pigments in a living fossil, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri

    PubMed Central

    Bailes, Helena J; Davies, Wayne L; Trezise, Ann EO; Collin, Shaun P

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the greatest challenges facing the early land vertebrates was the need to effectively interpret a terrestrial environment. Interpretation was based on ocular adaptations evolved for an aquatic environment millions of years earlier. The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is thought to be the closest living relative to the first terrestrial vertebrate, and yet nothing is known about the visual pigments present in lungfish or the early tetrapods. Results Here we identify and characterise five visual pigments (rh1, rh2, lws, sws1 and sws2) expressed in the retina of N. forsteri. Phylogenetic analysis of the molecular evolution of lungfish and other vertebrate visual pigment genes indicates a closer relationship between lungfish and amphibian pigments than to pigments in teleost fishes. However, the relationship between lungfish, the coelacanth and tetrapods could not be absolutely determined from opsin phylogeny, supporting an unresolved trichotomy between the three groups. Conclusion The presence of four cone pigments in Australian lungfish suggests that the earliest tetrapods would have had a colorful view of their terrestrial environment. PMID:17961206

  6. Scale structure in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne; Heaslop, Meg; Carr, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are secreted within the dermis by a capsule of scleroblasts, and enclosed in a pouch made of collagen fibers, in contact with the epidermis over the posterior third of the scale. Each scale grows from a focus, which represents the first formed part of the scale. On the internal surface of the scale is elasmodin, made of collagen fiber bundles arranged in layers. Elasmodin, unmineralized in N. forsteri, contains cells in the living animal, and the number of layers increases as the scales grow. Squamulin, on the thin external part of the scale, is also laid down in layers, and based on a matrix of fine collagen fibrils, mineralized with a poorly crystalline biogenic calcium hydroxylapatite. Squamulin is divided into separate sections called squamulae, and contains long tubules with cells applied to the wall of the tubule. The anterior and lateral surfaces of the squamulin are ornamented with pediculae, and the posterior surface has longitudinal ridges, from which collagen fibers extend to anchor the scale within the pouch. Elasmodin and squamulin are linked by unmineralized collagen fibrils. The layers, formed at irregular intervals, are connected around the margin of the scale, effectively converting the whole scale into a flat structure resembling a pearl, with the first formed tissues deeply embedded inside the scale, and the youngest on the outer surface. Incremental lines in the hard tissue, and the number of layers in the elasmodin, do not reflect the chronological age of the fish.

  7. Cartilage, bone, and intermandibular connective tissue in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The connective tissue that links the bones of the mandible in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, has been described as an intermandibular cartilage, and as such has been considered important for phylogenetic analyses among lower vertebrates. However, light and electron microscopy of developing lungfish jaws demonstrates that the intermandibular tissue, like the connective tissue that links the bones of the upper jaw, contains fibroblasts and numerous bundles of collagen fibrils, extending from the trabeculae of the bones supporting the tooth plates. It differs significantly in structure and in staining reactions from the cartilage and the bone found in this species. In common with the cladistian Polypterus and with actinopterygians and some amphibians, lungfish have no intermandibular cartilage. The connective tissue linking the mandibular bones has no phylogenetic significance for systematic grouping of lungfish, as it is present in a range of different groups among lower vertebrates.

  8. Brain – Endocast Relationship in the Australian Lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, Elucidated from Tomographic Data (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi)

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the brains of the three extant lungfish genera have been previously described, the spatial relationship between the brain and the neurocranium has never before been fully described nor quantified. Through the application of virtual microtomography (μCT) and 3D rendering software, we describe aspects of the gross anatomy of the brain and labyrinth region in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri and compare this to previous accounts. Unexpected characters in this specimen include short olfactory peduncles connecting the olfactory bulbs to the telencephalon, and an oblong telencephalon. Furthermore, we illustrate the endocast (the mould of the internal space of the neurocranial cavity) of Neoceratodus, also describing and quantifying the brain-endocast relationship in a lungfish for the first time. Overall, the brain of the Australian lungfish closely matches the size and shape of the endocast cavity housing it, filling more than four fifths of the total volume. The forebrain and labyrinth regions of the brain correspond very well to the endocast morphology, while the midbrain and hindbrain do not fit so closely. Our results cast light on the gross neural and endocast anatomy in lungfishes, and are likely to have particular significance for palaeoneurologists studying fossil taxa. PMID:26492190

  9. Brain - Endocast Relationship in the Australian Lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, Elucidated from Tomographic Data (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin; Ahlberg, Per E

    2015-01-01

    Although the brains of the three extant lungfish genera have been previously described, the spatial relationship between the brain and the neurocranium has never before been fully described nor quantified. Through the application of virtual microtomography (μCT) and 3D rendering software, we describe aspects of the gross anatomy of the brain and labyrinth region in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri and compare this to previous accounts. Unexpected characters in this specimen include short olfactory peduncles connecting the olfactory bulbs to the telencephalon, and an oblong telencephalon. Furthermore, we illustrate the endocast (the mould of the internal space of the neurocranial cavity) of Neoceratodus, also describing and quantifying the brain-endocast relationship in a lungfish for the first time. Overall, the brain of the Australian lungfish closely matches the size and shape of the endocast cavity housing it, filling more than four fifths of the total volume. The forebrain and labyrinth regions of the brain correspond very well to the endocast morphology, while the midbrain and hindbrain do not fit so closely. Our results cast light on the gross neural and endocast anatomy in lungfishes, and are likely to have particular significance for palaeoneurologists studying fossil taxa.

  10. Brain - Endocast Relationship in the Australian Lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, Elucidated from Tomographic Data (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin; Ahlberg, Per E

    2015-01-01

    Although the brains of the three extant lungfish genera have been previously described, the spatial relationship between the brain and the neurocranium has never before been fully described nor quantified. Through the application of virtual microtomography (μCT) and 3D rendering software, we describe aspects of the gross anatomy of the brain and labyrinth region in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri and compare this to previous accounts. Unexpected characters in this specimen include short olfactory peduncles connecting the olfactory bulbs to the telencephalon, and an oblong telencephalon. Furthermore, we illustrate the endocast (the mould of the internal space of the neurocranial cavity) of Neoceratodus, also describing and quantifying the brain-endocast relationship in a lungfish for the first time. Overall, the brain of the Australian lungfish closely matches the size and shape of the endocast cavity housing it, filling more than four fifths of the total volume. The forebrain and labyrinth regions of the brain correspond very well to the endocast morphology, while the midbrain and hindbrain do not fit so closely. Our results cast light on the gross neural and endocast anatomy in lungfishes, and are likely to have particular significance for palaeoneurologists studying fossil taxa. PMID:26492190

  11. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  12. Erythrocyte phosphate composition and osmotic fragility in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus fosteri, and osteoglossid, Scleropages schneichardti.

    PubMed

    Isaacks, R E; Kim, H D

    1984-01-01

    The packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (g/dl) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus fosteri, and in one of three Australian osteoglossids, Scleropages schneichardti, were 32.3 and 29.9; 10.5 and 10.0; and 407 and 176 micron 3 respectively. Total acid-soluble phosphates (TPi) from the red blood cells (RBC) of the lungfish and osteoglossid were 35.3 and 18.1 mumol/cm3 RBC respectively. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) represented 16.4, 39.7 and 17.8% of the cell phosphates in the lungfish respectively. Inositol bisphosphate was not present in extracts of the red cells of N. fosteri, in contrast to the red cells of Lepidosiren paradoxa and Protopterus aethiopicus, in which it was first observed. In the osteoglossid, Pi and ATP represented 37.6 and 46.4% of the erythrocyte phosphate, respectively, with only traces of GTP present. ATP is the predominant organic phosphate in the red cells of both species. The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes of N. fosteri are quite resistant to hemolysis, with hemolysis beginning at 35-30 mM and a complete hemolysis occurring at 20 mM NaCl. The red cells of S. schneichardti begin to hemolyze at 95-90 mM with hemolysis continuing to completion at 60 mM NaCl. PMID:6150802

  13. Anatomy and cytology of the thymus in juvenile Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, M G; Chilmonczyk, S; Birch, D; Aladaileh, S; Raftos, D; Joss, J

    2007-01-01

    The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the thymus of a dipnoan, the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The thymic tissue showed clear demarcation into a cortex and medulla with ample vascularization. Large cells including foamy and giant multinucleated cells with periodic acid Schiff/Alcian blue positive staining properties were localized mainly in the medulla. The major cellular components were epithelial cells and lymphoid cells. The epithelial cells were classified by location and ultrastructure into six sub-populations: capsular cells, cortical and medullary reticular cells, perivascular endothelial cells, intermediate cells, nurse-like cells and Hassall-like corpuscles. Myoid cells were found mainly in the cortico-medullary boundary and medulla. Macrophages and secretory-like cells were also present. These findings will provide a base of knowledge about the cellular immune system of lungfish. PMID:17944863

  14. Australian lungfish neurohypophysial hormone genes encode vasotocin and [Phe2]mesotocin precursors homologous to tetrapod-type precursors.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, S; Ishii, S; Joss, J M

    1997-11-25

    In view of the well-established role of neurohypophysial hormones in osmoregulation of terrestrial vertebrates, lungfishes are a key group for study of the molecular and functional evolution of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Here we report on the primary structure of the precursors encoding vasotocin (VT) and [Phe2]mesotocin ([Phe2]MT) of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. Genomic sequence analysis and Northern blot analysis confirmed that [Phe2]MT is a native oxytocin family peptide in the Australian lungfish, although it has been reported that the lungfish neurohypophysis contains MT. The VT precursor consists of a signal peptide, VT, that is connected to a neurophysin by a Gly-Lys-Arg sequence, and a copeptin moiety that includes a Leu-rich core segment and a glycosylation site. In contrast, the [Phe2]MT precursor does not contain a copeptin moiety. These structural features of the lungfish precursors are consistent with those in tetrapods, but different from those in teleosts where both VT and isotocin precursors contain a copeptin-like moiety without a glycosylation site at the carboxyl terminals of their neurophysins. Comparison of the exon/intron organization also supports homology of the lungfish [Phe2]MT gene with tetrapod oxytocin/MT genes, rather than with teleost isotocin genes. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that neurohypophysial hormone genes of the lungfish are closely related to those of the toad. The present results along with previous morphological findings indicate that the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of the lungfish has evolved along the tetrapod lineage, whereas the teleosts form a separate lineage, both within the class Osteichthyes.

  15. Cloning of a proopiomelanocortin cDNA from the pituitary of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri: analyzing trends in the organization of this prohormone precursor.

    PubMed

    Dores, R M; Sollars, C; Danielson, P; Lee, J; Alrubaian, J; Joss, J M

    1999-12-01

    The polypeptide hormone precursor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), was cloned and sequenced from the pituitary of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, the only surviving species of the oldest extant lineage of lungfish. The Australian lungfish POMC cDNA had an open reading frame that coded for a 255-amino acid precursor. A comparison of POMC sequences from the Australian lungfish and the African lungfish indicated that the deduced amino acid sequences for ACTH, beta-MSH, and beta-endorphin were over 90% identical. Furthermore, within the open reading frames of the two lungfish POMCs, there was 84% identity at the nucleotide level. Although a gamma-MSH-like region was detected in the Australian lungfish POMC cDNA, this sequence contained mutations that have been detected in the gamma-MSH sequences of some ray-finned fish and are not found in the gamma-MSH sequence of the African lungfish or those of tetrapods. In addition, the sequence of beta-endorphin in the two species of lungfish has amino acid motifs that are found in the beta-endorphin sequences of cartilaginous fish and ray-finned fish but not in tetrapods. However, maximum parsimony analysis of the entire POMC open reading indicated that the lungfish POMC sequences form a clade with two amphibian POMC sequences rather than with POMC sequences from ray-finned fish. This result is consistent with the accepted view that the sarcopterygians (lungfishes and tetrapods) are a monophyletic assemblage. Analysis of rates of divergence for various POMC sequences indicate that point mutations are accumulating in the lungfish POMC sequences at a slower rate than in either amphibian or mammalian POMC sequences. The phylogenetic implications of these observations are discussed.

  16. Deciphering the origin of Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin in Lobe-finned fish: cloning of australian lungfish proenkephalin.

    PubMed

    Sollars, C; Danielson, P; Joss, J M; Dores, R M

    2000-08-25

    The previous detection of Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin in the CNS of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, in a molar ratio comparable to mammals suggested that the lungfish proenkephalin precursor should contain the sequences of both Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin as seen for mammalian proenkephalin. However, the cloning of a full-length proenkephalin cDNA from the CNS of the Australian lungfish indicates that the organization of this precursor is more similar to amphibian proenkephalin than mammalian proenkephalin. The Australian lungfish cDNA is 1284 nucleotides in length and the open reading frame (267 amino acids) contains seven opioid sequences (GenBank #AF232671). There are five copies of the Met-enkephalin sequence flanked by sets of paired basic amino acid proteolytic cleavage sites and two C-terminally extended forms of Met-enkephalin: YGGFMRSL and YGGFMGY. As seen for amphibians, no Leu-enkephalin sequence was detected in the Australian lungfish proenkephalin cDNA. The fact that Leu-enkephalin has been identified by radioimmunoassay and HPLC analysis in the CNS of the Australian lungfish indicates that a Leu-enkephalin-coding gene, distinct from proenkephalin, must be expressed in lungfish. Potential candidates may include a prodynorphin- or other opioid-like gene. Furthermore, the absence of a Leu-enkephalin sequence in lungfish and amphibian proenkephalin would suggest that the mutations that yielded this opioid sequence in tetrapod proenkephalin occurred at some point in the radiation of the amniote vertebrates.

  17. Cloning of prodynorphin cDNAs from the brain of Australian and African lungfish: implications for the evolution of the prodynorphin gene.

    PubMed

    Dores, Robert M; Sollars, Cristina; Lecaude, Stephanie; Lee, Jenny; Danielson, Phillip; Alrubaian, Jasem; Lihrman, Isabelle; Joss, Jean M P; Vaudry, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    In mammals the opioids Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin are derived from a common precursor, proenkephalin, and as a result these neuropeptides are co-localized in enkephalinergic neurons. The mammalian scheme for enkephalinergic networks is not universal for all classes of sarcopterygian vertebrates. In an earlier study, distinct Met- and Leu-enkephalin-positive neurons were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. More recently, characterization of proenkephalin cDNAs separately cloned from the CNS of P. annectens and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, revealed that the proenkephalin gene in these species encodes only Met-enkephalin-related opioids. In the current study a full-length prodynorphin cDNA (accession No. AY 445637) was cloned and sequenced from the CNS of N. forsteri. In addition to encoding alpha-neoendorphin, dynorphin A and dynorphin B sequences unique to the lungfish, two Leu-enkephalin sequences, flanked by paired basic amino acid proteolytic cleavage sites, were detected in this precursor. The partial sequence of a P. annectens prodynorphin cDNA (accession No. AY445638) also encoded a Leu-enkephalin sequence and a novel YGGFF sequence. The presence of the Leu-enkephalin sequence in the lungfish prodynorphin precursors would explain the origin of the distinct Leu-enkephalin-positive neurons found in the African lungfish CNS. The realization that Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin can be derived from distinct opioid-coding precursor genes calls into question the interpretation of comparative immunohistochemical studies that have mapped 'enkephalinergic' networks in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  18. Evolution of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) genome: a major role for CR1 and L2 LINE elements.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Cushla J; Filée, Jonathan; Germon, Isabelle; Joss, Jean; Casane, Didier

    2012-11-01

    Haploid genomes greater than 25,000 Mb are rare, within the animals only the lungfish and some of the salamanders and crustaceans are known to have genomes this large. There is very little data on the structure of genomes this size. It is known, however, that for animal genomes up to 3,000 Mb, there is in general a good correlation between genome size and the percent of the genome composed of repetitive sequence and that this repetitive component is highly dynamic. In this study, we sampled the Australian lungfish genome using three mini-genomic libraries and found that with very little sequence, the results converged on an estimate of 40% of the genome being composed of recognizable transposable elements (TEs), chiefly from the CR1 and L2 long interspersed nuclear element clades. We further characterized the CR1 and L2 elements in the lungfish genome and show that although most CR1 elements probably represent recent amplifications, the L2 elements are more diverse and are more likely the result of a series of amplifications. We suggest that our sampling method has probably underestimated the recognizable TE content. However, on the basis of the most likely sources of error, we suggest that this very large genome is not largely composed of recently amplified, undetected TEs but may instead include a large component of older degenerate TEs. Based on these estimates, and on Thomson's (Thomson K. 1972. An attempt to reconstruct evolutionary changes in the cellular DNA content of lungfish. J Exp Zool. 180:363-372) inference that in the lineage leading to the extant Australian lungfish, there was massive increase in genome size between 350 and 200 mya, after which the size of the genome changed little, we speculate that the very large Australian lungfish genome may be the result of a massive amplification of TEs followed by a long period with a very low rate of sequence removal and some ongoing TE activity.

  19. Evolution of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) genome: a major role for CR1 and L2 LINE elements.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Cushla J; Filée, Jonathan; Germon, Isabelle; Joss, Jean; Casane, Didier

    2012-11-01

    Haploid genomes greater than 25,000 Mb are rare, within the animals only the lungfish and some of the salamanders and crustaceans are known to have genomes this large. There is very little data on the structure of genomes this size. It is known, however, that for animal genomes up to 3,000 Mb, there is in general a good correlation between genome size and the percent of the genome composed of repetitive sequence and that this repetitive component is highly dynamic. In this study, we sampled the Australian lungfish genome using three mini-genomic libraries and found that with very little sequence, the results converged on an estimate of 40% of the genome being composed of recognizable transposable elements (TEs), chiefly from the CR1 and L2 long interspersed nuclear element clades. We further characterized the CR1 and L2 elements in the lungfish genome and show that although most CR1 elements probably represent recent amplifications, the L2 elements are more diverse and are more likely the result of a series of amplifications. We suggest that our sampling method has probably underestimated the recognizable TE content. However, on the basis of the most likely sources of error, we suggest that this very large genome is not largely composed of recently amplified, undetected TEs but may instead include a large component of older degenerate TEs. Based on these estimates, and on Thomson's (Thomson K. 1972. An attempt to reconstruct evolutionary changes in the cellular DNA content of lungfish. J Exp Zool. 180:363-372) inference that in the lineage leading to the extant Australian lungfish, there was massive increase in genome size between 350 and 200 mya, after which the size of the genome changed little, we speculate that the very large Australian lungfish genome may be the result of a massive amplification of TEs followed by a long period with a very low rate of sequence removal and some ongoing TE activity. PMID:22734051

  20. Formation and structure of scales in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne

    2012-05-01

    The large elasmoid scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are formed within the dermis by unpigmented scleroblasts, growing within a collagenous dermal pocket below a thick glandular epidermis. The first row of scales, on the trunk of the juvenile lungfish, appears below the lateral line of the trunk, single in this species, at around stage 53. The scales, initially circular in outline, develop anteriorly and posteriorly from the point of initiation in the mid-trunk region, and rows are added alternately below the line, and above the line, until they reach the dorsal or ventral midline, or the margins of the fins. Scales develop later on the ventral surface of the head, from a separate centre of initiation. Scales consist of three layers, all produced by scleroblasts of dermal origin. The outermost layer of interlocking plates, or squamulae, consists of a mineralised matrix of fine collagen fibrils, covered by unmineralised collagen and a single layer of cells. Squamulae of the anterior and lateral surfaces are ornamented with short spines, and the mineralised tissue of the posterior surface is linked to the pouch by collagen fibrils. The innermost layer, known as elasmodin, consists of bundles of thick collagen fibrils and cells arranged in layers. An intermediate layer, made up of collagen fibrils, links the outer and inner layers. The elasmoid scales of N. forsteri can be compared with scale types among other osteichthyan groups, although the cellsand canaliculi in the mineralised squamulae bear little resemblance to typical bone.

  1. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection.

  2. The epithelial sodium channel in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Maejima, Sho; Yoshie, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Konno, Norifumi; Joss, Jean M P

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a Na(+)-selective, aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in sodium transport homeostasis. ENaC is rate-limiting for Na(+) absorption in the epithelia of osmoregulatory organs of tetrapods. Although the ENaC/degenerin gene family is proposed to be present in metazoans, no orthologues or paralogues for ENaC have been found in the genome databases of teleosts. We studied full-length cDNA cloning and tissue distributions of ENaCα, β and γ subunits in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Neoceratodus ENaC (nENaC) comprised three subunits: nENaCα, β and γ proteins. The nENaCα, β and γ subunits are closely related to amphibian ENaCα, β and γ subunits, respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills, kidney and rectum. Amiloride-sensitive sodium current was recorded from Xenopus oocytes injected with the nENaCαβγ subunit complementary RNAs under a two-electrode voltage clamp. nENaCα immunoreactivity was observed in the apical cell membrane of the gills, kidney and rectum. Thus, nENaC may play a role in regulating sodium transport of the lungfish, which has a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This is interesting because there may have been an ENaC sodium absorption system controlled by aldosterone before the conquest of land by vertebrates.

  3. Purification, characterization, and biological activity of a substance P-related peptide from the gut of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Conlon, J Michael; Joss, Jean M P; Burcher, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A peptide with mammalian substance P (SP)-like immunoreactivity was isolated from an extract of the spiral intestine of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. The primary structure of this peptide was established as Lys-Pro-Arg-Pro-Asp-Glu-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Met . NH2, showing 64% identity with mammalian SP. In isolated preparations of lungfish foregut circular muscle, lungfish SP produced a slow, long-lasting tonic contraction, with a pD2 value of 8.19. Lungfish midgut circular muscle preparations responded to lungfish SP rapidly and in a more complex manner. There was an increase in the frequency of spontaneous activity (pD2 = 8.76), associated with diminished amplitude of the spontaneous contractions (pD2 = 9.24), also coupled in some preparations with a tonic contraction (pD2 = 8.43). The response patterns of foregut and midgut circular muscle to acetylcholine (ACh) were very similar to those seen to lungfish SP. Lungfish SP and ACh, however, had very weak effects on both foregut and midgut longitudinal muscle. These data demonstrate that lungfish SP may be a physiologically important regulator of gastrointestinal motility in Neoceratodus. This study further confirmed that the structures of SP-related peptides have been strongly conserved under the pressure of vertebrate evolution, particularly in preserving the functionally important sequence, Phe-Xaa-Gly-Leu-Met . amide, at the C-terminus. The sequence of lungfish SP is identical to that of bufokinin, a SP-related peptide previously isolated from the intestine of the cane toad, Bufo marinus, supporting the hypothesis that lungfishes and amphibians share a common ancestor.

  4. African Lungfish Reveal the Evolutionary Origins of Organized Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin T; Muñoz, Pilar; Amemiya, Chris T; Salinas, Irene

    2015-09-21

    One of the most remarkable innovations of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the progressive organization of the lymphoid tissues that leads to increased efficiency of immune surveillance and cell interactions. The mucosal immune system of endotherms has evolved organized secondary mucosal lymphoid tissues (O-MALT) such as Peyer's patches, tonsils, and adenoids. Primitive semi-organized lymphoid nodules or aggregates (LAs) were found in the mucosa of anuran amphibians, suggesting that O-MALT evolved from amphibian LAs ∼250 million years ago. This study shows for the first time the presence of O-MALT in the mucosa of the African lungfish, an extant representative of the closest ancestral lineage to all tetrapods. Lungfish LAs are lymphocyte-rich structures associated with a modified covering epithelium and express all IGH genes except for IGHW2L. In response to infection, nasal LAs doubled their size and increased the expression of CD3 and IGH transcripts. Additionally, de novo organogenesis of inducible LAs resembling mammalian tertiary lymphoid structures was observed. Using deep-sequencing transcriptomes, we identified several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed its extraordinary diversification within sarcopterygian fish. Attempts to find AICDA in lungfish transcriptomes or by RT-PCR failed, indicating the possible absence of somatic hypermutation in lungfish LAs. These findings collectively suggest that the origin of O-MALT predates the emergence of tetrapods and that TNF family members play a conserved role in the organization of vertebrate mucosal lymphoid organs.

  5. Cloning of cDNA encoding the common alpha subunit precursor molecule of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Kubokawa, K; Ishii, S; Joss, J M

    1998-05-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding a putative glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit precursor molecule from a pituitary cDNA library of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) by a two-step plaque hybridization technique initially using cDNA encoding the toad glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit precursor molecule as the hybridization probe. The inserts (799 bp) of two of the isolated cDNA clones contained sequences of 5' and 3' untranslated regions, including a poly(A) stretch, and the entire coding sequence of the alpha subunit precursor molecule. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that its signal peptide consists of 24 residues and its mature protein 97 residues. In the mature protein, there is an insert of one residue (Ala) just after the 9th residue. This insert is unique to the Australian lungfish among vertebrate species studied. The amino acid sequence of the mature protein shares the common, or the same-group, amino acid residues at 9 positions with tetrapod and not actinopterygian vertebrates, while only one residue is common to some teleosts and the lungfish to the exclusion of the tetrapods. The overall sequence of the mature protein of the Australian lungfish also shares more similarity with those of tetrapods (69 to 84%) than it does with teleosts (57 to 74%). These results on the relation of the alpha subunit precursor molecule between the lungfish and other vertebrates are consistent with the recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggesting a closer relationship between lungfish and tetrapods than between lungfish and teleosts. We also found that the primary structure of the lungfish alpha subunit is slightly but significantly more similar to that of homeothermic vertebrates than to that of amphibians. This may be due to specialization of the amphibian alpha subunit molecules.

  6. Spawning activity of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri in an impoundment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D T; Mallett, S; Krück, N C; Loh, W; Tibbetts, I

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the spawning activity of the threatened Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri by measuring egg densities within the artificial habitat of a large impoundment (Lake Wivenhoe, Australia). Eggs were sampled (August to November 2009) from multiple locations across the impoundment, but occurred at highest densities in water shallower than 40 cm along shorelines with a dense cover of submerged terrestrial vegetation. The numbers of eggs declined over the study period and all samples were dominated by early developmental stages and high proportions of unviable eggs. The quality of the littoral spawning habitats declined over the study as flooded terrestrial grasses decomposed and filamentous algae coverage increased. Water temperatures at the spawning site exhibited extreme variations, ranging over 20·4° C in water shallower than 5 cm. Dissolved oxygen concentrations regularly declined to <1 mg l⁻¹ at 40 and 80 cm water depth. Spawning habitats utilised by N. forsteri within impoundments expose embryos to increased risk of desiccation or excessive submergence through water-level variations, and extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration that present numerous challenges for successful spawning and recruitment of N. forsteri in large impoundment environments.

  7. Effects of environmental oxygen on development and respiration of Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) embryos.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Joss, Jean M P; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-10-01

    The effects of oxygen partial pressure ([Formula: see text]) on development and respiration were investigated in the eggs of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. At 20°C, embryonic survival and development was optimal at 15 and 20.9 kPa. Development was slowed at 5 and 10 kPa and embryos did not survive 2 kPa. At lower [Formula: see text], the rate of oxygen consumption also decreased. Embryos responded to hypoxia by hatching at an earlier age and stage of development, and hatching wet and dry gut-free masses were reduced. The role of oxygen conductance ([Formula: see text]) in gas exchange was also examined under selected environmental [Formula: see text] and temperatures. The breakdown of the vitelline membrane changed capsule geometry, allowed water to be absorbed into the perivitelline space and increased capsule [Formula: see text]. This occurred at embryonic stage 32 under all treatments and was largely independent of both [Formula: see text] and temperature (15, 20 and 25°C), demonstrating that capsule [Formula: see text] cannot adaptively respond to altered environmental conditions. The membrane breakdown increased capsule diffusive [Formula: see text] and stabilised perivitelline [Formula: see text], but reduced the convective [Formula: see text] of the perivitelline fluid, as the large perivitelline volume and inadequate convective current resulted in a [Formula: see text] gradient within the egg prior to hatch.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the South american and the Australian lungfish: testing of the phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial data sets for phylogenetic problems in tetrapod relationships.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Henner; Denk, Angelika; Zitzler, Jürgen; Joss, Jean J; Meyer, Axel

    2004-12-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequences (16403 and 16572 base pairs, respectively) of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi). The mitochondrial DNA sequences were established in an effort to resolve the debated evolutionary positions of the lungfish and the coelacanth relative to land vertebrates. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on complete mtDNA sequences, including only the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, sequence were able to strongly reject the traditional textbook hypothesis that coelacanths are the closest relatives of land vertebrates. However, these studies were unable to statistically significantly distinguish between the two remaining scenarios: lungfish as the closest relatives to land vertebrates and lungfish and coelacanths jointly as their sister group (Cao et al. 1998; Zardoya et al. 1998; Zardoya and Meyer 1997a). Lungfish, coelacanths, and the fish ancestors of the tetrapod lineage all originated within a short time window of about 20 million years, back in the early Devonian (about 380 to 400 million years ago). This short divergence time makes the determination of the phylogenetic relationships among these three lineages difficult. In this study, we attempted to break the long evolutionary branch of lungfish, in an effort to better resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant sarcopterygian lineages. The gene order of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American and Australian lungfish conforms to the consensus gene order among gnathostome vertebrates. The phylogenetic analyses of the complete set of mitochondrial proteins (without ND6) suggest that the lungfish are the closest relatives of the tetrapods, although the support in favor of this scenario is not statistically significant. The two other smaller data sets (tRNA and rRNA genes) give inconsistent results depending on the

  9. Teleost-type angiotensin is present in Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Joss, J M; Itahara, Y; Watanabe, T X; Nakajima, K; Takei, Y

    1999-05-01

    Angiotensin I (ANG I) was produced from the incubation of lungfish plasma with homologous kidney extracts. The purified peptide was found to have the sequence of H-Asn-Arg-Val-Tyr-Val-His-Pro-Phe-Thr-Leu-OH, which is homologous for the first eight residues with all teleost angiotensins so far sequenced, although lungfish generally possess tetrapod-type hormones. The lungfish decapeptide (ANG I) induced dose-dependent increases in arterial pressure in the rat. The lungfish octapeptide (ANG II) released aldosterone from kidney-adrenal tissue in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and induced dose-dependent increases in arterial pressure of the lungfish. Substitution of asparagine with aspartic acid in the first position (tetrapod-type ANG II) did not alter the blood pressure response significantly, but a second substitution of the valine in the (5)-position with isoleucine (ANG II form found in human and rat) abolished the rise in arterial pressure in lungfish over the same dose range.

  10. African Lungfish Reveal the Evolutionary Origins of Organized Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin T.; Muñoz, Pilar; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY One of the most remarkable innovations of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the progressive organization of the lymphoid tissues that leads to increased efficiency of immune surveillance and cell interactions. The mucosal immune system of endotherms has evolved organized secondary mucosal lymphoid tissues (O-MALT) such as Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and adenoids. Primitive semi-organized lymphoid nodules or aggregates (LAs) were found in the mucosa of anuran amphibians [1], suggesting that O-MALT evolved from amphibian LAs_250 million years ago [1–4]. This study shows for the first time the presence of O-MALT in the mucosa of the African lungfish, an extant representative of the closest ancestral lineage to all tetrapods. Lungfish LAs are lymphocyte-rich structures associated with a modified covering epithelium and express all IGH genes except for IGHW2L. In response to infection, nasal LAs doubled their size and increased the expression of CD3 and IGH transcripts. Additionally, de novo organogenesis of inducible LAs resembling mammalian tertiary lymphoid structures was observed. Using deep-sequencing transcriptomes, we identified several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed its extraordinary diversification within sarcopterygian fish. Attempts to find AICDA in lungfish transcriptomes or by RT-PCR failed, indicating the possible absence of somatic hypermutation in lungfish LAs. These findings collectively suggest that the origin of O-MALT predates the emergence of tetrapods and that TNF family members play a conserved role in the organization of vertebrate mucosal lymphoid organs. PMID:26344090

  11. Functional analyses of lymphocytes and granulocytes isolated from the thymus, spiral valve intestine, spleen, and kidney of juvenile Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Masoud; Joss, Jean; Mohammad, Mohammad G

    2013-07-01

    Our current understanding of the lungfish immune system is limited. This study is characterizing the immune cells separated from primary and secondary immune organs of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. Our functional studies utilized flow cytometry to study the immune cells extracted from the thymus, spiral valve intestine, spleen, and kidney. The different characteristics of lymphocytes and granulocytes were analyzed by utilization of viability, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and apoptosis assays. Most of the nonviable intestinal cells were lymphocytes. Depending on the organ, 6-25% of the total population, predominantly granulocytes, underwent phagocytosis where the splenic cells were the most and intestinal cells the least phagocytic cells. Cells responded positively but differently to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to produce radical oxygen species, an indication of their oxidative burst activity, which was mainly associated with granulocytes. Although cells were induced by dexamethasone to undergo apoptosis, such an induction did not follow a consistent pattern of dose of dexamethasone or incubation time between the different organs. In the absence of monoclonal antibodies against lungfish immune cells, these functional flow cytometric analyses aid our understanding on the functionality of immune cells.

  12. Binding of adrenergic ligands to liver plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum; the toad, Xenopus laevis; and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Janssens, P A; Grigg, J A

    1988-09-01

    The beta-adrenergic ligand iodocyanopindolol (ICP) bound specifically to hepatic plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Bmax, 40 fmol/mg protein (P) at free concentration above 140 pM; KD, 42 pM); the toad, Xenopus laevis (Bmax, 200 fmol/mg P at 1 nM; KD, 300 pM); and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Bmax, 100 fmol/mg P at 5 nM). For the lungfish, the Scatchard plot was curved showing two classes of binding site with KD's of 20 and 500 pM. Neither the alpha 1-adrenergic ligand prazosin nor the alpha 2-adrenergic ligand yohimbine bound specifically to hepatic membrane preparations from any of the three species. Several adrenergic ligands displaced ICP from hepatic membrane preparations of all three species with KD's of Axolotl--propranolol, 50 nM; isoprenaline, 600 nM; adrenaline, 10 microM; phenylephrine, 20 microM; noradrenaline, 40 microM; and phentolamine, greater than 100 microM; X. laevis--propranolol, 30 nM; isoprenaline, 100 microM; adrenaline, 200 microM; noradrenaline, 300 microM; phenylephrine, 1 mM; and phentolamine, greater than 1 mM; N. forsteri,--propranolol, 25 nM; isoprenaline, 1 microM; adrenaline, 20 microM; phenylephrine, 35 microM; noradrenaline, 600 microM; and phentolamine, 400 microM. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptors are not present in hepatic plasma membrane preparations from these three species and that the hepatic actions of catecholamines are mediated via beta-adrenergic receptors. The order of binding of the beta-adrenergic ligands suggests that the receptors are of the beta 2 type.

  13. The phylogenetic relationship of tetrapod, coelacanth, and lungfish revealed by the sequences of forty-four nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Takezaki, Naoko; Figueroa, Felipe; Zaleska-Rutczynska, Zofia; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan

    2004-08-01

    The origin of tetrapods is a major outstanding issue in vertebrate phylogeny. Each of the three possible principal hypotheses (coelacanth, lungfish, or neither being the sister group of tetrapods) has found support in different sets of data. In an attempt to resolve the controversy, sequences of 44 nuclear genes encoding amino acid residues at 10,404 positions were obtained and analyzed. However, this large set of sequences did not support conclusively one of the three hypotheses. Apparently, the coelacanth, lungfish, and tetrapod lineages diverged within such a short time interval that at this level of analysis, their relationships appear to be an irresolvable trichotomy.

  14. Early evolution of vertebrate photoreception: lessons from lampreys and lungfishes.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P

    2009-03-01

    Lampreys (Agnatha) and lungfish (Dipnoi) are representatives of the earliest and the intermediate stages in vertebrate evolution, respectively, and survived in the Cambrian (approximately 540 mA, lampreys) and Devonian (approximately 400 mA, lungfishes) Periods. The unique phylogenetic position of these two groups presents us with an exciting opportunity to understand life in ancient times and to begin to trace the evolution of vision and photoreception in vertebrates. Using a multidisciplinary approach employing anatomical and molecular techniques, the evolution of photoreception is explored in these extant, living fossils to predict the environmental lighting conditions to which our vertebrate ancestors were exposed. Contrary to expectations, the retinae of the southern hemisphere lamprey (Geotria australis Gray, 1851) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri Krefft, 1870) are far from "primitive," each possessing five types of photoreceptors, many with spectral filters for tuning the light. Detailed ultrastructural analysis reveals that all five receptor types in G. australis are cone-like, whereas N. forsteri possesses four cone types and a single type of rod. Each receptor type also contains a different visual pigment (opsin gene); that is, LWS, SWS1, SWS2, RhA and RhB in G. australis and LWS, SWS1, SWS2, Rh1 and Rh2 in N. forsteri, all of which are expressed within the retina and are sensitive to different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, providing the potential for pentachromatic and tetrachromatic color vision, respectively.

  15. The energy cost of embryonic development in fishes and amphibians, with emphasis on new data from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Joss, Jean M P; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption throughout embryonic development is used to indirectly determine the 'cost' of development, which includes both differentiation and growth. This cost is affected by temperature and the duration of incubation in anamniote fish and amphibian embryos. The influences of temperature on embryonic development rate, respiration rate and energetics were investigated in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and compared with published data. Developmental stage and oxygen consumption rate were measured until hatching, upon which wet and dry gut-free masses were determined. A measure of the cost of development, the total oxygen required to produce 1 mg of embryonic dry tissue, increased as temperature decreased. The relationship between the oxygen cost of development (C, ml mg(-1)) and dry hatchling mass (M, mg) in fishes and amphibians is described by C = 0.30 M(0.22 0.13 (95% CI)), r (2) = 0.52. The scaling exponent indicates that the cost of embryonic development increases disproportionally with increasing hatchling mass. At 15 and 20°C, N. forsteri cost of development is significantly lower than the regression mean for all species, and at 25°C is lower than the allometrically scaled data set. Unexpectedly, incubation of N. forsteri is long, despite natural development under relatively warm conditions, and may be related to a large genome size. The low cost of development may be associated with construction of a rather sluggish fish with a low capacity for aerobic metabolism. The metabolic rate is lower in N. forsteri hatchlings than in any other fishes or amphibians at the same temperature, which matches the extremely low aerobic metabolic scope of the juveniles.

  16. Extremely Low Microsatellite Diversity but Distinct Population Structure in a Long-Lived Threatened Species, the Australian Lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi)

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jane M.; Schmidt, Daniel J.; Huey, Joel A.; Real, Kathryn M.; Espinoza, Thomas; McDougall, Andrew; Kind, Peter K.; Brooks, Steven; Roberts, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The Australian lungfish is a unique living representative of an ancient dipnoan lineage, listed as ‘vulnerable’ to extinction under Australia’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Historical accounts indicate this species occurred naturally in two adjacent river systems in Australia, the Burnett and Mary. Current day populations in other rivers are thought to have arisen by translocation from these source populations. Early genetic work detected very little variation and so had limited power to answer questions relevant for management including how genetic variation is partitioned within and among sub-populations. In this study, we use newly developed microsatellite markers to examine samples from the Burnett and Mary Rivers, as well as from two populations thought to be of translocated origin, Brisbane and North Pine. We test whether there is significant genetic structure among and within river drainages; assign putatively translocated populations to potential source populations; and estimate effective population sizes. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci genotyped in 218 individuals gave an average within-population heterozygosity of 0.39 which is low relative to other threatened taxa and for freshwater fishes in general. Based on FST values (average over loci = 0.11) and STRUCTURE analyses, we identify three distinct populations in the natural range, one in the Burnett and two distinct populations in the Mary. These analyses also support the hypothesis that the Mary River is the likely source of translocated populations in the Brisbane and North Pine rivers, which agrees with historical published records of a translocation event giving rise to these populations. We were unable to obtain bounded estimates of effective population size, as we have too few genotype combinations, although point estimates were low, ranging from 29 - 129. We recommend that, in order to preserve any local adaptation in the three distinct populations

  17. Extremely low microsatellite diversity but distinct population structure in a long-lived threatened species, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jane M; Schmidt, Daniel J; Huey, Joel A; Real, Kathryn M; Espinoza, Thomas; McDougall, Andrew; Kind, Peter K; Brooks, Steven; Roberts, David T

    2015-01-01

    The Australian lungfish is a unique living representative of an ancient dipnoan lineage, listed as 'vulnerable' to extinction under Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Historical accounts indicate this species occurred naturally in two adjacent river systems in Australia, the Burnett and Mary. Current day populations in other rivers are thought to have arisen by translocation from these source populations. Early genetic work detected very little variation and so had limited power to answer questions relevant for management including how genetic variation is partitioned within and among sub-populations. In this study, we use newly developed microsatellite markers to examine samples from the Burnett and Mary Rivers, as well as from two populations thought to be of translocated origin, Brisbane and North Pine. We test whether there is significant genetic structure among and within river drainages; assign putatively translocated populations to potential source populations; and estimate effective population sizes. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci genotyped in 218 individuals gave an average within-population heterozygosity of 0.39 which is low relative to other threatened taxa and for freshwater fishes in general. Based on FST values (average over loci = 0.11) and STRUCTURE analyses, we identify three distinct populations in the natural range, one in the Burnett and two distinct populations in the Mary. These analyses also support the hypothesis that the Mary River is the likely source of translocated populations in the Brisbane and North Pine rivers, which agrees with historical published records of a translocation event giving rise to these populations. We were unable to obtain bounded estimates of effective population size, as we have too few genotype combinations, although point estimates were low, ranging from 29 - 129. We recommend that, in order to preserve any local adaptation in the three distinct populations that

  18. Analysis of ACTH-related and CLIP-related peptides partially purified from the pituitary of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Dores, R M; Adamczyk, D L; Joss, J M

    1990-07-01

    Acid extracts of individual lungfish pituitaries were fractionated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column and aliquots of column fractions were screened with a heterologous ACTH(1-39) radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two major, incompletely separated, peaks of ACTH-related immunoreactivity were detected. These peaks of ACTH-related material were resolved by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and were designated Peak A and Peak B. Peak A had a retention time more hydrophilic than synthetic human CLIP [ACTH(18-39)], whereas Peak B had a retention time similar to, but not identical with, human ACTH(1-39). Further analysis indicated that Peak A had an apparent molecular weight of 2.5K and an isoelectric point of 4.3. Based on these characteristics, Peak A would appear to be lungfish CLIP. Peak B had an apparent molecular weight of 4.5K. Based on chromatographic and immunological properties, Peak B would appear to be lungfish ACTH. The detection of these lungfish peptides by heterologous RIA indicates a high degree of primary sequence homology between lungfish and tetrapod ACTH-related polypeptides.

  19. Lungfish evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean M P

    2006-09-15

    The first vertebrates recognizable as tetrapods appeared in the mid-Devonian. It is generally agreed that their ancestors were lobe-finned fish. What is not agreed is how close either of the extant groups of lobe-finned fish, lungfish or coelacanths, is to the actual ancestor of the tetrapods. The soft anatomy of living lungfish shares many similarities with that of living amphibians. Many of these similarities are not present in either coelacanths or any members of the other extant bony fish group, the ray-finned fishes. Many very well preserved lungfish from the Devonian possess specialized features that would appear to exclude them from being ancestral to tetrapods. I am hypothesizing that lungfish in the Devonian may have included metamorphosis in their life cycle and that neoteny in some species may have been an early corollary. These reproductively mature neotenous lungfish would not have had the specialised features of metamorphosed adults. Fossils of these neotenous forms may have more closely resembled the tetrapod ancestral lobe-finned fish, currently believed to be a panderichthiad fish. Living lungfish have a number of larval features, which suggest paedomorphosis. Also of significance is the very large genome of living lungfish, which, in urodele amphibians, is a feature correlated with neoteny. Our current knowledge of the thyroid axis in the lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, is consistent with neoteny in amphibians, but the only Devonian fossil considered to be a larval lungfish bears no resemblance to living lungfish or to panderichthiads. The enigmatic phylogenetic relationship of lungfish with the first tetrapods remains, but the hunt for other forms of larval Devonian lungfish is on!

  20. Lungfish prolactin exhibits close tetrapod relationships.

    PubMed

    Noso, T; Nicoll, C S; Kawauchi, H

    1993-07-10

    This paper describes the isolation and the complete amino-acid sequence of prolactin (PRL) from the pituitary glands of African lungfish, Protoputerus aethiopicus. We purified the hormone from an alkaline extract of the pituitaries using a two-step chromatographic procedure by detecting specific immunoblot reactivity with rabbit antisera against salmon PRL. The lungfish PRL consists of 200 amino-acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that the PRL shows 66% identities with amphibian, reptilian and bird PRLs, 57% with mammalian PRLs, and 38% with teleost (modern bony fish) PRLs. Moreover, the PRL contains three disulfide bonds homologous to those of tetrapod PRLs and differs from teleost PRLs which lack the amino-terminal disulfide bond. Thus, the structural features of lungfish PRL indicate a closer relationship to tetrapod PRLs than to teleost PRLs. All PRLs sequenced to date share 22 common amino acids, which may be important for the activities common to all PRLs. PMID:8329446

  1. The evolutionary significance of pulmonary surfactant in lungfish (Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Orgeig, S; Daniels, C B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we characterized surfactant lipids from the lungs of the lungfish, Protopterus annectens, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and Neoceratodus fosteri (Sarcopterygiia: Dipnoi). We quantified the types of phospholipids present, the amounts of total phospholipid, disaturated phospholipid (DSP)--purported to be the primary surface tension-controlling agent--and cholesterol (CHOL), an important fluidizer. The surfactant phospholipid profiles of all three lungfish were very similar to each other and those of many other animals reported previously. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant phospholipid (60% to 80%); phosphatidylglycerol was virtually absent; and there was a significant proportion of the combination of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol (10%). The Australian lungfish N. forsteri possessed a surfactant 5 times richer in CHOL and 2 and 3 times poorer in DSP than the surfactant of the African lungfish P. annectens and the South American lungfish L. paradoxa, respectively. Hence, the CHOL/DSP mass ratio of N. forsteri was 12 and 20 times greater than that of P. annectens and L. paradoxa, respectively. Therefore, the surfactant composition of the two derived species of lungfish (P. annectens and L. paradoxa) very closely resembles that of amphibians, whereas surfactant from the primitive lungfish (N. forsteri) is almost identical to that of the primitive air-breathing actinopterygiian fish. Thus, it is likely that pulmonary surfactant had only a single origin, coinciding with that of the vertebrates. As with most nonmammalian vertebrates, it is possible that lungfish surfactant functions as an antiglue at low lung volumes or when the lungs are completely collapsed. Furthermore, it appears that within a species, an increase in lung development correlates with an increase in the relative amount of surfactant cholesterol and a decrease in the phospholipid saturation level.

  2. The optics of the growing lungfish eye: lens shape, focal ratio and pupillary movements in Neoceratodus forsteri (Krefft, 1870).

    PubMed

    Bailes, Helena J; Trezise, Ann E O; Collin, Shaun P

    2007-01-01

    Lungfish (order Dipnoi) evolved during the Devonian period and are believed to be the closest living relatives to the land vertebrates. Here we describe the previously unknown morphology of the lungfish eye in order to examine ocular adaptations present in early sarcopterygian fish. Unlike many teleosts, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri possesses a mobile pupil with a slow pupillary response similar to amphibians. The structure of the eye changes from juvenile to adult, with both eye and lens becoming more elliptical in shape with growth. This change in structure results in a decrease in focal ratio (the distance from lens center to the retina divided by the lens radius) and increased retinal illumination in adult fish. Despite a degree of lenticular correction for spherical aberration, there is considerable variation across the lens. A re-calculation of spatial resolving power using measured focal ratios from cryosectioning reveals a low ability to discriminate fine detail. The dipnoan eye shares more features with amphibian eyes than with most teleost eyes, which may echo the visual needs of this living fossil.

  3. A larval Devonian lungfish.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Keith S; Sutton, Mark; Thomas, Bethia

    2003-12-18

    Perhaps the most enduring of puzzles in palaeontology has been the identity of Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, a tiny (5-60-mm) vertebrate fossil from the Middle Devonian period (approximately 385 Myr ago) of Scotland, first discovered in 1890 (refs 1-3). It is known principally from a single site (Achanarras Quarry, Caithness) where, paradoxically, it is extremely abundant, preserved in varved lacustrine deposits along with 13 other genera of fishes. Here we show that Palaeospondylus is the larval stage of a lungfish, most probably Dipterus valenciennesi Sedgwick and Murchison 1828 (ref. 5), and that development of the adult form requires a distinct metamorphosis. Palaeospondylus is the oldest known true larva of a vertebrate.

  4. Nuclear protein-coding genes support lungfish and not the coelacanth as the closest living relatives of land vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Henner; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Brenner, Sydney; Meyer, Axel

    2004-04-01

    The colonization of land by tetrapod ancestors is one of the major questions in the evolution of vertebrates. Despite intense molecular phylogenetic research on this problem during the last 15 years, there is, until now, no statistically supported answer to the question of whether coelacanths or lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods. We determined DNA sequences of the nuclear-encoded recombination activating genes (Rag1 and Rag2) from all three major lungfish groups, the Australian Neoceratodis forsteri, the South American Lepidosiren paradoxa and the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi, and the Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis. Phylogenetic analyses of both the single gene and the concatenated data sets of RAG1 and RAG2 found that the lungfishes are the closest living relatives of the land vertebrates. These results are supported by high bootstrap values, Bayesian posterior probabilities, and likelihood ratio tests.

  5. Lungfish Burrows from the Michigan Coal Basin.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L

    1965-05-14

    Five casts of lungfish burrows have been found in a quarry near Grand Ledge, Michigan, in shale of the Saginaw group, Middle Pennsylvanian. The burrows contain no fish remains, but they closely resemble lungfish burrows from the Lower Permian of Texas which contain remains of the genus Gnathorhiza.

  6. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A.; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R.; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Romero, Irene Gallego; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M.; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta M.; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa. PMID:21940856

  7. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  8. An exceptionally preserved transitional lungfish from the lower permian of Nebraska, USA, and the origin of modern lungfishes.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Jason D; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Small, Bryan J

    2014-01-01

    Complete, exceptionally-preserved skulls of the Permian lungfish Persephonichthys chthonica gen. et sp. nov. are described. Persephonichthys chthonica is unique among post-Devonian lungfishes in preserving portions of the neurocranium, permitting description of the braincase of a stem-ceratodontiform for the first time. The completeness of P. chthonica permits robust phylogenetic analysis of the relationships of the extant lungfish lineage within the Devonian lungfish diversification for the first time. New analyses of the relationships of this new species within two published matrices using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference robustly place P. chthonica and modern lungfishes within dipterid-grade dipnoans rather than within a clade containing Late Devonian 'phaneropleurids' and common Late Paleozoic lungfishes such as Sagenodus. Monophyly of post-Devonian lungfishes is not supported and the Carboniferous-Permian taxon Sagenodus is found to be incidental to the origins of modern lungfishes, suggesting widespread convergence in Late Paleozoic lungfishes. Morphology of the skull, hyoid arch, and pectoral girdle suggests a deviation in feeding mechanics from that of Devonian lungfishes towards the more dynamic gape cycle and more effective buccal pumping seen in modern lungfishes. Similar anatomy observed previously in 'Rhinodipterus' kimberyensis likely represents an intermediate state between the strict durophagy observed in most Devonian lungfishes and the more dynamic buccal pump seen in Persephonichthys and modern lungfishes, rather than adaptation to air-breathing exclusively.

  9. An Exceptionally Preserved Transitional Lungfish from the Lower Permian of Nebraska, USA, and the Origin of Modern Lungfishes

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Jason D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Small, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Complete, exceptionally-preserved skulls of the Permian lungfish Persephonichthys chthonica gen. et sp. nov. are described. Persephonichthys chthonica is unique among post-Devonian lungfishes in preserving portions of the neurocranium, permitting description of the braincase of a stem-ceratodontiform for the first time. The completeness of P. chthonica permits robust phylogenetic analysis of the relationships of the extant lungfish lineage within the Devonian lungfish diversification for the first time. New analyses of the relationships of this new species within two published matrices using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference robustly place P. chthonica and modern lungfishes within dipterid-grade dipnoans rather than within a clade containing Late Devonian ‘phaneropleurids’ and common Late Paleozoic lungfishes such as Sagenodus. Monophyly of post-Devonian lungfishes is not supported and the Carboniferous-Permian taxon Sagenodus is found to be incidental to the origins of modern lungfishes, suggesting widespread convergence in Late Paleozoic lungfishes. Morphology of the skull, hyoid arch, and pectoral girdle suggests a deviation in feeding mechanics from that of Devonian lungfishes towards the more dynamic gape cycle and more effective buccal pumping seen in modern lungfishes. Similar anatomy observed previously in ‘Rhinodipterus’ kimberyensis likely represents an intermediate state between the strict durophagy observed in most Devonian lungfishes and the more dynamic buccal pump seen in Persephonichthys and modern lungfishes, rather than adaptation to air-breathing exclusively. PMID:25265394

  10. Application of morphologic burrow architects: lungfish or crayfish?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasiotis, Stephen T.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Dubiel, Russell R.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for trace fossil identification using burrowing signatures is tested by evaluating ancient and modern lungfish and crayfish burrows and comparing them to previously undescribed burrows in a stratigraphic interval thought to contain both lungfish and crayfish burrows. Permian burrows that bear skeletal remains of the lungfish Gnathorhiza, from museum collections, were evaluated to identify unique burrow morphologies that could be used to distinguish lungfish from crayfish burrows when fossil remains are absent. The lungfish burrows were evaluated for details of the burrowing mechanism preserved in the burrow morphologies together forming burrowing signatures and were compared to new burrows in the Chinle Formation of western Colorado to test the methodology of using burrow signatures to identify unknown burrows. Permian lungfish aestivation burrows show simple, nearly vertical, unbranched architectures and relatively smooth surficial morphologies with characteristic quasi‐horizontal striae on the burrow walls and vertical striae on the bulbous terminus. Burrow lengths do not exceed 0.5 m. In contrast, modern and ancient crayfish burrows exhibit simple to highly complex architectures with highly textured surficial morphologies. Burrow lengths may reach 4 to 5 m. Burrow morphologies unlike those identified in Gnathorhiza aestivation burrows were found in four burrow groups from museum collections. Two of these groups exhibit simple architectures and horizontal striae that were greater in sinuosity and magnitude, respectively. One of these burrows contains the remains of Lysorophus, but the burrow surface reveals no reliable surficial characteristics. It is not clear whether Lysorophus truly burrowed or merely occupied a pre‐existing structure. The other two groups exhibit surficial morphologies similar to those found on modern and ancient crayfish burrows and may provide evidence of freshwater crayfish in the Permian. Burrows from the Upper Triassic

  11. Cardiovascular actions of lungfish bradykinin in the unanaesthetised African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Balment, Richard J; Masini, Maria A; Vallarino, Mauro; Conlon, J Michael

    2002-02-01

    Bradykinin (BK) isolated from plasma of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, contains four amino acid substitutions compared with BK from mammals (Arg(1)-->Tyr, Pro(2)-->Gly, Pro(7)-->Ala, Phe(8)-->Pro). Bolus intra-arterial injections of synthetic lungfish BK (1-1000 pmol/kg body wt.) into unanaesthetised, juvenile lungfish (n=5) produced a dose-dependent increase in arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure. The maximum pressor response occurred 2-3 min after injection and persisted for up to 15 min. The threshold dose producing a significant (P<0.01) rise in pressure was 50 pmol/kg and the maximum increase, following injection of 300 pmol/kg, was 9.3 +/- 2.3 mmHg. Injection of the higher doses of lungfish BK produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in heart rate (2.8 +/- 0.8 beats/min at 100 pmol/kg). In contrast, bolus intra-arterial injections of mammalian BK, in doses up to 1000 pmol/kg, produced no significant cardiovascular effects in the lungfish. The data support the existence of a functioning kallikrein-kinin system in the lungfish and demonstrate that the ligand-binding properties of the receptor(s) mediating the cardiovascular actions of lungfish BK are appreciably different from mammalian B1 and B2 receptors.

  12. Evolution of tissue-specific keratins as deduced from novel cDNA sequences of the lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Schaffeld, Michael; Bremer, Miriam; Hunzinger, Christian; Markl, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    Lungfishes are possibly the closest extant relatives of the land vertebrates (tetrapods). We report here the cDNA and predicted amino acid sequences of 13 different keratins (ten type I and three type II) of the lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus. These keratins include the orthologs of human K8 and K18. The lungfish keratins were also identified in tissue extracts using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, keratin blot binding assays and immunoblotting. The identified keratin spots were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting which assigned seven sequences (inclusively Protopterus K8 and K18) to their respective protein spot. The peptide mass fingerprints also revealed the fact that the major epidermal type I and type II keratins of this lungfish have not yet been sequenced. Nevertheless, phylogenetic trees constructed from multiple sequence alignments of keratins from lungfish and distantly related vertebrates such as lamprey, shark, trout, frog, and human reveal new insights into the evolution of K8 and K18, and unravel a variety of independent keratin radiation events. PMID:15819414

  13. Gnathostome phylogenomics utilizing lungfish EST sequences.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between the Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes), the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes), and the piscine Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes) and how the Tetrapoda (four-limbed terrestrial vertebrates) are related to these has been a contentious issue for more than a century. A general consensus about the relationship of these vertebrate clades has gradually emerged among morphologists, but no molecular study has yet provided conclusive evidence for any specific hypothesis. In order to examine these relationships on the basis of more extensive sequence data, we have produced almost 1,000,000 bp of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the African marbled lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. This new data set yielded 771 transcribed nuclear sequences that had not been previously described. The lungfish EST sequences were combined with EST data from two cartilaginous fishes and whole genome data from an agnathan, four ray-finned fishes, and four tetrapods. Phylogenomic analysis of these data yielded, for the first time, significant maximum likelihood support for a traditional gnathostome tree with a split between the Chondrichthyes and remaining (bone) gnathostomes. Also, the sister group relationship between Dipnoi (lungfishes) and Tetrapoda received conclusive support. Previously proposed hypotheses, such as the monophyly of fishes, could be rejected significantly. The divergence time between lungfishes and tetrapods was estimated to 382-388 Ma by the current data set and six calibration points. PMID:19029191

  14. A new method for reconstructing brain morphology: applying the brain-neurocranial spatial relationship in an extant lungfish to a fossil endocast

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Robin; Nysjö, Johan; Long, John A.; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Lungfish first appeared in the geological record over 410 million years ago and are the closest living group of fish to the tetrapods. Palaeoneurological investigations into the group show that unlike numerous other fishes—but more similar to those in tetrapods—lungfish appear to have had a close fit between the brain and the cranial cavity that housed it. As such, researchers can use the endocast of fossil taxa (an internal cast of the cranial cavity) both as a source of morphological data but also to aid in developing functional and phylogenetic implications about the group. Using fossil endocast data from a three-dimensional-preserved Late Devonian lungfish from the Gogo Formation, Rhinodipterus, and the brain-neurocranial relationship in the extant Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus, we herein present the first virtually reconstructed brain of a fossil lungfish. Computed tomographic data and a newly developed ‘brain-warping’ method are used in conjunction with our own distance map software tool to both analyse and present the data. The brain reconstruction is adequate, but we envisage that its accuracy and wider application in other taxonomic groups will grow with increasing availability of tomographic datasets. PMID:27493784

  15. A new method for reconstructing brain morphology: applying the brain-neurocranial spatial relationship in an extant lungfish to a fossil endocast.

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Strand, Robin; Nysjö, Johan; Long, John A; Ahlberg, Per E

    2016-07-01

    Lungfish first appeared in the geological record over 410 million years ago and are the closest living group of fish to the tetrapods. Palaeoneurological investigations into the group show that unlike numerous other fishes-but more similar to those in tetrapods-lungfish appear to have had a close fit between the brain and the cranial cavity that housed it. As such, researchers can use the endocast of fossil taxa (an internal cast of the cranial cavity) both as a source of morphological data but also to aid in developing functional and phylogenetic implications about the group. Using fossil endocast data from a three-dimensional-preserved Late Devonian lungfish from the Gogo Formation, Rhinodipterus, and the brain-neurocranial relationship in the extant Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus, we herein present the first virtually reconstructed brain of a fossil lungfish. Computed tomographic data and a newly developed 'brain-warping' method are used in conjunction with our own distance map software tool to both analyse and present the data. The brain reconstruction is adequate, but we envisage that its accuracy and wider application in other taxonomic groups will grow with increasing availability of tomographic datasets.

  16. A new method for reconstructing brain morphology: applying the brain-neurocranial spatial relationship in an extant lungfish to a fossil endocast.

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Strand, Robin; Nysjö, Johan; Long, John A; Ahlberg, Per E

    2016-07-01

    Lungfish first appeared in the geological record over 410 million years ago and are the closest living group of fish to the tetrapods. Palaeoneurological investigations into the group show that unlike numerous other fishes-but more similar to those in tetrapods-lungfish appear to have had a close fit between the brain and the cranial cavity that housed it. As such, researchers can use the endocast of fossil taxa (an internal cast of the cranial cavity) both as a source of morphological data but also to aid in developing functional and phylogenetic implications about the group. Using fossil endocast data from a three-dimensional-preserved Late Devonian lungfish from the Gogo Formation, Rhinodipterus, and the brain-neurocranial relationship in the extant Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus, we herein present the first virtually reconstructed brain of a fossil lungfish. Computed tomographic data and a newly developed 'brain-warping' method are used in conjunction with our own distance map software tool to both analyse and present the data. The brain reconstruction is adequate, but we envisage that its accuracy and wider application in other taxonomic groups will grow with increasing availability of tomographic datasets. PMID:27493784

  17. Electron microscopy of the intestine of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Purkerson, M L; Jarvis, J U; Luse, S A; Dempsey, E W

    1975-05-01

    Electron microscopic observations are reported on the intestine of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. The lungfish has a spiral valve rather than a true stomach. Segments of mucosa from this area reveal, by transmission microscopy, that most cells have distinct striated borders with parallel microvilli. Fibrils within the core of the microvilli extend deeply into the cytoplasm. Microvilli on the surface of goblet cells are less regularly arranged than those of absorptive cells. Interspersed among the cells with striated borders are cells, similar in cytologic appearance except that they are covered with tufts of kinetocilia. By transmission electron microscopy, abnormal cilia having one complete complement of microtubules plus incomplete sets from other cilia which share some of the peripheral doublets of the complete cilium are enclosed by a single membrane. Cilia are usual in the intestine of many lower forms but ordinarily absent in higher vertebrates. Their functional significance in this primitive fish is unknown. PMID:1155792

  18. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish.

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Long, John A

    2010-08-23

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43-48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus.

  19. Cloning and expression of the epithelial sodium channel and its role in osmoregulation of aquatic and estivating African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Konno, Norifumi; Shibuya, Sachika; Nogami, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a sodium (Na(+))-selective aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in Na(+) transport homeostasis of tetrapods. We examined full-length cDNA sequences and tissue distributions of ENaCα, ENaCβ, and ENaCγ subunits in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. Protopterus ENaC (pENaC) comprises 3 subunits: pENaCα, pENaCβ, and pENaCγ. pENaCα, pENaCβ, and pENaCγ subunits are closely related to α, β, and γ subunits of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri ENaC (nENaC), respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills and moderately expressed in the kidney and rectum of P. annectens. During estivation for 2-4weeks and 2-3months, plasma Na(+) concentration was relatively stable, but plasma urea concentration significantly increased in comparison with the control fish kept in a freshwater environment. Plasma aldosterone concentration and mRNA expression of the ENaCα subunit gradually and significantly decreased in the gills and kidney after 2months of estivation. Thus, aldosterone-dependent Na(+) absorption via ENaC probably exists in the epithelial cells of osmoregulatory organs of lungfish kept in fresh water, whereas plasma Na(+) concentration may be maintained by a mechanism independent of aldosterone-ENaC axis during estivation in lungfish.

  20. Cloning and expression of the epithelial sodium channel and its role in osmoregulation of aquatic and estivating African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Konno, Norifumi; Shibuya, Sachika; Nogami, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a sodium (Na(+))-selective aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in Na(+) transport homeostasis of tetrapods. We examined full-length cDNA sequences and tissue distributions of ENaCα, ENaCβ, and ENaCγ subunits in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. Protopterus ENaC (pENaC) comprises 3 subunits: pENaCα, pENaCβ, and pENaCγ. pENaCα, pENaCβ, and pENaCγ subunits are closely related to α, β, and γ subunits of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri ENaC (nENaC), respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills and moderately expressed in the kidney and rectum of P. annectens. During estivation for 2-4weeks and 2-3months, plasma Na(+) concentration was relatively stable, but plasma urea concentration significantly increased in comparison with the control fish kept in a freshwater environment. Plasma aldosterone concentration and mRNA expression of the ENaCα subunit gradually and significantly decreased in the gills and kidney after 2months of estivation. Thus, aldosterone-dependent Na(+) absorption via ENaC probably exists in the epithelial cells of osmoregulatory organs of lungfish kept in fresh water, whereas plasma Na(+) concentration may be maintained by a mechanism independent of aldosterone-ENaC axis during estivation in lungfish. PMID:25541184

  1. Trackways Produced by Lungfish During Terrestrial Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Falkingham, Peter L.; Horner, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Some primarily aquatic vertebrates make brief forays onto land, creating traces as they do. A lack of studies on aquatic trackmakers raises the possibility that such traces may be ignored or misidentified in the fossil record. Several terrestrial Actinopterygian and Sarcopterygian species have previously been proposed as possible models for ancestral tetrapod locomotion, despite extant fishes being quite distinct from Devonian fishes, both morphologically and phylogenetically. Although locomotion has been well-studied in some of these taxa, trackway production has not. We recorded terrestrial locomotion of a 35 cm African lungfish (Protopterus annectens; Dipnoi: Sarcopterygii) on compliant sediment. Terrestrial movement in the lungfish is accomplished by planting the head and then pivoting the trunk. Impressions are formed where the head impacts the substrate, while the body and fins produce few traces. The head leaves a series of alternating left-right impressions, where each impact can appear as two separate semi-circular impressions created by the upper and lower jaws, bearing some similarity to fossil traces interpreted as footprints. Further studies of trackways of extant terrestrial fishes are necessary to understand the behavioural repertoire that may be represented in the fossil track record. PMID:27670758

  2. The First Virtual Cranial Endocast of a Lungfish (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi)

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2014-01-01

    Lungfish, or dipnoans, have a history spanning over 400 million years and are the closest living sister taxon to the tetrapods. Most Devonian lungfish had heavily ossified endoskeletons, whereas most Mesozoic and Cenozoic lungfish had largely cartilaginous endoskeletons and are usually known only from isolated tooth plates or disarticulated bone fragments. There is thus a substantial temporal and evolutionary gap in our understanding of lungfish endoskeletal morphology, between the diverse and highly variable Devonian forms on the one hand and the three extant genera on the other. Here we present a virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation of Australia, one of the most derived fossil dipnoans with a well-ossified braincase. This endocast, generated from a Computed Microtomography (µCT) scan of the skull, is the first virtual endocast of any lungfish published, and only the third fossil dipnoan endocast to be illustrated in its entirety. Key features include long olfactory canals, a telencephalic cavity with a moderate degree of ventral expansion, large suparaotic cavities, and moderately enlarged utricular recesses. It has numerous similarities to the endocasts of Chirodipterus wildungensis and Griphognathus whitei, and to a lesser degree to 'Chirodipterus' australis and Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi. Among extant lungfish, it consistently resembles Neoceratodus more closely than Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Several trends in the evolution of the brains and labyrinth regions in dipnoans, such as the expansions of the utricular recess and telencephalic regions over time, are identified and discussed. PMID:25427173

  3. Molecular cloning of lungfish proopiomelanocortin cDNA.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Y; Takahashi, A; Meguro, H; Kawauchi, H

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) from fish to tetrapods, nucleotide sequence of POMC cDNA from a lobe-finned fish, the African lungfish, was determined. POMC cDNA was prepared from lungfish pituitary glands. The POMC cDNA is composed of 1114 bp, excluding a poly-A tail, and encodes 255 amino acids (aa) including a signal peptide of 25 aa. The lungfish POMC contains the segment corresponding to gamma-melanotropin (MSH), corticotropin, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, and beta-endorphin at positions (50-61), (108-146), (108-120), (178-194), and (197-230), respectively. The lungfish POMC shows greater sequence identity on average with amphibian (62%), ancient ray-finned fishes including acipenseriformes and semionotiformes (62%), and mammalian POMC (52%) than with teleostean (49%), elasmobranch (46%), and agnathan POMC (31%). Thus, the overall structural feature of lungfish POMC is close to the tetrapod POMCs which contain gamma-MSH and the ancient ray-finned fishes POMCs containing gamma-MSH-like sequence. However, amino acid sequence of lungfish beta-endorphin exhibits properties which are specifically observed in the ray-finned fishes and the elasmobranchs.

  4. The first virtual cranial endocast of a lungfish (sarcopterygii: dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Ahlberg, Per E

    2014-01-01

    Lungfish, or dipnoans, have a history spanning over 400 million years and are the closest living sister taxon to the tetrapods. Most Devonian lungfish had heavily ossified endoskeletons, whereas most Mesozoic and Cenozoic lungfish had largely cartilaginous endoskeletons and are usually known only from isolated tooth plates or disarticulated bone fragments. There is thus a substantial temporal and evolutionary gap in our understanding of lungfish endoskeletal morphology, between the diverse and highly variable Devonian forms on the one hand and the three extant genera on the other. Here we present a virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation of Australia, one of the most derived fossil dipnoans with a well-ossified braincase. This endocast, generated from a Computed Microtomography (µCT) scan of the skull, is the first virtual endocast of any lungfish published, and only the third fossil dipnoan endocast to be illustrated in its entirety. Key features include long olfactory canals, a telencephalic cavity with a moderate degree of ventral expansion, large suparaotic cavities, and moderately enlarged utricular recesses. It has numerous similarities to the endocasts of Chirodipterus wildungensis and Griphognathus whitei, and to a lesser degree to 'Chirodipterus' australis and Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi. Among extant lungfish, it consistently resembles Neoceratodus more closely than Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Several trends in the evolution of the brains and labyrinth regions in dipnoans, such as the expansions of the utricular recess and telencephalic regions over time, are identified and discussed.

  5. Is Palaeospondylus gunni a fossil larval lungfish? Insights from Neoceratodus forsteri development.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean; Johanson, Zerina

    2007-03-15

    The enigmatic Devonian fossil Palaeospondylus gunni was identified as a larval form, metamorphosing into the lungfish Dipterus valenciennesi. Morphological features used to identify P. gunni as a larval lungfish include enlarged cranial ribs, rudimentary limb girdles, and absence of teeth. However, this combination of features does not characterize the extant lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri, even at very young stages, nor early stages of Devonian and younger fossil lungfish. Absence of teeth is problematic because early ontogenetic stages of fossil and living lungfish possess full dentitions including marginal teeth. Also problematic are cranial ribs as a defining character of lungfish, as these also occur in certain actinopterygians. It is argued that Neoceratodus is an obligate neotene (reproductively mature larva), with the implication that metamorphosis was a feature of the ontogeny of early lungfish. Pedomorphic characters have been recognized in Neoceratodus and other post-Devonian lungfish, including large cells and correspondingly large genome size; these latter characters correlate with neoteny in salamanders. Small cells preserved in fossil bone suggest that Devonian lungfish had a smaller genome than post-Devonian lungfish, implying that they were not neotenic. As fossil lungfish cell sizes (and genomes) increased in the late Paleozoic, the diversity of lungfish morphologies decreased, so that taxa like Sagenodus and Conchopoma show morphological similarity to Neoceratodus, marking a point in phylogeny at which metamorphosis was potentially lost. Since ancestral larval characters are retained in neotenic adults, we predict that Devonian larvae should resemble these post-Devonian taxa, a prediction which Palaeospondylus does not fulfill.

  6. Are lungfish living fossils? Observation on the evolution of the opioid/orphanin gene family.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenny; Alrubaian, Jasem; Dores, Robert M

    2006-09-15

    This minireview considers the possibility that there is a correlation between the slow rate of morphological change and speciation events that has been occurred within the lungfish lineage since the Permian period, and the apparent slow rate of divergence in the amino acid sequences of lungfish opioid precursor sequences. The status of lungfish as "living fossils" is considered.

  7. Are lungfish living fossils? Observation on the evolution of the opioid/orphanin gene family.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenny; Alrubaian, Jasem; Dores, Robert M

    2006-09-15

    This minireview considers the possibility that there is a correlation between the slow rate of morphological change and speciation events that has been occurred within the lungfish lineage since the Permian period, and the apparent slow rate of divergence in the amino acid sequences of lungfish opioid precursor sequences. The status of lungfish as "living fossils" is considered. PMID:16930601

  8. Conserved developmental processes constrain evolution of lungfish dentitions.

    PubMed

    Smith, M M; Krupina, N I

    2001-01-01

    Although the 3 genera of living lungfish have different-shaped adult tooth plates, their larval stages have similar patterns of development. The sequence in the pattern of initiation of teeth and their modification through ontogeny in Neoceratodus hatchlings provides a developmental model for fossil hatchling tooth plates (smallest 1-2 mm) recovered as 3-dimensional dentitions from Andreyevichthys. This Late Devonian lungfish demonstrates that these also have a similar dentition pattern and suggests strongly conserved developmental processes. We postulate that a specific pattern of development, derived within lungfish, has been conserved in extant forms through evolution from the earliest known lungfish. The most basal early dipnoan, Diabolepis speratus, is also known from juveniles with tooth plates formed in this pattern. The lungfish pattern is in marked contrast to the typical linear rows of teeth with lingual replacement for each tooth position, characteristic of most osteichthyan and chondrichthyan dentitions. Uniquely for lungfish, teeth are only added to the lateral ends of the radial rows in the palatal and lingual dentition and are consolidated into dental plates without loss through shedding. It is proposed that this tooth pattern is set up from primordial teeth at the patterning stage of the dentition, one in each dentate region of the larval jaws. Although in post-Devonian lungfish marginal dentate bones are absent in the adult, in both the fossil and extant hatchling, teeth are present and function on some of the marginal bones. This pattern of development and loss is described and we conclude that in both forms it is also based on a radial pattern of successive tooth initiation. We propose that this ontogenetic pattern constrained the phylogenetic pattern of adult form, through evolution of dipnoan dentitions from 360 MYBP until the present. The universality amongst dipnoans and the implications for such a conserved constraint in the developmental

  9. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent "on/off" switch and apoptosis in freshwater and aestivating lungfish, Protopterus annectens: skeletal muscle versus cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Amelio, D; Garofalo, F; Wong, W P; Chew, S F; Ip, Y K; Cerra, M C; Tota, B

    2013-08-01

    African lungfishes (Protopterus spp.) are obligate air breathers which enter in a prolonged torpor (aestivation) in association with metabolic depression, and biochemical and morpho-functional readjustments during the dry season. During aestivation, the lungfish heart continues to pump, while the skeletal muscle stops to function but can immediately contract during arousal. Currently, nothing is known regarding the orchestration of the multilevel rearrangements occurring in myotomal and myocardial muscles during aestivation and arousal. Because of its universal role in cardio-circulatory and muscle homeostasis, nitric oxide (NO) could be involved in coordinating these stress-induced adaptations. Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy on cardiac and skeletal muscles of Protopterus annectens (freshwater, 6months of aestivation and 6days after arousal) showed that expression, localization and activity of the endothelial-like nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) isoform and its partners Akt and Hsp-90 are tissue-specifically modulated. During aestivation, phospho-eNOS/eNOS and phospho-Akt/Akt ratios increased in the heart but decreased in the skeletal muscle. By contrast, Hsp-90 increased in both muscle types during aestivation. TUNEL assay revealed that increased apoptosis occurred in the skeletal muscle of aestivating lungfish, but the myocardial apoptotic rate of the aestivating lungfish remained unchanged as compared with the freshwater control. Consistent with the preserved cardiac activity during aestivation, the expression of apoptosis repressor (ARC) also remained unchanged in the heart of aestivating and aroused fish as compared with the freshwater control. Contrarily, ARC expression was strongly reduced in the skeletal muscle of aestivating lungfish. On the whole, our data indicate that changes in the eNOS/NO system and cell turnover are implicated in the morpho-functional readjustments occurring in lungfish cardiac and skeletal muscle during the switch

  10. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  11. Aestivation and brain of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Chew, Shit F; Hiong, Kum

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have long been fascinated by animals undergoing aestivation, a state of torpor at high temperature, due to its great potential in fields ranging from medicine to space travel. The brain of the African lungfish is able to coordinate a whole-body response to induce aestivation and to arouse from aestivation.

  12. Aestivation and brain of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Shit F; Hiong, Kum

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have long been fascinated by animals undergoing aestivation, a state of torpor at high temperature, due to its great potential in fields ranging from medicine to space travel. The brain of the African lungfish is able to coordinate a whole-body response to induce aestivation and to arouse from aestivation. PMID:27581948

  13. The Lungfish Transcriptome: A Glimpse into Molecular Evolution Events at the Transition from Water to Land

    PubMed Central

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore; Pallavicini, Alberto; Barucca, Marco; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Lungfish and coelacanths are the only living sarcopterygian fish. The phylogenetic relationship of lungfish to the last common ancestor of tetrapods and their close morphological similarity to their fossil ancestors make this species uniquely interesting. However their genome size, the largest among vertebrates, is hampering the generation of a whole genome sequence. To provide a partial solution to the problem, a high-coverage lungfish reference transcriptome was generated and assembled. The present findings indicate that lungfish, not coelacanths, are the closest relatives to land-adapted vertebrates. Whereas protein-coding genes evolve at a very slow rate, possibly reflecting a “living fossil” status, transposable elements appear to be active and show high diversity, suggesting a role for them in the remarkable expansion of the lungfish genome. Analyses of single genes and gene families documented changes connected to the water to land transition and demonstrated the value of the lungfish reference transcriptome for comparative studies of vertebrate evolution. PMID:26908371

  14. The Lungfish Transcriptome: A Glimpse into Molecular Evolution Events at the Transition from Water to Land.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore; Pallavicini, Alberto; Barucca, Marco; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-02-24

    Lungfish and coelacanths are the only living sarcopterygian fish. The phylogenetic relationship of lungfish to the last common ancestor of tetrapods and their close morphological similarity to their fossil ancestors make this species uniquely interesting. However their genome size, the largest among vertebrates, is hampering the generation of a whole genome sequence. To provide a partial solution to the problem, a high-coverage lungfish reference transcriptome was generated and assembled. The present findings indicate that lungfish, not coelacanths, are the closest relatives to land-adapted vertebrates. Whereas protein-coding genes evolve at a very slow rate, possibly reflecting a "living fossil" status, transposable elements appear to be active and show high diversity, suggesting a role for them in the remarkable expansion of the lungfish genome. Analyses of single genes and gene families documented changes connected to the water to land transition and demonstrated the value of the lungfish reference transcriptome for comparative studies of vertebrate evolution.

  15. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes.

  16. Molecules and Morphology Reveal Overlooked Populations of Two Presumed Extinct Australian Sea Snakes (Aipysurus: Hydrophiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kate L.; Schroeder, Tina; Guinea, Michael L.; Rasmussen, Arne R.

    2015-01-01

    The critically endangered leaf-scaled (Aipysurus foliosquamaI) and short-nosed (A. apraefrontalis) sea snakes are currently recognised only from Ashmore and Hibernia reefs ~600km off the northwest Australian coast. Steep population declines in both species were documented over 15 years and neither has been sighted on dedicated surveys of Ashmore and Hibernia since 2001. We examine specimens of these species that were collected from coastal northwest Australian habitats up until 2010 (A.foliosquama) and 2012 (A. apraefrontalis) and were either overlooked or treated as vagrants in conservation assessments. Morphological variation and mitochondrial sequence data confirm the assignment of these coastal specimens to A. foliosquama (Barrow Island, and offshore from Port Hedland) and A.apraefrontalis (Exmouth Gulf, and offshore from Roebourne and Broome). Collection dates, and molecular and morphological variation between coastal and offshore specimens, suggest that the coastal specimens are not vagrants as previously suspected, but instead represent separate breeding populations. The newly recognised populations present another chance for leaf-scaled and short-nosed sea snakes, but coastal habitats in northwest Australia are widely threatened by infrastructure developments and sea snakes are presently omitted from environmental impact assessments for industry. Further studies are urgently needed to assess these species’ remaining distributions, population structure, and extent of occurrence in protected areas. PMID:25671608

  17. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes. PMID:23746080

  18. Molecules and morphology reveal overlooked populations of two presumed extinct Australian sea snakes (Aipysurus: Hydrophiinae).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kate L; Schroeder, Tina; Guinea, Michael L; Rasmussen, Arne R

    2015-01-01

    The critically endangered leaf-scaled (Aipysurus foliosquamaI) and short-nosed (A. apraefrontalis) sea snakes are currently recognised only from Ashmore and Hibernia reefs ~600km off the northwest Australian coast. Steep population declines in both species were documented over 15 years and neither has been sighted on dedicated surveys of Ashmore and Hibernia since 2001. We examine specimens of these species that were collected from coastal northwest Australian habitats up until 2010 (A.foliosquama) and 2012 (A. apraefrontalis) and were either overlooked or treated as vagrants in conservation assessments. Morphological variation and mitochondrial sequence data confirm the assignment of these coastal specimens to A. foliosquama (Barrow Island, and offshore from Port Hedland) and A.apraefrontalis (Exmouth Gulf, and offshore from Roebourne and Broome). Collection dates, and molecular and morphological variation between coastal and offshore specimens, suggest that the coastal specimens are not vagrants as previously suspected, but instead represent separate breeding populations. The newly recognised populations present another chance for leaf-scaled and short-nosed sea snakes, but coastal habitats in northwest Australia are widely threatened by infrastructure developments and sea snakes are presently omitted from environmental impact assessments for industry. Further studies are urgently needed to assess these species' remaining distributions, population structure, and extent of occurrence in protected areas.

  19. Intranuclear bundles of microfilaments and microtubules in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of a lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, D W; Adriaensen, D; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1988-01-01

    Intranuclear microtubular-microfilamentous rod-like inclusions were investigated in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of lungfishes. In conventional electron microscopy, these inclusions reveal a wide variety in appearance, depending on their orientation to the plane of sectioning. Whereas originally they were merely interpreted as a bundle of microfilaments, application of a goniometer stage showed the rod- or spindle-shaped intranuclear inclusions to have a basic substructure of parallel arranged microtubules among microfilaments, which are clearly connected to chromatin granules, occasionally penetrating dense areas of chromatin. The chemical nature and biological significance of these structures, which so far remain enigmatic, are discussed. PMID:3227775

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian rosella parrots (Platycercus) reveals discordance among molecules and plumage.

    PubMed

    Shipham, Ashlee; Schmidt, Daniel J; Joseph, Leo; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Relationships and species limits among the colourful Australian parrots known as rosellas (Platycercus) are contentious because of poorly understood patterns of parapatry, sympatry and hybridization as well as complex patterns of geographical replacement of phenotypic forms. Two subgenera are, however, conventionally recognised: Platycercus comprises the blue-cheeked crimson rosella complex (Crimson Rosella P. elegans and Green Rosella P. caledonicus), and Violania contains the remaining four currently recognised species (Pale-headed Rosella P. adscitus, Eastern Rosella P. eximius, Northern Rosella P. venustus, and Western Rosella P. icterotis). We used phylogenetic analysis of ten loci (one mitochondrial, eight autosomal and one z-linked) and several individuals per nominal species primarily to examine relationships within the subgenera, especially the relationships and species limits within Violania. Of these, P. adscitus and P. eximius have long been considered sister species or conspecific due to a morphology-based hybrid zone and an early phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis presented here supports an alternative hypothesis aligning P. adscitus and P. venustus as sister species. Using divergence rates published in other avian studies, we estimated the divergence between P. venustus and P. adscitus at 0.0148-0.6124MYA and that between the P. adscitus/P. venustus ancestor and P. eximius earlier at 0.1617-1.0816MYA, both within the Pleistocene. Discordant topologies among gene and species trees are discussed and proposed to be the result of historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). In particular, we suggest that discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data may be the result of asymmetrical mitochondrial introgression from P. adscitus into P. eximius. The biogeographical implications of our findings are discussed relative to similarly distributed groups

  1. Lungfish axial muscle function and the vertebrate water to land transition.

    PubMed

    Horner, Angela M; Jayne, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    The role of axial form and function during the vertebrate water to land transition is poorly understood, in part because patterns of axial movement lack morphological correlates. The few studies available from elongate, semi-aquatic vertebrates suggest that moving on land may be powered simply from modifications of generalized swimming axial motor patterns and kinematics. Lungfish are an ideal group to study the role of axial function in terrestrial locomotion as they are the sister taxon to tetrapods and regularly move on land. Here we use electromyography and high-speed video to test whether lungfish moving on land use axial muscles similar to undulatory swimming or demonstrate novelty. We compared terrestrial lungfish data to data from lungfish swimming in different viscosities as well as to salamander locomotion. The terrestrial locomotion of lungfish involved substantial activity in the trunk muscles but almost no tail activity. Unlike other elongate vertebrates, lungfish moved on land with a standing wave pattern of axial muscle activity that closely resembled the pattern observed in terrestrially locomoting salamanders. The similarity in axial motor pattern in salamanders and lungfish suggests that some aspects of neuromuscular control for the axial movements involved in terrestrial locomotion were present before derived appendicular structures.

  2. Hearing in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens): pre-adaptation to pressure hearing in tetrapods?

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Wilson, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-02-23

    Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and the ear of recent lungfishes resembles the tetrapod ear more than the ear of ray-finned fishes and is therefore of interest for understanding the evolution of hearing in the early tetrapods. The water-to-land transition resulted in major changes in the tetrapod ear associated with the detection of air-borne sound pressure, as evidenced by the late and independent origins of tympanic ears in all of the major tetrapod groups. To investigate lungfish pressure and vibration detection, we measured the sensitivity and frequency responses of five West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) using brainstem potentials evoked by calibrated sound and vibration stimuli in air and water. We find that the lungfish ear has good low-frequency vibration sensitivity, like recent amphibians, but poor sensitivity to air-borne sound. The skull shows measurable vibrations above 100 Hz when stimulated by air-borne sound, but the ear is apparently insensitive at these frequencies, suggesting that the lungfish ear is neither adapted nor pre-adapted for aerial hearing. Thus, if the lungfish ear is a model of the ear of early tetrapods, their auditory sensitivity was limited to very low frequencies on land, mostly mediated by substrate-borne vibrations.

  3. Myelin structure and composition of myelinated tissue in the African lungfish.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Daniel A; Karthigesan, Jothie; Bizzozero, Oscar A; Kosaras, Bela; Inouye, Hideyo

    2008-05-01

    To analyze myelin structure and the composition of myelinated tissue in the African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi), we used a combination of ultrastructural and biochemical techniques. Electron microscopy showed typical multilamellar myelin: CNS sheaths abutted one another, and PNS sheaths were separated by endoneurial collagen. The radial component, prominent in CNS myelin of higher vertebrates, was suggested by the pattern of staining but was poorly organized. The lipid and myelin protein compositions of lungfish tissues more closely resembled those of teleost than those of higher vertebrates (frog, mouse). Of particular note, for example, lungfish glycolipids lacked hydroxy fatty acids. Native myelin periodicities from unfixed nerves were in the range of those for higher vertebrates rather than for teleost fish. Lungfish PNS myelin had wider inter-membrane spaces compared with other vertebrates, and lungfish CNS myelin had spaces that were closer in value to those in mammalian than to amphibian or teleost myelins. The membrane lipid bilayer was narrower in lungfish PNS myelin compared to other vertebrates, whereas in the CNS myelin the bilayer was in the typical range. Lungfish PNS myelin showed typical compaction and swelling responses to incubation in acidic or alkaline hypotonic saline. The CNS myelin, by contrast, did not compact in acidic saline but did swell in the alkaline solution. This lability was more similar to that for the higher vertebrates than for teleost.

  4. Lungfish burrows in the Upper Triassic Chinle and Dolores Formations, Colorado Plateau ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, R.F.; Blodgett, R.H.; Bown, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Vertical-to-inclined, cylindrical trace fossils that occur in the Upper Triassic Chinle and Dolores Formations on the Colorado Plateau are interpreted to be the casts of lungfish burrows based on their morphologic similarity to previously identified lungfish burrows. The casts were formed by passive siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation into apparently abandoned lungfish burrows. Locally, the burrow fillings are overwhelmingly abundant, and many intersect and have destroyed former burrow fillings. Bioturbation has contributed to the mottled coloration and the knobby-weathering texture of the rocks. The burrow-fillings occur ubiquitously in three lithofacies, deposited in a continental environment that included fluvial channels and floodplains, sand sheets and playa mudflats, and lacustrine basins, marshes, and deltas. The widespread occurrence of the lungfish burrows in the Chinle and Dolores Formations attests to the extensive habitat that supported lungfish in the Late Triassic. Analogy with the environments that support modern lungfish populations suggests that the Late Triassic climate in the study area provided sufficient moisture to support large populations of lungfish and that this climate was probably punctuated by seasonally dry periods. -from Authors

  5. Structure and comparative morphology of camptotrichia of lungfish fins.

    PubMed

    Geraudie, J; Meunier, F J

    1984-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the organization and ultrastructure of the fin rays or camptotrichia of two living Dipnoi (lungfishes) Protopterus and Neoceratodus. In both species, these rods have a dual structure: only the superficial region facing the stratified epidermis is mineralized while the deep one is made of a dense unmineralized network of collagen fibrils forming a permanent pre-osseous tissue. Only the camptotrichia of Neoceratodus is made of cellular bone. This study confirms the structural peculiarities of these camptotrichia when compared to the dermal skeleton of the Actinopterygii constituted by the bony lepidotrichia and the actinotrichia. These results are discussed and compared to fossil dipnoan fin rays. PMID:6740649

  6. Pulmonary mechanoreceptors in the dipnoi lungfish Protopterus and Lepidosiren.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, R G; Laurent, P; Galante, R; Pack, A I; Fishman, A P

    1983-03-01

    Pulmonary mechanoreceptors in the dipnoi lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus and Lepidosiren paradoxa were identified and characterized both in vivo and in vitro. Both slowly adapting receptors (SAR) and rapidly adapting receptors (RAR) were found, with the majority of receptors being of the slowly adapting type. The SAR discharged during inflation once their threshold volume was exceeded, and this activity persisted during prolonged lung inflation. For most of the SAR, interaction between the rate of inflation and lung volume was involved in setting the firing rate of the receptor. Increase in intrapulmonary carbon dioxide partial pressure decreased the activity of the SAR during sustained inflation at a constant intrapulmonary pressure. The RAR also discharged during inflation once the threshold volume was exceeded. However, in contrast to the SAR, the RAR became silent within 1.5 - 15 s after the end of inflation. The activity of these receptors during inflation was influenced predominantly by the rate and influenced little by the volume of inflation. According to these observations, the behavior of lungfish pulmonary mechanoreceptors closely resembles that of pulmonary mechanoreceptors in amphibians but differs from that of mechanoreceptors in the swim bladder of teleosts. PMID:6402942

  7. Circulatory adaptation to bimodal respiration in the dipnoan lungfish.

    PubMed

    Fishman, A P; DeLaney, R G; Laurent, P

    1985-08-01

    In the dipnoan lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, P. annectens, and Lepidosiren paradoxa, the ductus is a short powerful muscular vascular trunk forming a channel for communication between the systemic and pulmonary circulations. In structure, the dipnoan ductus is very similar to the ductus arteriosus (Botalli) in the mammal. Innervation is abundant, consisting of myelinated and nonmyelinated nerve fibers issuing, at least in part, from the vagus. Neurons are present in the adventitia, and numerous nerve profiles, filled with small agranular vesicles, are closely associated with the myocytes, suggesting strong cholinergic control. Perfusion of the ductus in vitro using hypoxic saline causes it to dilate; conversely it is constricted by alpha-agonists. Dopamine and prostaglandin E2 are potent dilators, whereas the beta-agonist, isoproterenol, and acetylcholine are less powerful. A vasomotor segment has been identified on the pulmonary artery (PAVS) close to its junction with the ductus. Its location and structure are similar to the corresponding segment in amphibians and reptiles. It is innervated by endings filled with small clear vesicles. Granular vesicle cells are also present within the adventitia. The PAVS is constricted by acetylcholine. As in amphibians, alpha-agonists and hypoxic saline are without vasomotor effects. Based on the anatomic and physiological observations, a concept of cyclic perfusion of the gas exchangers in Dipnoi is proposed. During the alternation between air breathing (emersion) and apneic phases (immersion), the pattern of the circulation in the lungfish oscillates between that of a tetrapod and a fish. PMID:4030580

  8. Intraclass diversification of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the African lungfish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Tacchi, Luca; Wei, Zhiguo; Zhao, Yaofeng; Salinas, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Lungfish (Dipnoi) are the closest living relatives to tetrapods, and they represent the transition from water to land during vertebrate evolution. Lungfish are armed with immunoglobulins (Igs), one of the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates, but only three Ig forms have been characterized in Dipnoi to date. We report here a new diversity of Ig molecules in two African lungfish species (Protopterus dolloi and Protopterus annectens). The African lungfish Igs consist of three IgMs, two IgWs, three IgNs, and an IgQ, where both IgN and IgQ originated evidently from the IgW lineage. Our data also suggest that the IgH genes in the lungfish are organized in a transiting form from clusters (IgH loci in cartilaginous fish) to a translocon configuration (IgH locus in tetrapods). We propose that the intraclass diversification of the two primordial gnathostome Ig classes (IgM and IgW) as well as acquisition of new isotypes (IgN and IgQ) has allowed lungfish to acquire a complex and functionally diverse Ig repertoire to fight a variety of microorganisms. Furthermore, our results support the idea that "tetrapod-specific" Ig classes did not evolve until the vertebrate adaptation to land was completed ~360 million years ago.

  9. A primitive fish close to the common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo

    2002-08-15

    The relationship of the three living groups of sarcopterygians or lobe-finned fish (tetrapods, lungfish and coelacanths) has been a matter of debate. Although opinions still differ, most recent phylogenies suggest that tetrapods are more closely related to lungfish than to coelacanths. However, no previously known fossil taxon exhibits a concrete character combination approximating the condition expected in the last common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish -- and it is still poorly understood how early sarcopterygians diverged into the tetrapod lineage (Tetrapodomorpha) and the lungfish lineage (Dipnomorpha). Here we describe a fossil sarcopterygian fish, Styloichthys changae gen. et sp. nov., that possesses an eyestalk and which exhibits the character combination expected in a stem group close to the last common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. Styloichthys from the Lower Devonian of China bridges the morphological gap between stem-group sarcopterygians (Psarolepis and Achoania) and basal tetrapodomorphs/basal dipnomorphs. It provides information that will help in the study of the relationship of early sarcopterygians, and which will also help to resolve the tetrapod-lungfish divergence into a documented sequence of character acquisition.

  10. Structural and biochemical characterization of the lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) liver basic fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, S M; Santomé, J A

    2001-04-01

    Only one fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) from the liver of the lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) was isolated and characterized. The sequence comparison of lungfish FABP with that of the known members of the liver FABP (L-FABP) and liver basic FABP (Lb-FABP) subfamilies indicates that it is more closely related to chicken, iguana, frog, axolotl, catfish, and shark Lb-FABPs than to mammalian and axolotl L-FABPs. Lungfish liver expression of this single Lb-FABP contrasts with the other fish studied so far which coexpress an Lb-FABP with heart-adipocyte and/or intestinal FABP types. The lungfish liver FABP expression pattern resembles that of tetrapods, which only expresses liver type FABPs. Lungfish Lb-FABP is one of the two FABPs reported to have a disulfide bridge. The molecular modeling of lungfish Lb-FABP predicts that nine of the conserved residues of Lb-FABPs are oriented toward the binding cavity, thus suggesting they are related to the protein binding characteristics.

  11. Intraclass diversification of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the African lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyi; Tacchi, Luca; Wei, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Lungfish (Dipnoi) are the closest living relatives to tetrapods, and they represent the transition from water to land during vertebrate evolution. Lungfish are armed with immunoglobulins (Igs), one of the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates, but only three Ig forms have been characterized in Dipnoi to date. We report here a new diversity of Ig molecules in two African lungfish species (Protopterus dolloi and Protopterus annectens). The African lungfish Igs consist of three IgMs, two IgWs, three IgNs, and an IgQ, where both IgN and IgQ originated evidently from the IgW lineage. Our data also suggest that the IgH genes in the lungfish are organized in a transiting form from clusters (IgH loci in cartilaginous fish) to a translocon configuration (IgH locus in tetrapods). We propose that the intraclass diversification of the two primordial gnathostome Ig classes (IgM and IgW) as well as acquisition of new isotypes (IgN and IgQ) has allowed lungfish to acquire a complex and functionally diverse Ig repertoire to fight a variety of microorganisms. Furthermore, our results support the idea that “tetrapod-specific” Ig classes did not evolve until the vertebrate adaptation to land was completed ∼360 million years ago. PMID:24676685

  12. Nuclear and plastid DNA sequences reveal complex evolutionary patterns in Australian water-lilies (Nymphaea subgenus Anecphya, Nymphaeaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the Australian water-lilies, Nymphaea subg. Anecphya. Our 52-taxa dataset covers all species of the subgenus except the newly described N. alexii and includes information from the nuclear ITS as well as from ...

  13. Hearing of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) suggests underwater pressure detection and rudimentary aerial hearing in early tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-02-01

    In the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle, vertebrate auditory systems have undergone major changes while adapting to aerial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods and their auditory system may therefore be a suitable model of the auditory systems of early tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Therefore, experimental studies on the hearing capabilities of lungfish may shed light on the possible hearing capabilities of early tetrapods and broaden our understanding of hearing across the water-to-land transition. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) lungfish are sensitive to underwater pressure using their lungs as pressure-to-particle motion transducers and (ii) lungfish can detect airborne sound. To do so, we used neurophysiological recordings to estimate the vibration and pressure sensitivity of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) in both water and air. We show that lungfish detect underwater sound pressure via pressure-to-particle motion transduction by air volumes in their lungs. The morphology of lungfish shows no specialized connection between these air volumes and the inner ears, and so our results imply that air breathing may have enabled rudimentary pressure detection as early as the Devonian era. Additionally, we demonstrate that lungfish in spite of their atympanic middle ear can detect airborne sound through detection of sound-induced head vibrations. This strongly suggests that even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing that may have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears in recent tetrapods.

  14. Characterization of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the central nervous system of African lungfish.

    PubMed

    Kreider, M S; Winokur, A; Manaker, S; Pack, A I; Fishman, A P

    1988-10-01

    Central administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produces potent effects on various physiological parameters, such as arousal, respiration, and cardiovascular function, in several species. As part of an investigation into the evolution of this tripeptide as a central modulator of these parameters, we examined its distribution in the central nervous system of the African lungfish (Protopterus). Lungfish brains were dissected into three regions: telencephalon, diencephalon, and medulla. Each region was assayed for TRH by radioimmunoassay and for norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin by HPLC/electrochemical methods. TRH immunoreactivity (IR-TRH) was present in all regions of lungfish brain examined. The telencephalon contained the highest concentrations of TRH, the diencephalon also contained a high concentration of TRH, and the medulla contained a markedly lower concentration. Similar concentration gradients (telencephalon greater than diencephalon greater than medulla) were observed for norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. The identity of IR-TRH as authentic TRH was confirmed by elution profiles on HPLC. The results of this investigation demonstrated that TRH and the monoamine neurotransmitters are present in high concentrations in various regions of lungfish brain. The lungfish may represent a promising model for further studies of the interactions of TRH with these neurotransmitter systems.

  15. The cranial endocast of Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) and the interrelationships of stem-group lungfishes

    PubMed Central

    Challands, Tom J.; Long, John A.; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    The first virtual cranial endocast of a lungfish from the Early Devonian, Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi, is described. Dipnorhynchus, only the fourth Devonian lungfish for which a near complete cranial endocast is known, is a key taxon for clarifying primitive character states within the group. A ventrally-expanded telencephalic cavity is present in the endocast of Dipnorhynchus demonstrating that this is the primitive state for “true” Dipnoi. Dipnorhynchus also possesses a utricular recess differentiated from the sacculolagenar pouch like that seen in stratigraphically younger lungfish (Dipterus, Chirodipterus, Rhinodipterus), but absent from the dipnomorph Youngolepis. We do not find separate pineal and para-pineal canals in contrast to a reconstruction from previous authors. We conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of Dipnoi based purely on endocast characters, which supports a basal placement of Dipnorhynchus within the dipnoan stem group, in agreement with recent analyses. Our analysis demonstrates the value of endocast characters for inferring phylogenetic relationships. PMID:27781157

  16. Early evolution of the lungfish pectoral fin endoskeleton: evidence from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Pentlandia macroptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jude, Emma; Johanson, Zerina; Kearsley, Anton; Friedman, Matt

    2014-08-01

    As the closest living relatives of tetrapods, lungfishes are frequently used as extant models for exploring the fin-to-limb transition. These studies have generally given little consideration to fossil taxa. This is because although lungfish fins are relatively common in the fossil record, the internal structure of these fins is virtually unknown. Information on pectoral-fin endoskeletons in fossil representatives of Dipnomorpha (the lungfish total group) is limited to poorly preserved remains in the lungfish Dipterus and Conchopoma and more complete material in the porolepiform Glyptolepis. Here we describe a well-preserved pectoral-fin endoskeleton in the Middle Devonian (Givetian) lungfish Pentlandia macroptera from the John O’Groats fish bed, Caithness, northeastern Scotland. The skeleton is in association with a cleithrum and clavicle, and consists of a series of at least eight mesomeres. Extensive series of preaxial and postaxial radials are present. Some of the radials are jointed, but none branch. No mesomere articulates with multiple radials on either its pre- or post-axial face. The first two mesomeres, corresponding to the humerus and ulna, bear well-developed axial processes. Uniquely among dipnomorphs, a distinct ossification centre corresponding to the radius is present in Pentlandia. A review of anatomy and development of the pectoral-fin endoskeleton in the living Neoceratodus is presented based on cleared and stained material representing different size stages. These developmental data, in conjunction with new details of primitive lungfish conditions based on Pentlandia, highlight many of the derived features of the pectoral-fin skeleton of Neoceratodus, and clarify patterns of appendage evolution within the dipnomorphs more generally.

  17. Phylogenetic aspects of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase in lungfish: a transitional enzyme in transitional fishes.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Tammy; Walsh, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) catalyses the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine or ammonia, bicarbonate and ATP. There are three different isoforms of CPS that play vital roles in two metabolic pathways, pyrimidine biosynthesis (CPS II) and arginine/urea biosynthesis (CPS I and CPS III). Gene duplication has been proposed as the evolutionary mechanism creating this gene family with CPS II likely giving rise to the CPS I/III clade. In the evolutionary history of this gene family it is still undetermined when CPS I diverged from CPS III on the path to terrestriality in the vertebrates. Transitional organisms such as lungfishes are of particular interest because they are capable of respiring via gills and with lungs and therefore can be found in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Notably, enzymatic characterization of the mitochondrial CPS isoforms in this transitional group has not led to clear conclusions. In order to determine which CPS isoform is present in transitional animals, we examined partial sequences for liver CPS amplified from five species of lungfish, and a larger fragment of CPS from one lungfish species (Protopterus annectens) and compared them to CPS isoforms from other fish and mammals. Enzyme activities for P. annectens liver were also examined. While enzyme activities did not yield a clear distinction between isoforms (virtually equal activities were obtained for either CPS I or III), CPS sequences from the lungfishes formed a monophyletic clade within the CPS I clade and separate from the CPS III clade of other vertebrates. This finding implies that the mitochondrial isoform of CPS in lungfish is derived from CPS I and is likely to have a physiological function similar to CPS I. This finding is important because it supports the hypothesis that lungfish employ a urea cycle similar to terrestrial air-breathing vertebrates.

  18. Connections of the medial telencephalic wall in the spotted African Lungfish.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R Glenn; Westhoff, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The extent and boundaries of the roof, or pallium, of the telencephalon in lungfishes have been debated for over 30 years, and two hypotheses exist. Proponents of a restricted pallium claim that the medial border of the pallium occurs in a dorsal position and that the entire medial hemispheric wall is formed by the septal nuclei. Proponents of an extended pallium claim that the medial border of the pallium occurs in a more ventral position and that the medial hemispheric wall is divided into a dorsal medial pallium and ventral septal nuclei, as in amphibians. Immunohistochemical data have generally been interpreted to support the hypothesis of an extended pallium, but disagreement still exists. To clarify the extent of the pallium in lungfishes, the connections of the dorsal and ventral divisions of the medial hemispheric wall in the Spotted African Lungfish were examined using a number of neuronal tracers. In amphibians and other tetrapods, the afferent projections to the medial pallium and the septal nuclei differ extensively, as do the commissural routes taken by decussating interhemispheric connections. Although the descending projections of the medial pallium and septal nuclei are very similar to one another in amphibians and other tetrapods, they do differ in that the septal nuclei and the ventral thalamus are extensively interlinked, whereas the medial pallium lacks such connections. These differences also characterize the connections of the dorsal and ventral divisions of the medial hemispheric wall in the Spotted African Lungfish, which supports the hypothesis of an extended pallium. The telencephalic organization in lungfishes thus appears remarkably similar to that in amphibians and reflects a pattern that almost certainly existed in the last common ancestor of lungfishes and tetrapods.

  19. Cryptic Diversity in Indo-Australian Rainbowfishes Revealed by DNA Barcoding: Implications for Conservation in a Biodiversity Hotspot Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Kadarusman; Hubert, Nicolas; Hadiaty, Renny Kurnia; Sudarto; Paradis, Emmanuel; Pouyaud, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The rainbowfishes of the family Melanotaeniidae represent one of the largest radiations of freshwater fishes from the Indo-Australian archipelago. A total of 75 nominal species have been described, among which several have become very popular among tropical fish hobbyists because of their tendency to form large schools of colourful individuals. Facing habitat loss and competition or predation by introduced species, this group has become a priority in the conservation of ornamental fishes in Indonesia. In this context, several expeditions have been conducted between 2007 and 2010 in Indonesian Papua with the aim to initiate a large-scale survey of the genetic resources in this group. We assessed the diversity of the Papua rainbowfishes with DNA barcoding. We sequenced the mitochondrial COI gene for 350 specimens belonging to 53 nominal species throughout the Indo-Australian archipelago. Unexpected levels of cryptic diversity and endemism were detected since additional cryptic lineages were detected in several watersheds from the Vogelkop and the Lengguru massif. DNA barcoding supports the presence of nearly 30 evolutionary lineages among the 15 nominal species sampled in the Vogelkop and all these lineages are endemic to a single lake or watershed. This result highlights that the diversity of the family has been largely underestimated and urges for the identification of conservation priorities in Papua. PMID:22829879

  20. Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Danielle; Wilton, Alan N; Fleming, Peter J S; Berry, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Hybridization between domesticated animals and their wild counterparts can disrupt adaptive gene combinations, reduce genetic diversity, extinguish wild populations and change ecosystem function. The dingo is a free-ranging dog that is an iconic apex predator and distributed throughout most of mainland Australia. Dingoes readily hybridize with domestic dogs, and in many Australian jurisdictions, distinct management strategies are dictated by hybrid status. Yet, the magnitude and spatial extent of domestic dog-dingo hybridization is poorly characterized. To address this, we performed a continent-wide analysis of hybridization throughout Australia based on 24 locus microsatellite DNA genotypes from 3637 free-ranging dogs. Although 46% of all free-ranging dogs were classified as pure dingoes, all regions exhibited some hybridization, and the magnitude varied substantially. The southeast of Australia was highly admixed, with 99% of animals being hybrids or feral domestic dogs, whereas only 13% of the animals from remote central Australia were hybrids. Almost all free-ranging dogs had some dingo ancestry, indicating that domestic dogs could have poor survivorship in nonurban Australian environments. Overall, wild pure dingoes remain the dominant predator over most of Australia, but the speed and extent to which hybridization has occurred in the approximately 220 years since the first introduction of domestic dogs indicate that the process may soon threaten the persistence of pure dingoes.

  1. High nutrient transport and cycling potential revealed in the microbial metagenome of Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) faeces.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Trish J; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin; Mitchell, James G; Jeffries, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis was used to examine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) gut microbiome. Bacteria comprised 98% of classifiable sequences and of these matches to Firmicutes (80%) were dominant, with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria representing 8% and 2% of matches respectively. The relative proportion of Firmicutes (80%) to Bacteriodetes (2%) is similar to that in previous studies of obese humans and obese mice, suggesting the gut microbiome may confer a predisposition towards the excess body fat that is needed for thermoregulation within the cold oceanic habitats foraged by Australian sea lions. Core metabolic functions, including carbohydrate utilisation (14%), protein metabolism (9%) and DNA metabolism (7%) dominated the metagenome, but in comparison to human and fish gut microbiomes there was a significantly higher proportion of genes involved in phosphorus metabolism (2.4%) and iron scavenging mechanisms (1%). When sea lions defecate at sea, the relatively high nutrient metabolism potential of bacteria in their faeces may accelerate the dissolution of nutrients from faecal particles, enhancing their persistence in the euphotic zone where they are available to stimulate marine production. PMID:22606263

  2. High Nutrient Transport and Cycling Potential Revealed in the Microbial Metagenome of Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) Faeces

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Trish J.; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin; Mitchell, James G.; Jeffries, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis was used to examine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) gut microbiome. Bacteria comprised 98% of classifiable sequences and of these matches to Firmicutes (80%) were dominant, with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria representing 8% and 2% of matches respectively. The relative proportion of Firmicutes (80%) to Bacteriodetes (2%) is similar to that in previous studies of obese humans and obese mice, suggesting the gut microbiome may confer a predisposition towards the excess body fat that is needed for thermoregulation within the cold oceanic habitats foraged by Australian sea lions. Core metabolic functions, including carbohydrate utilisation (14%), protein metabolism (9%) and DNA metabolism (7%) dominated the metagenome, but in comparison to human and fish gut microbiomes there was a significantly higher proportion of genes involved in phosphorus metabolism (2.4%) and iron scavenging mechanisms (1%). When sea lions defecate at sea, the relatively high nutrient metabolism potential of bacteria in their faeces may accelerate the dissolution of nutrients from faecal particles, enhancing their persistence in the euphotic zone where they are available to stimulate marine production. PMID:22606263

  3. Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Danielle; Wilton, Alan N; Fleming, Peter J S; Berry, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Hybridization between domesticated animals and their wild counterparts can disrupt adaptive gene combinations, reduce genetic diversity, extinguish wild populations and change ecosystem function. The dingo is a free-ranging dog that is an iconic apex predator and distributed throughout most of mainland Australia. Dingoes readily hybridize with domestic dogs, and in many Australian jurisdictions, distinct management strategies are dictated by hybrid status. Yet, the magnitude and spatial extent of domestic dog-dingo hybridization is poorly characterized. To address this, we performed a continent-wide analysis of hybridization throughout Australia based on 24 locus microsatellite DNA genotypes from 3637 free-ranging dogs. Although 46% of all free-ranging dogs were classified as pure dingoes, all regions exhibited some hybridization, and the magnitude varied substantially. The southeast of Australia was highly admixed, with 99% of animals being hybrids or feral domestic dogs, whereas only 13% of the animals from remote central Australia were hybrids. Almost all free-ranging dogs had some dingo ancestry, indicating that domestic dogs could have poor survivorship in nonurban Australian environments. Overall, wild pure dingoes remain the dominant predator over most of Australia, but the speed and extent to which hybridization has occurred in the approximately 220 years since the first introduction of domestic dogs indicate that the process may soon threaten the persistence of pure dingoes. PMID:26514639

  4. Independent Transitions between Monsoonal and Arid Biomes Revealed by Systematic Revison of a Complex of Australian Geckos (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Paul M.; Couper, Patrick J.; Pepper, Mitzy

    2014-01-01

    How the widespread expansion and intensification of aridity through the Neogene has shaped the Austral biota is a major question in Antipodean biogeography. Lineages distributed across wide aridity gradients provide opportunities to examine the timing, frequency, and direction of transitions between arid and mesic regions. Here, we use molecular genetics and morphological data to investigate the systematics and biogeography of a nominal Australian gecko species (Diplodactylus conspicillatus sensu lato) with a wide distribution spanning most of the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ) and Monsoonal Tropics (AMT). Our data support a minimum of seven genetically distinct and morphologically diagnosable taxa; we thus redefine the type species, ressurrect three names from synonymy, and describe three new species. Our inferred phylogeny suggests the history and diversification of lineages in the AAZ and AMT are intimately linked, with evidence of multiple independent interchanges since the late Miocene. However, despite this shared history, related lineages in these two regions also show evidence of broadly contrasting intra-regional responses to aridification; vicarance and speciation in older and increasingly attenuated mesic regions, versus a more dynamic history including independent colonisations and recent range expansions in the younger AAZ. PMID:25493936

  5. Analysis of lung ventilation in the aestivating lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, R G; Fishman, A P

    1977-11-01

    During aestivation, the breathing pattern of the lungfish changed from the usual aquatic pattern of a single breath followed by prolonged apnea to the pattern of alternating tachypnea and apnea that characterizes Cheyne-Stokes breathing. As aestivation continued, the number of breaths per tachypneic period increased gradually to reach a steady level at about the 3rd mo. During the bouts of tachypnea, minute ventilation increased because of the increase in respiratory frequency even though tidal volumes decreased. Ventilation of the lungs during aestivation appeared to involve the same mechanism as during life in water, i.e., a buccal force pump. The breathing cycle began with the aspiration of air into the mouth as the buccal cavity enlarged. Lung deflation then occurred abetted by contraction of the abdominal muscles. Lung inflation followed and involved the "swallowing" of air form the posterior buccal region into the lungs. Cycles of deflation and partial inflation of the lungs were repeated 8-40 times (tachypneic period). At the end of the tachypneic cycle, after the last deflation, a series of larger buccal force-pump maneuvers reinflated the lungs before the start of the apneic period. PMID:920828

  6. Occurrence of novel groups of the domain Bacteria as revealed by analysis of genetic material isolated from an Australian terrestrial environment.

    PubMed Central

    Liesack, W; Stackebrandt, E

    1992-01-01

    A molecular ecological study was performed on an Australian soil sample to unravel a substantial portion of the bacterial diversity. A large fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, using DNA isolated by lysing the microorganisms directly within the soil matrix, and a clone library was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of 30 clones and dot blot hybridization of 83 additional clones with defined oligonucleotide probes revealed the presence of three major groups of prokaryotes of the domain Bacteria. The first one comprises 57 clones that indicate relatives of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the alpha-2 subclass of the class Proteobacteria; the second group of 7 clones originates from members of the order Planctomycetales that, however, reveal no close relationship to any of the described Planctomycetales species; 22 clones of the third group are indicative of members of a novel main line of descent, sharing a common ancestry with members of planctomycetes and chlamydiae. Images PMID:1629164

  7. African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, possess an arginine vasotocin receptor homologous to the tetrapod V2-type receptor.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2009-07-01

    In tetrapods, arginine vasopressin and its counterpart, arginine vasotocin (AVT), are involved in renal water conservation through vascular V1a-type and tubular V2-type receptors, and only the former has thus far been cloned in fish. We successfully cloned the V1a-type and V2-type AVT receptor from the kidney of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and the deduced amino acid sequences exhibited high homology with amphibian V1a- and V2-type receptors, respectively. Functional analysis showed that AVT addition to CHO cells transfected with lungfish V1a-type receptor increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas CHO cells transfected with lungfish V2-type receptor responded with cAMP accumulation after AVT stimulation. Lungfish V2-type receptor mRNA was strongly expressed in the heart and kidney, while V1a-type receptor mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues examined. In the kidney, immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to lungfish V2-type receptor showed localization in the basolateral area of the cells in the late part of the distal tubules. Artificial estivation (EST) for 90 days significantly increased plasma osmolality and sodium and urea concentrations. There was no significant difference in the V2-type receptor mRNA and protein expression levels in the kidney between the freshwater and EST lungfish, while the AVT precursor mRNA level in the hypothalamus was remarkably higher in the EST lungfish. Our results indicate that African lungfish possess a functional V2-type receptor similar to that in tetrapods, suggesting that elevated plasma AVT during estivation exerts a renal tubular antidiuretic effect through the V2-type receptor expressed in the distal segments of lungfish kidney.

  8. In the african lungfish Met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin are derived from separate genes: cloning of a proenkephalin cDNA.

    PubMed

    Dores, R M; Lee, J; Sollars, C; Danielson, P; Lihrmann, I; Vallarino, M; Vaudry, H

    2000-10-01

    A full-length proenkephalin cDNA (accession number: AF232670) was cloned from an African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) brain cDNA library. The 1,351-bp African lungfish proenkephalin contains an open reading frame that codes 266 amino acids and a stop codon. Within the sequence of lungfish proenkephalin there are 5 pentapeptide opioid sequences (all YGGFM), 1 octapeptide opioid sequence (YGGFMRSL) and 1 heptapeptide opioid sequence (YGGFMGY). A Leu-enkephalin sequence was conspicuously absent in lungfish proenkephalin. These results, coupled with observations on the organization of amphibian proenkephalin and mammalian proenkephalin, indicate that among the Sarcopterygii (lobed finned fish and tetrapods), the appearance of a Leu-enkephalin sequence in proenkephalin may have evolved in either the ancestral amniotes or the ancestral mammals, but not earlier in sarcopterygian evolution. Furthermore, the detection of neurons in the lungfish CNS that are only immunopositive for Met-enkephalin, coupled with earlier anatomical studies on the presence of neurons in the lungfish CNS that are only immunopositive for Leu-enkephalin, indicates that a Leu-enkephalin-coding opioid gene must be present in the CNS of the lungfish. This gene may be the lungfish form of prodynorphin. Given the phylogenetic position of the lungfish in vertebrate evolution, the putative Leu-enkephalin-coding gene must have evolved in the ancestral sarcopterygian vertebrates, or in the ancestral gnathostomes. The apparent slow rate of lungfish evolution makes these organisms interesting models for investigating the evolution of the opioid/orphanin gene family.

  9. Modes of reproduction in Australian populations of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and cytological methods.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Gwenda M; Langridge, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is widely used in homeopathic medicine, but has also become a serious weed in Australia and many other countries. Reproduction in H. perforatum was investigated using markers based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Between two Australian populations, plants displayed 14 polymorphisms from a total of 22 scorable RFLP markers when genomic DNA was probed with M13 bacteriophage, but individuals within each population exhibited identical RFLP fingerprints. Ninety-four percent of the progeny of four crosses made between the two populations exhibited identical fingerprint and ploidy level to the maternal parent, and probably originated apomictically. Seven seedlings with recombinant RFLP or AFLP fingerprints were found from a total of 121 progeny. Both molecular marker techniques detected the same recombinants from a subset of screened progeny. Cytological analysis showed that the seven recombinants comprised three tetraploids (2n = 4x = 32), three hexaploids (2n = 6x = 48), and one aneuploid (2n - 1 = 31), which suggested that the level of normal reduced embryo sacs was only 2.5%. These results are discussed in relation to the management of invasive populations, and the implications for plant breeding and production of St. John's wort for medicinal purposes.

  10. Next-generation transcriptome profiling reveals insights into genetic factors contributing to growth differences and temperature adaptation in Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Newton, James R; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R

    2013-09-01

    Identification of genetically-regulated adaptation in fish is a precursor to understanding how populations will respond to future climate induced stressors like temperature. Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) show strong evidence of local adaptation to temperature. However, the phenotypic consequences of this adaptation are unknown and the genetic mechanisms underlying this response are poorly understood. In the current study, two populations of barramundi from temperature extremes of the species Australian distribution were communally reared at cool (22°C), control (28°C) and hot (36°C) water temperatures for 3.5months. Southern populations of barramundi originating from a cooler environment grew significantly faster at 22°C than northern populations of warm adapted barramundi. However, no difference in population growth was present at either 28°C or 36°C. The underlying transcriptome profile of barramundi was examined via Illumina mRNA deep sequencing to determine the major contributing gene categories giving rise to phenotypic differences in barramundi population growth. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed enrichment in categories relating to the regulation of peptidase activity as well as microtubule, cytoplasmic and cellular metabolic based processes. Further analysis of the GO category "microtubule based process" with associated genes from the "response to stress" category revealed an apparent re-organization of cytoskeletal elements in response to an induced cold stress in northern barramundi reared at 22°C, when compared with northern barramundi reared at 36°C. Between southern barramundi and northern barramundi reared at 36°C, an analysis of the "endopeptidase inhibitor activity" GO category in conjunction with stress genes indicated a suppression of the complement system in southern barramundi along with an increase in the cellular stress response. The results of the present study show that southern populations of barramundi

  11. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  12. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  13. Evolutionary relationships of the coelacanth, lungfishes, and tetrapods based on the 28S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    1996-05-28

    The origin of land vertebrates was one of the major transitions in the history of vertebrates. Yet, despite many studies that are based on either morphology or molecules, the phylogenetic relationships among tetrapods and the other two living groups of lobe-finned fishes, the coelacanth and the lungfishes, are still unresolved and debated. Knowledge of the relationships among these lineages, which originated back in the Devonian, has profound implications for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenario of the conquest of land. We collected the largest molecular data set on this issue so far, about 3,500 base pairs from seven species of the large 28S nuclear ribosomal gene. All phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood) point toward the hypothesis that lungfishes and coelacanths form a monophyletic group and are equally closely related to land vertebrates. This evolutionary hypothesis complicates the identification of morphological or physiological preadaptations that might have permitted the common ancestor of tetrapods to colonize land. This is because the reconstruction of its ancestral conditions would be hindered by the difficulty to separate uniquely derived characters from shared derived characters in the coelacanth/lungfish and tetrapod lineages. This molecular phylogeny aids in the reconstruction of morphological evolutionary steps by providing a framework; however, only paleontological evidence can determine the sequence of morphological acquisitions that allowed lobe-finned fishes to colonize land.

  14. Histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the primordial vomeronasal organ in lungfish.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Shoko; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2012-03-01

    Many vertebrates have two anatomically distinct olfactory organs--the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ--to detect chemicals such as general odorants and pheromones in their environment. The vomeronasal organ is not present in fish but is present in vertebrates of a higher order than amphibians. Among all extant fishes, the lungfish is considered to be genetically and phylogenetically closest to tetrapods. In this study, we examined the olfactory organs of African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, by lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Two types of sensory epithelia were identified in the olfactory organ--the olfactory epithelium covering the surface of lamellae and the sensory epithelium lining the recesses both at the base of lamellae and in the wall of the nasal sac--and designated here as the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium, respectively. Based on analysis of G-protein expression and ultrastructure, the lamellar olfactory epithelium resembled the olfactory epithelium of ordinary teleosts and the recess epithelium resembled the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods. Furthermore, lectin histochemistry demonstrated that the axons from the recess epithelium converge and project to the ventrolateral part of the olfactory bulb, suggesting that lungfish possess a region homologous to the accessory olfactory bulb of tetrapods. Based on these results, it seems appropriate to refer to the recess epithelium as "a primordium of the vomeronasal organ." This study may provide important clues to elucidate how the vomeronasal organ emerged during the evolution of vertebrates.

  15. The anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Wong, Wai P; Colvee, Elvira; Loong, Ai M; Ip, Yuen K

    2010-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens is a composite, which includes the gut, the spleen, and the pancreas. The gut is formed by a short oesophagus, a longitudinal stomach, a pyloric valve, a spiraling intestine, and a cloaca. Coiling of the intestine begins dorsally below the pylorus, winding down to form six complete turns before ending into the cloaca. A reticular tissue of undisclosed nature accompanies the winding of the intestinal mucosa. The spleen is located along the right side of the stomach, overlapping the cranial end of the pancreas. The pancreas occupies the shallow area, which indicates on the gut dorsal side the beginning of the intestine coiling. In addition, up to 25 lymphatic-like nodes accompany the inner border of the spiral valve. The mesenteric artery forms a long axis for the intestine. All the components of the gastrointestinal tract are attached to each other by connective sheaths, and are wrapped by connective tissue, and by the serosa externally. We believe that several previous observations have been misinterpreted and that the anatomy of the lungfish gut is more similar among all the three lungfish genera than previously thought. Curiously, the gross anatomical organization is not modified during aestivation. We hypothesize that the absence of function is accompanied by structural modifications of the epithelium, and are currently investigating this possibility.

  16. Analysis of glycoproteins produced by the associated gland in the olfactory organ of lungfish.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-31

    The olfactory organ of African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, contains two distinct sensory epithelia: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. These epithelia correspond to the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods, respectively. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium, which has no associated gland, the recess epithelium is equipped with associated glands. Although the glandular cells and/or the supporting cells are generally presumed to secrete proteins involved in the function of olfactory sensory epithelia, the properties of these proteins in lungfish have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we investigated the associated glands in the olfactory organ of lungfish by transmission electron microscopy and found that the glandular cells contain numerous secretory granules and secrete them from the apical membrane. In addition, we analyzed the olfactory organ by lectin histochemistry using 16 biotinylated lectins. All lectins labeled the secretory granules in the glandular cells with different staining patterns from those of the supporting cells in the lamellar olfactory epithelium or in the recess epithelium. Furthermore, lectin blotting analysis showed that multiple bands were detected by the lectins which specifically labeled the glandular epithelium of the olfactory organ. These results indicate that the secretory products of the associated glands in the recess epithelium have different properties from those of the supporting cells in the olfactory sensory epithelia and contain multiple glycoproteins with different carbohydrate moieties.

  17. Evolutionary relationships of the coelacanth, lungfishes, and tetrapods based on the 28S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    1996-01-01

    The origin of land vertebrates was one of the major transitions in the history of vertebrates. Yet, despite many studies that are based on either morphology or molecules, the phylogenetic relationships among tetrapods and the other two living groups of lobe-finned fishes, the coelacanth and the lungfishes, are still unresolved and debated. Knowledge of the relationships among these lineages, which originated back in the Devonian, has profound implications for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenario of the conquest of land. We collected the largest molecular data set on this issue so far, about 3,500 base pairs from seven species of the large 28S nuclear ribosomal gene. All phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood) point toward the hypothesis that lungfishes and coelacanths form a monophyletic group and are equally closely related to land vertebrates. This evolutionary hypothesis complicates the identification of morphological or physiological preadaptations that might have permitted the common ancestor of tetrapods to colonize land. This is because the reconstruction of its ancestral conditions would be hindered by the difficulty to separate uniquely derived characters from shared derived characters in the coelacanth/lungfish and tetrapod lineages. This molecular phylogeny aids in the reconstruction of morphological evolutionary steps by providing a framework; however, only paleontological evidence can determine the sequence of morphological acquisitions that allowed lobe-finned fishes to colonize land. PMID:8643595

  18. Studies on the GH/SL gene family: cloning of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) growth hormone and somatolactin and toad (Bufo marinus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    May, D; Alrubaian, J; Patel, S; Dores, R M; Rand-Weaver, M

    1999-01-01

    The lungfishes (lobe-finned fish) occupy a unique position in vertebrate phylogeny, being regarded as the closest extant relatives to the tetrapods. The putative pituitary hormone somatolactin (SL) has hitherto been found only in teleost fishes, and the presence of this protein in tetrapods or lobe-finned fishes has not been ascertained. It was therefore of interest to determine the structure of SL in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens), as this information would be useful for designing probes to facilitate the detection of SL genes in amphibians and other tetrapods. The structural relationships between SL, growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL) strongly suggest that these proteins evolved from a common ancestor. To obtain a more complete picture of the evolution of these hormones in lungfish, African lungfish GH has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA sequence of a toad (Bufo marinus) GH was determined to facilitate maximum parsimony analysis of GH sequences. Cladistic analysis confirmed that lungfish and amphibian GH sequences form a clade distinct from the GH sequences of ray-finned fishes. A distance matrix analysis of SL sequences indicated that lungfish SL had the lowest primary sequence identity with goldfish SL (47%) and the highest with flounder SL (66%). The detection of SL in a lungfish indicates that the gene duplication within the SL/GH/PRL family, which gave rise to SL, must have occurred in a common ancestor of the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) and the lungfishes (Sarcopterygii) and tetrapods.

  19. Identification, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the ghrelin receptor in West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Norifumi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uchiyama, Minoru; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2014-12-01

    We identified two ghrelin receptor isoforms, the ghrelin receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) and its alternative splice form (GHS-R1b) for West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Lungfish GHS-R1a and 1b comprised 361 and 281 amino acids, respectively. Lungfish GHS-R1a showed the highest identity to coelacanth GHS-R1a (80.4%). The highest expression of GHS-R1a mRNAs was seen in the brain, liver, ovary, heart, intestine, and gills. GHS-R1b mRNAs were also detected in the same tissues with GHS-R1a, but their expression level was 1/20 that of GHS-R1a. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells transiently expressing lungfish GHS-R1a, rat and bullfrog ghrelin, and two GHS-R1a agonists, GHRP-6 and hexarelin, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The intensity of the Ca(2+) increases induced by GHS-R1a agonists was twice when compared to that induced by ghrelin, although the median effective doses (ED50) were similar, suggesting a long-lasting effect of GHS-R1a agonists with similar affinity. We also examined changes in the GHS-R gene expression during an eight-week estivation. Body weight was slightly lowered, but plasma sodium and glucose concentrations decreased; plasma urea concentration increased significantly 4weeks after the start of estivation. Overall, expression of GHS-R1a mRNA decreased, but changes in GHS-R1b mRNA expression were inconsistent with those of GHS-R1a during estivation, suggesting an involvement of GHS-R in energy homeostasis, as seen in mammals. Our results suggest that the ghrelin-GHS-R1a system is present in this lungfish although ghrelin has not yet been found. The structure of GHS-R1a is closer to that of tetrapods than Actinopterygian fish, indicating a process of evolution that follows the Crossopterygii such as coelacanth.

  20. Diagnostic investigation of new disease syndromes in farmed Australian saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) reveals associations with herpesviral infection.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Jerrett, Ian V; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan; Benedict, Suresh; Isberg, Sally R; Webb, Grahame J W; Manolis, Charlie; Hyndman, Timothy H; Phalen, David; Brown, Gregory P; Melville, Lorna

    2016-05-01

    Since 2006, 3 new disease syndromes have emerged in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. We describe the syndromes through a retrospective study of laboratory findings from 187 diagnostic cases submitted to Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories between 2005 and 2014. The first syndrome was characterized by conjunctivitis and/or pharyngitis (CP), primarily in hatchlings. Herpesviruses were isolated in primary crocodile cell culture, or were detected by PCR directly from conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue, in 21 of 39 cases of CP (54%), compared with 9 of 64 crocodiles without the syndrome (14%, p < 0.0001). Chlamydiaceae were detected by PCR in conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue of 55% of 29 CP cases tested, and of these, 81% also contained herpesvirus. The second syndrome occurred in juveniles and growers exhibiting poor growth, and was characterized histologically by systemic lymphoid proliferation and nonsuppurative encephalitis (SLPE). Herpesviruses were isolated or detected by PCR from at least 1 internal organ in 31 of 33 SLPE cases (94%) compared with 5 of 95 crocodiles without the syndrome (5%, p < 0.0001). The third syndrome, characterized by multifocal lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the dermis (LNS), occurred in 6 harvest-sized crocodiles. Herpesviruses were isolated from at least 1 skin lesion in 4 of these 6 cases. Although our study revealed strong associations between herpesvirus and the CP and SLPE syndromes, the precise nature of the role of herpesvirus, along with the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the syndromes, requires further investigation. PMID:27075848

  1. Diagnostic investigation of new disease syndromes in farmed Australian saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) reveals associations with herpesviral infection.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Jerrett, Ian V; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan; Benedict, Suresh; Isberg, Sally R; Webb, Grahame J W; Manolis, Charlie; Hyndman, Timothy H; Phalen, David; Brown, Gregory P; Melville, Lorna

    2016-05-01

    Since 2006, 3 new disease syndromes have emerged in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. We describe the syndromes through a retrospective study of laboratory findings from 187 diagnostic cases submitted to Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories between 2005 and 2014. The first syndrome was characterized by conjunctivitis and/or pharyngitis (CP), primarily in hatchlings. Herpesviruses were isolated in primary crocodile cell culture, or were detected by PCR directly from conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue, in 21 of 39 cases of CP (54%), compared with 9 of 64 crocodiles without the syndrome (14%, p < 0.0001). Chlamydiaceae were detected by PCR in conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue of 55% of 29 CP cases tested, and of these, 81% also contained herpesvirus. The second syndrome occurred in juveniles and growers exhibiting poor growth, and was characterized histologically by systemic lymphoid proliferation and nonsuppurative encephalitis (SLPE). Herpesviruses were isolated or detected by PCR from at least 1 internal organ in 31 of 33 SLPE cases (94%) compared with 5 of 95 crocodiles without the syndrome (5%, p < 0.0001). The third syndrome, characterized by multifocal lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the dermis (LNS), occurred in 6 harvest-sized crocodiles. Herpesviruses were isolated from at least 1 skin lesion in 4 of these 6 cases. Although our study revealed strong associations between herpesvirus and the CP and SLPE syndromes, the precise nature of the role of herpesvirus, along with the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the syndromes, requires further investigation.

  2. A fibrous membrane suspends the multifocal lens in the eyes of lampreys and African lungfishes.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ola S E; Ekström, Peter; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2010-08-01

    The sharpness and thus information content of the retinal image in the eye depends on the optical quality of the lens and its accurate positioning in the eye. Multifocal lenses create well-focused color images and are present in the eyes of all vertebrate groups studied to date (mammals, reptiles including birds, amphibians, and ray-finned fishes) and occur even in lampreys, i.e., the most basal vertebrates with well-developed eyes. Results from photoretinoscopy obtained in this study indicate that the Dipnoi (lungfishes), i.e., the closest piscine relatives to tetrapods, also possess multifocal lenses. Suspension of the lens is complex and sophisticated in teleosts (bony fishes) and tetrapods. We studied lens suspension using light and electron microscopy in one species of lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and two species of African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens annectens). A fibrous and highly transparent membrane suspends the lens in both of these phylogenetically widely separated vertebrate groups. The membrane attaches to the lens approximately along the lens equator, from where it extends to the ora retinalis. The material forming the membrane is similar in ultrastructure to microfibrils in the zonule fibers of tetrapods. The membrane, possibly in conjunction with the cornea, iris, and vitreous body, seems suitable for keeping the lens in the correct position for well-focused imaging. Suspension of the lens by a multitude of zonule fibers in tetrapods may have evolved from a suspensory membrane similar to that in extant African lungfishes, a structure that seems to have appeared first in the lamprey-like ancestors of allextant vertebrates. PMID:20623650

  3. Structural and functional divergence of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors in early sarcopterygians: lungfish and Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Tam, Janice K V; Chow, Billy K C; Lee, Leo T O

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor remain enigmatic since the discovery of physiologically functional GHRH-GHRH receptor (GHRHR) in non-mammalian vertebrates in 2007. Interestingly, subsequent studies have described the identification of a GHRHR(2) in chicken in addition to the GHRHR and the closely related paralogous receptor, PACAP-related peptide (PRP) receptor (PRPR). In this article, we provide information, for the first time, on the GHRHR in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians by the cloning and characterization of GHRHRs from lungfish (P. dolloi) and X. laevis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated structural resemblance of lungfish GHRHR to their mammalian orthologs, while the X. laevis GHRHR showed the highest homology to GHRHR(2) in zebrafish and chicken. Functionally, lungfish GHRHR displayed high affinity towards GHRH in triggering intracellular cAMP and calcium accumulation, while X. laevis GHRHR(2) was able to react with both endogenous GHRH and PRP. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both lungfish GHRHR and X. laevis GHRHR(2) had the highest expression in brain, and interestingly, X. laevis(GHRHR2) also had high abundance in the reproductive organs. These findings, together with previous reports, suggest that early in the Sarcopterygii lineage, GHRHR and PRPR have already established diverged and specific affinities towards their cognate ligands. GHRHR(2), which has only been found in xenopus, zebrafish and chicken hitherto, accommodates both GHRH and PRP.

  4. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  5. The spleen of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens: freshwater and aestivation.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Wong, Wai P; Colvee, Elvira; Loong, Ai M; Ip, Yuen K

    2012-10-01

    We describe the structure of the spleen of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens in freshwater conditions, and after 6 months of aestivation. The spleen is formed by cortical tissue that surrounds the splenic parenchyma. The cortex is a reticulum that contains two types of granulocytes, developing and mature plasma cells, and melanomacrophage centres (MMCs). The parenchyma is divided into lobules that show a subcapsular sinus and areas of red pulp and white pulp. Red pulp contains vascular sinuses and atypical cords formed by delicate trabeculae. White pulp also contains vascular sinuses and cords. Structural data indicate that red pulp is involved in erythropoiesis, destruction of effete erythrocytes, and plasma cell differentiation. White pulp appears to be involved in the production of immune responses. Macrophages and sinus endothelial cells constitute the reticulo-endothelial system of the spleen. After aestivation, the number of MMCs increases, and spleen tissue is infiltrated by lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes. Also, white pulp is reduced, and sinus endothelial cells undergo vacuolar degeneration. Lungfish spleen shares structural characteristics with secondary lymphoid organs of both ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates, but appears to have evolved in unique ways.

  6. Localization of the primordial vomeronasal organ and its relationship to the associated gland in lungfish.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Shoko; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The lungfish, the closest fish to tetrapods, has two types of sensory epithelia in the olfactory organ: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. The former resembles the olfactory epithelium of ordinary teleosts and the latter resembles the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods with respect to the G-protein expressions and the morphological properties of olfactory receptor cells. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium covering the surface of olfactory lamella, the recess epithelium, together with the glandular epithelium, lines the recesses at the base of olfactory lamellae and is separated from the surrounding tissues by nonsensory epithelium. In the present study, we examined the distribution of these recesses and the relationship between the recess epithelium and the associated gland in the nasal sac of lungfish. We found that the posterior part of the nasal sac contained more recesses than the anterior one, and the medial one contained more recesses than the lateral one. In addition, virtually all recesses consisted of both the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium. Furthermore, the glandular epithelium was invariably situated proximal to the midline raphe of the nasal sac, and the recess epithelium distal to it. Possible roles of the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium are discussed.

  7. Brain Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms and aestivation in the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Ip, Yuen K; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to clone and sequence Na (+) / K (+)-ATPase (nka) α-subunit isoforms from, and to determine their mRNA expression levels and protein abundance in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation in air. We obtained the full cDNA sequences of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 from the brain of P. annectens. Phylogenetic analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed that they are closer to the corresponding NKA α-subunits of tetrapods than to those of fishes. The mRNA expression of these three nkaα isoforms showed differential changes in the brain of P. annectens during the three phases of aestivation. After 12 days of aestivation, there was a significant increase in the protein abundance of Nkaα1 in the brain of P. annectens. This could be an important response to maintain cellular Na(+) and K(+) concentrations and regulate cell volume during the early maintenance phase of aestivation. On the other hand, the mRNA expression of nkaα2 decreased significantly in the brain of P. annectens after 6 months of aestivation, which could be a result of a suppression of transcriptional activities to reduce energy expenditure. The down-regulation of mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nka α-subunit isoforms in the brain of P. annectens after 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation were novel observations, and it could be an adaptive response to restore blood pressure and/or to prevent brain oedema.

  8. Respiratory allocation and standard rate of metabolism in the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Chapman, Lauren J

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between respiratory allocation (air vs. water) and the standard rate of metabolism (SMR) in the primitive air-breathing lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumed from both air and water were made to determine the SMR at ecologically relevant aquatic oxygen levels for juveniles 2 to 221 g. Total metabolic rate was positively correlated with body mass with a scaling exponent of 0.78. Aerial oxygen consumption averaged 98% (range=94% to 100%) of total respiratory allocation under low aquatic oxygen levels. Measurements of oxygen consumption made across a gradient of dissolved oxygen from normoxia to anoxia showed that P. aethiopicus maintains its SMR despite a change in respiratory allocation between water and air. PMID:16380279

  9. Musculoskeletal morphology of the pelvis and pelvic fins in the lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    King, Heather M; Hale, Melina E

    2014-04-01

    The West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) performs benthic, pelvic fin-driven locomotion with gaits common to tetrapods, the sister group of the lungfishes. Features of P. annectens movement are similar to those of modern tetrapods and include use of the distal region of the pelvic fin as a “foot,” use of the fin to lift the body above the substrate and rotation of the fin around the joint with the pelvis. In contrast to these similarities in movement, the pelvic fins of P. annectens are long, slender structures that are superficially very different from tetrapod limbs. Here, we describe the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pelvis and pelvic fins of P. annectens with dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, histology and 3D-reconstruction methods. We found that the pelvis is embedded in the hypaxial muscle by a median rostral and two dorsolateral skeletal projections. The protractor and retractor muscles at the base of the pelvic fin are fan-shaped muscles that cup the femur. The skeletal elements of the fin are serially repeating cartilage cylinders. Along the length of the fin, repeating truncated cones of muscles, the musculus circumradialis pelvici, are separated by connective tissue sheets that connect the skeletal elements to the skin. The simplicity of the protractor and retractor muscles at the base of the fin is surprising, given the complex rotational movement those muscles generate. In contrast, the series of many repeating segmental muscles along the length of the fin is consistent with the dexterity of bending of the distal limb. P. annectens can provide a window into softtissue anatomy and sarcopterygian fish fin function that complements the fossil data from related taxa. This work, combined with previous behavioral examination of P. annectens, illustrates that fin morphologies that do not appear to be capable of walking can accomplish that function, and may inform the interpretation of fossil anatomical evidence.

  10. Isolation and amino-terminal sequence analysis of a new pancreatic trypsinogen of the African lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    de Haën, C; Walsh, K A; Neurath, H

    1977-10-01

    The purification and characterization of three pancreatic trypsinogens A1, A2, and A3, from the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, is reported. These zymogens are activated by trypsin, by enterokinase, by an acid protease from Aspergillus oryzae, and by autoactivation. The three trypsinogens contain the same amino-terminal amino acid sequence, beginning with the activation peptide Leu-Pro-Leu-Glu-Asp-Asp-Lys-. Like the activation peptide of the previously characterized trypsinogen B [Reeck, G. R., & Neurath, H. (1972) Biochemistry 11, 503] of the same organism, it lacks the tetraaspartyl sequence characteristic of other vertebrate trypsinogens. Two of the corresponding lungfish trypsins were found to have identical amino-terminal sequences for at least 27 residues. These data suggest that the three enzymes are allelic variants. In contrast, the amino acid sequences differ sufficiently from that of trypsinogen B of the same organism to indicate that trypsinogens A and B are the products of different gene loci. PMID:911766

  11. Comparative genomics of Australian isolates of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici reveals extensive polymorphism in candidate effector genes

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Garnica, Diana P.; Karaoglu, Haydar; Sperschneider, Jana; Nemri, Adnane; Xu, Bo; Mago, Rohit; Cuomo, Christina A.; Rathjen, John P.; Park, Robert F.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    The wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is one of the most destructive pathogens of wheat. In this study, a draft genome was built for a founder Australian Pgt isolate of pathotype (pt.) 21-0 (collected in 1954) by next generation DNA sequencing. A combination of reference-based assembly using the genome of the previously sequenced American Pgt isolate CDL 75-36-700-3 (p7a) and de novo assembly were performed resulting in a 92 Mbp reference genome for Pgt isolate 21-0. Approximately 13 Mbp of de novo assembled sequence in this genome is not present in the p7a reference assembly. This novel sequence is not specific to 21-0 as it is also present in three other Pgt rust isolates of independent origin. The new reference genome was subsequently used to build a pan-genome based on five Australian Pgt isolates. Transcriptomes from germinated urediniospores and haustoria were separately assembled for pt. 21-0 and comparison of gene expression profiles showed differential expression in ∼10% of the genes each in germinated spores and haustoria. A total of 1,924 secreted proteins were predicted from the 21-0 transcriptome, of which 520 were classified as haustorial secreted proteins (HSPs). Comparison of 21-0 with two presumed clonal field derivatives of this lineage (collected in 1982 and 1984) that had evolved virulence on four additional resistance genes (Sr5, Sr11, Sr27, SrSatu) identified mutations in 25 HSP effector candidates. Some of these mutations could explain their novel virulence phenotypes. PMID:25620970

  12. Lungfish aestivating activities are locked in distinct encephalic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α subunits.

    PubMed

    Giusi, Giuseppina; Crudo, Michele; Di Vito, Anna; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Garofalo, Filippo; Chew, Shit Fun; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Canonaco, Marcello

    2011-03-01

    Ammonia in dipnoans plays a crucial role on neuronal homeostasis, especially for those brain areas that maintain torpor and awakening states in equilibrium. In the present study, specific α subunits of the major neuroreceptor inhibitory complex (GABA(A) R), which predominated during some phases of aestivation of the lungfish Protopterus annectens, turned out to be key adaptive factors of this species. From the isolation, for the first time, of the encoding sequence for GABA(A) R α₁, α₄ , and α₅ subunits in Protopterus annectens, qPCR and in situ hybridization levels of α₄ transcript in thalamic (P < 0.001) and mesencephalic (P < 0.01) areas proved to be significantly higher during long aestivating maintenance states. Very evident α₅ mRNA levels were detected in diencephalon during short inductive aestivating states, whereas an α₄ /α₁ turnover characterized the arousal state. Contextually, the recovery of physiological activities appeared to be tightly related to an evident up-regulation of α₁ transcripts in telencephalic and cerebellar sites. Surprisingly, TUNEL and amino cupric silver methods corroborated apoptotic and neurodegenerative cellular events, respectively, above all in telencephalon and cerebellum of lungfish exposed to long maintenance aestivating conditions. Overall, these results tend to underlie a novel GABAergic-related ON/OFF molecular switch operating during aestivation of the lungfish, which might have a bearing on sleeping disorders.

  13. Upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain and heart during estivation in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Salway, Kurtis D; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Chew, Shit F; Warren, Sarah A; Ballantyne, James S; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-03-01

    The African slender lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, is highly adapted to withstand periods of drought by secreting a mucous cocoon and estivating for periods of months to years. Estivation is similar to the diapause and hibernation of other animal species in that it is characterized by negligible activity and a profoundly depressed metabolic rate. As is typically observed in quiescent states, estivating P. dolloi are resistant to environmental stresses. We tested the hypothesis that P. dolloi enhances stress resistance during estivation by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defences in brain and heart tissues. We found that most of the major intracellular antioxidant enzymes, including the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cytosolic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were upregulated in brain tissue of lungfish that had estivated for 60 days. Several of these enzymes were also elevated in heart tissue of estivators. These changes were not due to food deprivation, as they did not occur in a group of fish that were deprived of food but maintained in water for the same period of time. We found little evidence of tissue oxidative damage in estivators. Products of lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal adducts) and oxidative protein damage (carbonylation) were similar in estivating and control lungfish. However, protein nitrotyrosine levels were elevated in brain tissue of estivators. Taken together, these data indicate that estivating P. dolloi have enhanced oxidative stress resistance in brain and heart due to a significant upregulation of intracellular antioxidant capacity.

  14. cDNA sequence coding for the alpha'-chain of the third complement component in the African lungfish.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Sültmann, H; Mayer, W E; Figueroa, F; Tichy, H; Klein, J

    1999-04-01

    cDNA clones coding for almost the entire C3 alpha-chain of the African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), a representative of the Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes), were sequenced and characterized. From the sequence it is deduced that the lungfish C3 molecule is probably a disulphide-bonded alpha:beta dimer similar to that of the C3 components of other jawed vertebrates. The deduced sequence contains conserved sites presumably recognized by proteolytic enzymes (e.g. factor I) involved in the activation and inactivation of the component. It also contains the conserved thioester region and the putative site for binding properdin. However, the site for the interaction with complement receptor 2 and factor H are poorly conserved. Either complement receptor 2 and factor H are not present in the lungfish or they bind to different residues at the same or a different site than mammalian complement receptor 2 and factor H. The C3 alpha-chain sequences faithfully reflect the phylogenetic relationships among vertebrate classes and can therefore be used to help to resolve the long-standing controversy concerning the origin of the tetrapods. PMID:10219761

  15. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  16. Molecular cloning and mRNA distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide in the lungfish.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T O; Tam, J K V; Chan, D W; Chow, B K C

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from lungfish Protopterus dolloi. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences, the lungfish PACAP was found to be highly conserved with other vertebrates; however, the PRP shares only lower levels of sequence identity with known PRP sequences. Consistently in phylogenetic analysis, the lungfish PRP, similar to sturgeon PRP, fails to cluster with other PRPs. In addition to the full-length clone, another cDNA encoding a short precursor that lacks the first 32 amino acids of the PRP was also isolated. Interestingly, similar isoforms were also identified in several nonmammalian vertebrates, and it was suggested that exon skipping of PRP/PACAP transcripts was a mechanism that regulated the expression ratio of PACAP to PRP in nonmammalian vertebrates. By real-time PCR, both long and short PRP/PACAP transcripts were found almost exclusively in the brain, and the short isoform is the more abundant transcript (3.7 times more), indicating that PACAP is the major product produced in lungfish brain. The expression patterns of lungfish and previously studied frog PRP/PACAP suggest that the PRP/PACAP gene in the tetrapod lineage may first express in the central nervous system; in the process of evolution, the functions of these peptides diversified and were later found in other tissues.

  17. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) supports its phylogenetic position as a close relative of land vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    1996-04-01

    The complete DNA sequence (16,646 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, was determined. The evolutionary position of lungfish as possibly the closest living relative among fish of land vertebrates made its mitochondrial DNA sequence particularly interesting. Its mitochondrial gene order conforms to the consensus vertebrate gene order. Several sequence motifs and secondary structures likely involved in the regulation of the initiation of replication and transcription of the mitochondrial genome are conserved in the lungfish and are more similar to those of land vertebrates than those of ray-finned fish. A novel feature discovered is that the putative origin of L-strand replication partially overlaps the adjacent tRNA(Cys). The phylogenetic analyses of genes coding for tRNAs and proteins confirm the intermediate phylogenetic position of lungfish between ray-finned fishes and tetrapods. The complete nucleotide sequence of the African lungfish mitochondrial genome was used to estimate which mitochondrial genes are most appropriate to elucidate deep branch phylogenies. Only a combined set of either protein or tRNA mitochondrial genes (but not each gene alone) is able to confidently recover the expected phylogeny among vertebrates that have diverged up to but not over approximately 400 mya.

  18. Characterization of the single tyrosine containing troponin C from lungfish white muscle. Comparison with several fast skeletal muscle troponin C's from fish species.

    PubMed

    François, J M; Altintas, A; Gerday, C

    1997-08-01

    Troponin C molecules from fast skeletal muscle of the following fish species (trout, whiting, lungfish, tilapia, and cod) have been purified to homogeneity. Upon binding of Ca2+ or Mg2+, lungfish troponin C is the only troponin C from fish white muscle to show the typical increase of tyrosine fluorescence emission quantum yield reported for rabbit fast skeletal muscle troponin C. The increase of tyrosine fluorescence signal occurring upon Ca2+ and Mg2+ titration of lungfish troponin C has been used to determine the corresponding affinity constants. With K(Ca) = 7.0 10(7) M-1 and K(Mg) = 3.6 10(3) M-1, the sites probed by the tyrosine residue of lungfish troponin C are typical of the COOH-terminal domain of fast skeletal troponin C's. The amino acid sequencing of the tyrosine containing tryptic peptides has allowed us to position the single tyrosine residue at position 7 in the Ca2+ binding loop of the third site, in identical position to Tyr109 of troponin C from rabbit fast skeletal muscle. Metal ion binding studies followed by intrinsic fluorescence or Tb3+ luminescence indicate that the conformation of the structural domain of lungfish troponin C with one metal ion bound is close to the physiological conformation of this domain.

  19. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Lungfish (Protopterus Dolloi) Supports Its Phylogenetic Position as a Close Relative of Land Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zardoya, R.; Meyer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence (16,646 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, was determined. The evolutionary position of lungfish as possibly the closest living relative among fish of land vertebrates made its mitochondrial DNA sequence particularly interesting. Its mitochondrial gene order conforms to the consensus vertebrate gene order. Several sequence motifs and secondary structures likely involved in the regulation of the initiation of replication and transcription of the mitochondrial genome are conserved in the lungfish and are more similar to those of land vertebrates than those of ray-finned fish. A novel feature discovered is that the putative origin of L-strand replication partially overlaps the adjacent tRNA(Cys). The phylogenetic analyses of genes coding for tRNAs and proteins confirm the intermediate phylogenetic position of lungfish between ray-finned fishes and tetrapods. The complete nucleotide sequence of the African lungfish mitochondrial genome was used to estimate which mitochondrial genes are most appropriate to elucidate deep branch phylogenies. Only a combined set of either protein or tRNA mitochondrial genes (but not each gene alone) is able to confidently recover the expected phylogeny among vertebrates that have diverged up to but not over ~400 mya. PMID:8846902

  20. Molecular cloning and mRNA distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide in the lungfish.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T O; Tam, J K V; Chan, D W; Chow, B K C

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from lungfish Protopterus dolloi. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences, the lungfish PACAP was found to be highly conserved with other vertebrates; however, the PRP shares only lower levels of sequence identity with known PRP sequences. Consistently in phylogenetic analysis, the lungfish PRP, similar to sturgeon PRP, fails to cluster with other PRPs. In addition to the full-length clone, another cDNA encoding a short precursor that lacks the first 32 amino acids of the PRP was also isolated. Interestingly, similar isoforms were also identified in several nonmammalian vertebrates, and it was suggested that exon skipping of PRP/PACAP transcripts was a mechanism that regulated the expression ratio of PACAP to PRP in nonmammalian vertebrates. By real-time PCR, both long and short PRP/PACAP transcripts were found almost exclusively in the brain, and the short isoform is the more abundant transcript (3.7 times more), indicating that PACAP is the major product produced in lungfish brain. The expression patterns of lungfish and previously studied frog PRP/PACAP suggest that the PRP/PACAP gene in the tetrapod lineage may first express in the central nervous system; in the process of evolution, the functions of these peptides diversified and were later found in other tissues. PMID:19456341

  1. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs and distribution of the mRNAs encoding two somatostatin precursors in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Trabucchi, M; Tostivint, H; Lihrmann, I; Jégou, S; Vallarino, M; Vaudry, H

    1999-08-01

    The occurrence of two somatostatin precursors, PSS1 and PSS2, yielding S-14 (SS1) and the variant [Pro2, Met13]S-14 (SS2), has been recently reported in the frog Rana ridibunda. The evolutionary significance of frog PSS2 is unclear because its sequence exhibits very little similarity with other known vertebrate somatostatin precursors. In the present study, we report on the characterization of two somatostatin precursor cDNAs from the brain of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. One of the cDNAs encodes a 115-amino-acid protein that contains the SS1 sequence at its C-terminal extremity and thus is clearly homologous to PSS1. Comparison with other vertebrate PSS1 showed that lungfish PSS1 is more closely related to PSS1 from tetrapods than to PSS1 from fish. The other cDNA encodes a 109-amino-acid protein that contains a somatostatin variant [Pro2]S-14 at its C-terminal extremity. Sequence analysis of this second precursor indicated that it is the lungfish counterpart of frog PSS2. Northern blot analysis showed that lungfish PSS1 mRNA is widely distributed in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs, including the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, PSS2 mRNA was primarily found in the central nervous system but not in the pancreas or gut. In situ hybridization studies showed that the two genes are differentially expressed in various regions of the lungfish brain. The present data indicate that the PSS2 gene, initially discovered in frog, appeared early in vertebrate evolution, before the emergence of the tetrapod lineage. The recent isolation of a [Pro2]S-14 variant in the sturgeon, whose sequence is identical to that of lungfish SS2, suggests that the PSS2 gene may actually be present in the genome of all Osteichthyii.

  2. The gut of the juvenile African lungfish Protopterus annectens: a light and scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Wong, Wai P; Colvee, Elvira; Garofalo, Filippo; Loong, Ai M; Ip, Yuen K

    2011-07-01

    We describe the microstructure of the alimentary canal of the juvenile lungfish Protopterus annectens. Following the oesophagus, the gut is formed by a long segment that extends down to the pyloric valve. This segment, classically named stomach, is lined by a transitional epithelium but lacks all characteristics of the vertebrate stomach. It has been defined here as the intestinal vestibule. The spiral valve is divided into a first large chamber, which contains mucosal ridges, and a second smooth portion. The entire spiral valve is lined with a pseudostratified columnar epithelium that contains approximately six cell types: enterocytes, goblet cells, ciliated cells, leukocytes, dark pigment cells, and vascular cells. Enterocytes and goblet cells show a high number of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The number and size of the vacuoles, and the number of ciliated cells, decreases from the anterior toward the posterior end, suggesting that most of the digestive processes take place in the anterior part of the spiral valve. The epithelium overlies a lamina propria in the first large chamber and a vascular plexus in the smooth portion. The cloaca has a thick muscular wall covered by a transitional epithelium. An extensive lymphatic system formed by capillaries and lymphatic micropumps is present along the entire wall of the alimentary canal.

  3. Blood gases and cardiovascular shunt in the South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) during normoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Mirian; Giusti, Humberto; da Silva, Glauber S; Amin-Naves, Jalile; Glass, Mogens L

    2010-08-31

    The South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) has an arterial P(O(2)) (Pa(O(2))) as high as 70-100 mmHg, corresponding to Hb-O(2) saturations from 90% to 95%, which indicates a moderate cardiovascular right to left (R-L) shunt. In hyperoxia (50% O(2)), we studied animals in: (1) aerated water combined with aerial hyperoxia, which increased Pa(O(2)) from 78+/-2 to 114+/-3 mmHg and (2) and aquatic hyperoxia (50% O(2)) combined room air, which gradually increased Pa(O(2)) from 75+/-4 mmHg to as much as 146+/-10 mmHg. Further, the hyperoxia (50%) depressed pulmonary ventilation from 58+/-13 to 5.5+/-3.0 mLBTPSkgh(-1), and Pa(CO(2)) increased from 20+/-2 to 31+/-4 mmHg, while pHa became reduced from 7.56+/-0.03 to 7.31+/-0.09. At the same time, venous P(O(2)) (Pv(O(2))) rose from 40.0+/-2.3 to 46.4+/-1.2 mmHg and, concomitantly, Pv(CO(2)) increased from 23.2+/-1.1 to 32.2+/-0.5 mmHg. R-L shunts were estimated to about 19%, which is moderate when compared to most amphibians.

  4. The alimentary canal of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens during aestivation and after arousal.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Loong, Ai M; Colvee, Elvira; Wong, Wai P; Ip, Yuen K

    2012-01-01

    We describe the structural modifications that occur in the alimentary canal of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens during aestivation and after arousal. With fasting, all gut segments undergo structural modifications. The epithelium covering the intestinal vestibule undergoes bursts of activation at 4 months of aestivation, adopting a more quiescent appearance at 6 months. The ridge area of the spiral intestine shows, at 4 months of aestivation, epithelial disintegration, cell desquamation, cell death, and loss of the freshwater phenotype. Surprisingly, the epithelium adopts a stratified appearance at 6 months of aestivation. Except for epithelial disintegration, the smooth portion of the spiral intestine follows a similar pattern of modifications than the ridge area. The entire epithelium of spiral intestine appears to be renewed during aestivation. The presence of intraepithelial mast cells suggests that inflammation is part of the cellular response to aestivation. After arousal, cell phenotypes are restored in about 6 days, but full structural recovery is not attained during the experimental period (15 days post-aestivation). Several aspects of the cellular response to fasting are shared by a wide range of animal groups. This commonality agrees with the presence of a character that allows to adjust the structural and functional properties of the gut to food availability and food quality, and to the characteristics of the fasting episodes.

  5. Proteomics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1) cultured under conditions mimicking the cystic fibrosis lung reveals increased iron acquisition via the siderophore pyochelin.

    PubMed

    Hare, Nathan J; Soe, Cho Zin; Rose, Barbara; Harbour, Colin; Codd, Rachel; Manos, Jim; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2012-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While most CF patients are thought to acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment, person-to-person transmissible strains have been identified in CF clinics worldwide, and the molecular basis for transmissibility remains poorly understood. We undertook a complementary proteomics approach to characterize protein profiles from a transmissible, acute isolate of the Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1R), the virulent burns/wound isolate PA14, and the poorly virulent, laboratory-associated strain PAO1 when grown in an artificial medium that mimics the CF lung environment compared to growth in standard laboratory medium. Proteins elevated in abundance in AES-1R included those involved in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and in the synthesis of phenazines. Proteomic data were validated by measuring culture supernatant levels of the virulence factor pyocyanin, which is the final product of the phenazine pathway. AES-1R and PAO1 released higher extracellular levels of pyocyanin compared to PA14 when grown in conditions that mimic the CF lung. Proteins associated with biosynthesis of the iron-scavenging siderophore pyochelin (PchDEFGH and FptA) were also present at elevated abundance in AES-1R and at much higher levels than in PAO1, whereas they were reduced in PA14. These protein changes resulted phenotypically in increased extracellular iron acquisition potential and, specifically, elevated pyochelin levels in AES-1R culture supernatants as detected by chrome azurol-S assay and fluorometry, respectively. Transcript analysis of pyochelin genes (pchDFG and fptA) showed they were highly expressed during the early stage of growth in artificial sputum medium (18 h) but returned to basal levels following the establishment of microcolony growth (72 h) consistent with that observed in the CF lung. This provides further

  6. Anti-viral immune responses in a primitive lung: characterization and expression analysis of interferon-inducible immunoproteasome subunits LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 in a sarcopterygian fish, the Nigerian spotted lungfish (Protopterus dolloi).

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Misra, Milind; Salinas, Irene

    2013-12-01

    Lungfishes (Dipnoi) represent the closest ancestor of tetrapods. Dipnoi have dual breathing modes extracting oxygen from water and air. The primitive lungs of lungfishes are exposed to external antigens including viruses. To date, the immune response of lungfishes against viruses has not been investigated. During viral immune responses, cell exposure to type I interferon induces the replacement of the constitutive proteasome with LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 beta subunits forming the immunoproteasome and enhancing antigen presentation to MHC class I molecules. In order to study the immune defense system of the lungfish lung, we have characterized for the first time the three immunoproteasome subunits in the sarcopterygian fish, the Nigerian spotted lungfish (Protopterus dolloi). LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 were identified in P. dolloi and their sequences encoded predicted proteins of 216, 275 and 278 amino acids, respectively. The mRNA of these three genes was expressed in multiple tissues, including the lung, with the highest abundance observed in kidney and post-pyloric spleen. In vitro stimulation of lungfish lung and kidney primary cell cultures with PolyI:C for 4 and 12 h resulted in increased LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 expression in both tissues. These results suggest a central role of these genes in the activation of an antiviral immune response in lungfish. Importantly, they indicate that the primitive lung of the common ancestor of all tetrapods is capable of inducing the expression of these genes in response to viral stimulation.

  7. Anti-viral immune responses in a primitive lung: characterization and expression analysis of interferon-inducible immunoproteasome subunits LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 in a sarcopterygian fish, the Nigerian spotted lungfish (Protopterus dolloi)

    PubMed Central

    Tacchi, Luca; Misra, Milind; Salinas, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Lungfishes (Dipnoi) represent the closest ancestor of tetrapods. Dipnoi have dual breathing modes extracting oxygen from water and air. The primitive lungs of lungfishes are exposed to external antigens including viruses. To date, the immune response of lungfishes against viruses has not been investigated. During viral immune responses, cell exposure to type I interferon induces the replacement of the constitutive proteasome with LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 beta subunits forming the immunoproteasome and enhancing antigen presentation to MHC class I molecules. In order to study the immune defense system of the lungfish lung, we have characterized for the first time the three immunoproteasome subunits in the sarcopterygian fish, the Nigerian spotted lungfish (Protopterus dolloi). LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 were identified in P. dolloi and their sequences encoded predicted proteins of 216, 275 and 278 amino acids, respectively. The mRNA of these three genes was expressed in multiple tissues, including the lung, with the highest abundance observed in kidney and post-pyloric spleen. In vitro stimulation of lungfish lung and kidney primary cell cultures with PolyI:C for 4 and 12 h resulted in increased LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1 expression in both tissues. These results suggest a central role of these genes in the activation of an antiviral immune response in lungfish. Importantly, they indicate that the primitive lung of the common ancestor of all tetrapods is capable of inducing the expression of these genes in response to viral stimulation. PMID:23932981

  8. Revealing Future Research Capacity from an Analysis of a National Database of Discipline-Coded Australian PhD Thesis Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittayachawan, Siddhi; Macauley, Peter; Evans, Terry

    2016-01-01

    This article reports how statistical analyses of PhD thesis records can reveal future research capacities for disciplines beyond their primary fields. The previous research showed that most theses contributed to and/or used methodologies from more than one discipline. In Australia, there was a concern for declining mathematical teaching and…

  9. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  10. Lympho-granulocytic tissue associated with the wall of the spiral valve in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Wong, Wai P; Colvee, Elvira; Loong, Ai M; Zapata, Agustín G; Ip, Yuen K

    2014-02-01

    We describe the structure of the lympho-granulocytic tissue associated with the wall of the spiral valve of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. The study was performed under freshwater conditions and after 6 months of aestivation. The lympho-granulocytic tissue consists of nodes surrounded by reticular tissue. The nodes are formed by an outer and an inner component separated by a thin collagenous layer. The outer component is a reticular-like tissue that contains two types of granulocytes, developing and mature plasma cells and melanomacrophage centres (MMCs). The inner component, the parenchyma, contains a meshwork of trabeculae and vascular sinusoids and shows dark and pale areas. The dark areas contain diffuse lymphoid tissue, with a large number of mitoses and plasma cell clusters. The pale areas contain a small number of macrophages and lymphocytes. Macrophages and sinus endothelial cells are filled with haemosiderin granules and appear to form part of the reticuloendothelial system of the lungfish. The reticular tissue houses granulocytes, plasma cells and MMCs and might serve for the housing and maturation of cells of the white series. After aestivation, the nodes undergo lymphocyte depletion, the suppression of mitosis, granulocyte invasion and the occurrence of cell death. By contrast, few histological changes occur in the reticular tissue. Whereas the nodes appear to be involved in lymphocyte proliferation and plasma cell maturation, the function of the reticular tissue remains obscure.

  11. Functional subdivision of fin protractor and retractor muscles underlies pelvic fin walking in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Brett R; King, Heather M; Hale, Melina E

    2014-10-01

    African lungfish Protopterus annectens can produce rotational movements around the joint between the pelvis and the pelvic fin, allowing these animals to walk across benthic substrates. In tetrapods, limb rotation at the hip joint is a common feature of substrate-based locomotion. For sprawling tetrapods, rotation can involve nine or more muscles, which are often robust and span multiple joints. In contrast, P. annectens uses a modest morphology of two fan-shaped muscles, the pelvic fin protractor and retractor, to accomplish this movement. We hypothesized that functional subdivision, coupled with their broad insertions on the femur, allows each of these muscles to pull on the limb from multiple directions and provides a mechanism for fin rotation. To test this hypothesis, we examined the muscle activity at three locations in both the protractor and the retractor muscles during walking. Electromyograms show differences in the timing of muscle activation between dorsal and ventral regions of each muscle, suggesting that each muscle is functionally subdivided once. The subdivisions demonstrate sequential onsets of muscle activity and overlap of activity between regions, which are also features of limb control in tetrapods. These data indicate that subdivisions of protractor and retractor muscles impart functional complexity to a morphologically simple system, and suggest a mechanism that allows lungfish to produce a tetrapod-like walking gait with only two muscles. As one of few extant sarcopterygian fishes, P. annectens may provide important functional data to inform interpretation of limb movement of fossil relatives.

  12. Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2012-02-01

    Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a cladogram (branches or entire clades) that are characterized by significantly high or low rates of change. These methods include a randomization approach that identifies branches with significantly high rates and likelihood ratio tests that pinpoint either branches or clades that have significantly higher or lower rates than the pooled rate of the remainder of the tree. As a test case for these methods, we analyze a discrete character dataset of lungfish, which have long been regarded as "living fossils" due to an apparent slowdown in rates since the Devonian. We find that morphological rates are highly heterogeneous across the phylogeny and recover a general pattern of decreasing rates along the phylogenetic backbone toward living taxa, from the Devonian until the present. Compared with previous work, we are able to report a more nuanced picture of lungfish evolution using these new methods.

  13. Discovery of J chain in African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi, Sarcopterygii) using high throughput transcriptome sequencing: implications in mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin; Salinas, Irene

    2013-01-01

    J chain is a small polypeptide responsible for immunoglobulin (Ig) polymerization and transport of Igs across mucosal surfaces in higher vertebrates. We identified a J chain in dipnoid fish, the African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) by high throughput sequencing of the transcriptome. P. dolloi J chain is 161 aa long and contains six of the eight Cys residues present in mammalian J chain. Phylogenetic studies place the lungfish J chain closer to tetrapod J chain than to the coelacanth or nurse shark sequences. J chain expression occurs in all P. dolloi immune tissues examined and it increases in the gut and kidney in response to an experimental bacterial infection. Double fluorescent in-situ hybridization shows that 88.5% of IgM⁺ cells in the gut co-express J chain, a significantly higher percentage than in the pre-pyloric spleen. Importantly, J chain expression is not restricted to the B-cell compartment since gut epithelial cells also express J chain. These results improve our current view of J chain from a phylogenetic perspective.

  14. Discovery of J Chain in African Lungfish (Protopterus dolloi, Sarcopterygii) Using High Throughput Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications in Mucosal Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin; Salinas, Irene

    2013-01-01

    J chain is a small polypeptide responsible for immunoglobulin (Ig) polymerization and transport of Igs across mucosal surfaces in higher vertebrates. We identified a J chain in dipnoid fish, the African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) by high throughput sequencing of the transcriptome. P. dolloi J chain is 161 aa long and contains six of the eight Cys residues present in mammalian J chain. Phylogenetic studies place the lungfish J chain closer to tetrapod J chain than to the coelacanth or nurse shark sequences. J chain expression occurs in all P. dolloi immune tissues examined and it increases in the gut and kidney in response to an experimental bacterial infection. Double fluorescent in-situ hybridization shows that 88.5% of IgM+ cells in the gut co-express J chain, a significantly higher percentage than in the pre-pyloric spleen. Importantly, J chain expression is not restricted to the B-cell compartment since gut epithelial cells also express J chain. These results improve our current view of J chain from a phylogenetic perspective. PMID:23967082

  15. Vasotocin/V2-type receptor/aquaporin axis exists in African lungfish kidney but is functional only in terrestrial condition.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2010-03-01

    The vasopressin/vasotocin (VT)-V2-type receptor (V2R)-aquaporin (AQP)-2 axis plays a pivotal role in renal water reabsorption in tetrapods. It is widely thought that this axis evolved with the emergence of the tetrapods, reflecting a requirement of water retention in terrestrial environment. Here we report that lungfish, the closest living relatives of tetrapods, already possess a system similar to the VT-V2R-AQP2 axis in the kidney, but the system is functional only in the terrestrial estivating condition. We cloned a novel AQP paralogous to AQP0. The water permeability of Xenopus oocytes was increased by injection with the AQP cRNA and was further facilitated by preincubation with cAMP. In the kidney of estivating lungfish, the AQP protein was localized on the apical plasma membrane of the late distal tubule and was colocalized with basolateral V2R. By contrast, we found only little expression of the AQP mRNA and protein in the kidney of lungfish in aquatic condition. The expression levels of mRNA and protein were dramatically increased during estivation and decreased again by reacclimation of estivating lungfish to water. The AQP mRNA levels positively correlated with the VT mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the AQP exerts tubular antidiuretic action under control of VT. Because the tetrapod AQP2/AQP5 lineage is considered to be evolved from duplication of an AQP0 gene, the paralogous AQP0 in the lungfish probably represents ancestral molecule for tetrapod AQP2.

  16. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in myocytes and chromaffin cells of the heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T H; Helle, K B; Saetersdal, T

    1994-07-01

    The heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, was examined for immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) as markers for hormone secreting myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively. Specific antibodies raised against rat alpha-ANP and rat D beta H were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. D beta H-immunoreactive cells were restricted to subendocardial areas of the atrium whereas ANP immunoreactivity occurred throughout both the atrial and the ventricular myocardium, showing particularly strong staining intensity in the atrial myocytes. The granular ANP immunostaining in the atrial myocytes was frequently accumulated in the sarcoplasm. In the ventricular myocytes ANP immunoreactivity occurred as scattered granular staining throughout the sarcoplasm. ANP and D beta H immunofluorescence staining coincided with the presence of immunoreactive specific granules and secretory vesicles in the cardiac myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively, as revealed by electron microscopy. The number of ANP-containing specific granules was generally high in the atrial myocytes, and they were frequently observed in clusters in subsarcolemmal areas. Granular frequency was considerably lower and the mean granular diameter was smaller (0.142 +/- 0.045 micron versus 0.213 +/- 0.049 micron) in the ventricular than in the atrial myocytes. The present results indicate that ANP and D beta H are phylogenetically highly conserved proteins from the dipnoi to the rat. The large amounts of ANP and of specific granules are consistent with an endocrine myocardium in the Protopterus heart. The presence of D beta H and secretory vesicles in the subendocardial chromaffin cells of the atrium suggests a local production of catecholamines from dopamine in the heart of this dipnoan. PMID:7926645

  17. Expectations about Development in Greek- and Anglo-Australian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Doreen; Bornholt, Laurel

    1988-01-01

    Examination of the child development beliefs of 40 families reveals that Greek-Australians regard behaviors reflecting initiative and independence, personal maturity, and interpersonal sensitivity to be appropriate at a later age than do Anglo-Australians, but the converse holds true for respect, self-control, and unsupervised activities. Parents'…

  18. Ornithine-urea cycle and urea synthesis in African lungfishes, Protopterus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens, exposed to terrestrial conditions for six days.

    PubMed

    Loong, Ai May; Hiong, Kum Chew; Lee, Serene Min Lin; Wong, Wai Peng; Chew, Shit Fun; Ip, Yuen Kwong

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the type of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) present, and the compartmentalization of arginase, in the livers of the African lungfishes, Protopterus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens, and (2) to elucidate if these two lungfishes were capable of increasing the rates of urea synthesis and capacities of the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) during 6 days of aerial exposure without undergoing aestivation. Like another African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, reported elsewhere, the CPS activities from the livers of P. aethiopicus and P. annectens had properties similar to that of the marine ray (Taeniura lymma), but dissimilar to that of the mouse (Mus musculus). Hence, they possessed CPS III, and not CPS I as reported previously. CPS III was present exclusively in the liver mitochondria of both lungfishes, but the majority of the arginase activities were present in the cytosolic fractions of their livers. Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was also detected in the hepatic mitochondria of both specimens. Therefore, our results suggest that the evolution of CPS III to CPS I might not have occurred before the evolution of extant lungfishes as suggested previously, prompting an examination of the current view on the evolution of CPS and OUC in vertebrates. Aerial exposure led to significant decreases in rates of ammonia excretion in P. aethiopicus and P. annectens, but there were no accumulations of ammonia in their tissues. However, urea contents in their tissues increased significantly after 6 days of aerial exposure. The estimated rates of urea synthesis in P. aethiopicus and P. annectens increased 1.2- and 1.47-fold, respectively, which were smaller than that in P. dolloi (8.6-fold) reported elsewhere. In addition, unlike P. dolloi, 6 days of aerial exposure had no significant effects on the hepatic CPS III activities of P. aethiopicus and P. annectens. In contrast, aerial exposure induced relatively greater degrees of

  19. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  20. Hearing loss in Australian divers.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C; Freeman, P

    1985-11-11

    Permanent hearing loss of the sensorineural type has been demonstrated to be an occupational hazard of professional SCUBA divers. An audiometric survey was performed on a group of professional abalone divers, all of whom had experienced excessive exposure to dysbaric conditions. The results of this survey revealed that, even allowing for the very liberal requirements of the Australian Standard for divers, over 60% had unacceptable sensorineural, high frequency deafness. In half these cases deafness was unilateral, and in half bilateral. Making allowance for age, two-thirds had hearing loss to a degree which is compensable, according to the method of the National Acoustic Laboratories (1974) for determining proportional loss of hearing.

  1. Urea synthesis in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi--hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III and glutamine synthetase are upregulated by 6 days of aerial exposure.

    PubMed

    Chew, Shit F; Ong, Tan F; Ho, Lilian; Tam, Wai L; Loong, Ai M; Hiong, Kum C; Wong, Wai P; Ip, Yuen K

    2003-10-01

    Like the marine ray Taeniura lymma, the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi possesses carbamoyl phosphate III (CPS III) in the liver and not carbamoyl phosphate I (CPS I), as in the mouse Mus musculus or as in other African lungfish reported elsewhere. However, similar to other African lungfish and tetrapods, hepatic arginase of P. dolloi is present mainly in the cytosol. Glutamine synthetase activity is present in both the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of the liver of P. dolloi. Therefore, we conclude that P. dolloi is a more primitive extant lungfish, which is intermediate between aquatic fish and terrestrial tetrapods, and represents a link in the fish-tetrapod continuum. During 6 days of aerial exposure, the ammonia excretion rate in P. dolloi decreased significantly to 8-16% of the submerged control. However, there were no significant increases in ammonia contents in the muscle, liver or plasma of specimens exposed to air for 6 days. These results suggest that (1). endogenous ammonia production was drastically reduced and (2). endogenous ammonia was detoxified effectively into urea. Indeed, there were significant decreases in glutamate, glutamine and lysine levels in the livers of fish exposed to air, which led to a decrease in the total free amino acid content. This indirectly confirms that the specimen had reduced its rates of proteolysis and/or amino acid catabolism to suppress endogenous ammonia production. Simultaneously, there were significant increases in urea levels in the muscle (8-fold), liver (10.5-fold) and plasma (12.6-fold) of specimens exposed to air for 6 days. Furthermore, there was an increase in the hepatic ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) capacity, with significant increases in the activities of CPS III (3.8-fold), argininosuccinate synthetase + lyase (1.8-fold) and, more importantly, glutamine synthetase (2.2-fold). This is the first report on the upregulation of OUC capacity and urea synthesis rate in an African lungfish exposed to air

  2. Cloning of proopiomelanocortin from the brain of the african lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and the brain of the western spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicatus.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Lecaude, S; Danielson, P; Sollars, C; Alrubaian, J; Propper, C R; Lihrmann, I; Vaudry, H; Dores, R M

    1999-07-01

    A degenerate primer, specific for the opioid core sequence YGGFM, was used to clone and sequence proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNAs from the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and from the brain of the western spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicatus. In addition, the opioid-specific primer was used to clone and sequence a 3'RACE product corresponding to a portion of the open reading frame of S. multiplicatus proenkephalin. For both species, cDNA was made from a single brain and a degenerate opioid-specific primer provided a reliable probe for detecting opioid-related cDNAs. The African lungfish POMC cDNA was 1,168 nucleotides in length, and contained regions that are similar to tetrapod POMCs and fish POMCs. The African lungfish POMC encodes a tetrapod-like gamma-MSH sequence that is flanked by sets of paired basic amino acid proteolytic cleavage sites. The gamma-MSH region in ray-finned fish POMCs either has degenerate cleavage sites or is totally absent in some species. However, the African lungfish gamma-MSH sequence does contain a deletion which has not been observed in tetrapod gamma-MSH sequences. The beta-endorphin region of lungfish POMC has the di-amino acid sequence tryptophan-aspartic acid in the N-terminal region and an additional glutamic acid residue in the C-terminal region of beta-endorphin - features found in fish beta-endorphin, but not tetrapod beta-endorphins. The western spadefoot toad POMC was 1,186 nucleotides in length, and exhibited an organizational scheme typical for tetrapod POMCs. However, the toad POMC did lack a paired basic amino acid proteolytic cleavage site N-terminal to the beta-MSH sequence. Thus, like rat POMC, it is doubtful that beta-MSH is an end product in either the toad brain or intermediate pituitary. At the amino acid level, the toad POMC had 76% sequence identity with Xenopus laevis POMC and 68% sequence identity with Rana ribidunda POMC. The use of these POMC sequences to assess phylogenetic relationships

  3. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  4. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  5. Osmoregulation during Long-Term Fasting in Lungfish and Elephant Seal: Old and New Lessons for the Nephrologist.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates control the osmolality of their extra- and intra-cellular compartments despite large variations in salt and water intake. Aldosterone-dependent sodium reabsorption and vasopressin-dependent water transport in the distal nephron and collecting duct play a critical role in the final control of sodium and water balance. Long-term fasting (no eating, no drinking) represents an osmotic challenge for survival. Evolution has found very different solutions to meet this challenge. To illustrate this point, I will discuss osmoregulation of a mammal (elephant seal pup) and of a fish (lungfish) that are able to survive long-term fasting for months or even years. Homer W. Smith taught us how informative comparative anatomy and physiology of the kidney could help physiologists and nephrologists to better understand how the kidney works. In recent years, comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics across the tree of life have led to the emergence of a new discipline, evolutionary medicine. In the near future, physiologists and nephrologists will benefit from this new field of investigation, thanks to its potential for the identification of novel drug targets and therapies.

  6. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 days of estivation in air.

    PubMed

    Loong, A M; Hiong, K C; Wong, W P; Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to identify estivation-specific gene clusters through the determination of differential gene expressions in the liver of Protopterus annectens after 6 days of estivation in a mucus cocoon in air (normoxia) using suppression subtractive hybridization polymerase chain reaction. Our results demonstrated that 6 days of estivation in normoxia led to up-regulation of mRNA expressions of several genes related to urea synthesis, including carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (Cps), argininosuccinate synthetase and glutamine synthetase. They indicate that increased urea synthesis, despite being energy-intensive, is an important adaptive response of estivation. They also offer indirect support to the proposition that urea synthesis in this lungfish involved a Cps that uses glutamine as a substrate. In addition, up- or down-regulation of several gene clusters occurred in the liver of P. annectens after 6 days of estivation in normoxia. These estivation-specific genes were involved in the prevention of clot formation, activation of the lectin pathway for complement activation, conservation of minerals (e.g. iron and copper) and increased production of hemoglobin beta. Since there were up- and down-regulation of mRNA expressions of genes related to ribosomal proteins and translational elongation factors, there could be simultaneous increases in protein degradation and protein synthesis during the first 6 days (the induction phase) of estivation, confirming the importance of reconstruction of protein structures in preparation for the maintenance phase of estivation.

  7. Osmoregulation during Long-Term Fasting in Lungfish and Elephant Seal: Old and New Lessons for the Nephrologist.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates control the osmolality of their extra- and intra-cellular compartments despite large variations in salt and water intake. Aldosterone-dependent sodium reabsorption and vasopressin-dependent water transport in the distal nephron and collecting duct play a critical role in the final control of sodium and water balance. Long-term fasting (no eating, no drinking) represents an osmotic challenge for survival. Evolution has found very different solutions to meet this challenge. To illustrate this point, I will discuss osmoregulation of a mammal (elephant seal pup) and of a fish (lungfish) that are able to survive long-term fasting for months or even years. Homer W. Smith taught us how informative comparative anatomy and physiology of the kidney could help physiologists and nephrologists to better understand how the kidney works. In recent years, comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics across the tree of life have led to the emergence of a new discipline, evolutionary medicine. In the near future, physiologists and nephrologists will benefit from this new field of investigation, thanks to its potential for the identification of novel drug targets and therapies. PMID:26901864

  8. The morphology of the lung of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus : A scanning electron-microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Maina, J N

    1987-10-01

    The lung of the African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) is paired, long and cylindrical. It is situated on the dorsal aspect of the coelomic cavity ventral to the ribs. Much of the gas exchange tissue is found in the proximal aspect of the lung with the caudal part largely taken up by a centrally situated air-duct with a few large peripherally located alveoli. Interalveolar septa, arranged at differing hierarchical levels from the air-duct, subdivide the lung into alveoli, the gas exchange compartments. The alveolar surface is covered by some cells characterized by microvilli on their free surface, while others are devoid of such structures. The general organization of the lung of Protopterus aethiopicus is similar to that of the other genera of Dipnoi, Neoceratodus and Lepidosiren, with the interalveolar septa increasing the surface area for gas exchange through pulmonary compartmentation. The abundant septal smooth muscle fibres and elastic tissue may contribute to the physiomechanical compliance of the lung. The undifferentiated alveolar pneumocytes and the double capillary system, observed in Protopterus, in general appear to characterize the very primitive lungs of the lower air-breathing vertebrates. PMID:21253769

  9. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  10. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  11. Australian Public and Smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Reinhold; Saunders, Vicki; Speare, Rick; Lowe, John B.

    2005-01-01

    A national survey of 1,001 Australians found that most were concerned about a bioterrorist attack and were ill-informed about smallpox prevention and response. Since general practitioners were commonly identified as the initial point of care, they should become a focus of bioterrorism response planning in Australia. PMID:16318729

  12. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants of Apprentice Training by Small and…

  13. Religion in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavor, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Explains the various instructional approaches taken to religious education in Australia. Examines how church agencies throughout Australia's history have influenced these approaches. States that sectarianism affected religious instruction. Summarizes current patterns and trends in religious education in six Australian states, pointing out that…

  14. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  15. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  16. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  17. Signal molecule changes in the gills and lungs of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, during the maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, F; Amelio, D; Icardo, J M; Chew, S F; Tota, B; Cerra, M C; Ip, Y K

    2015-01-30

    African lungfishes are obligate air breathers, with reduced gills and pulmonary breathing throughout their life. During the dry season they aestivate on land, with the collapse of secondary lamellae of their gills and the establishment of an exclusive aerial ventilation through the vascularization and expansion of their lungs. To date, the mechanisms underlining the respiratory organ remodeling in aestivating lungfishes are unknown. This study aimed to identify key switch components of the stress-induced signal transduction networks implicated in both rapid and medium-long term remodeling of the gills and lungs of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens during aestivation. Through immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting, the localization and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Akt, Hsp-90 and HIF-1α were evaluated in both gills and lungs exposed to three experimental conditions: freshwater (FW), 6 months of experimentally induced aestivation (6mAe), and 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation (6mAe6d). After 6mAe, the expression of NOS (p-eNOS antibody), Akt (p-Akt antibody), and Hsp-90 decreased in the gills, while NOS and Hsp-90 expression increased with Akt remained unchanged in the lungs. Upon 6mAe6d, NOS, Akt and Hsp-90 expression in the gills returned to the respective FW values. In the lungs of the aroused fish, NOS and Akt decreased to their respective FW levels, while Hsp-90 expression was enhanced with respect to aestivation. In both respiratory organs, the qualitative and quantitative patterns of HIF-1α expression correlated inversely to those of NOS. Overall, our findings suggest that the molecular components of the NOS/NO system changed in a tissue-specific manner in parallel with organ readjustment in the gills and lungs of P. annectens during aestivation and arousal.

  18. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian Diplodactylus stenodactylus (Gekkota; Reptilia) species-group based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes reveals an ancient split between Pilbara and non-Pilbara D. stenodactylus.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Mitzy; Doughty, Paul; Keogh, J Scott

    2006-12-01

    There is a paucity of research on intra-specific morphological and genetic diversity in Australian arid-zone reptiles, and a number of Australian reptile species have for many years been regarded as "species complexes" that classical morphological analyses could not resolve. We conducted a phylogenetic and phylogeographic study of a widespread species group of Australian geckonid lizards to address two main aims. First, based on a large mitochondrial and nuclear gene data set, we have generated the first molecular phylogeny for the Diplodactylus stenodactylus species group (D. alboguttatus, D. damaeus, D. maini, and D. squarrosus, D. stenodactylus) and multiple outgroups to examine the evolutionary relationships among these arid-zone species and phylogenetic patterns within some species. The edited alignment of 41 individuals comprises 2485 characters (1163 ND2+tRNAs; 490 16s; 832 RAG-1), and of these 717 (29%) were variable and parsimony informative (568 ND2+tRNAs; 89 16s; 60 RAG-1). This broad-scale, multi-gene phylogeny has supported previous conjectures on the higher-level phylogenetic relationships among members of the D. stenodactylus species-group based on morphology, but also has uncovered hidden diversity within the group with two new species identified. Analysis at this broad level has identified patterns associated with the distribution of the D. stenodactylus species group that appear to be influenced by environmental processes operating at large geographic scales. Two major clades within the species group were associated with broad differences in habitat types, with one group largely restricted to the temperate zone of the Southwest Province and another largely restricted to central and northern Western Australia north of Kalgoorlie, in line with the Eremaean Province of the Eremaean Zone and the Northern Province of the Tropical Zone. Second, we have assembled phylogeographic data based on a mitochondrial gene (ND2+tRNAs) for five species

  19. Defense against environmental ammonia toxicity in the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus: Bimodal breathing, skin ammonia permeability and urea synthesis.

    PubMed

    Loong, A M; Tan, J Y L; Wong, W P; Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2007-11-15

    This study aimed to determine how the African lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus defended against ammonia toxicity when confronted with high concentrations (30 or 100 mmoll(-1)) of environmental ammonia. Exposure to 100 mmoll(-1) of NH(4)Cl for 1 or 6 days had no significant effect on the rate of O(2) uptake from water or from air, and the rate of total O(2) consumption. Using an Ussing-like apparatus, we report for the first time that the skin of P. aethiopicus had low permeability (1.26 x 10(-4) micromol min(-1)cm(-1)) to NH(3)in vitro. Indeed, the influx of exogenous ammonia into fish exposed to 30 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl was low (0.117 micromol min(-1) 100g(-1) fish). As a result, P. aethiopicus could afford to maintain relatively low ammonia contents in plasma, muscle, liver and brain even after 6 days of exposure to 100 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl. Surprisingly, fish exposed to 30 or 100 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl had comparable ammonia contents in the muscle and the brain in spite of the big difference (70 mmoll(-1)) in environmental ammonia concentrations. Significant increases in urea contents occurred in various tissues of fish exposed to 30 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl for 6 days, but there were no significant differences in tissue urea contents between fish exposed to 30 mmoll(-1) and 100 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl. Between days 3 and 6, the rate of urea excretion in fish exposed to 30 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl was significantly greater than that of the control. By contrast, there was no significant difference in urea excretion rates between fish exposed to 100 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl and control fish throughout the 6-day period, and such a phenomenon has not been reported before for other lungfish species. Thus, our results suggest that P. aethiopicus was capable of decreasing the NH(3) permeability of its body surface when exposed to high concentrations of environmental ammonia. Indeed, after 6 days of exposure to 100 mmoll(-1) NH(4)Cl, the NH(3) permeability constant of the skin (0.55 x 10(-4) micromol min(-1

  20. Neuroepithelial endocrine cells in the lung of the lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus. An electron- and fluorescence-microscopical investigation.

    PubMed

    Adriaensen, D; Scheuermann, D W; Timmermans, J P; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of neuroepithelial endocrine (NEE) cells was demonstrated electron- and fluorescence-microscopically in the lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus. They were only found to occur solitarily in the basal part of the cilio-mucous epithelium which is restricted to the pneumatic duct and adjacent parts of the common anterior chamber. The NEE cells show a yellow, formaldehyde-induced fluorescence. Electron-microscopically, all the NEE cells are characterized by membrane-bound electron-dense secretory granules with varying diameters, ranging from 75 to 150 nm. These granules are distributed throughout the cytoplasm with a higher concentration in the basal region. The NEE cells were regularly found to contain paracrystalline inclusions with a tubule-like substructural arrangement. A small part of the NEE cells appeared to reach the luminal surface by means of a long slender process bearing specialized beaded microvilli on its apical pole. Intraepithelial nerve fibres, with the ultrastructural characteristics of afferent fibres, were found running parallel to the airway surface. Nerve profiles, largely resembling the latter, can be seen in the proximity of the basolateral plasma membrane of the NEE cells. In addition, nerve terminals containing an aggregation of small clear vesicles are in close contact with the NEE cells. In conclusion, it appears that, as has so far been assumed in higher vertebrates, the NEE cells in the lung of Protopterus may perceive changes in the airway gases whereupon they could respond by releasing a chemical modulator, influencing contacting afferent nerve terminals or nearby smooth muscle bundles. Furthermore, intraepithelial nerve fibres or NEE cells might be stretch-sensitive. PMID:2288194

  1. Huntington disease in indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F

    2008-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828

  2. Support for gay men: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Copolov, Carly; Knowles, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Recently, research in the U.S.A. has shown that women, and young people in particular, have become increasingly supportive of gay men. The current study used a cross-sectional, correlational design to investigate these same issues in Australia. The sample included 575 heterosexual participants, 184 men and 390 women. Because a literature search failed to identify an Australian measure of support for gay men, a Support for Gay Men Scale was developed by the researchers. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate whether scores on the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality and the respondents' sex predicted scores on the Support for Gay Men subscales, and the strength of these relationships. Findings reveal that this relatively young university undergraduate Australian sample indicated they strongly supported gay men.

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  4. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  5. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

  6. New Directions in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, G. W.; And Others

    This book consists of 16 selected papers that focus on the broad topic of new trends in Australian education. All the papers were originally presented at the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education, which was held in May 1976. Titles of the papers include "Perspectives on Recent Changes in Australian…

  7. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality.

  8. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  9. Substructure within Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolates from Australian Wildlife▿

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Sandra K.; Bull, C. Michael; Gordon, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing of 56 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains isolated from Australian wildlife hosts was performed. The results of population assignment algorithms revealed that the 56 strains could be subdivided into two distinct clades. Strains belonging to the two clades were further distinguished phenotypically, genotypically, and with respect to host distribution. PMID:21378038

  10. The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict.

    PubMed Central

    Thulborn, Tony; Turner, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Some long-forgotten fossil evidence reveals that a dicynodont (mammal-like reptile of the infraorder Dicynodontia) inhabited Australia as recently as the Early Cretaceous, ca. 110 Myr after the supposed extinction of dicynodonts in the Late Triassic. This remarkably late occurrence more than doubles the known duration of dicynodont history (from ca. 63 Myr to ca. 170 Myr) and betrays the profound impact of geographical isolation on Australian terrestrial faunas through the Mesozoic. Australia's late-surviving dicynodont may be envisaged as a counterpart of the ceratopians (horned dinosaurs) in Cretaceous tetrapod faunas of Asia and North America. PMID:12803915

  11. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and immunolocalization of POMC-related peptides in the ovary of Protopterus annectens, an African lungfish.

    PubMed

    Masini, M A; Sturla, M; Pestarino, M; Gallinelli, A; Facchinetti, F; Uva, B M

    1997-01-01

    Antisera against adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) and beta-endorphin were used to localize pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides in the ovary of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity was observed in the granulosa and the internal theca of the vitellogenic follicles. No immunoreactivity was observed in immature follicles. Using human POMC cDNA as the hybridization probe POMC-like mRNA was identified in situ in cells of the granulosa and internal theca of the vitellogenic follicles. No labeling was observed in primordial follicles. The demonstration in the same cells of POMC mRNA and POMC-related peptides immunoreactivity indicates a local production of the opiate hormones.

  12. Utilization of lipids during aestivation of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Okafor, A I; Nwani, C D; Okereke, F O

    2011-01-01

    Sequential alterations of body weights as well as total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and ketone body levels in the blood of Protopterus annectens during twelve month duration of aestivation were investigated. The results revealed that after the first trimester of dormancy, there was significant body weight reduction (p < 0.05) coupled with significant hypolipodaemia, hypotriacylgly-cerolaemia and hypocholesterolaemia respectively (p < 0.05) but without significant ketonaemia (p < 0.05). The total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and body weight reductions continued through the second, third and fourth trimesters of aestivation respectively (p < 0.05) but with serum ketone body levels remaining unaltered (p < 0.05). Thus, the utilization of lipids as a source of energy during aestivation of P. annectens does not lead to ketone body accumulation.

  13. The Australian SKA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinckel, Antony E.; Bunton, John D.; Cornwell, Tim J.; Feain, Ilana; Hay, Stuart G.

    2012-09-01

    The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will be the fastest cm-wave survey radio-telescope and is under construction on the new Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia. ASKAP consists of 36 12-meter 3-axis antennas, each with a large chequerboard phased array feed (PAF) operating from 0.7 to 1.8 GHz, and digital beamformer preceding the correlator. The PAF has 94 dual-polarization elements (188 receivers) and the beamformer will provide about 36 beams (at 1.4 GHz) to produce a 30 square degree field of view, allowing rapid, deep surveys of the entire visible sky. As well as a large field of view ASKAP has high spectral resolution across the 304 MHz of bandwidth processed at any one time generating a large data-rate (30Gb/sec in to the imaging system) that requires real-time processing of the data. To minimise this processing and maximise the field of view for long observations the antenna incorporates a third axis, which keeps the PAF field of view and sidelobes fixed relative to the sky. This largely eliminates time varying artefact in the data that is processed. The MRO is 315 kilometres north-east of Geraldton, in Western Australia’s Mid West region. The primary infrastructure construction for ASKAP and other telescopes hosted at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory has now been completed by CSIRO, the MRO manager, including installation of the fibre connection from the MRO site to Perth via Geraldton. The radio-quietness of the region is protected by the Mid West Radio Quiet Zone, implemented by the Australian Federal Government, out to a radius of 260km surrounding the MRO.

  14. Evaluating the Australian Traineeship System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)

  15. Australian-Antarctic discordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempeéreé, Jean-Christophe; Palmer, Jeb; Christie, David M.; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Shor, Alexander N.

    1991-05-01

    The Australian-Antarctic discordance is a region of anomalous geophysical and geochemical properties along the mid-ocean ridge system. It includes the isotopic boundary between Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean basalts. Its lavas have compositions consistent with low mantle temperatures and a relatively low overall extent of melting. These characteristics have been attributed to downward flow in the underlying mantle. New bathymetric and side-scan sonar data show that (1) the spreading axis within the discordance is predominantly characterized by a broad rift valley and segmentation characteristics typical of slow-spreading centers, (2) the isotopic boundary appears to be associated with unusual, chaotic sea floor, and (3) the spreading axis east of the discordance is characterized by an axial ridge typical of fast-spreading centers. These extreme variations, at an essentially constant (intermediate) spreading rate are consistent with differences in melt supply and mantle properties along the spreading axis within and east of the discordance, as suggested in previous studies.

  16. ASA24-Australian Version (Under Development)

    Cancer.gov

    In collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a consortium of Australian Researchers is adapting the ASA24 system to the Australian context to account for variations in food consumed, portion sizes, and nutrient composition.

  17. Lungfish and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

  18. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on "History,…

  19. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  20. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  1. Listeria: an Australian perspective (2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Igor; Heron, Brett; Covacin, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Despite having a low occurrence rate, Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most prominent foodborne pathogens in Australia. The organism is responsible for severe outbreaks with high case fatality and substantial economic losses due to food recalls. In this study, we analyze the incidence trends of listeriosis in Australia during 2001-2010, discuss the relevance of food recalls, and investigate the pathogen's role in foodborne outbreaks. A significant epidemiological finding was a consistently high national age-specific rate recorded for individuals aged 60 years and over. Analysis of Australian Listeria outbreak and food recall data suggests deficiencies in food safety programs of food manufacturing businesses implicated in Listeria outbreaks and revealed that ready-to-eat foods are high-risk vehicles for transmitting listeriosis. Highlighted is Australia's highly efficient Listeria management and surveillance systems bolstered by the introduction of Listeria molecular subtyping in 2010 coupled with a nationally standardized questionnaire by the "Australian foodborne disease surveillance network (OzFoodNet)." The detection of clusters and therefore outbreaks was now possible, allowing cases to be linked across multiple jurisdictions and enabling timely public health action. Considering current changes in food production and consumption patterns, continuous monitoring and improvement of surveillance systems will provide ongoing public health benefits and be crucial to future development of food safety policy for Australia.

  2. The interplay of increased urea synthesis and reduced ammonia production in the African lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus during 46 days of aestivation in a mucus cocoon.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen Kwong; Yeo, Pei Jia; Loong, Ai May; Hiong, Kum Chew; Wong, Wai Peng; Chew, Shit Fun

    2005-12-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the rate of urea synthesis in Protopterus aethiopicus was up-regulated to detoxify ammonia during the initial phase of aestivation in air (day 1-day 12), and that a profound suppression of ammonia production occurred at a later phase of aestivation (day 35-day 46) which eliminated the need to sustain the increased rate of urea synthesis. Fasting apparently led to a greater rate of nitrogenous waste excretion in P. aethiopicus in water, which is an indication of increases in production of endogenous ammonia and urea probably as a result of increased proteolysis and amino acid catabolism for energy production. However, 46 days of fasting had no significant effects on the ammonia or urea contents in the muscle, liver, plasma and brain. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the muscle ammonia content in fish after 12, 34 or 46 days of aestivation in air when compared with fish fasting in water. Ammonia was apparently detoxified to urea because urea contents in the muscle, liver, plasma and brain of P. aethiopicus aestivated for 12, 34 or 46 days were significantly greater than the corresponding fasting control; the greatest increases in urea contents occurred during the initial 12 days. There were also significant increases in activities of some of the hepatic ornithine-urea cycle enzymes from fish aestivated for 12 or 46 days. Therefore, contrary to a previous report on P. aethiopicus, our results demonstrated an increase in the estimated rate of urea synthesis (2.8-fold greater than the day 0 fish) in this lungfish during the initial 12 days of aestivation. However, the estimated rate of urea synthesis decreased significantly during the next 34 days. Between day 35 and day 46 (12 days), urea synthesis apparently decreased to 42% of the day 0 control value, and this is the first report of such a phenomenon in African lungfish undergoing aestivation. On the other hand, the estimated rate of ammonia

  3. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  4. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  5. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  6. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  7. Cataloguing Practices in Australian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Janet D.

    A survey sought to compile comprehensive information about the cataloging codes, classification schemes, subject headings lists, and filing rules used in Australian libraries. Questionnaires were sent to 112 libraries, and 98 returns were received, included in the sample were national, state, public, university, college, and special libraries.…

  8. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  9. Australian Rural Education Award, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…

  10. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  11. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of calhepatin, an S100-like calcium-binding protein from the liver of lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa).

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Santiago M; Santomé, José A

    2002-07-01

    We report the biochemical characterization of calhepatin, a calcium-binding protein of the S100 family, isolated from lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) liver. The primary structure, determined by Edman degradation and MS/MS, shows that the sequence identities with the other members of the family are lower than those between S100 proteins from different species. Calhepatin is composed of 75 residues and has a molecular mass of 8670 Da. It is smaller than calbindin D(9k) (78 residues), the smallest S100 described so far. Sequence analysis and molecular modelling predict the two EF-hand motifs characteristic of the S100 family. Metal-binding properties were studied by a direct 45Ca2+-binding assay and by fluorescence titration. Calhepatin binds Ca2+ and Cu2+ but not Zn2+. Cu2+ binding does not change the affinity of calhepatin for Ca2+. Calhepatin undergoes a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding as shown by the increase in its intrinsic fluorescence intensity and lambda(max), the decrease in the apo-calhepatin hydrodynamic volume, and the Ca2+-dependent binding of the protein to phenyl-Superose. Like most S100 proteins, calhepatin tends to form noncovalently associated dimers. These data suggest that calhepatin is probably involved in Ca2+-signal transduction.

  13. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959

  14. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite.

  15. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  16. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  17. The Australian Education Union: From Federal Registration to National Reconciliation. Australian Education Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Andrew

    This book is a study of the Australian Education Union (AEU), a federal organization of government schoolteachers in the states and territories of Australia. Founded in 1984 as the Australian Teachers Union, it became the AEU in 1993. By 1998, the AEU had grown to become the third largest trade union in Australian, with some 157,000 members. This…

  18. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other press outlets in…

  19. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed Central

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M; Sved, J; Boettcher, B

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some identical HVS1 types are seen in the two contrasting regions. mt HVS1 types may reflect more-ancient distributions than do linguistic diversity and other culturally distinguishing attributes. Comparison with sequences from five published global studies reveals that these Australians demonstrate greatest divergence from some Africans, least from Papua New Guinea highlanders, and only slightly more from some Pacific groups (Indonesian, Asian, Samoan, and coastal Papua New Guinea), although the HVS1 types vary at different nucleotide sites. Construction of a median network, displaying three main groups, suggests that several hypervariable nucleotide sites within the HVS1 are likely to have undergone mutation independently, making phylogenetic comparison with global samples by conventional methods difficult. Specific nucleotide-site variants are major separators in median networks constructed from Australian HVS1 types alone and for one global selection. The distribution of these, requiring extended study, suggests that they may be signatures of different groups of prehistoric colonizers into Australia, for which the time of colonization remains elusive. PMID:9463317

  20. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M; Sved, J; Boettcher, B

    1998-02-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some identical HVS1 types are seen in the two contrasting regions. mt HVS1 types may reflect more-ancient distributions than do linguistic diversity and other culturally distinguishing attributes. Comparison with sequences from five published global studies reveals that these Australians demonstrate greatest divergence from some Africans, least from Papua New Guinea highlanders, and only slightly more from some Pacific groups (Indonesian, Asian, Samoan, and coastal Papua New Guinea), although the HVS1 types vary at different nucleotide sites. Construction of a median network, displaying three main groups, suggests that several hypervariable nucleotide sites within the HVS1 are likely to have undergone mutation independently, making phylogenetic comparison with global samples by conventional methods difficult. Specific nucleotide-site variants are major separators in median networks constructed from Australian HVS1 types alone and for one global selection. The distribution of these, requiring extended study, suggests that they may be signatures of different groups of prehistoric colonizers into Australia, for which the time of colonization remains elusive. PMID:9463317

  1. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  2. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Susie

    2014-12-31

    This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. During the survey period, 1,035 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis. Of these 828 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 503 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 325 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 828 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 33% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 31% of samples, followed by genotype G2P[4] (14%). This represents the first report where G12P[8] strains are the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G3P[8] being the dominant genotype (39.2%) followed by G12P[8] as the second most common genotype (31%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G3P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, with changes in dominant genotypes an annual event. The emergence of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the ongoing changes in the wild type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  3. A Stalagmite record of Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon variability from the Australian tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Polyak, Victor J.; Brown, Josephine R.; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan D.; LaPointe, Zachary; Ellerbroek, Rebecca; Barthelmes, Michael; Cleary, Daniel; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William F.

    2013-10-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from a suite of calcite and aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51, located in the eastern Kimberley region of tropical Western Australia, represent the first absolute-dated, high-resolution speleothem record of the Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) from the Australian tropics. Stalagmite oxygen isotopic values track monsoon intensity via amount effects in precipitation and reveal a dynamic Holocene IASM which strengthened in the early Holocene, decreased in strength by 4 ka, with a further decrease from ˜2 to 1 ka, before strengthening again at 1 ka to years to levels similar to those between 4 and 2 ka. The relationships between the KNI-51 IASM reconstruction and those from published speleothem time series from Flores and Borneo, in combination with other data sets, appear largely inconsistent with changes in the position and/or organization of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Instead, we argue that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may have played a dominant role in driving IASM variability since at least the middle Holocene. Given the muted modern monsoon rainfall responses to most El Niño events in the Kimberley, an impact of ENSO on regional monsoon precipitation over northwestern Australia would suggest non-stationarity in the long-term relationship between ENSO forcing and IASM rainfall, possibly due to changes in the mean state of the tropical Pacific over the Holocene.

  4. Bridging the Gap? A Comparative, Retrospective Analysis of Science Literacy and Interest in Science for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Andrew; Oliver, Mary; Woods-McConney, Amanda; Schibeci, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that indigenous students in Australia do not enjoy equal educational outcomes with other Australians. This secondary analysis of PISA 2006 confirmed that this continues to be the case in science literacy for secondary students. However, the analysis also revealed that indigenous Australian students held interest in…

  5. Differential gene expression in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after six days or six months of aestivation in air.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Ip, Yuen K; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2013-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the brain of P. annectens during the induction (6 days) and maintenance (6 months) phases of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the induction phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of prolactin (prl) and growth hormone were up-regulated in the brain of P. annectens, which indicate for the first time the possible induction role of these two hormones in aestivation. Also, the up-regulation of mRNA expression of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein γ polypeptide and the down-regulation of phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein, suggest that there could be a reduction in biological and neuronal activities in the brain. The mRNA expression of cold inducible RNA-binding protein and glucose regulated protein 58 were also up-regulated in the brain, probably to enhance their cytoprotective effects. Furthermore, the down-regulation of prothymosin α expression suggests that there could be a suppression of transcription and cell proliferation in preparation for the maintenance phase. In general, the induction phase appeared to be characterized by reduction in glycolytic capacity and metabolic activity, suppression of protein synthesis and degradation, and an increase in defense against ammonia toxicity. In contrast, there was a down-regulation in the mRNA expression of prl in the brain of P. annectens during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, there could be an increase in oxidative defense capacity, and up-regulation of transcription, translation, and glycolytic capacities in preparation for arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of reconstruction of protein structures and regulation of energy expenditure during

  6. Differential Gene Expression in the Brain of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after Six Days or Six Months of Aestivation in Air

    PubMed Central

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the brain of P. annectens during the induction (6 days) and maintenance (6 months) phases of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the induction phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of prolactin (prl) and growth hormone were up-regulated in the brain of P. annectens, which indicate for the first time the possible induction role of these two hormones in aestivation. Also, the up-regulation of mRNA expression of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein γ polypeptide and the down-regulation of phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein, suggest that there could be a reduction in biological and neuronal activities in the brain. The mRNA expression of cold inducible RNA-binding protein and glucose regulated protein 58 were also up-regulated in the brain, probably to enhance their cytoprotective effects. Furthermore, the down-regulation of prothymosin α expression suggests that there could be a suppression of transcription and cell proliferation in preparation for the maintenance phase. In general, the induction phase appeared to be characterized by reduction in glycolytic capacity and metabolic activity, suppression of protein synthesis and degradation, and an increase in defense against ammonia toxicity. In contrast, there was a down-regulation in the mRNA expression of prl in the brain of P. annectens during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, there could be an increase in oxidative defense capacity, and up-regulation of transcription, translation, and glycolytic capacities in preparation for arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of reconstruction of protein structures and regulation of energy expenditure during

  7. Aestivation induces changes in transcription and translation of coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain in the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Tan, Xiang R; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to sequence and characterize two pro-coagulant genes, coagulation factor II (f2) and fibrinogen gamma chain (fgg), from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine their hepatic mRNA expression levels during three phases of aestivation. The protein abundance of F2 and Fgg in the liver and plasma was determined by immunoblotting. The results indicated that F2 and Fgg of P. annectens were phylogenetically closer to those of amphibians than those of teleosts. Three days of aestivation resulted in an up-regulation in the hepatic fgg mRNA expression level, while 6 days of aestivation led to a significant increase (3-fold) in the protein abundance of Fgg in the plasma. Hence, there could be an increase in the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens during the induction phase of aestivation. By contrast, the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens might be reduced in response to decreased blood flow and increased possibility of thrombosis during the maintenance phase of aestivation, as 6 months of aestivation led to significant decreases in mRNA expression levels of f2 and fgg in the liver. There could also be a decrease in the export of F2 and Fgg from the liver to the plasma so as to avert thrombosis. Three to 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation, the protein abundance of F2 and Fgg recovered partially in the plasma of P. annectens; a complete recovery of the transcription and translation of f2/F2 in the liver might occur only after refeeding.

  8. DRGs and Australian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hunter, C E; McFarlane, A C

    1994-03-01

    The introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) as a basis for funding in the United States has revealed several shortcomings in current DRG systems. Overall, DRGs have proven to be poor predictors of cost, accounting for approximately one third of the variation in cost and length of stay for surgical DRGs and falling to less than 10% for medical DRGs. Their ability to contain costs also remains uncertain, with savings associated with reductions in length of stay being offset by increased readmission rates. Given the increasing commitment of government to casemix approaches to funding it is suggested that psychiatry should participate in the process of solving the problems so far identified with DRG systems. Participation would, it is hoped, create a focussed debate about the provision of a "gold standard" of care for all patients. The evaluation and refinement of existing DRGs is urgently needed and could utilise a number of comprehensive data bases which already exist across the country. Alternatives to diagnosis such as functional status and treatment needs should also be explored.

  9. "Don't forget your cotton underwear girls": femininity and Australian Army nurses in the Vietnam War (1967-1971).

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2004-01-01

    War and nursing are unequivocally linked and the impact that this type of nursing has had upon the nursing profession in indisputable. However, a review of the Australian scholarly nursing literature revealed that the contribution and experiences of Australian nurses in the Vietnam War has not been widely published. The direct involvement of Australian women in the Vietnam War was limited and, as female nurses, they were unquestionably a minority. This paper describes the gender issues that confronted the nurses who worked within the confines of war.

  10. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  11. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  12. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  13. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  14. Characteristics of Religious Knowledge among Australian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the Spirit of Generation Y project and extensions of that project undertaken in 25 Australian schools by the Christian Research Association, it is argued that the approach to religious knowledge by Australian students can be contrasted with their approach to other forms of knowledge by four features. These are diversity of opinion in…

  15. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  16. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  17. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  18. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M

    2016-06-21

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537-542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the "Out of Africa" model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  19. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D.; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537–542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the “Out of Africa” model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  20. Australian scientists develop male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    1974-05-20

    The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267

  1. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  2. Closing the Gap: The Maturing of Quality Assurance in Australian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A benchmarking review of the quality assurance practices of the libraries of the Australian Technology Network conducted in 2006 revealed exemplars of best practice, but also sector-wide gaps. A follow-up review in 2010 indicated the best practices that remain relevant. While some gaps persist, there has been improvement across the libraries and…

  3. Hey Big Spender! An Analysis of Australian Universities and How Much They Pay Their General Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of aggregated data files on staff sent by all Australian universities to DEST in 2007 and of salary schedules posted on university websites reveals a considerable variation between salaries paid to general staff at each salary level and the relative seniority of those staff. This paper outlines the differences in staffing structures and…

  4. Derivation of Australian diagnostic reference levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hayton, Anna; Wallace, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Australian National Diagnostic Reference Levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography were established for three protocols, Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis, across two age groups, Baby/Infant 0-4 years and Child 5-14 years by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in 2012. The establishment of Australian paediatric DRLs is an important step towards lowering patient CT doses on a national scale. While Adult DRLs were calculated with data collected from the web based Australian National Diagnostic Reference Level Service, no paediatric data was submitted in the first year of service operation. Data from an independent Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Quality Use of Diagnostic Imaging paediatric optimisation survey was used. The paediatric DRLs were defined for CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy·cm) values that referenced the 16 cm PMMA phantom for the Head protocol and the 32 cm PMMA phantom for body protocols for both paediatric age groups. The Australian paediatric DRLs for multi detector computed tomography are for the Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis protocols respectively, 470, 60 and 170 mGy·cm for the Baby/Infant age group, and 600, 110 and 390 mGy·cm for the Child age group. A comparison with published international paediatric DRLs for computed tomography reveal the Australian paediatric DRLs to be lower on average. However, the comparison is complicated by misalignment of defined age ranges. It is the intention of ARPANSA to review the paediatric DRLs in conjunction with a review of the adult DRLs, which should occur within 5 years of their publication. PMID:27350262

  5. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  6. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  7. The Use of Telecommunications in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Morrison F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses telecommunications services used in Australian education. They include Minerva (electronic mail), Midas (database accessing), Viatel (interactive videotext), and Telememo (electronic mail used to exchange information between schools. (JN)

  8. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  9. Disentangling the Relationship of the Australian Marsupial Orders Using Retrotransposon and Evolutionary Network Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    The ancestors to the Australian marsupials entered Australia around 60 (54–72) Ma from Antarctica, and radiated into the four living orders Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, Diprotodontia, and Notoryctemorphia. The relationship between the four Australian marsupial orders has been a long-standing question, because different phylogenetic studies have not been able to consistently reconstruct the same topology. Initial in silico analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome and experimental screening in the seven marsupial orders revealed 20 informative transposable element insertions for resolving the inter- and intraordinal relationships of Australian and South American orders. However, the retrotransposon insertions support three conflicting topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia, indicating that the split between the three orders may be best understood as a network. This finding is supported by a phylogenetic reanalysis of nuclear gene sequences, using a consensus network approach that allows depicting hidden phylogenetic conflict, otherwise lost when forcing the data into a bifurcating tree. The consensus network analysis agrees with the transposable element analysis in that all possible topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia in a rooted four-taxon topology are equally well supported. In addition, retrotransposon insertion data support the South American order Didelphimorphia being the sistergroup to all other living marsupial orders. The four Australian orders originated within 3 Myr at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. The rapid divergences left conflicting phylogenetic information in the genome possibly generated by incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization, leaving the relationship among Australian marsupial orders unresolvable as a bifurcating process millions of years later. PMID:25786431

  10. Disentangling the relationship of the Australian marsupial orders using retrotransposon and evolutionary network analyses.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A

    2015-03-18

    The ancestors to the Australian marsupials entered Australia around 60 (54-72) Ma from Antarctica, and radiated into the four living orders Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, Diprotodontia, and Notoryctemorphia. The relationship between the four Australian marsupial orders has been a long-standing question, because different phylogenetic studies have not been able to consistently reconstruct the same topology. Initial in silico analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome and experimental screening in the seven marsupial orders revealed 20 informative transposable element insertions for resolving the inter- and intraordinal relationships of Australian and South American orders. However, the retrotransposon insertions support three conflicting topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia, indicating that the split between the three orders may be best understood as a network. This finding is supported by a phylogenetic reanalysis of nuclear gene sequences, using a consensus network approach that allows depicting hidden phylogenetic conflict, otherwise lost when forcing the data into a bifurcating tree. The consensus network analysis agrees with the transposable element analysis in that all possible topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia in a rooted four-taxon topology are equally well supported. In addition, retrotransposon insertion data support the South American order Didelphimorphia being the sistergroup to all other living marsupial orders. The four Australian orders originated within 3 Myr at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The rapid divergences left conflicting phylogenetic information in the genome possibly generated by incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization, leaving the relationship among Australian marsupial orders unresolvable as a bifurcating process millions of years later.

  11. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and phrases used…

  12. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  13. Telling Tales: Australian Voices. Australian Studies in Language and Education Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    This monograph contains a report of the field work stage of a research project, on the educational significance of the modern Australian oral tradition, which involved the collection of recordings of people telling tales, reminiscing, recalling personal events of significance, and recounting traditional Australian legends from non-Aboriginal…

  14. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  15. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    PubMed

    Butler, Alan J; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  16. Fiscal incentives for Australian bushland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1986-09-01

    The clearing of over 80% of the native vegetation from Australian agricultural areas has contributed significantly to the degradation classification applied to more than half this land. Soil erosion, siltation, and salinity damage continue to increase yearly. This situation not only threatens the productivity of the farm sector but has contributed to the estimated loss of 78 species of native flora, endangerment of an additional 2206 species, and the loss of 20 species of Australia's marsupials. Private returns diverge from social returns because the action (or inaction) of farmers has an impact upon others, both now and in the future. There is justification, therefore, for the public sector to intervene on behalf of society in an attempt to influence private decision making for the social good. This article argues for increased incentives from the public sector in Australia to encourage the voluntary cooperation of farmers to improve the balance between development and conservation. In contrast to the essentially temporary nature of man-made measures such as flood-mitigating capital works, increasing the area set aside to native bushland offers scope for the permanent stewardship of the resource—land.

  17. Elements of Australian petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in Australian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley; Porter, Nichola; Symons, Robert; Marriott, Philip; Ades, Peter; Stevenson, Gavin; Blackbeard, Judy

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the international scientific literature of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in sewage sludge and a survey of these compounds in sewage sludge from 16 Australian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The SigmaPBDE mean concentration in the Australian study was 1137microgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) (s.d. 1116) and ranged between 5 and 4 230microgkg(-1)d.w. The urban mean of 1308microgkg(-1) (s.d. 1320) and the rural mean of 911microgkg(-1) (s.d. 831) are not statistically different and are similar to levels in European sludges. Principal components analysis was performed on the data set and revealed that 76% of the data variation could be explained by two components that corresponded to overall concentration of the pentaBDE and the decaBDE commercial formulations. An analysis of variance was performed comparing PBDEs levels at three WWTPs over the years 2005 and 2006, finding differences between treatment plants (BDE-47) but no significant difference in PBDE levels in the years 2005 and 2006. Low levels of BB-153 were detected in all samples of this survey (n=16); mean 0.6microgkg(-1)d.w. (s.d. 0.5). This compound has rarely been reported in any other study of sewage sludges undertaken outside Australia. This work highlights the need for a risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge when used for land application, taking into account typical levels found in Australian sludges and soils. PMID:18682307

  19. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  20. The Australian Antarctic lidar facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klekociuk, A.R.; Morris, R.J.; Yates, P.; Fleming, A.; Murphy, D.J.; Greet, P.A. |; Argall, P.S. |; Vincent, R.A.; Reid, I.M.

    1994-12-31

    A high spectral resolution lidar, under development by the Australian Antarctic Division and the University of Adelaide, is described. This instrument will be stationed at Davis, Antarctica (68.6{degree}S, 78.0{degree}E) from early 1996 for the long-term measurement of atmospheric parameters as a function of altitude from the lower stratosphere to the mesopause. The siting of the lidar will allow for data comparison with existing optical, radar and balloon-borne atmospheric studies. Research utilizing the multi-instrument database will be aimed at assessing climatic variability and coupling processes throughout the atmosphere. The lidar transmitter consists of a commercial injection-seeded pulsed ND:YAG laser coupled to a altazimuth mounted Cassegrain telescope with a 1 meter diameter primary mirror. The laser emits at a wavelength of 532 nm with an average power of 30 W. The telescope also serves as the collecting optics for the receiving system. The lidar is switched between transmit and receive modes by a high speed rotating shutter system. The detection system consists of a dual scanning Fabry Perot Spectrometer (FPS) followed by a cooled photomultiplier operated in `photon counting` mode. The received signal is integrated as a function of equivalent range over a bandpass that may be either fixed or scanned in the wavelength domain. Performance simulations for the fixed bandpass operating mode are discussed. These indicate that useful measurements of density and inferred temperature should be achievable for the mesopause region, particularly at night and during twilight. In addition, detection of clouds in the mesosphere during the day appears feasible.

  1. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  2. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  3. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  4. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.

  5. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  6. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  7. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  8. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  9. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  10. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  11. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy. PMID:10537568

  12. Coastal residential waterways, science and policy-making: The Australian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Nick; Stocker, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of kilometres of coastal residential waterways have been constructed across the globe, mostly in estuaries. These have caused significant environmental impact demonstrating a need for proper management and planning informed by science. Additional potential impacts of climate change, specifically sea-level rise, make coastal residential waterway developments by their nature particularly vulnerable, with restricted options for adaptation. This paper analyses Australian policies on coastal residential waterways over the last 50 years and the extent to which science, including estuarine and climate change science, has been incorporated into policy decisions or policy formulation. This analysis is in the context of theories on the uptake of science in policy-making and against a background of Australian government and inter-governmental reports indicating the vulnerable nature of low-lying coastal development. This paper reveals that coastal residential waterways referred to as canal estates occur in all Australian mainland states but given the lack of any national coastal policy, the onus is on each individual state to formulate its own policies. These policies are on a continuum from explicit, detailed science-based policy guidelines in some states, through implicit scientific impacts informing political decisions in other states, to generic environmental assessment procedures without specific reference to canal estate development. This paper concludes that the extent to which science has been incorporated into policy-making for canal estates is variable across the Australian states and appears to be heavily influenced by politics.

  13. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  14. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  15. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  16. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  17. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  18. Bill Boyd and the Australian Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a short account of Bill Boyd's contribution to Australian research and practice in educational administration and education policymaking. The author has sought the views and recollections of some of the colleagues who worked closely with Bill. He has chosen to quote them at length rather than attempt to summarize…

  19. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  20. Scholarly Communication Costs in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and application of a model used to estimate the costs of scholarly communication (i.e. scholarly publishing and related activities) in Australian higher education. A systems perspective was used to frame a review of the literature on the costs involved in the entire scholarly communication value chain and…

  1. Australian Teachers' Careers. Teachers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.

    This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A Perspective on Schooling,"…

  2. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  3. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  4. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  5. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  6. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  7. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  8. Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

    This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

  9. Inequity in the Australian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorey, Aybek

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the current situation of the Australian education system--particularly the public schools in disadvantaged areas. Research undertaken in the last decade show that while Australia has developed intensively in economic terms in the last ten years, inequality has spread nonetheless. Furthermore, there are legal barriers for…

  10. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  11. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  12. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice. PMID:23330773

  13. The Australian Curriculum: Continuing the National Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atweh, Bill; Singh, Parlo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify some key areas of the Australian curriculum that remain sites of struggle and contestation. We propose that there remain a number of contentious points in relation to the national curriculum. These points relate variously to the content and form of the curricular documents; assumptions about knowledge,…

  14. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  15. Essential Features of Australian Training Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Commonwealth/State Training Advisory Committee, Canberra.

    This document provides a variety of material on the Australian training systems. Section 1 summarizes apprenticeship and traineeship training and administration in Australia and provides a broad overview of the responsibilities and roles of industry, government, and trade unions. It also outlines the financial support provided by the state and…

  16. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  17. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  18. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  19. School Libraries Empowering Learning: The Australian Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes school libraries in Australia. Highlights include the title of teacher librarian and their education; the history of the role of school libraries in Australian education; empowerment; information skills and benchmarks; national standards for school libraries; information literacy; learning outcomes; evidence-based practice; digital…

  20. The Quality Movement in Australian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vicki; Exon, F. C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the reorganization of the national higher education system by the Australian government focuses on a questionnaire distributed to university librarians that examined quality assurance processes and management. Topics include quality indicators and libraries; methodologies, including Total Quality Management; allocation of quality…

  1. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  2. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  3. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  4. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  5. Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)

  6. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  7. Study of Australian Multi-Campus Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Johnston, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether Australian multi-campus universities are distinctive in terms of their student profile by field of education (FOE), funding and expenditure profiles, and learning and teaching outcomes, and identifies the implications for higher education policy and funding. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used to…

  8. Australian Allograpta Osten Sacken (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo; Thompson, F. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner). PMID:26257569

  9. Australian Society of Educational Technology Yearbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Society of Educational Technology, Adelaide.

    This report of the 1978 activities of the Australian Society of Educational Technology includes reports, articles, a state of the art review, and a technical report. Section I lists the memberships of the national executive and state chapter council, and presents a national report and reports from four state chapters. Three articles are presented…

  10. [Australian Vocational Education & Training Statistics. Four Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This item consists of four separate documents covering various aspects of Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) statistics. The first two documents, "Statistics 1996: Women at a Glance" and "Statistics 1996: Young People at a Glance," provide summary information about women and young people (15- to 24-year-olds) who undertook public…

  11. Reshaping Australian Education, 1960-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, W. F.

    This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the "curriculum…

  12. Citizen Child: Australian Law and Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funder, Kathleen, Ed.

    Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…

  13. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  14. Lower respiratory infections in Australian Indigenous children.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Chang, Anne B

    2010-09-01

    Despite Australia being one of the wealthiest countries of the world, Australian Indigenous children have a health status and social circumstance comparable to developing countries. Indigenous infants have 10 times the mortality rate for respiratory conditions. The lower respiratory infection (LRI) rate in Australian Indigenous children is at least as high as that of children in developing countries; the frequency of hospitalisations of Indigenous infants is triple that of non-Indigenous Australian infants (201.7 vs. 62.6/1000, respectively). While Indigenous Australian children have many risk factors for LRIs described in developing countries, there is little specific data, and hence, evidence-based intervention points are yet to be identified. Efficacy of conjugate vaccines for common bacterial causes of pneumonia has been less marked in Indigenous children than that documented overseas. Gaps in the management and prevention of disease are glaring. Given the burden of LRI in Indigenous children and the association with long-term respiratory dysfunction, LRIs should be addressed as a matter of priority.

  15. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  16. Rheumatic disease and the Australian Aborigine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Thomson, R.; Roberts-Thomson, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine.
METHODS—A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people.
RESULTS—No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians.
CONCLUSION—The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders.

 PMID:10225809

  17. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  18. International Mobility of Australian University Students: 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Australia as a destination for international students is well researched. However, less is known about the numbers of Australian students who undertake international study experiences during their courses, the characteristics of those students, their types of experiences, their fields of education, and their destinations. This study finds that…

  19. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  20. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  1. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  2. Situated Learning in an Australian Surf Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The article examines learning and identity formation for young people in an Australian surf club. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning, it identifies how membership in the surf club from an early age involves highly significant and meaningful learning and identity formation, where learning is co-constructed with other members…

  3. Artist Academics: Performing the Australian Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn; Wright, David; Blom, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on creativity and innovation as the backbone of Western knowledge economies, the presence of the creative arts within universities remains problematic. Australian artist academics who seek a balance between their artistic and academic lives work within a government-directed research environment that is unable to quantify;…

  4. Does Training Pay? Evidence from Australian Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Dockery, Michael; Hawke, Anne; Webster, Elizabeth

    A study was conducted to obtain pilot evidence that could serve as a basis for developing convincing methods for individual Australian companies to use in determining their returns from investment in training. The study attempted to replicate survey results from significant overseas surveys by using information collected on more than 90 Australian…

  5. Librarians Abroad: Australian Librarianship in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Australian librarians have participated in and contributed to international librarianship for over 125 years. Individual and collective practice is well regarded internationally since it is in dialogue with international concerns, is based on shared values and reaches high standards. Many are willing contributors to international initiatives,…

  6. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  7. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  8. Social Gradients in the Health of Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336

  9. Geochemical investigation of Australian and New Zealand crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Philp, R.P.; Gilbert, T.D.

    1985-02-01

    Australian and New Zealand oils are derived predominantly from terrestrial source material. Relatively sparse information exists in the geochemical literature on the distribution of biomarkers in terrestrially derived crude oils. A detailed geochemical investigation of oils from a number of basins in this region has revealed interesting and unusual distribution of biomarkers. The compound classes that were analyzed included sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and steranes. From the information obtained, it has been possible to correlate the oils from several basins, in particular the Gippsland, Surate, and Carnarvon, into a number of source-related families. Evidence was also obtained that indicated a contribution from coal-like source material for many of the New Zealand oils.

  10. Paediatric urolithiasis in a remote Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Williams, W M; Nicholas, J J; Nungurrayi, P B; Napurrula, C R

    1996-08-01

    A retrospective study of Community Health Service patient records revealed 10 cases of urolithiasis in Aboriginal children under 5 years of age in a remote central Australian Aboriginal community over a 4 year period, out of a total under-5 population estimate of 62. The highest attack rate was in the 0-2 age group, where nearly one in 10 children presented per year. All children had significant associated morbidity. Two children underwent pyelolithotomy. Aboriginal children in the remote arid zone study community suffer exceptionally high rates of urolithiasis. Inadequate diet, dehydration and recurrent infectious disease are factors in pathogenesis. Further study may elucidate aetiology, but the implications of these data for improving environmental conditions and health service delivery in Aboriginal communities are urgent.

  11. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  12. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  13. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games. PMID:27300917

  14. Phylogeographic patterns in New Zealand and temperate Australian cantharidines (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae: Cantharidinae): Trans-Tasman divergences are ancient.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten M; Spencer, Hamish G

    2016-07-01

    Current taxonomic treatments of New Zealand and temperate Australian members of the gastropod subfamily Cantharidinae imply that species on either side of the Tasman Sea are closely related and, in some cases, congeneric. Such a close relationship, however, entails a relatively recent divergence of Australian and New Zealand lineages, which seems inconsistent with what is known about cantharidine larval development in general. In order to address these issues, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used to ascertain how cantharidine genera became established over the wide geographical range of temperate Australia and New Zealand, including their subantarctic islands. Our robust and dated phylogenies (based on 16S, COI, 12S and 28S sequences) revealed that Australian and New Zealand species fall into endemic clades that have been separated for, at most, 35million years. This divergence date postdates a vicariant split by around 50million years and we suggest that, once again, long-distance trans-Tasman dispersal has played a pivotal role in molluscan evolution in this part of the world. Our results also show that the current classification requires revision. We recognize three genera (Cantharidus [comprising 2 subgenera: Cantharidus s.str. and Pseudomargarella n. subgen.], Micrelenchus [comprising 2 subgenera: Micrelenchus s.str. and Mawhero] and Roseaplagis n. gen.) for New Zealand cantharidine species. In our dated BEAST tree, these genera form a clade with the endemic Australian Prothalotia and South African Oxystele. Other temperate Australian cantharidines in our study fall into previously recognized genera (Phasianotrochus, Thalotia, Calthalotia), which are all quite distinct from Cantharidus in spite of some authors considering various of them to be possible synonyms. Finally, we remove the Australian genus Cantharidella from the Cantharidinae to the subfamily Trochinae and erect a new genus, Cratidentium n. gen., also in the Trochinae, to accommodate

  15. Phylogeographic patterns in New Zealand and temperate Australian cantharidines (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae: Cantharidinae): Trans-Tasman divergences are ancient.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten M; Spencer, Hamish G

    2016-07-01

    Current taxonomic treatments of New Zealand and temperate Australian members of the gastropod subfamily Cantharidinae imply that species on either side of the Tasman Sea are closely related and, in some cases, congeneric. Such a close relationship, however, entails a relatively recent divergence of Australian and New Zealand lineages, which seems inconsistent with what is known about cantharidine larval development in general. In order to address these issues, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used to ascertain how cantharidine genera became established over the wide geographical range of temperate Australia and New Zealand, including their subantarctic islands. Our robust and dated phylogenies (based on 16S, COI, 12S and 28S sequences) revealed that Australian and New Zealand species fall into endemic clades that have been separated for, at most, 35million years. This divergence date postdates a vicariant split by around 50million years and we suggest that, once again, long-distance trans-Tasman dispersal has played a pivotal role in molluscan evolution in this part of the world. Our results also show that the current classification requires revision. We recognize three genera (Cantharidus [comprising 2 subgenera: Cantharidus s.str. and Pseudomargarella n. subgen.], Micrelenchus [comprising 2 subgenera: Micrelenchus s.str. and Mawhero] and Roseaplagis n. gen.) for New Zealand cantharidine species. In our dated BEAST tree, these genera form a clade with the endemic Australian Prothalotia and South African Oxystele. Other temperate Australian cantharidines in our study fall into previously recognized genera (Phasianotrochus, Thalotia, Calthalotia), which are all quite distinct from Cantharidus in spite of some authors considering various of them to be possible synonyms. Finally, we remove the Australian genus Cantharidella from the Cantharidinae to the subfamily Trochinae and erect a new genus, Cratidentium n. gen., also in the Trochinae, to accommodate

  16. Reviews and syntheses: Australian vegetation phenology: new insights from satellite remote sensing and digital repeat photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Caitlin E.; Brown, Tim; Keenan, Trevor F.; Duursma, Remko A.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Beringer, Jason; Culvenor, Darius; Evans, Bradley; Huete, Alfredo; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Maier, Stefan; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Sonnentag, Oliver; Specht, Alison; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; van Gorsel, Eva; Liddell, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological occurrences and can provide important insights into the influence of climatic variability and change on ecosystems. Understanding Australia's vegetation phenology is a challenge due to its diverse range of ecosystems, from savannas and tropical rainforests to temperate eucalypt woodlands, semi-arid scrublands, and alpine grasslands. These ecosystems exhibit marked differences in seasonal patterns of canopy development and plant life-cycle events, much of which deviates from the predictable seasonal phenological pulse of temperate deciduous and boreal biomes. Many Australian ecosystems are subject to irregular events (i.e. drought, flooding, cyclones, and fire) that can alter ecosystem composition, structure, and functioning just as much as seasonal change. We show how satellite remote sensing and ground-based digital repeat photography (i.e. phenocams) can be used to improve understanding of phenology in Australian ecosystems. First, we examine temporal variation in phenology on the continental scale using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), calculated from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Spatial gradients are revealed, ranging from regions with pronounced seasonality in canopy development (i.e. tropical savannas) to regions where seasonal variation is minimal (i.e. tropical rainforests) or high but irregular (i.e. arid ecosystems). Next, we use time series colour information extracted from phenocam imagery to illustrate a range of phenological signals in four contrasting Australian ecosystems. These include greening and senescing events in tropical savannas and temperate eucalypt understorey, as well as strong seasonal dynamics of individual trees in a seemingly static evergreen rainforest. We also demonstrate how phenology links with ecosystem gross primary productivity (from eddy covariance) and discuss why these processes are linked in some ecosystems but not others. We conclude that

  17. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  18. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity.

  19. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-08-04

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere.

  20. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L.; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S. A.; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  1. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  2. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  3. Toward health and wellbeing for indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    van Holst Pellekaan, S M; Clague, L

    2005-10-01

    The health of indigenous Australians remains well below that of non-indigenous Australians and indigenous peoples in Canada and New Zealand. Although recent planning has initiated many outstanding, culturally appropriate programmes with indigenous involvement, health statistics only reflect marginal improvement in recent years. It is crucial that positive programmes are sustained with appropriately directed funding. An approach that includes respect for the emotional and spiritual wellbeing of Australia's indigenous peoples will assist to redress some of the disadvantage caused by dispossession of country, language, and identity. It is clear from many programmes that are in place, that primary health care delivered locally through community controlled organisations, will minimise the impact of serious illnesses that currently threaten whole families and communities. Westernized health care systems are slow to learn from indigenous peoples in Australia and other places, that maintenance of wellness, not management of illness should be the goal.

  4. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases. PMID:25756549

  5. Australian bat lyssavirus: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Francis, Joshua R; McCall, Bradley J; Hutchinson, Penny; Powell, Jodie; Vaska, Vikram L; Nourse, Clare

    2014-12-11

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in humans is rare but fatal, with no proven effective therapy. ABLV infection can be prevented by administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis regimen of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. All Australian bats (flying foxes and microbats) should be considered to be carrying ABLV unless proven otherwise. Any bat-related injury (bite, scratch or mucosal exposure to bat saliva or neural tissue) should be notified immediately to the relevant public health unit - no matter how small the injury or how long ago it occurred. Human-to-human transmission of ABLV has not been reported but is theoretically possible. Standard infection control precautions should be employed when managing patients with suspected or confirmed ABLV infection. PMID:25495308

  6. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Simulation of the Australian Mobilesat signalling scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Mushfiqur

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Australian Mobilesat system will provide a range of circuit switched voice/data services using the B-series satellites. The reliability of the signalling scheme between the Network Management Station (NMS) and the mobile terminal (MT) is of critical importance to the performance of the overall system. Simulation results of the performance of the signalling scheme under various channel conditions and coding schemes are presented.

  8. Importance of mentoring in Australian radiology training.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Mentoring is widely accepted as a fundamental component of a number of professions; however, mentoring is underutilized, and its practice is poorly instituted in most Australian radiology training programmes. This article highlights the benefits of mentoring within the radiology training context. Potential barriers to successful mentoring are elucidated, and future pathways for improved implementation and application of mentor programmes with radiology training programmes are presented.

  9. Venom Down Under: Dynamic Evolution of Australian Elapid Snake Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Koludarov, Ivan; Chan, Angelo H. C.; Sanders, Kate; Ali, Syed A.; Hendrikx, Iwan; Dunstan, Nathan; Fry, Bryan G.

    2013-01-01

    and waprin peptides were recovered, including dual domain kunitz-kunitz precursors and the first kunitz-waprin hybrid precursors from elapid snakes. The novel sequences recovered in this study reveal that the huge diversity of unstudied venomous Australian snakes are of considerable interest not only for the investigation of venom and whole organism evolution but also represent an untapped bioresource in the search for novel compounds for use in drug design and development. PMID:24351719

  10. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  11. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  12. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  13. Mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, N J; Kaye, R M; Hood, S; Shrivastava, P; Khursandi, D C S

    2013-09-01

    This survey was designed to evaluate the factors affecting mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists and to investigate current sources of support. An electronic survey was sent to 500 randomly selected Fellows and trainees of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. Questions were related to: anxiety, stress, depression, substance misuse, self-medication, suicide, reporting illness, and help-seeking. Current psychological wellbeing was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A total of 191 completed surveys were received (a response rate of 38%): 26% had attended their general practitioner for mental health issues, of whom half had been diagnosed with a mental illness; 7% of all respondents were currently prescribed medication for this; 25% had previously self-prescribed psychoactive medication; 17% admitted to using alcohol to deal with stress, anxiety or depression; and 8% responded that mental illness had at some point impaired clinical care. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported previous suicidal ideation. Despite a low response rate, and the possibility of responder bias, the mental health of Australian anaesthetists would appear to be subject to common and persistent risk factors, many of which are well described in previous studies. We identify general practitioners as particularly valuable in targeting initiatives for improvements in mental health and welfare. The significant prevalence of suicidal ideation and reluctance to approach senior colleagues with concerns about mental health or welfare issues are specific causes for concern and suggest that further investigation, education and a potential review of support networks is required.

  14. Explaining match outcome in elite Australian Rules football using team performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Back, Nicole; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between team performance indicators and match outcome have been examined in many team sports, however are limited in Australian Rules football. Using data from the 2013 and 2014 Australian Football League (AFL) regular seasons, this study assessed the ability of commonly reported discrete team performance indicators presented in their relative form (standardised against their opposition for a given match) to explain match outcome (Win/Loss). Logistic regression and decision tree (chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID)) analyses both revealed relative differences between opposing teams for "kicks" and "goal conversion" as the most influential in explaining match outcome, with two models achieving 88.3% and 89.8% classification accuracies, respectively. Models incorporating a smaller performance indicator set displayed a slightly reduced ability to explain match outcome (81.0% and 81.5% for logistic regression and CHAID, respectively). However, both were fit to 2014 data with reduced error in comparison to the full models. Despite performance similarities across the two analysis approaches, the CHAID model revealed multiple winning performance indicator profiles, thereby increasing its comparative feasibility for use in the field. Coaches and analysts may find these results useful in informing strategy and game plan development in Australian Rules football, with the development of team-specific models recommended in future.

  15. Evolution of Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus in the Australian Episystem

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Lee; Blasdell, Kim R.; Joubert, D. Albert; Davis, Steven S.; Melville, Lorna; Kirkland, Peter D.; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes a debilitating disease of cattle in Africa, Asia, and Australia; however, its global geodynamics are poorly understood. An evolutionary analysis of G gene (envelope glycoprotein) ectodomain sequences of 97 BEFV isolates collected from Australia during 1956 to 2012 revealed that all have a single common ancestor and are phylogenetically distinct from BEFV sampled in other geographical regions. The age of the Australian clade is estimated to be between 56 and 65 years, suggesting that BEFV has entered the continent on few occasions since it was first reported in 1936 and that the 1955-1956 epizootic was the source of all currently circulating viruses. Notably, the Australian clade has evolved as a single genetic lineage across the continent and at a high evolutionary rate of ∼10−3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. Screening of 66 isolates using monoclonal antibodies indicated that neutralizing antigenic sites G1, G2, and G4 have been relatively stable, although variations in site G3a/b defined four antigenic subtypes. A shift in an epitope at site G3a, which occurred in the mid-1970s, was strongly associated with a K218R substitution. Similarly, a shift at site G3b was associated primarily with substitutions at residues 215, 220, and 223, which map to the tip of the spike on the prefusion form of the G protein. Finally, we propose that positive selection on residue 215 was due to cross-reacting neutralizing antibody to Kimberley virus (KIMV). IMPORTANCE PMID:24227855

  16. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  17. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  18. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  19. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Mechanical Engineering and Fabrication Trades, 1995-1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the mechanical engineering and fabrication trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: mechanical engineering trades; fabrication engineering…

  20. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  1. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  2. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  3. New Visions: Exploring Australian Identity through Films Highlighting Experiences of Indigenous Australians: Year 8 Film Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…

  4. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Automotive Repairs and Service Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the automotive repairs and service trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: motor mechanic, automotive electrician, and panel beater. The…

  5. Improving Dispute Resolution in Australian Universities: Options for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Disputes in Australian universities cost millions of dollars each year that could be spent more fruitfully on core activities such as research and teaching. This paper uses three case studies to examine what we know about disputes and dispute resolution in Australian universities. The impact of changing higher education funding and policy on…

  6. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-07-13

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.

  7. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  8. Some Religious Beliefs and Behaviours of Australian Catholic School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard; Cleary, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Students in Catholic schools make up a significant sub group of the Australian population. As such, studies of this group provide valuable information about the religious beliefs and practices of some Australian youth. Many students in Catholic schools express traditional religious views and have relatively high levels of religious behaviours.…

  9. Australian Catholic Schools Today: School Identity and Leadership Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidhart, Helga; Lamb, Janeen T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenge of faith leadership in Catholic schools. In particular, it reviews Australian research that has aimed to understand how principals conceptualize and enact their role as faith leaders. Consistent with American research, Australian research found that principals saw themselves as playing a leadership role in the…

  10. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  11. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  12. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  13. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  14. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  15. Numeracy in the Making: Twenty Years of Australian Adult Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Betty

    A project that focused on how the field of adult numeracy education had been shaped in Australia over the last 20 years sought answers to these research questions: (1) What does the past tell about adult literacy and numeracy policy, provision, and research? (2) Are Australians numerate? (3) What sort of numeracy activities do Australians engage…

  16. Financial Planning in Australian Universities. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Raj; And Others

    This paper describes resource allocation in Australian universities including the broader context of national restructuring and a case study of one university's attempt to restructure resource allocation within the university. The 1987 restructuring of the Australian system from a binary system to a unified national system and the associated…

  17. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  18. Internet Services and Academic Work: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…

  19. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  20. International Education in Australian Universities: Concepts and Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Fiona; Marginson, Simon; Woock, Roger

    This paper grew out of the research study "Mapping the Internationalization of Higher Education," a 1998-2000 Australian Research Council-funded project. The project's objectives included: documenting the practices of international education in Australian universities; analyzing the cultural, political, and economic assumptions on which they are…

  1. What Do We Know about the Chancellors of Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This research attempts to explore the key social characteristics and demographics of Australian chancellors to determine who they are and where they come from. The chancellor of an Australian university wields an enormous amount of power, from overseeing the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor (VC) to fulfilling various statutory requirements.…

  2. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  3. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  4. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  5. The Australian Curriculum: Excellence or Equity. A Rural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 it was agreed by the Australian Education Ministers that a national curriculum be implemented with the rationale that it would help to ensure high quality education for all young Australians (ACARA, 2012b). One reason for the shift to a standardised national curriculum is so that "School and curriculum authorities can collaborate to ensure…

  6. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  7. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  8. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  9. Investigating the Validity of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Sally A.; Silburn, Sven; Lawrence, David; Goldfeld, Sharon; Sayers, Mary; Oberklaid, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) by investigating its construct and concurrent validity with a subsample of 642 children aged 4 to 5 years drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Construct validity was examined by considering the theoretical…

  10. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  11. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  12. Pearls, Not Problems: Exploring Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the shift in terminology that occurred in a 2-year Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded curriculum renewal project that set out to broadly explore current teaching and learning practice in Indigenous Australian studies (www.teaching4change.edu.au). While we started with the term "Problem-Based Learning", it…

  13. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  14. Unit: The Australian Scene, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    As a part of the interim unit materials in the series produced by the Australian Science Education Project, this teachers' guide is composed of five sections: an introduction to nature in the balance, tests, excursion activities, options, and research activities. Options are under the headings: The Changing Face, Australian Soils, Distribution of…

  15. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  16. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  17. A History of Australian Children's Literature, 1941-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, H. M.

    This book is a systematic examination of the range of fiction available to Australian children from 1941 to 1970. The author not only provides a guide for parents, teachers, librarians, and students who are discovering that there is a considerable body of Australian fiction for children, but he also outlines possible trends and patterns that are…

  18. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  19. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  20. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  1. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  2. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  3. Molecular relationships between Australian annual wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, and two related perennial forms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perennial, Oryza rufipogon distributed from Asia to Australia and the annual O. meridionalis indigenous to Australia are AA genome species in the Oryza. However, recent research has demonstrated that the Australian AA genome perennial populations have maternal genomes more closely related to those of O. meridionalis than to those found in Asian populations of O. rufipogon suggesting that the Australian perennials may represent a new distinct gene pool for rice. Results Analysis of an Oryza core collection covering AA genome species from Asia to Oceania revealed that some Oceania perennials had organellar genomes closely related to that of O meridionalis (meridionalis-type). O. rufipogon accessions from New Guinea carried either the meridionalis-type or rufirpogon-type (like O. rufipogon) organellar genomes. Australian perennials carried only the meridionalis-type organellar genomes when accompanied by the rufipogon-type nuclear genome. New accessions were collected to better characterize the Australian perennials, and their life histories (annual or perennial) were confirmed by field observations. All of the material collected carried only meridionalis-type organellar genomes. However, there were two distinct perennial groups. One of them carried an rufipogon-type nuclear genome similar to the Australian O. rufipogon in the core collection and the other carried an meridionalis-type nuclear genome not represented in the existing collection. Morphologically the rufipogon-type shared similarity with Asian O. rufipogon. The meridionalis-type showed some similarities to O. meridionalis such as the short anthers usually characteristic of annual populations. However, the meridionalis-type perennial was readily distinguished from O. meridionalis by the presence of a larger lemma and higher number of spikelets. Conclusion Analysis of current accessions clearly indicated that there are two distinct types of Australian perennials. Both of them differed

  4. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  5. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  6. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  7. Molecular characterization of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 1 from the liver, and effects of aestivation on its expressions and homocysteine concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle, of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jasmine L Y; Woo, Jia M; Hiong, Kum C; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-05-01

    Homocysteine accumulation has numerous deleterious effects, and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyses the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine and betaine. This study aimed to determine homocysteine concentrations, and mRNA expression levels and protein abundances of bhmt1/Bhmt1 in the liver, kidney and muscle of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, during the induction (6 days), maintenance (6 months) or arousal (3 days after arousal) phase of aestivation. The homocysteine concentration decreased significantly in the liver of P. annectens after 6 days or 6 months of aestivation, but it returned to the control level upon arousal. By contrast, homocysteine concentrations in the kidney and muscle remained unchanged during the three phases of aestivation. The complete coding cDNA sequence of bhmt1 from P. annectens consisted of 1236 bp, coding for 412 amino acids. The Bhmt1 from P. annectens had a close phylogenetic relationship with those from tetrapods and Callorhinchus milii. The expression of bhmt1 was detected in multiple organs/tissues of P. annectens, and this is the first report on the expression of bhmt1/Bhmt1 in animal skeletal muscle. The mRNA and protein expression levels of bhmt1/Bhmt1 were up-regulated in the liver of P. annectens during the induction and maintenance phases of aestivation, possibly to regulate the hepatic homocysteine concentration. The significant increase in hepatic Bhmt1 protein abundance during the arousal phase could be a response to increased cellular methylation for the purpose of tissue reconstruction. Unlike the liver, Bhmt1 expression in the kidney and muscle of P. annectens was regulated translationally, and its up-regulation could be crucial to prevent homocysteine accumulation.

  8. Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 Months of Aestivation in Air or 1 Day of Arousal from 6 Months of Aestivation

    PubMed Central

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  9. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Ip, Yuen K; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  10. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  11. Tectonic evolution of the Western Australian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Geological and geochronological studies in the Western Australian Shield were updated. This terrane bears many similarities to the Indian Shield since they were neighboring parts of Gondwanaland. Western Australia consists of two cratons (Pilbara and Yilgarn) and four orogenic belts (Capricorn, Pingarra, Albany-Fraser, and Patterson), as well as some relatively young (1.6 to 0.75 Ga) sedimentary rocks. The two cratonic blocks are both older than about 2.5 Ga, and the orogenic belts range in age from 2.0 to 0.65 Ga.

  12. Stress in the Indo-Australian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd; Wortel, Rinus

    1986-12-01

    We modelled the state of stress in the Indo-Australian plate in order to investigate quantitatively variations observed in tectonic style. The numerical procedure incorporates the dependence of slab pull and ridge push on the age of the oceanic lithosphere. Estimates are presented for the average net resistive forces at the Himalayan collision zone, the suction force acting on the overriding Indo-Australian plate segment at the Tonga-Kermadec trench and the drag at the base of the lithosphere. Our modelling shows a concentration of compressive stresses of the order of 3-5 kbar in the Ninetyeast Ridge area; the effects of the compressive resistance associated with Himalayan collision and subduction of young lithosphere off the northern part of the Sunda arc are focused in this region. The stress field as calculated gives a consistent explanation for the observed concentration of seismic activity (Stein and Okal, 1978) and significant deformation in the oceanic crust (Weissel et al., 1980; McAdoo and Sandwell, 1985) in the area. The calculated stress field in the area adjacent to the Southeast and Central India ridges is characterized by tension parallel to the spreading axis. This explains the concentration of near-ridge normal faulting seismicity (with T-axes subparallel to the spreading ridge) in the Indian Ocean as recently observed by Bergman et al. (1984) and Wiens and Stein (1984). The regional stress field along the strike of the Sunda arc varies from compression seaward of and parallel to the Sumatra trench segment, to tension perpendicular to the Java-Flores segment. This explains the selective occurrence of well developed grabens seaward off the Java-Flores segment of the trench, observed by Hilde (1983). Our modelling shows that the observed rotation of the stress field (Denham et al., 1979) in the Australian continent is mainly the consequence of its geographic position relative to the surrounding trench segments and the variations of the forces acting

  13. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  14. Occupational safety risk management in Australian mining.

    PubMed

    Joy, J

    2004-08-01

    In the past 15 years, there has been a major safety improvement in the Australian mining industry. Part of this change can be attributed to the development and application of risk assessment methods. These systematic, team-based techniques identify, assess and control unacceptable risks to people, assets, the environment and production. The outcomes have improved mine management systems. This paper discusses the risk assessment approach applied to equipment design and mining operations, as well as the specific risk assessment methodology. The paper also discusses the reactive side of risk management, incident and accident investigation. Systematic analytical methods have also been adopted by regulatory authorities and mining companies to investigate major losses.

  15. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  16. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.

    The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra

  17. Australian immigration between globalization and recession.

    PubMed

    Castles, S; Iredale, R; Vasta, E

    1994-01-01

    "This report has given some idea of the wide-ranging discussions at the Second National Immigration Outlook Conference [held in Sydney, Australia, in 1993], and of the way they reflect vital political, economic, and social issues in a country built upon mass immigration. The strains of globalization, geopolitical reorientation, and economic restructuring are having decisive effects on policies of immigration and multiculturalism. The consequences of such changes are difficult to predict, but in the authors' opinion they could lead to the breakdown of the 'Australian model' which has been remarkably successful in incorporating very large numbers of newcomers from varied backgrounds. The result might be considerable hardship and social tension."

  18. Sporting hero launches Australian "Men Too" campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-02-14

    Top Australian rugby league captain Wally Lewis last month launched a "Men Too" campaign for the Family Planning Association (FPA) in Queensland, Australia. The campaign has been based very closely on Britain's, using a great deal of material from the United Kingdom FPA. Several radio spots have also been produced, and are currently being broadcast on all the commercial stations in community service spots. Future plans include a 30-second television commercial, and the use of the Brisbane Bullets, a popular basketball team, to promote the "male involvement" theme.

  19. Nursing churn and turnover in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to reveal nurses’ experiences and perceptions of turnover in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing turnover is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Method A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Results Key factors affecting nursing turnover were limited career opportunities; poor support; a lack of recognition; and negative staff attitudes. The nursing working environment is characterised by inappropriate skill-mix and inadequate patient-staff ratios; a lack of overseas qualified nurses with appropriate skills; low involvement in decision-making processes; and increased patient demands. These issues impacted upon heavy workloads and stress levels with nurses feeling undervalued and disempowered. Nurses described supportive strategies: improving performance appraisals, responsive preceptorship and flexible employment options. Conclusion Nursing turnover is influenced by the experiences of nurses. Positive steps can be made towards improving workplace conditions and ensuring nurse retention. Improving performance management and work design are strategies that nurse managers could harness to reduce turnover. PMID:24708565

  20. Reframing the Australian nurse teacher competencies: do they reflect the 'REAL' world of nurse teacher practice?

    PubMed

    Guy, Jacqui; Taylor, Christine; Roden, Janet; Blundell, Jennifer; Tolhurst, Gerda

    2011-04-01

    The Australian nurse teacher competencies were introduced in 1996; however, the researchers perceived that changes to the health care system and a nursing workforce shortage may have affected nurse teacher roles over the past decade. This study aimed to explore perceptions of nurse teachers on the applicability of the current Australian nurse teacher competencies to practice, and modify the nurse teacher competencies to better reflect current practice. Methodology utilized mixed methods, and data collection was via focus groups, telephone interviews, and survey data. Results revealed that participants were mostly positive about the original competency statements, although there were some variations between items. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data were: changing trends in health care; preparation for teaching; understanding of the competencies, contextual influences on education role; nurse teachers as change agents, and resource management. Conclusions were that the Australian nurse teacher competencies (1996) were reflective of the current generic roles of nurse teachers however some of the competencies needed reframing to meet the current needs of nurse teachers. However, changes needed to be made in areas such as reducing complex language, inclusion of technology, and cultural competencies. Nurse teachers were supportive of the research because they valued the teacher competencies for reflection on their practice and the development of portfolios, job descriptions and performance appraisals. PMID:21093124

  1. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  2. National Statement for Languages Education in Australian Schools: National Plan for Languages Education in Australian Schools 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Statement for Languages Education in Australian Schools provides an overarching framework for State, Territory and Australian Government activities. It affirms the place of languages education in the school curriculum, and describes the purpose and nature of learning languages. This National Plan for Languages Education in Australian…

  3. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  4. Australian Sphingidae – DNA Barcodes Challenge Current Species Boundaries and Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Rougerie, Rodolphe; Kitching, Ian J.; Haxaire, Jean; Miller, Scott E.; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective We examine the extent of taxonomic and biogeographical uncertainty in a well-studied group of Australian Lepidoptera, the hawkmoths (Sphingidae). Methods We analysed the diversity of Australian sphingids through the comparative analysis of their DNA barcodes, supplemented by morphological re-examinations and sequence information from a nuclear marker in selected cases. The results from the analysis of Australian sphingids were placed in a broader context by including conspecifics and closely related taxa from outside Australia to test taxonomic boundaries. Results Our results led to the discovery of six new species in Australia, one case of erroneously synonymized species, and three cases of synonymy. As a result, we establish the occurrence of 75 species of hawkmoths on the continent. The analysis of records from outside Australia also challenges the validity of current taxonomic boundaries in as many as 18 species, including Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758), a common species that has gained adoption as a model system. Our work has revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized. Most (90%) Australian sphingids are endemic to the continent (45%) or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions (45%). Only seven species (10%) have ranges that extend beyond this major biogeographical boundary toward SE Asia and other regions of the Old World. Main Conclusions This study has established that overlooked cryptic diversity and inaccurate species delineation produced significant misconceptions concerning diversity and distribution patterns in a group of insects that is considered well known taxonomically. Because DNA barcoding represents a straightforward way to test taxonomic boundaries, its implementation can improve the accuracy of primary diversity data in biogeography and conservation studies. PMID:24987846

  5. Rapid change in drift of the Australian plate records collision with Ontong Java plateau.

    PubMed

    Knesel, Kurt M; Cohen, Benjamin E; Vasconcelos, Paulo M; Thiede, David S

    2008-08-01

    The subduction of oceanic plateaux, which contain extraordinarily thick basaltic crust and are the marine counterparts of continental flood-basalt provinces, is an important factor in many current models of plate motion and provides a potential mechanism for triggering plate reorganization. To evaluate such models, it is essential to decipher the history of the collision between the largest and thickest of the world's oceanic plateaux, the Ontong Java plateau, and the Australian plate, but this has been hindered by poor constraints for the arrival of the plateau at the Melanesian trench. Here we present (40)Ar-(39)Ar geochronological data on hotspot volcanoes in eastern Australian that reveal a strong link between collision of the Greenland-sized Ontong Java plateau with the Melanesian arc and motion of the Australian plate. The new ages define a short-lived period of reduced northward plate motion between 26 and 23 Myr ago, coincident with an eastward offset in the contemporaneous tracks of seamount chains in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. These features record a brief westward deflection of the Australian plate as the plateau entered and choked the Melanesian trench 26 Myr ago. From 23 Myr ago, Australia returned to a rapid northerly trajectory at roughly the same time that southwest-directed subduction began along the Trobriand trough. The timing and brevity of this collisional event correlate well with offsets in hotspot seamount tracks on the Pacific plate, including the archetypal Hawaiian chain, and thus provide strong evidence that immense oceanic plateaux, like the Ontong Java, can contribute to initiating rapid change in plate boundaries and motions on a global scale.

  6. Rapid change in drift of the Australian plate records collision with Ontong Java plateau.

    PubMed

    Knesel, Kurt M; Cohen, Benjamin E; Vasconcelos, Paulo M; Thiede, David S

    2008-08-01

    The subduction of oceanic plateaux, which contain extraordinarily thick basaltic crust and are the marine counterparts of continental flood-basalt provinces, is an important factor in many current models of plate motion and provides a potential mechanism for triggering plate reorganization. To evaluate such models, it is essential to decipher the history of the collision between the largest and thickest of the world's oceanic plateaux, the Ontong Java plateau, and the Australian plate, but this has been hindered by poor constraints for the arrival of the plateau at the Melanesian trench. Here we present (40)Ar-(39)Ar geochronological data on hotspot volcanoes in eastern Australian that reveal a strong link between collision of the Greenland-sized Ontong Java plateau with the Melanesian arc and motion of the Australian plate. The new ages define a short-lived period of reduced northward plate motion between 26 and 23 Myr ago, coincident with an eastward offset in the contemporaneous tracks of seamount chains in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. These features record a brief westward deflection of the Australian plate as the plateau entered and choked the Melanesian trench 26 Myr ago. From 23 Myr ago, Australia returned to a rapid northerly trajectory at roughly the same time that southwest-directed subduction began along the Trobriand trough. The timing and brevity of this collisional event correlate well with offsets in hotspot seamount tracks on the Pacific plate, including the archetypal Hawaiian chain, and thus provide strong evidence that immense oceanic plateaux, like the Ontong Java, can contribute to initiating rapid change in plate boundaries and motions on a global scale. PMID:18685705

  7. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness.

  8. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.

    PubMed

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.

  9. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques.

  10. Copper fungicide residues in Australian vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Wightwick, Adam M; Mollah, Mahabubur R; Partington, Debra L; Allinson, Graeme

    2008-04-01

    Copper (Cu) concentrations were measured in Australian vineyard soils to assess the extent and magnitude of Cu accumulation resulting from the use of Cu-based fungicides and to indicate the likely risks to long-term soil fertility. Soil samples were collected from 98 vineyards across 10 grape-growing regions of Australia and analyzed for total Cu concentrations. Ninety-six percent of vineyards surveyed had elevated Cu concentrations in soil compared to the background Cu concentrations in nearby soil in its native state. Concentrations of total B, Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn were similar to background concentrations and below reported toxicity guideline values. Cu concentrations in Australian vineyard soils were generally much lower (6-150 mg kg (-1)) than those reported in the soils of vineyards in parts of Europe (i.e., 130-1280 mg kg (-1)). Concentrations of total Cu were generally below those concentrations reported to cause lethal effects to soil invertebrates; however, Cu exceeded concentrations known to cause sublethal effects (i.e., inhibit growth, affect reproduction, induce avoidance behavior) to those (or related) invertebrates.

  11. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  12. The h-index in Australian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2011-06-01

    The Hirsch h-index is now widely used as a metric to compare individual researchers. To evaluate it in the context of Australian astronomy, the h-index for every member of the Astronomical Society of Australia (ASA) is found using NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services. Percentiles of the h-index distribution are detailed for a variety of categories of ASA members, including students. This enables a list of the top ten Australian researchers by h-index to be produced. These top researchers have h-index values in the range 53

  13. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting. PMID:26035012

  14. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  15. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  16. The Production of Australian Professional Development Policy Texts as a Site of Contest: The Case of the Federal Quality Teacher Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reveals how the provision of teacher professional development is conceptualised within the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme (AGQTP) policy text and its predecessors, and uses these texts to infer the nature of the production practices associated with the development of these policies. The paper argues that multiple…

  17. Spongian diterpenes from Australian Nudibranchs: an anatomically guided chemical study of Glossodoris atromarginata.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Michael J; Mollo, Ernesto; Cimino, Guido; Rungprom, Wimolpun; Garson, Mary J

    2006-07-01

    An Australian population of the nudibranch mollusk Glossodoris atromarginata has been found to contain furanoditerpenes of the spongian series. Spongia-13(16),14-dien-3-one (1) and 3alpha-acetoxy-19-hydroxyspongia-13(16),14-dien-2-one [corrected] (2) were isolated for the first time from a natural source, along with a series of known diterpenes (3-7). Anatomical dissection of the animals revealed the relative distribution and chemical variation of secondary metabolites. Structural studies have provided a basis for chemical comparisons between populations from different geographic locations. PMID:16872151

  18. Stamina, speed and adventure: Australian women and competitive cycling in the 1890s.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The scholarship surrounding women's cycling in Australia during the 1890s is slim. However, a focus on female competitive cycling, just one of many diverse cycling activities that women pursued in this era, reveals a rich seam of information. Accordingly, this paper surveys endurance riding, adventure touring and racing, introducing new historical and biographical detail and highlighting the significance of competitive cycling for women in the late nineteenth century. The discussion shows that women's competitive cycling constituted a significant component of Australian cycling history, and helped to re-define women's identity in an era when feminine roles were in flux and the traditional gender order was being contested.

  19. Secondary eclipses of hot-Jupiters from the Anglo Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, George

    2015-12-01

    Secondary eclipses measure the day-side brightness temperatures of hot-Jupiters. Secondary eclipses measured at multiple photometric bands build up the spectral colours of these planets. We present a set of eclipse observations from the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope, with the aim of building up an empirical understanding of hot-Jupiter atmospheres. From these observations, we can begin to assemble near-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams of hot-Jupiters. Statistical analyses of the eclipse sample have the potential to reveal the presence of clouds, global heat redistribution properties, and the diversity of hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  20. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. PMID:26654863

  1. Three spectrally distinct photoreceptors in diurnal and nocturnal Australian ants

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yuri; Falkowski, Marcin; Narendra, Ajay; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ants are thought to be special among Hymenopterans in having only dichromatic colour vision based on two spectrally distinct photoreceptors. Many ants are highly visual animals, however, and use vision extensively for navigation. We show here that two congeneric day- and night-active Australian ants have three spectrally distinct photoreceptor types, potentially supporting trichromatic colour vision. Electroretinogram recordings show the presence of three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 450 and 550 nm in the night-active Myrmecia vindex and peaks at 370, 470 and 510 nm in the day-active Myrmecia croslandi. Intracellular electrophysiology on individual photoreceptors confirmed that the night-active M. vindex has three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 430 and 550 nm. A large number of the intracellular recordings in the night-active M. vindex show unusually broad-band spectral sensitivities, suggesting that photoreceptors may be coupled. Spectral measurements at different temporal frequencies revealed that the ultraviolet receptors are comparatively slow. We discuss the adaptive significance and the probability of trichromacy in Myrmecia ants in the context of dim light vision and visual navigation. PMID:25994678

  2. Three spectrally distinct photoreceptors in diurnal and nocturnal Australian ants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuri; Falkowski, Marcin; Narendra, Ajay; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2015-06-01

    Ants are thought to be special among Hymenopterans in having only dichromatic colour vision based on two spectrally distinct photoreceptors. Many ants are highly visual animals, however, and use vision extensively for navigation. We show here that two congeneric day- and night-active Australian ants have three spectrally distinct photoreceptor types, potentially supporting trichromatic colour vision. Electroretinogram recordings show the presence of three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 450 and 550 nm in the night-active Myrmecia vindex and peaks at 370, 470 and 510 nm in the day-active Myrmecia croslandi. Intracellular electrophysiology on individual photoreceptors confirmed that the night-active M. vindex has three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 430 and 550 nm. A large number of the intracellular recordings in the night-active M. vindex show unusually broad-band spectral sensitivities, suggesting that photoreceptors may be coupled. Spectral measurements at different temporal frequencies revealed that the ultraviolet receptors are comparatively slow. We discuss the adaptive significance and the probability of trichromacy in Myrmecia ants in the context of dim light vision and visual navigation.

  3. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers.

  4. Three spectrally distinct photoreceptors in diurnal and nocturnal Australian ants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuri; Falkowski, Marcin; Narendra, Ajay; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2015-06-01

    Ants are thought to be special among Hymenopterans in having only dichromatic colour vision based on two spectrally distinct photoreceptors. Many ants are highly visual animals, however, and use vision extensively for navigation. We show here that two congeneric day- and night-active Australian ants have three spectrally distinct photoreceptor types, potentially supporting trichromatic colour vision. Electroretinogram recordings show the presence of three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 450 and 550 nm in the night-active Myrmecia vindex and peaks at 370, 470 and 510 nm in the day-active Myrmecia croslandi. Intracellular electrophysiology on individual photoreceptors confirmed that the night-active M. vindex has three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 430 and 550 nm. A large number of the intracellular recordings in the night-active M. vindex show unusually broad-band spectral sensitivities, suggesting that photoreceptors may be coupled. Spectral measurements at different temporal frequencies revealed that the ultraviolet receptors are comparatively slow. We discuss the adaptive significance and the probability of trichromacy in Myrmecia ants in the context of dim light vision and visual navigation. PMID:25994678

  5. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers. PMID:20346383

  6. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  7. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  8. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Nearly two decades of information report apparent megatsunamis along the SE coast of Australia and yet these interpretations are still highly controversial. This work has proven to be particularly influential in guiding more recent megatsunami researchers, and yet it has never been critically evaluated in the light of recent advances in tsunami research. Much of the controversy hinges upon the nature of the original observations, event chronologies, and source identification. The most recent incarnation of the megatsunami hypothesis is indicative of the controversy. A supposed impact crater to the SW of New Zealand is linked with abandoned Maori settlements, Maori legends, and high elevation beach sand deposits in New Zealand, and apparent megatsunami evidence in eastern Australia and on Lord Howe Island. A date of around AD1500 is proposed. There are two key issues here. First, is there currently any evidence for contemporaneous trans Tasman palaeotsunamis (or megatsunamis) in the Holocene? Second, how reliable is the evidence? The first issue was addressed by comparing Holocene events from the Australian and New Zealand palaeotsunami databases. Up to five possible contemporaneous events were identified, but at the same time flaws in the underpinning data were highlighted. To start with, there is no consistent approach to the interpretation of chronological information comprising the databases. A consistent recalibration of all available radiocarbon data was carried out for both databases. This was based upon information contained in the relevant original papers. No clusters of radiocarbon ages were found for apparent megatsunami deposits along the SE coast of Australia. Clusters were found however, in New Zealand for inferred local and regional events. Next, the nature and extent of physical evidence used to determine tsunami emplacement were found to be highly variable. A preliminary reassessment of the physical evidence casts doubt upon the interpretation of

  9. The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, P.; Muhlhaus, H.; Lister, G.; Dyskin, A.; Place, D.; Appelbe, B.; Nimmervoll, N.; Abramson, D.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical simulation of the physics and dynamics of the entire earth system offers an outstanding opportunity for advancing earth system science and technology but represents a major challenge due to the range of scales and physical processes involved, as well as the magnitude of the software engineering effort required. However, new simulation and computer technologies are bringing this objective within reach. Under a special competitive national funding scheme to establish new Major National Research Facilities (MNRF), the Australian government together with a consortium of Universities and research institutions have funded construction of the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator (ACcESS). The Simulator or computational virtual earth will provide the research infrastructure to the Australian earth systems science community required for simulations of dynamical earth processes at scales ranging from microscopic to global. It will consist of thematic supercomputer infrastructure and an earth systems simulation software system. The Simulator models and software will be constructed over a five year period by a multi-disciplinary team of computational scientists, mathematicians, earth scientists, civil engineers and software engineers. The construction team will integrate numerical simulation models (3D discrete elements/lattice solid model, particle-in-cell large deformation finite-element method, stress reconstruction models, multi-scale continuum models etc) with geophysical, geological and tectonic models, through advanced software engineering and visualization technologies. When fully constructed, the Simulator aims to provide the software and hardware infrastructure needed to model solid earth phenomena including global scale dynamics and mineralisation processes, crustal scale processes including plate tectonics, mountain building, interacting fault system dynamics, and micro-scale processes that control the geological, physical and dynamic

  10. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB

  11. Effect of Australian elapid venoms on blood coagulation: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-17).

    PubMed

    Gulati, Abhishek; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Duffull, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Snake venoms contain toxins that activate the coagulation network and cause venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. A previously developed mathematical model of the coagulation network was refined and used to describe and predict the time course of changes in the coagulation factors following envenomation by Brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.), Tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), Rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus) and Hoplocephalus spp. (Stephens banded, Pale headed and Broad headed). Simulations of the time course of the change in coagulation factors were compared to data obtained from a large prospective study of Australian snake bites - the Australian Snakebite Project. The model predictions were also compared against data for partial and complete VICC obtained from the same study. The model simulations were used to understand the differences in consumption and recovery of clotting factors in partial versus complete VICC as well as among bites from different snake types. The model suggested that the venoms were absorbed almost instantaneously and provided a reasonable prediction of the observed concentration of clotting factors over time in patients bitten by Australian elapid snakes. The model predictions suggested a higher consumption of factors (fibrinogen, II and IX in particular) in patients with complete VICC compared to those with partial VICC. The model also predicted that snakes with "Xa-like" venoms may produce a less severe VICC than snakes with "Xa:Va-like" venoms.

  12. Home advantage in the Australian Football League.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen R

    2005-04-01

    The results of this study on home advantage in Australian rules football demonstrate that individual clubs have different home advantages. Traditional measures of home advantage as applied to whole competitions such as percentage of games won, and alternative measures such as average margin of victory for the home team, are calculated. Problems with these measures are discussed. Individual home advantages for each team are obtained using a linear model fitted to individual match margins; the resultant home advantages are analysed, and variations and possible causes or groupings of home advantage are proposed. It is shown that some models allowing different home advantages for different clubs are a significant improvement over previous models assuming a common home advantage. The results show a strong isolation effect, with non-Victorian teams having large home advantages, and lend support to the conclusion that crowd effects and ground familiarity are a major determinant of home advantage.

  13. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  14. Driving violations observed: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Glendon, A Ian

    2007-08-01

    This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers.

  15. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  16. The Australian experiment with ETS-V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  17. Tackling inequalities in health: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, M; Judge, K; Hunter, D J; Maxwell, R; Scheuer, M A

    1993-03-20

    Federal and state governments in Australia have embarked on a series of national initiatives which show a firm commitment to tackling social inequalities in health. The development of national goals and targets for health, for example, covers social and environmental conditions and sets differential targets for specific social groups with very poor health status. In a complementary initiative, a wide ranging analysis of the health care system--the National Health Strategy--has as one of its main objectives to improve the equitable impact of the health system. Where problems of access to and quality of services have been exposed, policies have been devised to deal with them. The exceptionally poor health of the Aboriginal community has elicited cross party support for action. Resources have been allocated to implement the National Aboriginal Health Strategy: to improve living and working conditions, education, and employment opportunities. Britain can glean much from the Australian experience. PMID:8490345

  18. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  19. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Craig K; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns. PMID:25161902

  20. Commercialization of Australian advanced infrared technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redpath, John; Brown, Allen; Woods, William F.

    1995-09-01

    For several decades, the main thrust in infrared technology developments in Australia has been in two main sensor technologies: uncooled silicon chip printed bolometric sensors pioneered by DSTO's Kevin Liddiard, and precision engineered high quality Cadmium Mercury Telluride developed at DSTO under the guidance of Dr. Richard Hartley. In late 1993 a low cost infrared imaging device was developed at DSTO as a sensor for guided missiles. The combination of these three innovations made up a unique package that enabled Australian industry to break through the barriers of commercializing infrared technology. The privately owned company, R.J. Optronics Pty Ltd undertook the process of re-engineering a selection of these DSTO developments to be applicable to a wide range of infrared products. The first project was a novel infrared imager based on a Palmer scan (translated circle) mechanism. This device applies a spinning wedge and a single detector, it uses a video processor to convert the image into a standard rectangular format. Originally developed as an imaging seeker for a stand-off weapon, it is producing such high quality images at such a low cost that it is now also being adapted for a wide variety of other military and commercial applications. A technique for electronically stabilizing it has been developed which uses the inertial signals from co-mounted sensors to compensate for platform motions. This enables it to meet the requirements of aircraft, marine vessels and masthead sight applications without the use of gimbals. After tests on a three-axis motion table, several system configurations have now been successfully operated on a number of lightweight platforms, including a Cessna 172 and the Australian made Seabird Seeker aircraft.

  1. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Craig K.; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns. PMID:25161902

  2. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  3. Contemporary issues in Australian midwifery regulation.

    PubMed

    Brodie, P; Barclay, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on research that examined the Nurses' Acts, regulations and current policies of each state and territory in Australia, in order to determine their adequacy in regulating the education and practice of midwifery. This is part of a three-year study (Australian Midwifery Action Project) set up to identify and investigate barriers to midwifery within the provision of mainstream maternity services in Australia. Through an in-depth examination and comparison of key factors in the various statutes, the paper identifies their effect on contemporary midwifery roles and practices. The work assessed whether the current regulatory system that subsumes midwifery into nursing is adequate in protecting the public appropriately and ensuring that minimum professional standards are met. This is of particular importance in Australia, where many maternity health care services are seeking to maximise midwives' contributions through the development of new models of care that increase midwives' autonomy and level of accountability. A lack of consistency and evidence of discrepancies in the standards of midwifery education and practice regulation nationally are identified. When these are considered alongside the planned development of a three-year Bachelor of Midwifery, due to be introduced into Australia in mid-2002, there exists an urgent need for regulatory change. The need is also identified for appropriate national midwifery competency standards that meet consumer, employer and practitioner expectations, which can be used to guide state and territory regulations. We argue the importance of a need for change in the view and legal positioning of the Australian Nursing Council and all Nurses Boards regarding the identification of midwifery as distinct from nursing, and substantiate it with a rationale for a national and consistent approach to midwifery regulation.

  4. Australian Twin Registry: 30 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L; Foley, Debra L; White, Paul A; Pollaers, Vincent

    2013-02-01

    The Australian Twin Registry (ATR) is a national volunteer resource of twin pairs and higher-order multiples willing to consider participating in health, medical, and scientific research. The vision of the ATR is 'to realize the full potential of research involving twins to improve the health and well-being of all Australians'. The ATR has been funded continuously by the National Health and Medical Council for more than 30 years. Its core functions entail the recruitment and retention of twin members, the maintenance of an up-to-date database containing members' contact details and baseline information, and the promotion and provision of open access to researchers from all institutes in Australia, and their collaborators, in a fair and equitable manner. The ATR is administered by The University of Melbourne, which acts as custodian. Since the late 1970s the ATR has enrolled more than 40,000 twin pairs of all zygosities and facilitated more than 500 studies that have produced at least 700 peer-reviewed publications from classical twin studies, co-twin control studies, within-pair comparisons, twin family studies, longitudinal twin studies, randomized controlled trials, and epigenetics studies, as well as studies of issues specific to twins. New initiatives include: a Health and Life Style Questionnaire; data collection, management, and archiving using a secure online software program (The Ark); and the International Network of Twin Registries. The ATR's expertise and 30 years of experience in providing services to national and international twin studies has made it an important resource for research across a broad range of disciplines.

  5. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important. PMID:19216783

  6. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an Australian perspective on students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). Consideration is given to the cultural issues, structure of special services, identification procedures, delivery system, and types of services provided.

  7. Essential books and journals in clinical neuropsychology: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Ryan, Joseph J

    2004-04-01

    To assist in the identification of key professional resources for neuropsychologists, 214 Australian clinical neuropsychologists were asked to identify "essential" reference materials. Fifty members of the Australian College of Clinical Neuropsychologists returned useable surveys. Forty-three respondents provided information about which clinical neuropsychology books and journals they considered essential and why. Results showed 15 books, including 3 Australian books, and 31 journals were included in the essential reading list of at least 10% of this sample. Compared to similar previous surveys (predominantly conducted overseas and mostly over 10 years ago), the results of this survey suggest that, Australian neuropsychologists have similar views about the top ranking books and journals in clinical neuropsychology as their overseas counterparts. An exception to this general trend may be the status of reference books containing norms, which appear to be growing in perceived importance. Importantly, the results of this survey may be used to help practitioners identify key professional resources in the area of clinical neuropsychology.

  8. What's in the Biota Bag? Examining Australian Fossil Biota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity in which candy is used to represent some Australian fossils with students asked to examine specimens and locate on a map of Australia where it might have been discovered. (Author/MM)

  9. Selection Methods for Undergraduate Admissions in Australia. Does the Australian Predominate Entry Scheme the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the Australian entry score system, the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR), and its usage as a selection mechanism for undergraduate places in Australian higher education institutions and asks whether its role as the main selection criterion will continue with the introduction of demand driven funding in 2012.…

  10. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000) of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R2) of the variance found between respondents’ knowledge scores. Conclusion Australian pregnant women’s knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure

  11. The emergence of sarcoptic mange in Australian wildlife: an unresolved debate.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Tamieka A; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Polkinghorne, Adam; Carver, Scott

    2016-06-02

    Due to its suspected increase in host range and subsequent global diversification, Sarcoptes scabiei has important implications at a global scale for wildlife conservation and animal and human health. The introduction of this pathogen into new locations and hosts has been shown to produce high morbidity and mortality, a situation observed recently in Australian and North American wildlife.Of the seven native animal species in Australia known to be infested by S. scabiei, the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus) suffers the greatest with significant population declines having been observed in New South Wales and Tasmania. The origins of sarcoptic mange in Australian native animals are poorly understood, with the most consistent conclusion being that mange was introduced by settlers and their dogs and subsequently becoming a major burden to native wildlife. Four studies exist addressing the origins of mange in Australia, but all Australian S. scabiei samples derive from only two of these studies. This review highlights this paucity of phylogenetic knowledge of S. scabiei within Australia, and suggests further research is needed to confidently determine the origin, or multiple origins, of this parasite.At the global scale, numerous genetic studies have attempted to reveal how the host species and host geographic location influence S. scabiei phylogenetics. This review includes an analysis of the global literature, revealing that inconsistent use of gene loci across studies significantly influences phylogenetic inference. Furthermore, by performing a contemporary analytical approach on existing data, it is apparent that (i) new S. scabiei samples, (ii) appropriate gene loci targets, and (iii) advanced phylogenetic approaches are necessary to more confidently comprehend the origins of mange in Australia. Advancing this field of research will aid in understanding the mechanisms of spillover for mange and other parasites globally.

  12. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided. PMID:26250039

  13. Screening the dykes of Oz: lesbian representation on Australian television.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a survey of lesbian representation in Australian-made television programming. Beginning with the 1970s, when Australia led the Anglophone world in terms of queer representation on television, the article discusses major instances of queer women appearing on Australian television including in such shows as Prisoner, Home & Away, Neighbours, All Saints, The Secret Life of Us, Last Man Standing, and Kick. PMID:19197661

  14. Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

    2009-11-01

    Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.

  15. Structural impediments to TQM in Australian health care.

    PubMed

    Degeling, P; Carnegie, M

    1995-01-01

    The culture of quality called for by total quality management (TQM) has much to recommend it. Australian experience, however, suggests that it is not something that can easily be added to the profession-based structures and cultures prevailing in most Australian hospitals. Implementing TQM is not just a matter of advocating it. The institutional transformation implied by TQM requires additional action on multiple fronts, both internal and external to the hospital.

  16. Temporal segregation of the Australian and Antarctic blue whale call types (Balaenoptera musculus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Adams, Tempe; Mellinger, David K.; Balcazar, Naysa E.; Klinck, Karolin; Hall, Evelyn J. S.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined recordings from a 15-month (May 2009–July 2010) continuous acoustic data set collected from a bottom-mounted passive acoustic recorder at a sample frequency of 6kHz off Portland, Victoria, Australia (38°33′01″S, 141°15′13″E) off southern Australia. Analysis revealed that calls from both subspecies were recorded at this site, and general additive modeling revealed that the number of calls varied significantly across seasons. Antarctic blue whales were detected more frequently from July to October 2009 and June to July 2010, corresponding to the suspected breeding season, while Australian blue whales were recorded more frequently from March to June 2010, coinciding with the feeding season. In both subspecies, the number of calls varied with time of day; Antarctic blue whale calls were more prevalent in the night to early morning, while Australian blue whale calls were detected more often from midday to early evening. Using passive acoustic monitoring, we show that each subspecies adopts different seasonal and daily call patterns which may be related to the ecological strategies of these subspecies. This study demonstrates the importance of passive acoustics in enabling us to understand and monitor subtle differences in the behavior and ecology of cryptic sympatric marine mammals. PMID:26937046

  17. Description and genetic characterisation of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) larvae parasitic in Australian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Gasser, Robin; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-06-01

    Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marine fish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marine fishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish. PMID:23085044

  18. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  19. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  20. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 there were 165 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network. This number was higher than the number reported in 2013, but was the second lowest reported since inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) are notifiable in Australia, and there were 170 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) in 2014. This was also higher than in 2013, but was the second lowest number of IMD cases reported to the NNDSS. The meningococcal serogroup was determined for 161/165 (98%) of laboratory confirmed IMD cases. Of these, 80.1% (129 cases) were serogroup B infections; 1.9% (3 cases) were serogroup C infections; 9.9% (16 cases) were serogroup W135; and 8.1% (13 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years) respectively. Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over, where serogroups Y and W135 combined predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B was higher than in 2013, but has decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was the lowest reported to date. The number of IMD cases caused by serogroup Y was similar to previous years, but the number of IMD cases caused serogroup W135 was higher than in 2013. The proportion of IMD cases caused by serogroups Y and W135 has increased in recent years, whilst the overall number of cases of IMD has decreased. Molecular typing was able to be performed on 106 of the 165 IMD cases. In 2014, the most common porA genotypes circulating in Australia were P1.7-2,4 and P1.22,14. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. There were 2 isolates that were resistant to rifampicin

  1. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented.

  2. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  3. The Australian health system: continuity and change.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Harris, R D

    1998-01-01

    The health of Australians, with the exception of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, compares favourably with other industrialised nations. Since 1984, universal access for citizens to medical and public hospital services has been achieved under a national Health Insurance Scheme called Medicare, partially funded by a 1.4 percent levy on all taxpayers. Medicare found early widespread support from the electorate but continues to be buffeted by a minority coalition of some medical associations, private health insurers, and conservative "libertarian" politicians. Over the decade since its inception, Medicare has provided stability in maintaining total health costs around 8 percent of GDP. This has been largely due to capping hospital costs via Commonwealth-State agreements. Medicare has failed in the past five years to contain medical costs which have increased proportionally with increases in the medical workforce. This article examines the structure and performance of Medicare and its role within Australia's overall health system. Benefits of a universal access insurance program are outlined together with challenges associated with inequities in health status, geography, aging of the population, burgeoning technology, ideological diversity, and an economic climate requiring cost containment and favouring privatisation and the role of the market. It can be concluded that, despite these challenges, universal access to health care is here to stay. Australia's Medicare program has become popular with the electorate. PMID:10338721

  4. The colorful language of Australian flowers.

    PubMed

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G

    2014-01-01

    The enormous increase in phylogenetic information in recent years has allowed many old questions to be reexamined from a macroevolutionary perspective. We have recently considered evolutionary convergence in floral colors within pollination syndromes, using bird-pollinated species in Australia. We combined quantitative measurements of floral reflectance spectra, models of avian color vision, and a phylogenetic tree of 234 Australian species to show that bird-pollinated flowers as a group do not have colors that are significantly different from the colors of insect-pollinated flowers. However, about half the bird-pollinated flowers have convergently evolved a narrow range of colors with dominant long-wavelength reflection far more often than would be expected by chance. These convergent colors would be seen as distinctly different from other floral colors in our sample when viewed by honeyeaters (family Meliphagidae), birds with a phylogenetically ancestral type of color vision and the dominant avian pollinators in Australia. Our analysis shows how qualitative ideas in natural history, like the concept of pollination syndromes, can be given more precise definition and rigorous statistical testing that takes into account phylogenetic information. PMID:25346795

  5. Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

    1990-08-01

    This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum. PMID:2246391

  6. Petroleum potential of northern Australian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Ross, J.G.

    1986-11-01

    A study of the publicly available data from the offshore northern Australian continental shelf has shown that three prospective sedimentary sequences are present. A Cenozoic basin possibly containing Miocene reefal carbonates exists in the west part of the region, a structurally distinct Mesozoic basin containing thick sandstone intervals underlies the Cenozoic, and a thick paleozoic basin, possibly containing Devonian reefs and younger Paleozoic sandstone intervals, lies southeast of the Aru Archipelago and east of a north-northeast-trending ridge located along the eastern edges of the Aru and Timor Troughs. Paleozoic sediments also underlie the Mesozoic west of this ridge. The cenozoic and Mesozoic basins and the western Paleozoic subbasin are separated by major sequence boundaries. All the basins present hydrocarbon potential to a greater or lesser extent. The Mesozoic basin will probably be the prime target for exploration over the next few years, but secondary objectives in Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments should not be ignored. The numerous different play types identified in this study, the positive signs from exploration in the early 1970s, the recent neighboring discoveries, and improvements in seismic data quality provide an incentive for oil companies to conduct detailed exploration of the area. 7 figures.

  7. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in all states and territories. In 2010 the in vitro susceptibility of 3,997 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 29% and, with the exception of the Northern Territory, ranged from 22% in Queensland to 42% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 35% nationally (excepting the Northern Territory), ranging from 28% in Queensland to 44% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 4.8% of isolates. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with an MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, and resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio of cases was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  8. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  9. Control of Legionnaires' disease -- An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbent, C.R.

    1999-07-01

    Major outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (causative agent, ionella spp.) occurred in Australia during the 1980s and early 1990s. The putative sources were primarily heat rejection systems of the recirculating cooling water type (cooling towers). These outbreaks prompted engineers to carry out field studies on which to base improved design and maintenance practices for such heat rejection systems. Health authorities introduced regulations and guidelines to encourage owners to establish and maintain hygienic conditions in these and other systems. Central to this progress is the recognition that Legionella is essentially a biofilm organism and that it prefers the surfaces of warmer parts of systems for growth. This is particularly so if there are deadlegs in the system or accumulations of sediment. Biocidal water treatment approaches must therefore take biofilm control into account. A recent Australian innovation is the preparation of a national performance-based regulatory standard to complement earlier standards that are of a prescriptive nature. The aim of this new standard is to allow alternative strategies that may not necessitate system shutdown for regular cleaning yet provide for an equivalent level of system hygiene. The standard requires that a risk assessment strategy be implemented involving identification of performance indicators and control and monitoring of parameters likely to move beyond stipulated limits.

  10. The Australian response: pandemic influenza preparedness.

    PubMed

    Horvath, John S; McKinnon, Moira; Roberts, Leslee

    2006-11-20

    Australia's preparedness for a potential influenza pandemic involves many players, from individual health carers to interdepartmental government committees. It embraces a wide number of strategies from the management of the disease to facilitating business continuity. The key strategy underlying Australia's planned response is an intensive effort to reduce transmission of the virus. This includes actions to reduce the likelihood of entry of the virus into the country and to contain outbreaks when they occur. Containment will provide time to allow production of a matched vaccine. The health strategies are outlined in the Australian health management plan for pandemic influenza. The plan is accompanied by technical annexes setting out key considerations and guidelines in the areas of clinical management and infection control. National plans present overall strategies and guidance, but the operational details can only be determined by individual states and territories, regions, and the services themselves. Primary health care practices will be on the frontline of an influenza pandemic. Every practice needs a plan that defines the roles of staff, incorporates infection control and staff protection measures, and considers business continuity. Most importantly, a practice needs to know how to implement that plan. PMID:17115949

  11. Microsatellite variation in the Australian dingo.

    PubMed

    Wilton, A N; Steward, D J; Zafiris, K

    1999-01-01

    The dingo is thought to have arrived in Australia from Asia about 5,000 years ago. It is currently in danger because of interbreeding with domestic dogs. Several morphological, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics distinguish dingoes from domestic dog. Skull morphometrics are currently used to try to classify wild canids as pure dingo, dog, or hybrid. Molecular techniques based on diagnostic DNA differences between dogs and dingoes would make a much more reliable and practical test. A small number of markers (about 10) would allow detection of animals with domestic dog in their ancestry several generations back. We have typed 16 dingoes and 16 dogs of mixed breed for 14 microsatellites. The amount of variation in the Australian dingo is much less than in domestic dogs. The size distributions of microsatellites in the two groups usually overlap. The number of alleles in the dingo is much smaller in all cases. One dinucleotide repeat locus shows a size difference of 1 bp in allele classes between dog and dingo. This locus may be diagnostic for dog or dingo ancestry. The differences in distributions of alleles at other loci can also be used to classify animals using a likelihood method. PMID:9987915

  12. Instrumentation at the Anglo-Australian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2004-09-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) has an instrumentation group for engineering, design, and fabrication that integrates tightly with an energetic group of instrument scientists1 to develop complex astronomical instruments. This instrumentation group puts ideas for innovative technical solutions generated by the instrument scientist group into reality. One demonstration of past achievement is the highly ambitious and successful 2dF instrument that yielded invaluable scientific insight into the cosmological structure of the universe. The more recent successes of the instrumentation group include the OzPoz fiber positioner for the FLAMES facility on the VLT and the award-winning, imaging and multi-object IRIS-2 infrared spectrograph for the AAT. VPH gratings were first put into action in LDSS++ on the AAT and numerous VPH gratings are now in routine use on the 6dF spectrograph for the UKST. Under development are a completely new and unique fiber positioning scheme (Echidna) for use in the FMOS instrument for Subaru; a double-beamed, VPH-based, bench-mounted spectrograph for 2dF; new IR and optical detector controllers; a renovation of the telescope and instrument control systems for the AAT; and a feasibility study for an Echidna-style positioner for the Gemini telescopes. Several other design studies are underway for new instrument technologies using leading edge and innovative concepts in robotics and fibers. The synergy between our scientists and engineers establishes a sound basis for solving the instrumentation challenges facing us.

  13. The Australian SKA Pathfinder: First Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a precursor and technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometre Array.A specialist wide-field survey instrument, ASKAP compises 36 x 12m dish antennas with a maximum separation of 6km. The array operates in the frequency range 700 - 1800 MHz and has an instantaneous bandwidth of 300 MHz. Each dish is mounted with a 'phased array feed', a radio receiver that dramatically enhances the telescope's field-of-view from 1 to 30 square degrees. ASKAP is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory, Australia's core site for the SKA.Ten Science Survey Projects have been established by teams of more than 600 astronomers from around the world. Astronomical research topics tackled by these teams include galaxy evolution, cosmic magnetism, the history of gas in galaxies and cosmology. A program of ASKAP Early Science will commence in late 2015. The 6-antenna Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) is currently being used by the commissioning team and at the time of writing has produced its first scientific discovery paper.In this talk, hear the ASKAP Project Scientist report some of the exciting new capabilities demonstrated by ASKAP and learn about the first scientific discoveries made by the commissioning and early science team.

  14. Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

    1990-08-01

    This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum.

  15. Ocean circulation on the North Australian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The ocean circulation on Australia's Northern Shelf is dominated by the Monsoon and influenced by large-scale interannual variability. These driving forces exert an ocean circulation that influences the deep Timor Sea Passage of the Indonesian Throughflow, the circulation on the Timor and Arafura Shelves and, further downstream, the Leeuwin Current. Seasonal maxima of northeastward (southwestward) volume transports on the shelf are almost symmetric and exceed 10 6 m 3/s in February (June). The associated seasonal cycle of vertical upwelling from June to August south of 8.5°S and between 124°E and 137.5°E exceeds 1.5×10 6 m 3/s across 40 m depth. During El Niño events, combined anomalies from the seasonal means of high regional wind stresses and low inter-ocean pressure gradients double the northeastward volume transport on the North Australian Shelf to 1.5×10 6 m 3/s which accounts for 20% of the total depth-integrated transport across 124°E and reduce the total transport of the Indonesian Throughflow. Variability of heat content on the shelf is largely determined by Pacific and Indian Ocean equatorial wind stress anomalies with some contribution from local wind stress forcing.

  16. Mortality of discards from southeastern Australian beach seines and gillnets.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B; Brand, Craig P; Uhlmann, Sebastian S

    2008-06-19

    Two experiments were done in an Australian estuary to quantify the mortalities and contributing factors for key species discarded during 8 and 9 deployments of commercial beach (or shore) seines and gillnets, respectively. In both experiments, bycatches (2347 individuals comprising 16 species) were handled according to conventional practices and assessed for immediate mortalities before live samples of selected species were discarded into replicate cages along with appropriate controls, and monitored for short-term mortalities (< or =10 d). All of the seined or gilled fish were alive prior to discarding. During the beach seine experiment, 20% of caged seined-and-discarded surf bream Acanthopagrus australis (n = 290) were dead after 5 d, with most mortalities occurring between the second and fifth day. In the gillnet experiment, 42 and 11% of gilled-and-discarded A. australis (n = 161) and lesser salmon catfish Neoarius graeffei (n = 67), respectively, died during a 10 d monitoring period, mostly within the first 5 d. There were no deaths in any controls for these fish. Mixed-effects logistic models revealed that the mortality of A. australis discarded from both gears was significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with their total length, while N. graeffei had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater (5-fold) probability of dying when jellyfish Catostylus sp. were present in the gillnet. Simple modifications to the operations of beach seines and gillnets and/or post-capture handling procedures, such as close regulation of size selectivity for the target species, careful removal of fish from meshes, and abstention from setting during high abundances of jellyfish will maximise the survival of discarded bycatch. PMID:18714684

  17. Stochastically-forced Decadal Variability in Australian Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taschetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Iconic Australian dry and wet periods were driven by anomalous conditions in the tropical oceans, such as the worst short-term drought in the southeast in 1982 associated with the strong El Niño and the widespread "Big Wet" in 1974 linked with a La Niña event. The association with oceanic conditions makes droughts predictable to some extent. However, prediction can be difficult when there is no clear external forcing such as El Niños. Can dry spells be triggered and maintained with no ocean memory? In this study, we investigate the potential role of internal multi-century atmospheric variability in controlling the frequency, duration and intensity of long-term dry and wet spells over Australia. Two multi-century-scale simulations were performed with the NCAR CESM: (1) a fully-coupled simulation (CPLD) and (2) an atmospheric simulation forced by a seasonal SST climatology derived from the coupled experiment (ACGM). Results reveal that droughts and wet spells can indeed be generated by internal variability of the atmosphere. Those internally generated events are less severe than those forced by oceanic variability, however the duration of dry and wet spells longer than 3 years is comparable with and without the ocean memory. Large-scale ocean modes of variability seem to play an important role in producing continental-scale rainfall impacts over Australia. While the Pacific Decadal Oscillation plays an important role in generating droughts in the fully coupled model, perturbations of monsoonal winds seem to be the main trigger of dry spells in the AGCM case. Droughts in the mid-latitude regions such as Tasmania can be driven by perturbations in the Southern Annular Mode, not necessarily linked to oceanic conditions even in the fully-coupled model. The mechanisms behind internally-driven mega-droughts and mega-wets will be discussed.

  18. Antigenic compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex in an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Marotte, Lauren R; Hawkes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellar cortex is apparently uniform in composition, but a complex heterogeneous pattern can be revealed by using biochemical markers such as zebrin II/aldolase C, which is expressed by a subset of Purkinje cells that form a highly reproducible array of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes. The architecture revealed by zebrin II expression is conserved among many taxa of birds and mammals. In this report zebrin II immunohistochemistry has been used in both section and whole-mount preparations to analyze the cerebellar architecture of the Australian tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). The gross appearance of the wallaby cerebellum is remarkable, with unusually elaborate cerebellar lobules with multiple sublobules and fissures. However, despite the morphological complexity, the underlying zone and stripe architecture is conserved and the typical mammalian organization is present. PMID:22907194

  19. No association between XMRV or related gammaretroviruses in Australian prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a gammaretrovirus reported to be associated with prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). While the association of XMRV with CFS and PC has recently been discredited, no studies have been performed in Australian patients to investigate the association between PC and XMRV or related murine leukemia virus (MLV) in matched PC and normal tissue. Methods Genomic DNA (gDNA) was purified from matched normal and cancer formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate tissue from 35 Australian PC patients with Gleason scores ranging from 7 – 10. The presence of the ribonuclease L (RNase L) polymorphism R462Q was determined by allele specific PCR. Samples were screened for XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) variants by qPCR. Contaminating mouse DNA was detected using qPCR targeting mouse intracisternal A particle long terminal repeat DNA. Results gDNA was successfully purified from 94% (66/70) of normal and cancer FFPE prostate tissues. RNase L typing revealed 8% were homozygous (QQ), 60% were heterozygous (RQ) and 32% were wild-type (RR) for the RNase L mutation. None of the 66 samples tested were positive for XMRV or related MLV sequences using broad MLV or XMRV specific primers with detection sensitivities of 1 viral copy of MLV/XMRV and XMRV DNA, respectively. Conclusions Using highly sensitive qPCR we found no evidence of XMRV or related gammaretroviruses in prostate tissues from 35 Australian PC patients. Our findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that XMRV is a laboratory contaminant that has no role in the aetiology of PC. PMID:23305518

  20. Pathotyping of Australian isolates of Marek's disease virus and association of pathogenicity with meq gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Renz, Katrin G; Cooke, Julie; Clarke, Nadeene; Cheetham, Brian F; Hussain, Zahid; Fakhrul Islam, A F M; Tannock, Gregory A; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    We report the pathotyping of six Australian isolates of Marek's disease virus-1 (MDV1) isolated between 1992 and 2004 and association of virulence with meq gene polymorphism. Unvaccinated and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT)-vaccinated specific pathogen free chickens were challenged at day 5 with 500 plaque forming units of Marek's disease virus. The isolates induced gross Marek's disease lesions in 53 to 94% of unvaccinated chickens, and HVT induced a protective index ranging from 38 to 100% by 56 days post challenge. This experiment provides evidence that current Australian isolates of MDV1 vary significantly in pathogenicity. However, there was no clear evidence that the most virulent recent isolates were more pathogenic than isolates from the 1980s or that any of the isolates belong to the highest pathotype category of very virulent plus. Evidence is presented that virulence can be predicted by measurements taken as early as 13 days post challenge. The meq gene sequences of five of the isolates used in the experiment were determined. When compared with the very virulent US isolate Md5, there was a 177 base-pair insertion and distinct point mutations in each of the five isolates. There were no individual mutations in the meq sequences that correlated with levels of virulence. However, amino acid alignment of the five Australian and 14 international isolates revealed that the number of repeat sequences of four prolines (PPPP repeats) in the meq gene (overall range 2 to 8) was strongly associated with virulence across all isolates, with the most pathogenic isolates having the fewest number of repeats. The results suggest that the presence of the 177 base-pair insertion alone is not an indicator of attenuation. Rather, the number of PPPP repeats, independent of the presence of the insertion, is a better indicator of pathogenicity.